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Sample records for activity questionnaire short

  1. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  2. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Bridges, Sally; Ng Fat, Linda; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ), used within the Health Survey for England (HSE) at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults. Methods Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150minutes/week); inactivity (MVPA<30minutes/week); and excessive sitting (≥540minutes/weekday). Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend. Results Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32–0.49), moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42–0.74), and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49–0.75). As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively). Conclusions Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the

  3. Performance of the international physical activity questionnaire (short form) in subgroups of the Hong Kong chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) has been validated and recommended as an efficient method to assess physical activity, but its validity has not been investigated in different population subgroups. We examined variations in IPAQ validity in the Hong Kong Chinese population by six factors: sex, age, job status, educational level, body mass index (BMI), and visceral fat level (VFL). Methods A total of 1,270 adults (aged 42.9 ± SD 14.4 years, 46.1% male) completed the Chinese version of IPAQ (IPAQ-C) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph) for four days afterwards. The IPAQ-C and the ActiGraph were compared in terms of estimated Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET-min/wk), minutes spent in activity of moderate or vigorous intensity (MVPA), and agreement in the classification of physical activity. Results The overall Spearman correlation (ρ) of between the IPAQ-C and ActiGraph was low (0.11 ± 0.03; range in subgroups 0.06-0.24) and was the highest among high VFL participants (0.24 ± 0.05). Difference between self-reported and ActiGraph-derived MET-min/wk (overall 2966 ± 140) was the smallest among participants with tertiary education (1804 ± 208). When physical activity was categorized into over or under 150 min/wk, overall agreement between self-report and accelerometer was 81.3% (± 1.1%; subgroup range: 77.2%-91.4%); agreement was the highest among those who were employed full-time in physically demanding jobs (91.4% ± 2.7%). Conclusions Sex, age, job status, educational level, and obesity were found to influence the criterion validity of IPAQ-C, yet none of the subgroups showed good validity (ρ = 0.06 to 0.24). IPAQ-SF validity is questionable in our Chinese population. PMID:21801461

  4. Criterion-Related Validity of the Short Form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Adults Who Are Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose; Laranjo, Luis; Marques, Olga; Batalha, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the results of a recommendation from the World Health Organization (2004) that it was important to examine whether high-risk groups meet the current general recommendation of at least 30 minutes of moderate or greater physical activity per day. Doing so required an accurate measurement of physical activity for supporting the…

  5. A sleep diary and questionnaire study of naturally short sleepers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Welsh, D. K.; Kennedy, K. S.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas most people require more than 6 h of sleep to feel well rested, there appears to be a group of people who can function well on between 3 and 6 h of sleep. The aims of the present study were to compare 12 naturally short (3-6 h) sleepers (9 males 3 females, mean age 39.6 years, SD age 10.1 years) recruited by a media publicity campaign with age, gender and chronotype matched medium length (7-8.5 h) sleepers on various measures. Measurement instruments included diaries and questionnaires to assess sleep duration and timing, as well as questionnaire assessments of sleep pathology, morningness-eveningness, extroversion, neuroticism, pathological daytime sleepiness, subclinical hypomania, optimism, depressive symptoms, exercise, and work habits. Few measures showed reliable differences between naturally short sleepers and controls except the obvious ones related to sleep duration. There was, however, some evidence for subclinical hypomanic symptoms in naturally short sleepers.

  6. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  7. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  8. A Physical Activity Questionnaire: Reproducibility and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E.; Vera, Jose A.; Perez, Wilson; Thalabard, Jean-Christophe; Rieu, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the Quantification de L’Activite Physique en Altitude chez les Enfants (QAPACE) supervised self-administered questionnaire reproducibility and validity on the estimation of the mean daily energy expenditure (DEE) on Bogotá’s schoolchildren. The comprehension was assessed on 324 students, whereas the reproducibility was studied on a different random sample of 162 who were exposed twice to it. Reproducibility was assessed using both the Bland-Altman plot and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity was studied in a sample of 18 girls and 18 boys randomly selected, which completed the test - re-test study. The DEE derived from the questionnaire was compared with the laboratory measurement results of the peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2) from ergo-spirometry and Leger Test. The reproducibility ICC was 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.95-0.97); by age categories 8-10, 0.94 (0.89-0. 97); 11-13, 0.98 (0.96- 0.99); 14-16, 0.95 (0.91-0.98). The ICC between mean TEE as estimated by the questionnaire and the direct and indirect Peak VO2 was 0.76 (0.66) (p<0.01); by age categories, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 were 0.89 (0.87), 0.76 (0.78) and 0.88 (0.80) respectively. The QAPACE questionnaire is reproducible and valid for estimating PA and showed a high correlation with the Peak VO2 uptake. Key pointsThe presence of a supervisor, the limited size of the group with the possibility of answering to their questions could explain the high reproducibility for this questionnaire.No study in the literature had directly addressed the issue of estimating a yearly average PA including school and vacation period.A two step procedure, in the population of schoolchildren of Bogotá, gives confidence in the use of the QAPACE questionnaire in a large epidemiological survey in related populations. PMID:24149485

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  10. A Short German Version of the Self Description Questionnaire I: Theoretical and Empirical Comparability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to develop a short German version of the Self Description Questionnaire (SDQ I-GS) in order to present a robust economical instrument for measuring German preadolescents' multidimensional self-concept. A full German version of the SDQ I (SDQ I-G) that maintained the original structure and thus length of the English original…

  11. Validation of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ), which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines. Methods Questionnaire items generated from patient interviews and based on the nine chapters of the ICF were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions: motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Participants also completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EQ-5D-5L. Results Thus, 334 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 86.5%. Factor analysis techniques identified three Ox-PAQ domains, consisting of 23 items, accounting for 72.8% of variance. Internal reliability for the three domains was high (Cronbach’s α: 0.81–0.96), as was test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation: 0.83–0.92). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ- 5D-5L. Assessment of known-groups validity identified significant differences in Ox-PAQ scores among the three conditions included in the survey. Conclusion Results suggest that the Ox-PAQ is a valid and reliable measure of participation and activity. The measure will now be validated in a range of further conditions, and additional properties, such as responsiveness, will also be assessed in the next phase of the instrument’s development. PMID:27366108

  12. Assessment of Physical Activity by Applying IPAQ Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernat, Elzbieta; Stupnicki, Romuald; Lebiedzinski, Bartlomiej; Janczewska, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the suitability of the short 7-day IPAQ (self-completed) adapted to Polish population. Material and methods: Two surveys were conducted in 2005 on 296 random subjects (aged 20-60 years) from Warsaw and the Mazowiecki region. From these, 54 men and 79 women were requested to fill questionnaires, and 70 men and 93 women, were…

  13. Child Behavior Questionnaire-Short Form for Teachers: Informant Correspondences and Divergences.

    PubMed

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Schussler, Laura; Gifford, Kathleen; Annotti, Lee Ann; Sanders, Catherine; Liu, Huili

    2015-12-01

    Discrepancies among independent sources of information about presumably identical constructs argue against reliance on a single perspective. To fill the need for temperament questionnaires for teacher and parent informants, we adapted the popular parent/caregiver Child Behavior Questionnaire-Short Form for preschool and kindergarten teachers. Informant correspondences were low as expected, but patterns were consistent with hypotheses drawn from person perception models. Internal consistencies of the teacher scales were adequate, comparing favorably with those of parent-rated scales. Anticipated relations of temperament scales emerged with social competence and tasks of executive attention for both parent and teacher informants. Confirmatory factor analyses conducted separately for parent and teacher scales supported the familiar three-factor model when allowances were made for cross-loadings and correlated errors. A multigroup confirmatory factor analyses with parent and teacher data indicated that the factor structures of the two questionnaires are similar but not equivalent.

  14. Validity and reliability of the Food-Life Questionnaire. Short form.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-11-01

    Measures of beliefs and attitudes towards food need to be valid, and easy to use and interpret. The present study aimed to establish the validity and reliability of a short-form of the Food-Life Questionnaire (FLQ). Participants (247 females; 118 males), recruited in South Australia, completed a questionnaire in 2012 incorporating the original FLQ, a revised short form (FLQ-SF), and measures of food choice and consumption. Validity (construct, criterion-related, and incremental) and reliability (internal consistency and short-form) were assessed. Factor analysis established that short-form items loaded onto five factors consistent with the original FLQ and explained 60% of variance. Moderate correlations were observed between the FLQ-SF and a measure of food choices (r=.32-.64), and the FLQ-SF predicted unhealthy food consumption over and above the full FLQ demonstrating criterion-related and incremental validity respectively. The final FLQ-SF included 21 items and had a Cronbach's alpha of .75. Short-form reliability was established with correlations between corresponding subscales of the FLQ and FLQ-SF ranging from r=.64-.84. Overall, the FLQ-SF is brief, psychometrically robust, and easy to administer. It should be considered an important tool in research informing public policies and programs that aim to improve food choices.

  15. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual’s dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual’s total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  16. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  17. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  18. While We Wait for Life, Life Passes: The Time Metaphors Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Sobol-Kwapinska, Malgorzata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Nosal, Czeslaw

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a short version of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire (TMQ; Sobol-Kwapinska & Nosal, 2009 ). The original TMQ consists of 95 items and was designed to measure time conceiving. Because completing the TMQ is very time-consuming, this research develops a short form of this questionnaire-Time Metaphors Questionnaire-Short Form (TMQ-SF). A sample of 990 Polish adults completed the TMQ. One-half of the sample was used to construct the TMQ-SF by selecting items based on the exploratory factor analysis. The other half of the sample was used to cross-validate the factorial structure of the TMQ-SF by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The TMQ-SF presented high internal consistency and a clear three-factor structure. The convergent and discriminant validity were assessed based on comparison with the Big Five factors of personality, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, time perspective, and mindfulness. PMID:27410054

  19. German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D)

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Renz, Daniel; Petzschner, Frederike; Berwian, Isabel; Stoppel, Christian; Haker, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations. Methods The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects. Results The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D) including only 27 of the 72 items. Conclusions The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers. PMID:26934499

  20. Development of a Short Version of the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; SHIMOMITSU, Teruichi; TSUTSUMI, Akizumi; HARATANI, Takashi; YOSHIKAWA, Toru; SHIMAZU, Akihito; ODAGIRI, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the test-retest reliability and validity of a short version of the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ) whose scales have one item selected from a standard version. Based on the results from an anonymous web-based questionnaire of occupational health staffs and personnel/labor staffs, we selected higher-priority scales from the standard version. After selecting one item with highest item-total correlation coefficient from each scale, a 23-item questionnaire was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to Japanese employees (n=1,633) to examine test-retest reliability and validity. Most scales (or items) showed modest but adequate levels of test-retest reliability (r>0.50). Furthermore, job demands and job resources scales (or items) were associated with mental and physical stress reactions while job resources scales (or items) were also associated with positive outcomes. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the short version of the New BJSQ is reliable and valid. PMID:24975108

  1. The Turkish version of the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Okyay, Emre; Adiyeke, Mehmet; Gezer, Cenk; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to translate the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, adapt it for use with Turkish subjects and determine its reliability and validity. [Subjects and Methods] The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was translated into Turkish and administered twice at 7–14-day intervals to pregnant women to assess the test-retest reliability. Cronbach’s α was used for internal consistency, and the inter-rater correlation coefficient was used to calculate the test-retest reliability. The Turkish Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to estimate validity. [Results] The internal consistency during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy was excellent, with Cronbach’s α values of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. The mean interval between the two assessments was 11.1 ± 2.1 days. The correlation coefficient between the total activity measured by the Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire estimates of the total metabolic equivalent were fair to poor during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy (r = 0.17, r = 0.17, r = 0.21, respectively). The Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire showed fair correlations with the Short Form 36 Health Survey physical component score (r = −0.30) and mental component score (r = −0.37) for the first trimester of pregnancy. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was found to be reliable and valid for assessing a pregnant woman’s physical activity. PMID:26644678

  2. The Learning Activities Questionnaire: A Tool to Enhance Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the Learning Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) and how it can be employed to evaluate learning tasks not typically examined in course evaluation instruments such as readings and assignments. Drawing from behavioral theory in its focus on specific activities, this instrument is simple to interpret and provides clear direction…

  3. Further statistical and clinical validity for the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Grothe, Karen B; Clark, Matthew M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying barriers to long-term adherence to reduced energy intake and increased physical activity level is critically important for obese patients seeking weight loss treatment. Previous research has identified that one such barrier is low eating self-efficacy or poor confidence in one's ability to control eating behavior in the presence of challenging situations. Accordingly, a valid, brief measure of eating self-efficacy for longitudinal assessment of weight loss and regain is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the internal consistency and clinical validity of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form (WEL-SF). Participants were 1740 consecutive obese patients who presented for a psychological evaluation in consideration for bariatric surgery. Median BMI was 44.9 (range: 35.0-111.9), age 48.7years (range: 18.9-77.3years), and patients were predominantly female (71.1%) and Caucasian (90.8%). The median WEL-SF total score was 56 (range: 0-80) and Cronbach's alpha measuring internal consistency was 0.92 with a one-factor structure. In terms of clinical validation, lower WEL-SF total scores were significantly associated with higher rates of binge eating episodes (P<0.0001), food addiction severity and dependence (P<0.0001), night eating syndrome (P<0.0001), depression (P<0.0001), and anxiety (P<0.0001). In contrast, higher WEL-SF total scores were associated with higher weight management self-efficacy (P<0.0001) and motivation to make positive lifestyle changes (P<0.0001). Taken together, these findings suggest that the WEL-SF is a psychometrically valid clinically meaningful measure of eating self-efficacy.

  4. Further statistical and clinical validity for the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Grothe, Karen B; Clark, Matthew M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying barriers to long-term adherence to reduced energy intake and increased physical activity level is critically important for obese patients seeking weight loss treatment. Previous research has identified that one such barrier is low eating self-efficacy or poor confidence in one's ability to control eating behavior in the presence of challenging situations. Accordingly, a valid, brief measure of eating self-efficacy for longitudinal assessment of weight loss and regain is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the internal consistency and clinical validity of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form (WEL-SF). Participants were 1740 consecutive obese patients who presented for a psychological evaluation in consideration for bariatric surgery. Median BMI was 44.9 (range: 35.0-111.9), age 48.7years (range: 18.9-77.3years), and patients were predominantly female (71.1%) and Caucasian (90.8%). The median WEL-SF total score was 56 (range: 0-80) and Cronbach's alpha measuring internal consistency was 0.92 with a one-factor structure. In terms of clinical validation, lower WEL-SF total scores were significantly associated with higher rates of binge eating episodes (P<0.0001), food addiction severity and dependence (P<0.0001), night eating syndrome (P<0.0001), depression (P<0.0001), and anxiety (P<0.0001). In contrast, higher WEL-SF total scores were associated with higher weight management self-efficacy (P<0.0001) and motivation to make positive lifestyle changes (P<0.0001). Taken together, these findings suggest that the WEL-SF is a psychometrically valid clinically meaningful measure of eating self-efficacy. PMID:26042918

  5. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.

  6. The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ≥ 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.

  7. Validation of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form among Portuguese juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Barroso, Ricardo; Poiares, Carlos; Oliveira, João Pedro; Torrealday, Ohiana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF) among Portuguese juvenile delinquents. With a total sample of 237 male participants, subdivided into an incarcerated forensic sample (n=192) and a community sample (n=45), the Portuguese version of the BPAQ-SF demonstrated good psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity and known-groups validity that generally justify its use among Portuguese youth. Statistically significant associations were found with drug use and alcohol abuse.

  8. Development of a Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Levesque, Lucie; Holden, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Q--SPACE) based on student perceptions. Twenty-eight items rated on 4-point Likert scales were administered to 244 middle school students in 9 schools. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the underlying structure of the items and 2…

  9. Validity and Reliability of the School Physical Activity Environment Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to establish the factor validity of the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Robertson-Wilson, Levesque, & Holden, 2007) using confirmatory factor analysis procedures. Another goal was to establish internal reliability and test-retest reliability. The confirmatory factor analysis results…

  10. Evaluation of a short food frequency questionnaire used among Norwegian children

    PubMed Central

    Lillegaard, Inger Therese L.; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against a four-day precoded food diary (PFD) with regard to frequency of food intake among Norwegian 9- and 13-year-olds. Subjects and design A total of 733 9-year-olds and 904 13-year-olds completed first a short FFQ and one to two weeks later a four-day PFD. The short FFQ included questions about 23 food items, including different drinks, fruits, vegetables, bread, fish, pizza, sweets, chocolate and savoury snacks. The PFD covered the whole diet. Results When comparing mean intake from the PFD with comparable food items in the FFQ, all food items showed that increasing intake measured with the PFD corresponded with increasing intake with the short FFQ. However, participants reported a significantly higher frequency of intake for most foods with the short FFQ compared with PFD, except for soft drinks with sugar and sweets. The median Spearman correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.36 among the 9-year-olds and 0.32 among the 13-year-olds. Often eaten foods such as fruits and vegetables had higher correlations than seldom eaten foods such as pizza and potato chips. The median correlation coefficients for drinks alone were higher (r=0.47) for both age groups. Conclusions Results indicate that the short FFQ was able to identify high and low consumers of food intake and had a moderate capability to rank individuals according to food intake. Drinks, fruits and vegetables had better correlations with the PFD than infrequently eaten food items. PMID:22259597

  11. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire for patients with musculoskeletal disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Jung, Jin-Hwa; In, Tae-Sung; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire, which was translated into Korean, for patients with musculoskeletal disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five subjects (26 males and 29 females) with musculoskeletal diseases participated in the study. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire focuses on a limited range of physical functions and includes a dysfunction index and a bother index. Reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and validity was examined by correlating short musculoskeletal function assessment scores with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) score. [Results] The reliability was 0.97 for the dysfunction index and 0.94 for the bother index. Validity was established by comparison with Korean version of the SF-36. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:27799696

  12. Measuring Effortful Control Using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form: Modeling Matters.

    PubMed

    Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe; Nærde, Ane; Ulleberg, Pål; Janson, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important concept in the research on self-regulation in children. We tested 2 alternative factor models of EC as measured by the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006 ) in a large sample of preschoolers (N = 1,007): 1 lower order and 1 hierarchical second-order structure. Additionally, convergent and predictive validity of EC as measured by the CBQ-VSF were investigated. The results supported a hierarchical model. Moderate convergent validity of the second-order latent EC factor was found in that it correlated with compliance and observed EC tasks. Both CBQ-VSF EC measures were also negatively correlated with child physical aggression. The results have implications for the measurement, modeling, and interpretation of EC applying the CBQ. PMID:26156045

  13. Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's Version: Validation of a Short Form.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vitor A; Sousa, Vanda; Marchante, Marta

    2016-08-01

    The Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's version, Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) allows teachers to assess their students' social and emotional competencies, having been designed for program evaluation. Thirty-nine teachers completed the QACSE-P-SF, regarding 657 students (fourth to ninth grades). Factor analyses supported a six-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency. Sex differences were found with teachers reporting girls as having higher scores on Self-Control, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making. Developmental differences were also found with fourth-grade students presenting higher levels of Social Awareness and Relationship Skills than older students. The final version of the QACSE-P-SF is composed by 30 items, organized into six scales and less time consuming than the previous version for teachers who need to assess full classes. PMID:27356548

  14. 78 FR 34708 - Proposed Information Collection (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... Control No. 2900--NEW (Ankle Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-2. OMB Control Number: 2900--NEW...

  15. Comparing the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats in African-American and Hispanic women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain. Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hi...

  16. The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: short form.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Waters, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested. PMID:15826405

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Young Hee; Rim, Hyo Deog; Won, Seung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) is a self-report measure of early maladaptive schemas and is currently in its third revision; it is available in both long (YSQ-L3) and short (YSQ-S3) forms. The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and establish its psychometric properties in a Korean sample. Methods A total of 542 graduate medical students completed the Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and several other psychological scales. A subsample of 308 subjects completed the Korean YSQ-S3 both before and after a 2-year test-retest interval. Correlation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the data. Results The internal consistency of the 90-item Korean YSQ-S3 was 0.97 and that of each schema was acceptable, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.46 to 0.65. Every schema showed robust positive correlations with most psychological measures. The confirmatory factor analysis for the 18-factor structure originally proposed by Young, Klosko, and Weishaar (2003) showed that most goodness-of-fit statistics were indicative of a satisfactory fit. Conclusion These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the YSQ-S3. PMID:26207121

  18. The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: short form.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Waters, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested.

  19. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  20. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  1. The Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF): A Validation Study with Federal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    The 12-item short form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF) was originally developed by Bryant and Smith (2001) and modified and confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis with mentally ill offenders by Diamond, Wang, and Buffington-Vollum (2005). In the current study, construct validity of the BPAQ-SF was assessed with a sample…

  2. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form in Preschool Children Using Parent and Teacher Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Wilson, Shauna B.

    2013-01-01

    Temperament is a developmentally important construct, hierarchically comprised of several lower-order dimensions subsumed under effortful control, negative affectivity, and surgency. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF) was developed as a brief measure of the higher-order factors of temperament to aid researchers in…

  4. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  5. The Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ): Examination in Nonclinical Samples and Development of a Short Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulding, Richard; Anglim, Jeromy; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Doron, Guy; Kyrios, Michael; Ayalon, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ), the most widely used measure of dysfunctional beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Multiple exploratory methods (exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis by variable, multidimensional scaling) were used to examine the questionnaire.…

  6. Reliability and Validity of the PAQ-C Questionnaire to Assess Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; López-Fernández, Iván; Raya, Juan Francisco; Álvarez Carnero, Sabrina; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Álvarez Carnero, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) assessment by questionnaire is a cornerstone in the field of sport epidemiology studies. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) has been used widely to assess PA in healthy school populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PAQ-C questionnaire in…

  7. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  8. The Psychometric Properties of the Short and Long Versions of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sophie Xin; Jowett, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive, and behavioral aspects, represented by the interpersonal constructs of closeness, commitment, and complementarity, of the quality of the relationship within the context of sport coaching. The current study sought to determine the internal…

  9. 78 FR 34174 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for...

  10. 78 FR 57925 - Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0095.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for...

  11. 75 FR 61248 - Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for...

  12. 78 FR 46422 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500. Type of...

  13. 75 FR 62636 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire,...

  14. 78 FR 24469 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY... information technology. Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number:...

  15. Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire and the Singapore prospective study program physical activity questionnaire in a multiethnic urban Asian population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity patterns of a population remain mostly assessed by the questionnaires. However, few physical activity questionnaires have been validated in Asian populations. We previously utilized a combination of different questionnaires to assess leisure time, transportation, occupational and household physical activity in the Singapore Prospective Study Program (SP2). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) has been developed for a similar purpose. In this study, we compared estimates from these two questionnaires with an objective measure of physical activity in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods Physical activity was measured in 152 Chinese, Malay and Asian Indian adults using an accelerometer over five consecutive days, including a weekend. Participants completed both the physical activity questionnaire in SP2 (SP2PAQ) and IPAQ long form. 43subjects underwent a second set of measurements on average 6 months later to assess reproducibility of the questionnaires and the accelerometer measurements. Spearman correlations were used to evaluate validity and reproducibility and correlations for validity were corrected for within-person variation of accelerometer measurements. Agreement between the questionnaires and the accelerometer measurements was also evaluated using Bland Altman plots. Results The corrected correlation with accelerometer estimates of energy expenditure from physical activity was better for the SP2PAQ (vigorous activity: r = 0.73; moderate activity: r = 0.27) than for the IPAQ (vigorous activity: r = 0.31; moderate activity: r = 0.15). For moderate activity, the corrected correlation between SP2PAQ and the accelerometer was higher for Chinese (r = 0.38) and Malays (r = 0.57) than for Indians (r = -0.09). Both questionnaires overestimated energy expenditure from physical activity to a greater extent at higher levels of physical activity than at lower levels of physical activity. The reproducibility for

  16. 78 FR 36643 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-16. OMB Control Number: 2900-NEW...

  17. 78 FR 36307 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-16. OMB Control Number: 2900-NEW...

  18. 78 FR 35098 - Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Hand or Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any.... Title: Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-7. OMB Control Number:...

  19. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale.

    PubMed

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice C; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child's behavioral patterns (i.e., Surgency, Negative Affectivity Effortful Control) using both scales. Psychometrics of the 36-item Children's Behavior Questionnaire were examined using classical test theory, principal factor analysis, and item response modeling. Classical test theory analysis demonstrated adequate internal consistency and factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Potential improvements to the measure were identified using item response modeling. A one-item (three response categories) temperament scale was validated against the three temperament factors of the 36-item scale. The temperament response categories correlated with the temperament factors of the 36-item scale, as expected. The one-item temperament scale may be applicable for clinical use.

  20. Comparing the Long and Short Forms of the Student Version of the Jenkins Activity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnold, Paul R.; And Others

    This paper reports on a short version of the Student Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), a multiple choice questionnaire that measures Type A "coronary-prone" behavior in assessing subjects' A/B types. The primary objective was to determine if the short and long forms of the student JAS represent similar measurement instruments. A secondary objective…

  1. A short version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait: the FCQ-T-reduced.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hermann, Tina; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    One of the most often used instruments for the assessment of food cravings is the Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ), which consists of a trait (FCQ-T; 39 items) and state (FCQ-S; 15 items) version. Scores on the FCQ-T have been found to be positively associated with eating pathology, body mass index (BMI), low dieting success and increases in state food craving during cognitive tasks involving appealing food stimuli. The current studies evaluated reliability and validity of a reduced version of the FCQ-T consisting of 15 items only (FCQ-T-r). Study 1 was a questionnaire study conducted online among students (N = 323). In study 2, female students (N = 70) performed a working memory task involving food and neutral pictures. Study 1 indicated a one-factorial structure and high internal consistency (α = 0.94) of the FCQ-T-r. Scores of the FCQ-T-r were positively correlated with BMI and negatively correlated with dieting success. In study 2, participants reported higher state food craving after the task compared to before. This increase was positively correlated with the FCQ-T-r. Hours since the last meal positively predicted food craving before the task when controlling for FCQ-T-r scores and the interaction of both variables. Contrarily, FCQ-T-r scores positively predicted food craving after the task when controlling for food deprivation and the interaction term. Thus, trait food craving was specifically associated with state food craving triggered by palatable food-cues, but not with state food craving related to plain hunger. Results indicate high reliability of the FCQ-T-r. Replicating studies that used the long version, small-to-medium correlations with BMI and dieting success could be found. Finally, scores on the FCQ-T-r predicted cue-elicited food craving, providing further support of its validity. The FCQ-T-r constitutes a succinct, valid and reliable self-report measure to efficiently assess experiences of food craving as a trait.

  2. Development and Validation of a Short Version of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    Background— There is a growing demand to collect patients’ experiences of their health status (their symptoms, function, and quality of life) in clinical trials, quality assessment initiatives, and in routine clinical care. In heart failure, the 23-item, disease-specific Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) has been shown to be valid, reliable, sensitive to clinical change, and prognostic of both clinical events and costs. However, its use has been limited, in part, by its length. We sought to develop a shortened version of the instrument that maintains the psychometric properties of the full KCCQ. Methods and Results— Using data from 3 clinical studies incorporating 4168 patients, we derived and validated a 12-item KCCQ, the KCCQ-12, to capture symptom frequency, physical and social limitations, and quality of life impairment as a result of heart failure, as well as an overall summary score. The KCCQ-12 scores had high correlations with the original scales (>0.93 for all scales in all clinical settings), high test–retest reliability (>0.76 for all domains), high responsiveness (16–31 point improvements after discharge from hospitalization; standardized response mean =0.61–1.12), and comparable prognostic significance and interpretation of clinically important differences as compared with the full KCCQ. Conclusions— The KCCQ-12 is a shorter version of the original 23-item instrument that should be more feasible to implement while preserving the psychometric properties of the full instrument. PMID:26307129

  3. A short questionnaire to assess pediatric resident’s competencies: the validation process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to help assess resident performance during training, the Residency Affair Committee of the Pediatric Residency Program of the University of Padua (Italy) administered a Resident Assessment Questionnaire (ReAQ), which both residents and faculty were asked to complete. The aim of this article is to present the ReAQ and its validation. Methods The ReAQ consists of 20 items that assess the six core competencies identified by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). A many-facet Rasch measurement analysis was used for validating the ReAQ. Results Between July 2011 and June 2012, 211 evaluations were collected from residents and faculty. Two items were removed because their functioning changed with the gender of respondents. The step calibrations were ordered. The self evaluations (residents rating themselves) positively correlated with the hetero evaluations (faculty rating residents; Spearman’s ρ = 0.75, p < 0.001). Unfortunately, the observed agreement among faculty was smaller than expected (Exp = 47.1%; Obs = 41%), which indicates that no enough training to faculty for using the tool was provided. Conclusions In its final form, the ReAQ provides a valid unidimensional measure of core competences in pediatric residents. It produces reliable measures, distinguishes among groups of residents according to different levels of performance, and provides a resident evaluation that holds an analogous meaning for residents and faculty. PMID:23830041

  4. Active-Q: Validation of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Using Doubly Labeled Water

    PubMed Central

    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Christensen, Sara Elisabeth; Möller, Elisabeth; Wright, Antony; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased use of the Internet provides new opportunities for collecting data in large studies. The aim of our new Web-based questionnaire, Active-Q, is to assess total physical activity and inactivity in adults. Active-Q assesses habitual activity during the past year via questions in four different domains: (1) daily occupation, (2) transportation to and from daily occupation, (3) leisure time activities, and (4) sporting activities. Objective The objective of our study is to validate Active-Q’s energy expenditure estimates using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and to assess the reproducibility of Active-Q by comparing the results of the questionnaire completed by the same group on two occasions. Methods The validity and reproducibility of Active-Q were assessed in a group of 37 individuals, aged 20 to 65 years. Active-Q was distributed via email to the participants. The total energy expenditure of the participants was assessed using DLW for 11 consecutive days. Results The median time to complete Active-Q was 6.1 minutes. The majority of participants (27/37, 73%) reported that the questionnaire was “easy” or “very easy” to answer. On average, Active-Q overestimated the total daily energy expenditure by 440 kJ compared with the DLW. The Spearman correlation between the two methods was r = 0.52 (P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for total energy expenditure between the results of Active-Q completed on two occasions was 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.93). Conclusions Active-Q is a valid and reproducible method of assessing total energy expenditure. It is also a user-friendly method and suitable for Web-based data collection in large epidemiological studies. PMID:22356755

  5. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  6. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Shana B; Mathias, Susan D; Colwell, Hilary H; Crosby, Ross D; Abraham, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q), which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36), section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm). Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70) for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and

  7. A Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Short-Form Quality of Life Questionnaire Developed and Validated for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Pierre; Baumstarck, Karine; Ghattas, Badih; Pelletier, Jean; Loundou, Anderson; Boucekine, Mohamed; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive short-form questionnaire, the MusiQoL-MCAT, from a fixed-length QoL questionnaire for multiple sclerosis. A total of 1992 patients were enrolled in this international cross-sectional study. The development of the MusiQoL-MCAT was based on the assessment of between-items MIRT model fit followed by real-data simulations. The MCAT algorithm was based on Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation of latent traits and Kullback–Leibler information item selection. We examined several simulations based on a fixed number of items. Accuracy was assessed using correlations (r) between initial IRT scores and MCAT scores. Precision was assessed using the standard error measurement (SEM) and the root mean square error (RMSE). The multidimensional graded response model was used to estimate item parameters and IRT scores. Among the MCAT simulations, the 16-item version of the MusiQoL-MCAT was selected because the accuracy and precision became stable with 16 items with satisfactory levels (r ≥ 0.9, SEM ≤ 0.55, and RMSE ≤ 0.3). External validity of the MusiQoL-MCAT was satisfactory. The MusiQoL-MCAT presents satisfactory properties and can individually tailor QoL assessment to each patient, making it less burdensome to patients and better adapted for use in clinical practice. PMID:27057832

  8. 75 FR 77957 - Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income, VA Form 21- 4165. OMB Control Number:...

  9. 78 FR 44624 - Proposed Information Collection (Conduct the Point-of-Care Research Questionnaire); Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Conduct the Point-of-Care Research Questionnaire)] Proposed Information Collection (Conduct the Point-of-Care Research Questionnaire); Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans...) 395-7316. Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Conduct the Point of Care Research...

  10. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500....

  11. 78 FR 48941 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension of a currently...

  12. 76 FR 44087 - Agency Information Collection (Employment Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Employment Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Employment Questionnaire, VA Forms 21-4140 and 21-4140-1. OMB Control Number:...

  13. 75 FR 26346 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension...

  14. 75 FR 10027 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of...

  15. 76 FR 27386 - Proposed Information Collection (Employment Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Employment Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY...: Employment Questionnaire, VA Forms 21-4140 and 21-4140-1. OMB Control Number: 2900-0079. Type of...

  16. Non-exercise estimation of VO2max using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as submaximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO2max estimation equation derived from the IPAQ-Short Form (IPAQ-S). College-aged males and females (n = 80) completed the IPAQ-S and performed a maximal exercise test. The estimation equation was created with multivariate regression in a gender-balanced subsample of participants, equally representing five levels of fitness (n = 50) and validated in the remaining participants (n = 30). The resulting equation explained 43% of the variance in measured VO2max (SEE = 5.45 ml·kg-1·min-1). Estimated VO2max for 87% of individuals fell within acceptable limits of error observed with submaximal exercise testing (20% error). The IPAQ-S can be used to successfully estimate VO2max as well as submaximal exercise tests. Development of other population-specific estimation equations is warranted. PMID:21927551

  17. Development and Initial Testing of the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura; Siderowf, Andrew; Rubright, Jonathan D.; Rick, Jacqueline; Dahodwala, Nabila; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard; Stern, Matthew; Xie, Sharon X.; Rennert, Lior; Karlawish, Jason; Shea, Judy A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to describe the development and psychometric analysis of the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire. The questionnaire is an item response theory-based tool for rating cognitive instrumental activities of daily living in PD. Methods Candidate items for the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire were developed through literature review and focus groups of patients and knowledgeable informants. Item selection and calibration of item-response theory parameters were performed using responses from a cohort of PD patients and knowledgeable informants (n = 388). In independent cohorts of PD patients and knowledgeable informants, assessments of test-retest reliability (n = 50), and construct validity (n = 68) of the questionnaire were subsequently performed. Construct validity was assessed by correlating questionnaire scores with measures of motor function, cognition, an existing activities of daily living measure, and directly observed daily function. Results Fifty items were retained in the final questionnaire item bank. Items were excluded owing to redundancy, difficult reading level, and when item-response theory parameters could not be calculated. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97; P < 0.001). The questionnaire correlated strongly with cognition (r = 0.68; P < 0.001) and directly observed daily function (r = 0.87; P < 0.001), but not with motor impairment (r = 0.08; P = 0.53). The questionnaire score accurately discriminated between PD patients with and without dementia (receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.85–0.97). Conclusions The Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire shows strong evidence of reliability and validity. Item response theory-based psychometric analysis suggests that this questionnaire can discriminate across a range of daily functions. PMID:26249849

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001), fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis

  19. Factorial Validity and Invariance Assessment of a Short Version of the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Role Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F

    2016-04-01

    Recalled childhood gender role/identity is a construct that is related to sexual orientation, abuse, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of a short version of Zucker et al.'s (2006) "Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire" using confirmatory factor analysis and to test the stability of the factor structure across groups (measurement invariance). Six items of the questionnaire were completed online by 1929 participants from a variety of gender identity and sexual orientation groups. Models of the six items loading onto one factor had poor fit for the data. Items were removed for having a large proportion of error variance. Among birth-assigned females, a five-item model had good fit for the data, but there was evidence for differences in scale's factor structure across gender identity, age, level of education, and country groups. Among birth-assigned males, the resulting four-item model did not account for all of the relationship between variables, and modeling for this resulted in a model that was almost saturated. This model also had evidence of measurement variance across gender identity and sexual orientation groups. The models had good reliability and factor score determinacy. These findings suggest that results of previous studies that have assessed recalled childhood gender role/identity may have been susceptible to construct bias due to measurement variance across these groups. Future studies should assess measurement invariance between groups they are comparing, and if it is not found the issue can be addressed by removing variant indicators and/or applying a partial invariance model. PMID:26864871

  20. Factorial Validity and Invariance Assessment of a Short Version of the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Role Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F

    2016-04-01

    Recalled childhood gender role/identity is a construct that is related to sexual orientation, abuse, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of a short version of Zucker et al.'s (2006) "Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire" using confirmatory factor analysis and to test the stability of the factor structure across groups (measurement invariance). Six items of the questionnaire were completed online by 1929 participants from a variety of gender identity and sexual orientation groups. Models of the six items loading onto one factor had poor fit for the data. Items were removed for having a large proportion of error variance. Among birth-assigned females, a five-item model had good fit for the data, but there was evidence for differences in scale's factor structure across gender identity, age, level of education, and country groups. Among birth-assigned males, the resulting four-item model did not account for all of the relationship between variables, and modeling for this resulted in a model that was almost saturated. This model also had evidence of measurement variance across gender identity and sexual orientation groups. The models had good reliability and factor score determinacy. These findings suggest that results of previous studies that have assessed recalled childhood gender role/identity may have been susceptible to construct bias due to measurement variance across these groups. Future studies should assess measurement invariance between groups they are comparing, and if it is not found the issue can be addressed by removing variant indicators and/or applying a partial invariance model.

  1. Development of a Short Questionnaire to Measure an Extended Set of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Positive Health Outcomes: The New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; SHIMOMITSU, Teruichi; TSUTSUMI, Akizumi; HARATANI, Takashi; YOSHIKAWA, Toru; SHIMAZU, Akihito; ODAGIRI, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of a new version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ), which measures an extended set of psychosocial factors at work by adding new scales/items to the current version of the BJSQ. Additional scales/items were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaires in several countries. Scales/items were field-tested and refined through a pilot internet survey. Finally, an 84-item questionnaire (141 items in total when combined with the current BJSQ) was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to employees in Japan (n=1,633) to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Principal component analyses showed that the first factor explained 50% or greater proportion of the variance in most scales. A scale factor analysis and a correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the New BJSQ scales are reliable and valid. Although more detailed content and construct validity should be examined in future study, the New BJSQ is a useful instrument to evaluate psychosocial work environment and positive mental health outcomes in the current workplace. PMID:24492763

  2. Pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ): reliability and validity of Turkish version

    PubMed Central

    Çırak, Yasemin; Yılmaz, Gül Deniz; Demir, Yasemin Parlak; Dalkılınç, Murat; Yaman, Selen

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to translate the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire into Turkish and test its reliability and validity among Turkish pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 204 healthy, single pregnant women between the ages 18 and 40 who volunteered to participate in this study. Reliability was evaluated by measuring the one-week test-retest reliability with the intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson’s correlation analysis. Concurrent validity was examined by comparing the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire with the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and step counts with pedometer. [Results] The mean age of the participants was 28.23±4.94 years, and the mean for BMI was 26.09±4.40. For test-retest reliability, r values were respectively 0.961, 0.934, 0.957 and 0.981 for self-reported sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient scores ranged from 0.924 to 0.993. For validity, the Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire and long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire ranged from moderate (r = 0.329) to high (r = 0.672). The correlation value between the total score of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire and the step counts was 0.70. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for measurement of the physical activity level of pregnant women. PMID:26834336

  3. Recognition of Short Time-Paired Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaminda, Hapugahage Thilak; Klyuev, Vitaly; Naruse, Keitaro; Osano, Minetada

    We undertake numerous activities in our daily life and for some of those we forget to complete the action as originally intended. Significant aspects while performing most of these actions might be: “pairing of both hands simultaneously” and “short time consumption”. In this work an attempt has been made to recognize those kinds of Paired Activities (PAs), which are easy to forget, and to provide a method to remind about uncompleted PAs. To represent PAs, a study was done on opening and closing of various bottles. A model to define PAs, which simulated the paired behavior of both hands, is proposed, called “Paired Activity Model” (PAM). To recognize PAs using PAM, Paired Activity Recognition Algorithm (PARA) was implemented. Paired motion capturing was done by accelerometers, which were worn by subjects on the wrist areas of both hands. Individual and correlative behavior of both hands was used to recognize exact PA among other activities. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm was used for data categorization in PARA. ANN significantly outperformed the support vector machine algorithm in real time evaluations. In the user-independent case, PARA achieved recognition rates of 96% for only target PAs and 91% for target PAs undertaken amidst unrelated activities.

  4. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  5. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods.

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-08-01

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, "NuAge" (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05) except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01), ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol) to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables). Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range.

  6. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods

    PubMed Central

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, “NuAge” (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05) except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01), ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol) to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables). Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range. PMID:26247965

  7. How do I measure physical activity in my patients? Questionnaires and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E

    2009-01-01

    How do healthcare providers know if their patients are getting enough physical activity to promote good health and to reduce their risks of chronic diseases and injury? The first step is to identify the patient's current level of physical activity using questionnaires and/or motion sensors. Questionnaires assess activity levels by having patients answer a set of questions about the types and amounts of activity performed at some time in the past. Motion sensors assess physical activity by patients wearing a small monitoring device that records their body movement as it occurs. If a provider is interested in determining a patient's caloric energy expenditure, he/she can apply statistical regression models to the questionnaire and motion sensor data to estimate kilocalories. If more precise measures of energy expenditure are desired, a provider can use the isotopic doubly labelled water method to estimate kilocalories; however, this method is costly and is impractical in non-research clinical settings.

  8. Value Questionnaires For Marriage and Family Living; A Creative Classroom Activity by Edu-Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    This booklet is a series of 10 unit-organized questionnaires to stimulate discussion on a variety of topics in the area of marriage and family life. These values clarification activities can help 11th and 12th grade students confirm or reevaluate personal attitudes. The units included in this activity are: Love and Marriage; Male and Female…

  9. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  10. Validation Evidence for the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire for Young Children: The Iowa Bone Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janz, Kathleen F.; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present reliability and validity information for the Netherlands (Health Education Project) Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ), a global proxy report of children's everyday activity preferences (Montoye, Kemper, Saris, & Washburn, 1996). In this study, the authors examined the measurement properties of a global proxy…

  11. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properti...

  12. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Griesenbeck, John S; Steck, Michelle D; Huber, John C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Rene, Antonio A; Brender, Jean D

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. Methods We developed estimates of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for food items listed in the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire (WFFQ) as adapted for use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Multiple reference databases were searched for published literature reflecting nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in foods. Relevant published literature was reviewed; only publications reporting results for items listed on the WFFQ were selected for inclusion. The references selected were prioritized according to relevance to the U.S. population. Results Based on our estimates, vegetable products contain the highest levels of nitrate, contributing as much as 189 mg/serving. Meat and bean products contain the highest levels of nitrites with values up to 1.84 mg/serving. Alcohol, meat and dairy products contain the highest values of nitrosamines with a maximum value of 0.531 μg/serving. The estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines generated in this study are based on the published values currently available. Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the only estimates specifically designed for use with the adapted WFFQ and generated to represent food items available to the U.S. population. The estimates provided may be useful in other research studies, specifically in those exploring the relation between exposure to these compounds in foods and adverse health outcomes. PMID:19348679

  13. Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF).

    PubMed

    Gerdner, Arne; Allgulander, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is delicate to assess both in clinical work and in research. There is a need for assessment tools that can be easily administered in an ethical and non-intrusive way that meets requirements of conceptual validity for various types of maltreatment and is sensitive to levels of severity. This study explores the psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of one such tool-the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF; Bernstein and Fink, 1998). The CTQ-SF was administered to seven samples (total n=659)-five clinical samples and two non-clinical student samples. The factor structure supports the construct validity of the global maltreatment scale, four of the five maltreatment subscales (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional neglect) and the minimization/denial (MD) scale, but not the physical neglect (PN) subscale. All items are highly correlated with their respective subscale. The discriminant validity is satisfactory. Highly significant correlation with social desirability gives further support for the MD-scale and to the recommendation of how to apply it. Internal consistency of PN is acceptable and for all other scales satisfactory. Swedish norm groups tend to score lower than similar American norm groups on abuse scales but higher on the neglect scales. Percentiles for seven gender-specific norm groups are presented. The weaknesses of the PN-scale are discussed and new constructs are proposed. The Swedish version of the CTQ-SF has the same construct validity and internal consistency as the original, including less homogeneity of the PN scale. PMID:19021077

  14. Impact of brisk walking on perceived health evaluated by a novel short questionnaire in sedentary and moderately obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Gaubert, Isabelle; Joffroy, Sandra; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of brisk walking on moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m) postmenopausal women's perceived health, assessed through a novel short perceived health questionnaire (SPHQ), and to verify whether improvements in six items examined were related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and/or fat mass changes (study 1). The second objective of this study was to test the SPHQ against validated generic instruments (study 2). METHODS: From the 270 women included in study 1, 181 participants were subjected to three 45-minute walking sessions per week at 60% of their heart rate reserve, whereas 58 women remained inactive for 4 months. Perceived health assessed through the SPHQ, body composition, and CRF were determined before and after the 4-month study period. Another sample of 20 women was selected to validate the SPHQ (study 2). RESULTS: Despite a lack of between-group differences in the amelioration of four perceived health items, ideal weight and stress level were improved in women subjected to our walking program exclusively (P < 0.0001). Improved perceived healthy balanced diet was positively correlated to fat mass reduction in the walking group (r = 0.15; P < 0.05) only (study 1). The SPHQ shows good reproducibility for five of six items (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.89; P < 0.0001), and three of them were validated against generic tools (0.45 < r < 0.54; P < 0.05; study 2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional studies are needed to more accurately determine the relationships between changes in perceived health and changes in body fatness and/or CRF after endurance training and to continue the validation of the SPHQ.

  15. [Reliability of the PRISCUS-PAQ. Questionnaire to assess physical activity of persons aged 70 years and older].

    PubMed

    Trampisch, U; Platen, P; Burghaus, I; Moschny, A; Wilm, S; Thiem, U; Hinrichs, T

    2010-12-01

    A questionnaire (Q) to measure physical activity (PA) of persons ≥70 years for epidemiological research is lacking. The aim was to develop the PRISCUS-PAQ and test the reliability in community-dwelling people (≥70 years). Validated PA questionnaires were translated and adapted to design the PRISCUS-PAQ. Its test-retest reliability for 91 randomly selected people (36% men) aged 70-98 (76±5) years ranged from 0.47 (walking) to 0.82 (riding a bicycle). The overall activity score was 0.59 as determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Recording of general activities, e.g., housework (ICC=0.59), was in general less reliable than athletic activities, e.g., gymnastics (ICC=0.76). The PRISCUS-PAQ, which is a short instrument with acceptable reliability to collect the physical activity of the elderly in a telephone interview, will be used to collect data in a large cohort of older people in the German research consortium PRISCUS.

  16. Development and validation of a food-frequency questionnaire to assess short-term antioxidant intake in athletes.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Timothy E; Rush, Elaine C

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to determine antioxidant intake in athletes. The questionnaire will be valuable for researchers wishing to standardize antioxidant intake or simply document habitual intake during an intervention trial. One hundred thirteen athletes participated in the validity study, of whom 96 completed the questionnaire and blood test, 81 completed the 7-d food diary and questionnaire, and 63 completed the 7-d food diary and blood test. Validity was investigated by comparing total and food-group antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire with those from a subsequent 7-d food diary. Measures of construct validity were determined by comparing a biomarker of antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in a blood sample with antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire and diary. The correlation between the diary and questionnaire energy-adjusted estimates of total antioxidant intake was modest (.38; 90% confidence limits, ± .14); the correlation was highest for antioxidants from cereals (.55; ± .11), which contributed the greatest proportion (31%) of the total antioxidant intake. Correlations were also high for coffee and tea (.51; ± .15) and moderate for vegetables (.34; ± .16) and fruit (.31; ± .16). The correlation of the plasma biomarker with the questionnaire estimate was small (.28; ± .15), but the correlation with the diary estimate was inconsequential (-.03; ± .15). One-week test-retest reliability of the questionnaire's estimates of antioxidant intake in 20 participants was high (.83; ± .16). In conclusion, the FFQ is less labor intensive for participants and researchers than a 7-d diary and appears to be at least as trustworthy for estimating antioxidant intake.

  17. Development and validation of a food-frequency questionnaire to assess short-term antioxidant intake in athletes.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Timothy E; Rush, Elaine C

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to determine antioxidant intake in athletes. The questionnaire will be valuable for researchers wishing to standardize antioxidant intake or simply document habitual intake during an intervention trial. One hundred thirteen athletes participated in the validity study, of whom 96 completed the questionnaire and blood test, 81 completed the 7-d food diary and questionnaire, and 63 completed the 7-d food diary and blood test. Validity was investigated by comparing total and food-group antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire with those from a subsequent 7-d food diary. Measures of construct validity were determined by comparing a biomarker of antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in a blood sample with antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire and diary. The correlation between the diary and questionnaire energy-adjusted estimates of total antioxidant intake was modest (.38; 90% confidence limits, ± .14); the correlation was highest for antioxidants from cereals (.55; ± .11), which contributed the greatest proportion (31%) of the total antioxidant intake. Correlations were also high for coffee and tea (.51; ± .15) and moderate for vegetables (.34; ± .16) and fruit (.31; ± .16). The correlation of the plasma biomarker with the questionnaire estimate was small (.28; ± .15), but the correlation with the diary estimate was inconsequential (-.03; ± .15). One-week test-retest reliability of the questionnaire's estimates of antioxidant intake in 20 participants was high (.83; ± .16). In conclusion, the FFQ is less labor intensive for participants and researchers than a 7-d diary and appears to be at least as trustworthy for estimating antioxidant intake. PMID:21558572

  18. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  19. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-01-01

    Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

  20. 78 FR 38098 - Proposed Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... disability benefits related to a claimant's diagnosis of knee and lower leg conditions. DATES: Written... nancy.kessinger@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Knee and Lower Leg...

  1. Construct Validity for the Activity Vector Analysis Utilizing the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) to the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in 114 employed adults. Examination of descriptions of dimensions defined by obtained structure vectors associated with each instrument based on the canonical correlation linear composites suggested construct validity for the AVA relative to the 16PF…

  2. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to…

  3. Screening Physical Activity in Family Practice: Validity of the Spanish Version of a Brief Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Ribera, Anna; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Real, Jordi; Romaguera, Montserrat; Magdalena-Belio, José Félix; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez-Martin, Beatriz; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Maria Soledad; Repiso–Gento, Irene; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of brief screening tools to identify inactive patients is essential to improve the efficiency of primary care-based physical activity (PA) programs. However, the current employment of short PA questionnaires within the Spanish primary care pathway is unclear. This study evaluated the validity of the Spanish version of a Brief Physical Activity Assessment Tool (SBPAAT). Methods A validation study was carried out within the EVIDENT project. A convenience sample of patients (n = 1,184; age 58.9±13.7 years; 60.5% female) completed the SBPAAT and the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (7DPAR) and, in addition, wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days. Validity was evaluated by measuring agreement, Kappa correlation coefficients, sensitivity and specificity in achieving current PA recommendations with the 7DPAR. Pearson correlation coefficients with the number of daily minutes engaged in moderate and vigorous intensity PA according to the accelerometer were also assessed. Comparison with accelerometer counts, daily minutes engaged in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, total daily kilocalories, and total PA and leisure time expenditure (METs-hour-week) between the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups identified by SBPAAT were reported. Results The SBPAAT identified 41.3% sufficiently active (n = 489) and 58.7% insufficiently active (n = 695) patients; it showed moderate validity (k = 0.454, 95% CI: 0.402–0.505) and a specificity and sensitivity of 74.3% and 74.6%, respectively. Validity was fair for identifying daily minutes engaged in moderate (r = 0.215, 95% CI:0.156 to 0.272) and vigorous PA (r = 0.282, 95% CI:0.165 to 0.391). Insufficiently active patients according to the SBPAAT significantly reported fewer counts/minute (-22%), fewer minutes/day of moderate (-11.38) and vigorous PA (-2.69), spent fewer total kilocalories/day (-753), and reported a lower energy cost (METs-hour-week) of physical

  4. Validity of two brief physical activity questionnaires with accelerometers among African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the validity of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) and Exercise Vital Sign (EVS) questionnaire against accelerometer-determined time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among African-American (AA) women. Background Limited research has evaluated the validity of brief physical activity (PA) questionnaires among AA women. Since the validity of PA questionnaires may differ among members of varying racial/ethnic groups, research is needed to explore the validity of self-report PA measures among AA women. Methods A total of 30 AA women [M age = 35.5 ± 5.3; M body mass index (BMI) = 31.1 ± 7.8] wore ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometers (ActiGraph, LLC, Pensacola FL, USA) for seven days and completed both the SBAS and EVS at two different assessment periods (T1 and T2). Criterion validity was calculated using Spearman's rank order correlations between each questionnaire score and accelerometer-measured MVPA. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using accelerometer-measured MVPA as the criterion to determine the ability of each questionnaire to predict whether or not a participant was meeting the 2008 US PA Guidelines Findings Spearman correlation coefficients between questionnaire scores and minutes of accelerometer-measured MVPA were low (EVS, r = 0.27 at T1 and r = 0.26 at T2; SBAS, r = 0.10 at T1 and r = 0.28 at T2) and not statistically significant (P's > 0.05). The EVS had sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of 27, 89, 59, and 68% at T1 and 33, 74, 38, and 70% at T2, respectively. The SBAS had sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were 18, 79, 33, and 62% at T1 and 67, 58, 43, and 79% at T2. While both questionnaires may be useful in identifying AA women who do not meet the 2008 PA Guidelines, using the questionnaires to identify AA women meeting the PA Guidelines should be done with caution. PMID:26178779

  5. Assessing the Validity of a Physical Activity Questionnaire Developed for Parents of Preschool Children in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bacardi-Gascón, Montserrat; Reveles-Rojas, Claudia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    To assess the validity of a questionnaire developed for parents of preschool children to know their physical activity (PA) status, we compared the questionnaire results with the measures of accelerometer for children's activities. Thirty-five preschoolers who wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours daily on 3 weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analyses. Time spent in activities of varied intensity was calculated by applying 15-second ActiGraph count cutoffs (ACC). Parents’ perceptions of their children's PA were associated with the percentage of vigorous and moderate physical activity recorded with ACC at r=0.62 (p=0.0001). An association was shown between the percentage of a child's time spent in vigorous physical activity, as reported by parents, with that measured by ACC at r=0.53 (p=0.001). Results of this study suggest that the designed questionnaire might be a useful tool for assessing children's activity while, additionally, it warrants further investigation on larger samples of children. PMID:23304910

  6. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    PubMed

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Depressed Adults and Development of a Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlmeijer, Ernst; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Fledderus, Martine; Veehof, Martine; Baer, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in therapies that include the learning of mindfulness skills. The 39-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) has been developed as a reliable and valid comprehensive instrument for assessing different aspects of mindfulness in community and student samples. In this study, the psychometric…

  8. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Dummett, Sarah; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Morley, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and to assess its psychometric properties. The final instrument is intended for use in clinical trials and interventions targeted at maintaining or improving activity and participation. PMID:26056503

  9. Assessing Metacognitive Activities: The In-Depth Comparison of a Task-Specific Questionnaire with Think-Aloud Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny L.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A .M.; Veenman, Marcel V. J.; Meijer, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and assessing metacognitive activities are important educational objectives, and teachers are calling for efficient instruments. The advantages of questionnaires in measuring metacognitive activities are obvious, but serious validity issues appear. For example, correlations of questionnaire data with think-aloud measures are generally…

  10. Development of the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Rimmer, James H.; Kviz, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the widely known benefits of physical activity, people with disabilities are more likely to be inactive when compared to people without disabilities. Previous questionnaires that measure barriers physical activity for people with disabilities do not measure barriers from an ecological perspective. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments (BPAQ-MI) that measures barriers using an ecological framework. Methods This study consisted of two phases. In Phase one, developed the content validity by (a) developing an item bank, (b) identifying missing items and combining items using a Delphi panel, and (c) refine item wording via cognitive interviews. In Phase two, people with mobility impairments took part in in-person interviews to establish test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the BPAQ-MI. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed the BPAQ-MI was comprised of eight subscales or factors: health; beliefs and attitudes; family; friends; fitness center built environment; staff and policy; community built environment; and safety. The BPAQ-MI demonstrated very good test-retest reliability. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.792 to 0.935. The BPAQ-MI showed significant negative correlations with exercise (minutes/week) and significant positive correlations between BPAQ-MI subscales and inactivity (hours/day). Conclusions The BPAQ-MI is the first questionnaire that places greater equity at measuring barriers to physical activity across the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community domains. The BPAQ-MI has the potential to assist researchers in understanding the complex relationship between barriers and ultimately develop physical activity interventions that address these barriers. PMID:26087721

  11. An evaluation of a short questionnaire for parents about their school-aged children's global maturity level.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Nordberg, Lillemor; Fried, Ingegärd; Edbom, Tobias; Ekman, Sophie; Rydelius, Per Anders

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate a questionnaire for parents concerning their school-aged children's global maturity level. Immature children (n = 29) as reported by their parents were compared to a control group (n = 68). Immaturity was linked to a reduced general knowledge, a childish body appearance, problems with the fine motor function and problems with peers. The index group also had on average a lower test result in total score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and more commission errors in the Continuous Performance Test, both test results indicating a lower mental age.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D.; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915

  14. A Validation Study of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Active-Q Against the GENEA Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Patrick; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Valid physical activity assessment in epidemiological studies is essential to study associations with various health outcomes. Objective To validate the Web-based physical activity questionnaire Active-Q by comparing results of time spent at different physical activity levels with results from the GENEA accelerometer and to assess the reproducibility of Active-Q by comparing two admissions of the questionnaire. Methods A total of 148 men (aged 33 to 86 years) responded to Active-Q twice and wore the accelerometer during seven consecutive days on two occasions. Time spent on six different physical activity levels including sedentary, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) as well as additional combined categories of sedentary-to-light and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity was assessed. Validity of Active-Q was determined using Spearman correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and the Bland-Altman method. Reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) comparing two admissions of the questionnaire. Results The validity correlation coefficients were statistically significant for time spent at all activity levels; sedentary (r=0.19, 95% CI: 0.04-0.34), LPA (r=0.15, 95% CI: 0.00-0.31), sedentary-to-light (r=0.35, 95% CI: 0.19-0.51), MPA (r=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.42), VPA (r=0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.67), and MVPA (r=0.35, 95% CI: 0.21-0.48). The Bland-Altman plots showed a negative mean difference for time in LPA and positive mean differences for time spent in MPA, VPA and MVPA. The ICCs of test-retest reliability ranged between r=0.51-0.80 for the different activity levels in Active-Q. Conclusions More moderate and vigorous activities and less light activities were reported in Active-Q compared to accelerometer measurements. Active-Q shows comparable validity and reproducibility to other physical activity questionnaires used today. PMID:26183896

  15. A novel, short, and simple screening questionnaire can suggest presence of psoriatic arthritis in psoriasis patients in a dermatology clinic.

    PubMed

    Garg, N; Truong, B; Ku, J H; Devere, T S; Ehst, B D; Blauvelt, A; Deodhar, A A

    2015-10-01

    Delaying diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) can lead to poor quality of life and disability. The purpose of this study is to identify simple questions for dermatologists to screen psoriasis patients for psoriatic arthritis. Data regarding psoriasis and arthritis were prospectively collected by a questionnaire from all psoriasis patients. Patients with joint-related symptoms were assessed by a rheumatologist for the presence of PsA. Retrospectively, the sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and posttest probabilities of various screening questions were calculated to identify the best combination of parameters. Of 517 patients seen in dermatology clinic, 117 (22.63 %) were found to have PsA. Four screening questions ("Do you have a history of joint pain or swelling?" "Do you have stiffness in the morning?" "Have you had X-rays taken of your joints?" "Do you have PsA?") with psoriatic nail changes demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for predicting PsA. A cutoff of three out of these five parameters correctly classified patients with and without PsA with 86.9 % sensitivity, 71.3 % specificity, 53 % positive predictive value (PPV), 93.6 % negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87. Likelihood ratios for individual parameters varied between1.6 and 3.7, and with a combination of certain parameters, the posttest probability of PsA was 76 %. This is a preliminary data on a potential screening questionnaire which can help dermatologists quickly screen for PsA. All patients not having evaluated by a rheumatologist could have led to underdiagnosis of PsA and potential misclassification. Psoriasis patients seen at a specialty clinic may introduce a referral bias.

  16. Reliability and validity of the Vietnamese version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ).

    PubMed

    Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Yanai, Hideki; Suzuki, Motoi; Anh, Dang Duc; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Tho, Le Huu; Ariyoshi, Koya; Yeo, Seon Ae; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2008-05-01

    This study aimed to translate the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) into Vietnamese, and test its reliability and validity among Vietnamese pregnant women. Intraclass correlation (ICC) and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the test-retest reliability of the PPAQ. The Pearson correlations coefficient between the PPAQ measurements and those obtained from a pedometer that measured step counts (10-day averages) were used to determine the validity of the questionnaire. The PPAQ was successfully translated from English into Vietnamese with face validity through a rigorous process of the cross-cultural validation. For the analysis of reliability, the ICC value was 0.88 (95% CI 0.83-0.94) for total activity, 0.94 for sedentary, 0.88 for light, 0.90 for moderate, and 0.87 for vigorous activities. The Bland and Altman analysis showed that the first and second PPAQ total scores did not significantly differ from zero, and mostly fell within the range of 0 +/- 1.96 SD. The analysis of validity showed that there were moderate correlations with statistically significance (p = 0.02) between the step counts and PPAQ total. Our study indicates that the Vietnamese PPAQ is within acceptable reliability and validity.

  17. An ultra-short screening version of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE-US) and its factor structure in a representative German sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2]) assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US) with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years) were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions. PMID:23134704

  18. Development and Psychometric Validation of the EDE-QS, a 12 Item Short Form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, Nicole; Hawkes, Nick; Mond, Jonathan; Saunders, Rob; Tchanturia, Kate; Serpell, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for routine, including session by session, outcome assessment. Method The current, 28-item version (6.0) of the EDE-Q was completed by 489 individuals aged 18–72 with various eating disorders recruited from three UK specialist eating disorder services. Rasch analysis was carried out on factors identified by means of principal component analysis, which in combination with expert ratings informed the development of an EDE-Q short form. The shortened questionnaire’s reliability, validity and sensitivity was assessed based on online data collected from students of a UK university and volunteers with a history of eating disorders recruited from a national eating disorders charity aged 18–74 (N = 559). Results A 12-item short form, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short (EDE-QS) was derived. The new measure showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .913) and temporal stability (ICC = .93; p < .001). It was highly correlated with the original EDE-Q (r = .91 for people without ED; r = .82 for people with ED) and other measures of eating disorder and comorbid psychopathology. It was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between people with and without eating disorders. Discussion The EDE-QS is a brief, reliable and valid measure of eating disorder symptom severity that performs similarly to the EDE-Q and that lends itself for the use of sessional outcome monitoring in treatment and research. PMID:27138364

  19. Development and Psychometric Validation of the EDE-QS, a 12 Item Short Form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, Nicole; Hawkes, Nick; Mond, Jonathan; Saunders, Rob; Tchanturia, Kate; Serpell, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for routine, including session by session, outcome assessment. Method The current, 28-item version (6.0) of the EDE-Q was completed by 489 individuals aged 18–72 with various eating disorders recruited from three UK specialist eating disorder services. Rasch analysis was carried out on factors identified by means of principal component analysis, which in combination with expert ratings informed the development of an EDE-Q short form. The shortened questionnaire’s reliability, validity and sensitivity was assessed based on online data collected from students of a UK university and volunteers with a history of eating disorders recruited from a national eating disorders charity aged 18–74 (N = 559). Results A 12-item short form, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short (EDE-QS) was derived. The new measure showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .913) and temporal stability (ICC = .93; p < .001). It was highly correlated with the original EDE-Q (r = .91 for people without ED; r = .82 for people with ED) and other measures of eating disorder and comorbid psychopathology. It was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between people with and without eating disorders. Discussion The EDE-QS is a brief, reliable and valid measure of eating disorder symptom severity that performs similarly to the EDE-Q and that lends itself for the use of sessional outcome monitoring in treatment and research. PMID:27138364

  20. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9-10 Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  1. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9-10 Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand.

  2. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9–10 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9–10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9–10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  3. Development and validation of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tirado González, Sonia; Neipp López, M Carmen; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the main theoretical models in the study of the different variables, which influence in the practise of physical activity. The aim in this study was to develop a questionnaire based on TPB in physical activity context providing evidence for the validity of the obtained measures. The instrumental project included three independent studies. The first study entailed the construction and qualitative assessment of the items. In the second study, the analysis of factorial structure was performed by means of exploratory measures, and it showed that the reliability of measures was adequate. The third study provided evidence on the dimensionality of the scale. The confirmatory factorial analysis guaranteed the stability of factorial structure proposed by the TPB and provided evidence for the internal validity of the inventory. Moreover, this study provided evidence of its external validity.

  4. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232 ± 65 μg/g erythrocytes and 73 ± 33 nmol/L serum, respectively. Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults. PMID:22099052

  5. [Preoperative outpatient evaluation of young adults by anesthesiologist: anamnesis and physical examination are satisfactory--short questionnaire of Dutch Public Health Council is not].

    PubMed

    van Klei, W A; Moons, K G; Rutten, C L; Knape, J T; Grobbee, D E

    2000-07-15

    The report of the Netherlands Health Council 'Preoperatief onderzoek; een herijking van uitgangspunten' recommends that the health status of patients aged 16-39 years can be investigated preoperatively by the anaesthesiologist using a short questionnaire (6 questions). However, it is not clear whether such an abbreviated preoperative investigation will be informative enough for a safe and balanced anaesthesiologic management. An overview of relevant literature on the subject of preoperative investigation indicates that the preoperative physical status of patients as reflected by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification is a predictor of perioperative complications. Patients can be classified accordingly on the basis of an extended history and physical examination only: any routine additional investigation, such as ECG, chest X-ray or laboratory investigations, seem superfluous. Only blood group, rhesus factor and the presence of irregular antibodies may need to be determined if indicated by the kind of surgery. Currently, however, there is not sufficient evidence to demonstrate that the short questionnaire of the Netherlands Health Council is informative enough.

  6. Validity and reliability of the Arabic short version of the child oral health-related quality of life questionnaire (CPQ 11-14) in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bhayat, A; Ali, M A M

    2014-08-19

    The Arabic version of the Child Perception Questionnaire for assessing oral health-related quality of life in 11-14 year olds (CPQ 11-14) has been validated previously. This study tested the validity and reliability of a short version of the Arabic CPQ 11-14 in the general population of Medina, Saudi Arabia. A total of 268 schoolchildren completed the questionnaire and were examined to determine the prevalence of caries and malocclusion. The mean total score was 8.53 (SD 8.18), and 7% of children scored zero. There was a significant association between malocclusion and oral symptoms and between DMFT score and functional limitations. The test-retest reliability (0.78) and Cronbach alpha (0.82) were excellent. The construct validity was acceptable for oral health (ρ = 0.37) and overall well-being (ρ = 0.40). The Arabic version of the short form CPQ 11-14 was reliable and valid for this general population of children.

  7. Burnout syndrome among dental students: a short version of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" adapted for students (BCSQ-12-SS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Burnout has been traditionally defined in relation to the dimensions of "exhaustion", "cynicism", and "inefficiency". More recently, the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) further established three different subtypes of burnout: the "frenetic" subtype (related to "overload"), the "under-challenged" subtype (related to "lack of development"), and the "worn-out" subtype (related to "neglect"). However, to date, these definitions have not been applied to students. The aims of this research were (1) to adapt a Spanish version of the BCSQ-12 for use with students, (2) to test its factorial validity, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and (3) to assess potential socio-demographic and occupational risk factors associated with the development of the subtypes. Method We used a cross-sectional design on a sample of dental students (n = 314) from Santiago and Huesca universities (Spain). Participants completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire Student Survey (BCSQ-12-SS), the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), and a series of socio-demographic and occupational questions formulated for the specific purpose of this study. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using the principal component method with varimax orthogonal rotation. To assess the relations with the criterion, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), multiple correlation coefficient (Ry.123), and the coefficient of determination (R2y.123). To assess the association between the subtypes and the socio-demographic variables, we examined the adjusted odds ratio (OR) obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Results Factorial analyses supported the theoretical proposition of the BCSQ-12-SS, with α-values exceeding 0.80 for all dimensions. The "overload-exhaustion" relation was r = 0.59 (p < 0.001), "lack of development"-"cynicism", r = 0.49 (p < 0.001), "neglect"-"inefficiency", r = 0.47 (p < 0

  8. 76 FR 45008 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 4) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Illness, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Tuberculosis Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960-I-3..., Larynx, and Pharynx Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960- N-4. q. Chronic Fatigue...

  9. 76 FR 16478 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 2) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-7. n. Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability... Joint (TMJ) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-15. s. Wrist...

  10. 76 FR 21429 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 3) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Parasitic Infections) Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960G-4. h. Hepatitis, Cirrhosis and Other Liver Conditions, Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960G-5. i. Peritoneal...

  11. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  12. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  13. Use of rasch methodology to develop a short version of the Health Related Quality of life for Eating Disorders questionnaire: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To confirm the internal structure of the Health Related Quality of Life for Eating Disorders version 2 questionnaire (HeRQoLEDv2) and create and validate a shortened version (HeRQoLED-S). Methods 324 patients with eating disorders were assessed at baseline and one year later (75.6% of whom responded). We performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the HeRQoLEDv2 using baseline data, and then a Rasch analysis to shorten the questionnaire. Data obtained at year one was used to confirm the structure of the HeRQoLED short form and evaluate its validity and reliability. Results Two latent second-order factors -- social maladjustment and mental health and functionality -- fit the data for the HeRQoLEDv2. Rasch analysis was computed separately for the two latent second-order factors and shortened the HeRQoLEDv2 to 20 items. Infit and outfit indices were acceptable, with the confirmatory factor analysis of the HeRQoLED short form giving a root mean square error of approximation of 0.07, a non-normed fit index and a comparative fit index exceeding 0.90. The validity was also supported by the correlation with the convergent measures: the social maladjustment factor correlated 0.82 with the dieting concern factor of the Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the mental health and functionality factor correlated -0.69 with the mental summary component of the Short Form-12. Cronbach alphas exceeded 0.89. Conclusions Two main factors, social maladjustment and mental health and functionality, explain the majority of HeRQoLEDv2 scores. The shortened version maintains good psychometric properties, though it must be validated in independent samples. PMID:20298556

  14. Adapting and Validating the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) for Trivandrum, India, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Sarma, Prabhakaran Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A limitation of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in assessing physical activity in India is that it does not capture the diversity of activities across cultures and by sex. The purpose of this study was to culturally adapt and validate the GPAQ by using an accelerometer in Thiruvananthapuram City, India. Methods We developed a modified version of the GPAQ by adding a physical activity chart specific to the locale. We identified local physical activities through in-depth interviews, group discussions, and observation, and used Actigraph GT3X accelerometers to validate the modified GPAQ for a subsample of 47 women. Participants were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 1,303 women aged 18 to 64 years, selected by multistage cluster sampling. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to determine the correlation and level of agreement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on the basis of accelerometer measurement and the modified GPAQ. Results The correlation for MVPA between the modified GPAQ (overall) and the accelerometer (non-bouted MVPA) was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.85) with a moderately high ICC of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.56–0.90). The correlation for MVPA between the modified GPAQ and the accelerometer-based MVPA within bouts of at least 10 minutes was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.26–0.80) with an ICC of 0.55 (95% CI, 0.20–0.77) indicating a moderate level of agreement. Conclusion The GPAQ can be used for assessing physical activity among women in India, and its adaptation and validation may be useful in other low-income or middle-income countries where activities are diverse in type and intensity. PMID:27103263

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woo Kyung; Son, Ki Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Given that a substantial number of daily activities take place in neighborhoods, a convenient and effective method for measuring the physical activity of individuals is needed. Therefore, we tested the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (K-NPAQ), which was developed through translation and back-translation of the NPAQ. Methods The K-NPAQ was administered twice, with a 1-week interval, to participants in the study who were recruited at a health promotion center. We assessed energy expenditure and compliance using an accelerometer and an activity diary. The Kappa statistic and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the K-NPAQ, and the Spearman rank correlation was used to assess the validity. Results Of the 122 participants, 43 were excluded owing to a lack of compliance. The Kappa values for all items that were used to assess walking or cycling within or outside the neighborhood were >0.424; 0.251-0.902 for 5 items related to the purpose of the physical activity; 0.232-0.912 for most items related to the number of times and the duration for each types of physical activity. The total energy expenditure and the energy expenditure in the neighborhood were significantly correlated with the K-NPAQ and the accelerometer, with correlation coefficients of 0.192-0.264. Conclusion The K-NPAQ is a valid and reliable tool for measuring physical activity in the neighborhood, and it can be used for individual education and counseling in order to augment physical activity in specific neighborhood environments. PMID:26019763

  16. The reliability and validity of the English version of the Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire for people with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Alan; Tyson, Sarah F.; Nordenskiöld, Ulla; Hawkins, Ruth; Prior, Yeliz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire (EDAQ) includes 138 items in 14 domains identified as important by people with RA. The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the English EDAQ. Methods. A total of 502 participants completed two questionnaires 3 weeks apart. The first consisted of the EDAQ, HAQ, RA Quality of Life (RAQoL) and the Medical Outcomes Scale (MOS) 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36v2), and the second consisted of the EDAQ only. The 14 EDAQ domains were tested for: unidimensionality—using confirmatory factor analysis; fit, response dependency, invariance across groups (differential item functioning)—using Rasch analysis; internal consistency [Person Separation Index (PSI)]; concurrent validity—by correlations with the HAQ, SF-36v2 and RAQoL; and test–retest reliability (Spearman’s correlations). Results. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 14 EDAQ domains indicated unidimensionality, after adjustment for local dependency in each domain. All domains achieved a root mean square error of approximation <0.10 and satisfied Rasch model expectations for local dependency. DIF by age, gender and employment status was largely absent. The PSI was consistent with individual use (PSI = 0.94 for all 14 domains). For all domains, except Caring, concurrent validity was good: HAQ (rs = 0.72–0.91), RAQoL (rs = 0.67–0.82) and SF36v2 Physical Function scale (rs = −0.60 to −0.84) and test–retest reliability was good (rs = 0.70–0.89). Conclusion. Analysis supported a 14-domain, two-component structure (Self care and Mobility) of the EDAQ, where each domain, and both components, satisfied Rasch model requirements, and have robust reliability and validity. PMID:25863045

  17. Psychometric study of the Persian short-form eight-item Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-8) to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQoL)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess validation and reliability of the Persian version of the short-form 8-item Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-8) and to compare its psychometric properties with that of the long-form questionnaire (PDQ-39) in order to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 114 non-demented idiopathic PD (IPD) patients consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. Patients were interviewed to fill in the Persian version of PDQ-39 and PDQ-8 questionnaires and clinical examination was performed to measure disease severity indices. Results The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the entire PDQ-8 was 0.740 (95% CI: 0.661-0.806). Replacement of PDQ-8 items with other questions with the highest internal consistency within each dimension of the original PDQ-39 did not improve Cronbach’s alpha coefficient [0.723 (95% CI: 0.639-0.794)]. The scores from both PDQ-8 and PDQ-39 had significant correlation with the Hoehn & Yahr (rPDQ-8 = 0.376, rPDQ-39 = 0.442), and Schwab & England (rPDQ-8 = -0.503, rPDQ-39 = -0.598) disease severity scales and disease duration (rPDQ-8 = 0.342, rPDQ-39 = 0.396). Conclusions Persian version of the short-form PDQ (PDQ-8) was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess disease-specific HRQoL in a PD population when used independently. Although the PDQ-8 items were not necessarily those with the highest internal consistency in the components of PDQ-39, they entirely showed proper psychometric properties especially in mental and behavioral aspects. PDQ-8 is a practical and informative instrument in daily clinical practice where clinicians are in shortage of time and when a validated self-reported brief questionnaire is of value. PMID:24885477

  18. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490

  19. Development and initial validation of the determinants of physical activity questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity interventions are more likely to be effective if they target causal determinants of behaviour change. Targeting requires accurate identification of specific theoretical determinants of physical activity. Two studies were undertaken to develop and validate the Determinants of Physical Activity Questionnaire. Methods In Study 1, 832 male and female university staff and students were recruited from 49 universities across the UK and completed the 66-item measure, which is based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken on a calibration sample to generate the model, which resulted in a loss of 31 items. A validation sample was used to cross-validate the model. 20 new items were added and Study 2 tested the revised model in a sample of 466 male and female university students together with a physical activity measure. Results The final model consisted of 11 factors and 34 items, and CFA produced a reasonable fit χ2 (472) = 852.3, p < .001, CFI = .933, SRMR = .105, RMSEA = .042 (CI = .037-.046), as well as generally acceptable levels of discriminant validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Eight subscales significantly differentiated between high and low exercisers, indicating that those who exercise less report more barriers for physical activity. Conclusions A theoretically underpinned measure of determinants of physical activity has been developed with reasonable reliability and validity. Further work is required to test the measure amongst a more representative sample. This study provides an innovative approach to identifying potential barriers to physical activity. This approach illustrates a method for moving from diagnosing implementation difficulties to designing and evaluating interventions. PMID:23758912

  20. Reproducibility and validity of the Shanghai Women's Health Study physical activity questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Charles E; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yang, Gong; Jin, Fan; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Liu, Dake; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    In this investigation, the authors evaluated the reproducibility and validity of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which was administered in a cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women aged 40-70 years. Reproducibility (2-year test-retest) was evaluated using kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Validity was evaluated by comparing Spearman correlations (r) for the SWHS PAQ with two criterion measures administered over a period of 12 months: four 7-day physical activity logs and up to 28 7-day PAQs. Women were recruited from the SWHS cohort (n = 200). Results indicated that the reproducibility of adolescent and adult exercise participation (kappa = 0.85 and kappa = 0.64, respectively) and years of adolescent exercise and adult exercise energy expenditure (ICC = 0.83 and ICC = 0.70, respectively) was reasonable. Reproducibility values for adult lifestyle activities were lower (ICC = 0.14-0.54). Significant correlations between the PAQ and criterion measures of adult exercise were observed for the first PAQ administration (physical activity log, r = 0.50; 7-day PAQ, r = 0.62) and the second PAQ administration (physical activity log, r = 0.74; 7-day PAQ, r = 0.80). Significant correlations between PAQ lifestyle activities and the 7-day PAQ were also noted (r = 0.33-0.88). These data indicate that the SWHS PAQ is a reproducible and valid measure of exercise behaviors and that it demonstrates utility in stratifying women by levels of important lifestyle activities (e.g., housework, walking, cycling).

  1. [Linguistic adaptation of the Russian version of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2].

    PubMed

    Bakhtadze, M A; Bolotov, D A; Kuz'minov, K O; Padun, M P; Zakharova, O B

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования. Лингвистическая адаптация русскоязычной версии Второй сокращенной формы Мак-Гилловского болевого опросника (The McGill Pain Questionnaire) (SF-MPQ-2), концептуально эквивалентной оригиналу. Материал и методы. Адаптацию русской версии SF-MPQ-2 проводили по установленным правилам в несколько этапов двумя независимыми переводчиками с выработкой общей предварительной русскоязычной версии и ее обратным переводом двумя независимыми переводчиками и выработкой общей английской версии. В итоге была выработана окончательная русскоязычная версия опросника. Результаты и заключение. Получена русскоязычная версия Второй сокращенной формы Мак-Гилловского болевого опросника — SF-MPQ-2-RU. Работа выполнена по установленным правилам, представленная русская версия официально зарегистрирована правообладателем — Институтом Mapi Research Trust и рекомендована для применения в научных исследованиях на территории Российской Федерации.

  2. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Niamh; Gibbons, Helena; McNulty, Breige A.; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J.; Nugent, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ) as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months). Design Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (p<0.05) lower mean daily intakes of key nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, folate, phosphorous, potassium, carotene, retinol, and dietary fibre. They also had lower (p<0.05) intakes of vegetables, fish and fish dishes, meat and infant/toddler milks and higher intakes of processed foods and non-milk beverages, confectionery, sugars and savoury snack foods indicative of poorer dietary quality. Areas under the curve values of 84.7 and 75.6% were achieved for ‘medium’ and ‘high’ dietary risk when compared with expert risk ratings indicating good consistency between the two methods. Conclusion NutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk. In Context Analysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar). Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of risk factors has

  3. Assessing Adult Leisure Activities: An Extension of a Self-Report Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopp, Daniela S.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value, as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, the authors enhanced…

  4. The Self-Presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire: Instrument Development and Preliminary Construct Validity Evidence.

    PubMed

    Howle, Timothy C; Dimmock, James A; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    With the aim of advancing the literature on impression management in physical activity settings, we developed a theoretically derived 2 by 2 instrument that was designed to measure different types of context-specific self-presentation motives. Following item generation and expert review (Study 1), the instrument was completed by 206 group exercise class attendees (Study 2) and 463 high school physical education students (Study 3). Our analyses supported the intended factor structure (i.e., reflecting acquisitive-agentic, acquisitive-communal, protective-agentic, and protective-communal motives). We found some support for construct validity, and the self-presentation motives were associated with variables of theoretical and applied interest (e.g., impression motivation and construction, social anxiety, social and achievement goals, efficacy beliefs, engagement). Taken together, the results indicate that the Self-presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire (SMPAQ) may be useful for measuring various types of self-presentation motives in physical activity settings. PMID:26265337

  5. 76 FR 61149 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 4) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... (Other Than HIV-Related Illness, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, or Tuberculosis) Disability Benefits.... Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21- 0960-Q-1. OMB Control Number:...

  6. The 'Technology - Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire': a version with a technology-related subscale

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L.; Riveros, Rodrigo; Nuñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. Method A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish Version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled The Technology Version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. Results The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-mental Test (MMSE), the Frontal Assesment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = −0.70; FAB: r = −0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = −0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p<0.001). The T-ADLQ showed a good reliability with a relatively high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.861). When considering a functional impairment cut-off point greater than 29.25%, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ were 82% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.937 for the T-ADLQ and 0.932 for the original version of the test. Conclusions The T-ADLQ revealed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the functional assessment of activities of daily living in dementia patients. However, the inclusion of technology items in

  7. Development and validation of a Spanish translation of the Yale activity questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Valid measures of physical activity are critical research tools. The objective of this study was to develop a Spanish translation of the Yale Physical Activity Survey, and to provide preliminary evidence of its validity in a population of Dominican patients with lower extremity arthritis. Methods A Dominican bilingual health care professional translated the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) from English to Spanish. Several Dominican adults reviewed the translation to ensure it was linguistically and culturally appropriate. The questionnaire was back-translated to English by a North American researcher who is fluent in Spanish. Discrepancies between the original and back-translated versions were resolved by the translator and back-translator. The Spanish translation was administered to 108 Dominican subjects with advanced hip or knee arthritis prior to (N = 44) or one to four years following (N = 64) total joint replacement. We assessed construct validity by examining the association of YPAS scores and measures of functional status and pain (WOMAC), quality of life (EQ-5D) and the number of painful lower extremity joints. Results A higher YPAS Part II Activity Dimensions Summary Index score had weak to modest correlations with worse function and quality of life as measured with the WOMAC function scale (r = 0.21, p = 0.03), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.29, p = 0.004) and EQ-5D (r = 0.34, p = 0.0007). Total minutes of vigorous activity and walking had weak to modest correlation with these measures (WOMAC Function Scale (r = 0.15, p = 0.15), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.21, p = 0.04) and EQ-5D utility (r = 0.24, p = 0.02)). Correlations between the YPAS Part I energy expenditure score and these measures were lower (WOMAC Function Scale (r = 0.07, p = 0.49), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.03, p = 0.74) and EQ-5D utility (r = 0.18, p = 0.07)). Conclusions We have developed a new Spanish translation of the Yale Physical Activity Survey

  8. Reliability of Questionnaires to Assess the Healthy Eating and Activity Environment of a Child's Home and School

    PubMed Central

    Magarey, Anthea; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P < 0.05) and from 0.42 to 0.86 (teacher) (P < 0.05). Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, of teacher scores ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 and 0.13 to 0.78 for scores from the parent questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs. PMID:23936636

  9. 78 FR 35661 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    .... Parkinson's Disease Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960c-1. OMB Control Number: 2900-0749... exposure: Hairy Cell and ] Other Chronic B-cell Leukemias, Parkinson's and Ischemic Heart diseases.... Parkinson's Disease Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960c-1-1,250. Estimated Average...

  10. 75 FR 76081 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    .... Parkinson's Disease Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960c-1. OMB Control Number: 2900-0749... exposure: Hairy Cell and Other Chronic B-cell Leukemias, Parkinson's and Ischemic Heart diseases. Veterans... Form 21-0960b-1--500. c. Parkinson's Disease Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form...

  11. 75 FR 60170 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    .... c. Parkinson's Disease Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960c-1. OMB Control Number... on herbicide exposure: Hairy Cell and Other Chronic B-cell Leukemias, Parkinson's and Ischemic Heart...--500. c. Parkinson's Disease Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960c-1--1,250....

  12. 76 FR 33417 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 2) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ....Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960A-4. d. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (Diabetic Sensory-Motor Peripheral... g. Skin Diseases Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21- 0960F-2. h. Amputations...

  13. Assessment of highly active dune mobility in the medium, short and very short term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marina; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan J.; Román-Sierra, Jorge; Tsoar, Haim; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gómez-Pina, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    Dune activity or stability has usually been studied over long time periods; however, this may not reflect changes that occur in the short term, especially for highly active dunefields. Extreme wind conditions that are generated near the Strait of Gibraltar (SW Spain) have given rise to the transgressive Valdevaqueros dunefield. The current work focuses on analyzing the sand drift potential and the evolution of the dune profile in the medium term (months), the short term (days) and the very short term (hours). Topographic data, which were collected with a differential GPS, were interpreted from reconstructed empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The results showed that generally the dune profile presented shifting morphologies, especially around the crest and brink, and a trend towards migration to a gentler steady state. As a result, the leeward side adopted continuous slope variations during the different survey periods, whereas the windward slope did not undergo any significant change. Lateral and vertical displacements were analyzed during a severe easterly sandstorm, when the dune brink experienced an advance migration rate of 1.75 m in 24 h. Sand transport rates of 25.5-36.5 m 3 m - 1 month - 1 , 22.52 m 3 m - 1 day - 1 and 0.93 m 3 m - 1 h - 1 were measured for the medium term, short term and very short term, respectively. These values were compared to the theoretical sand transport rate for Valdevaqueros dune, based on the classic Bagnold equation as well other more recent formulae, to obtain a ratio between the real and the theoretical rates for each study period. These results together with the sand drift potential (up to 10,000 vector units) demonstrate that Valdevaqueros (Tarifa) is a dunefield with one of the highest sand transport capacities in Europe.

  14. Assessing Activity Limitations in Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases: Is the ACTIVLIM Questionnaire Linked to ICF and ICF-CY?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore to what extent the ACTIVLIM questionnaire, designed to evaluate limitations in activities involving upper and lower limbs in adults and children with neuromuscular diseases, is linked to the domains of the Activities and Participation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and…

  15. Translation, adaptation, validation and performance of the American Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire Short Form (WEL-SF) to a Norwegian version: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, John R.; Nielsen, Hans J.; Natvig, Gerd K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Researchers have emphasized a need to identify predictors that can explain the variability in weight management after bariatric surgery. Eating self-efficacy has demonstrated predictive impact on patients’ adherence to recommended eating habits following multidisciplinary treatment programs, but has to a limited extent been subject for research after bariatric surgery. Recently an American short form version (WEL-SF) of the commonly used Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) was available for research and clinical purposes. Objectives. We intended to translate and culturally adapt the WEL-SF to Norwegian conditions, and to evaluate the new versions’ psychometrical properties in a Norwegian population of morbidly obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery. Design. Cross-sectional Methods. A total of 225 outpatients selected for Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were recruited; 114 non-operated and 111 operated patients, respectively. The questionnaire was translated through forward and backward procedures. Structural properties were assessed performing principal component analysis (PCA), correlation and regression analysis were conducted to evaluate convergent validity and sensitivity, respectively. Data was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor- and ceiling effect, Cronbach’s alpha and alpha if item deleted. Results. The PCA resulted in one factor with eigenvalue > 1, explaining 63.0% of the variability. The WEL-SF sum scores were positively correlated with the Self-efficacy and quality of life instruments (p < 0.001). The WEL-SF was associated with body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) and changes in BMI (p = 0.026). A very high item response was obtained with only one missing value (0.4%). The ceiling effect was in average 0.9 and 17.1% in the non-operated and operated sample, respectively. Strong internal consistency (r = 0.92) was obtained, and Cronbach’s alpha remained high (0.86–0.92) if single items

  16. Systematic review on measurement properties of questionnaires assessing the neighbourhood environment in the context of youth physical activity behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High-quality measurement instruments for assessing the neighbourhood environment are a prerequisite for identifying associations between the neighbourhood environment and a person’s physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to identify reliable and valid questionnaires assessing neighbourhood environmental attributes in the context of physical activity behaviours in children and adolescents. In addition, current gaps and best practice models in instrumentation and their evaluation are discussed. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search using six databases (Web of Science, Medline, TRID, SportDISCUS, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO). Two independent reviewers screened the identified English-language peer-reviewed journal articles. Only studies examining the measurement properties of self- or proxy-report questionnaires on any aspects of the neighbourhood environment in children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklists. Results We identified 13 questionnaires on attributes of the neighbourhood environment. Most of these studies were conducted in the United States (n = 7). Eight studies evaluated self-report measures, two studies evaluated parent-report measures and three studies included both administration types. While eight studies had poor methodological quality, we identified three questionnaires with substantial test-retest reliability and two questionnaires with acceptable convergent validity based on sufficient evidential basis. Conclusions Based on the results of this review, we recommend that cross-culturally adapted questionnaires should be used and that existing questionnaires should be evaluated especially in diverse samples and in countries other than the United States. Further, high-quality studies on measurement properties should be promoted and measurement models (formative vs. reflexive) should be specified to

  17. Prevalence, stability, 1-year incidence and predictors of depressive symptoms among Norwegian adolescents in the general population as measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Bo; Ingul, JoMagne; Jozefiak, Thomas; Leikanger, Einar; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-01-01

    Background In numerous surveys the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents has been examined in single sites and at one time point. Aims We examined depressive symptoms among adolescents aged 10-19 years in four different large school samples including two cohorts over a 10-year period in different locations in the same health region in central Norway including a total of 5804 adolescents. Two cohorts were retested within a 1-year time period to predict high versus low depressive symptom scores. Changes over a 6-year period in depressive symptom levels were examined in two of the samples of 12-14-year olds. Methods Depressive symptoms were estimated by the 13-item Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Covariates were student age, sex, school size and location. Results "Miserable or unhappy", "Tired", "Restlessness" and "Poor concentration" were the most commonly reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptom levels and proportions of high scoring students were consistently higher among girls, in particular in mid and late adolescence. Poisson regression analysis showed that all SMFQ items significantly predicted total scores for the whole sample, while sex (girls having a higher risk) emerged as a consistent 1-year predictor of high depressive symptom levels. Conclusions The SMFQ constitutes a short, practical and feasible measure. We recommend that this standardized measure should be used in the assessment of depressive symptoms among adolescents in school, primary care and clinical settings but also to evaluate treatment outcome. High scorers should be evaluated in subsequent clinical interviews for the presence of a depressive disorder. PMID:26817811

  18. Distinguishing Dispositional and Cultivated Forms of Mindfulness: Item-Level Factor Analysis of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Construction of Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenjie; Li, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    The widely used Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) mixes the dispositional and cultivated forms of mindfulness, thereby resulting in factor issues in previous studies. The present study distinguished the two forms of mindfulness and developed a Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability at the item level of FFMQ. Three facets of mindfulness, namely, Describing, Acting with Awareness, and Non-judging of Experience, were assessed using community (n = 433) and student (n = 347) samples. Both meditators and non-meditators participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed a three-factor model of mindfulness with 12 items (four items per subscale). Psychometric evaluation demonstrated the solid factor structure of the measurement with high factor loadings, good internal consistency, and convergent validities. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the Acting with Awareness facet was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later. Discussions focused on the roles of mindfulness capability on mental health as well as the relationship between them. A higher-order factor of mindfulness should be used to examine the efficacy of intervention or monitor the changes. Researchers who need to study the specific role or efficacy of each facet should calculate the scores of different facets. PMID:27667978

  19. Assessment of quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire-short form responder thresholds in generalized anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder studies.

    PubMed

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Harnam, Neesha; Revicki, Dennis A; Locklear, Julie C; Svedsater, Henrik; Endicott, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Interpretation of change over time in patient-reported outcomes requires appropriate responder definitions. This study compares responder definitions for the short-form version of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q(SF)] in populations with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and bipolar disorder. A review of the Q-LES-Q(SF) literature published in English from 1993 through May 2009 identified publications using the Q-LES-Q(SF) in GAD or bipolar disorder clinical trials. In six relevant articles reporting Q-LES-Q(SF) responder definitions in GAD or bipolar disorder, two methods for defining responders emerged: (i) return to a score within 10% of community norms for the Q-LES-Q(SF); and (ii) a change score at or greater than the condition-specific mean change achieved by patients with minimal improvement on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) at study endpoint or a 1-point decrease on the CGI-Severity scale between baseline and study endpoint. The magnitude of the CGI-I based responder thresholds differed across mental health conditions. Use of the Q-LES-Q(SF) community norms as a responder definition is discouraged. A responder definition needs to be investigated within each condition or disease using appropriate anchors, and may not be generalizable from one condition or disease to another.

  20. Distinguishing Dispositional and Cultivated Forms of Mindfulness: Item-Level Factor Analysis of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Construction of Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenjie; Li, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    The widely used Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) mixes the dispositional and cultivated forms of mindfulness, thereby resulting in factor issues in previous studies. The present study distinguished the two forms of mindfulness and developed a Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability at the item level of FFMQ. Three facets of mindfulness, namely, Describing, Acting with Awareness, and Non-judging of Experience, were assessed using community (n = 433) and student (n = 347) samples. Both meditators and non-meditators participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed a three-factor model of mindfulness with 12 items (four items per subscale). Psychometric evaluation demonstrated the solid factor structure of the measurement with high factor loadings, good internal consistency, and convergent validities. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the Acting with Awareness facet was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later. Discussions focused on the roles of mindfulness capability on mental health as well as the relationship between them. A higher-order factor of mindfulness should be used to examine the efficacy of intervention or monitor the changes. Researchers who need to study the specific role or efficacy of each facet should calculate the scores of different facets.

  1. Distinguishing Dispositional and Cultivated Forms of Mindfulness: Item-Level Factor Analysis of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Construction of Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenjie; Li, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    The widely used Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) mixes the dispositional and cultivated forms of mindfulness, thereby resulting in factor issues in previous studies. The present study distinguished the two forms of mindfulness and developed a Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability at the item level of FFMQ. Three facets of mindfulness, namely, Describing, Acting with Awareness, and Non-judging of Experience, were assessed using community (n = 433) and student (n = 347) samples. Both meditators and non-meditators participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed a three-factor model of mindfulness with 12 items (four items per subscale). Psychometric evaluation demonstrated the solid factor structure of the measurement with high factor loadings, good internal consistency, and convergent validities. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the Acting with Awareness facet was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later. Discussions focused on the roles of mindfulness capability on mental health as well as the relationship between them. A higher-order factor of mindfulness should be used to examine the efficacy of intervention or monitor the changes. Researchers who need to study the specific role or efficacy of each facet should calculate the scores of different facets. PMID:27667978

  2. Measuring the Ability to Tolerate Activity-Related Discomfort: Initial Validation of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Arigo, Danielle R.; Raggio, Greer A.; Kaufman, Alison I.; Kerrigan, Stephanie G.; Forman, Evan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is essential for health, but many adults find PA adherence challenging. Acceptance of discomfort related to PA may influence an individual's ability to begin and sustain a program of exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ). Method The PAAQ was administered to three distinct samples (N = 418). Each sample completed additional self-report measures; one sample also wore accelerometers for seven days (at baseline and six months later). Results The PAAQ demonstrated high internal validity for its total score (α = 0.89) and two subscales (Cognitive Acceptance α = 0.86, Behavioral Commitment α = 0.85). The PAAQ also showed convergent validity with measures of mindfulness, self-reported physical activity levels, and accelerometer-verified levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; ps < 0.05). The Cognitive Acceptance subscale showed predictive validity for objectively-verified PA levels among individuals attempting to increase PA over six months (p = 0.05). Test-retest reliability for a subset of participants (n = 46) demonstrated high consistency over one week (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The PAAQ demonstrates sound psychometric properties, and shows promise for improving the current understanding of PA facilitators and barriers among adults. PMID:25106049

  3. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  4. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  5. Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Research Settings: Last 7-Day Self-Administered Long Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan S.; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the last 7-day long form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003) and to examine the construct validity for the measure in a research setting. Participants were 151 male (n = 52) and female (n = 99) university students (M age = 24.15 years, SD = 5.01)…

  6. Physical activity estimated by the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire is also associated with cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Purvis, Meredith; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-11-01

    The nature of physical activity that benefits bone is traditionally thought to differ from that benefiting cardiovascular health. Accordingly, exercise recommendations for improving bone health and cardiovascular health are largely incongruent. Our aim was to determine the associations between high-impact physical activity participation and both cardiovascular disease risk factors and bone mass. We recruited 94 men and women (age 34.0 ± 13.3 years) to undergo measures of cardiovascular disease risk (BMI, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, waist-to-hip ratio, and mean arterial pressure) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA XR-800, Norland) measures of bone mass (femoral neck, lumbar spine, and whole body BMD) and body composition (whole body lean mass and fat mass). Physical activity participation was estimated using the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ). Those in the upper tertile for current BPAQ score exhibited lower total cholesterol, waist-to-hip ratio, and mean arterial pressure than those in the lower tertiles (P < 0.05) with the relationship being mild-to-moderate (r = -0.49 to 0.29, P < 0.01). Those in the upper tertile for BPAQ score also had greater lumbar spine BMD than those in the lower tertile (P = 0.008), with BPAQ score predicting 6% of the variance in BMD (P = 0.02). We conclude that high-impact physical activity as captured by the BPAQ may be beneficial for both bone health and for attenuating cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26937743

  7. 76 FR 35950 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 3) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Form 21-0960G-2. f. Intestinal Disorders (Other Than Surgical or Infectious) (Including ] Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, and Diverticulitis) Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960G-3. g. Intestines Surgical and/or Infectious Intestinal Disorders...

  8. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... 17, 2013 (78 FR 36307), inviting the public to comment on a proposed information collection titled ``Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-16.'' On June 18, 2013 (78 FR 36643... corrects that error by withdrawing the FR notice that published on June 18, 2013 (FR Doc 2013-14412)....

  9. 76 FR 80965 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed collection: Applicant Questionnaire: Race...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Questionnaire: Race, National Origin, Gender, and Disability Demographics; Revision of a Currently Approved...: Race, National Origin, Gender and Disability Demographics (3) The agency form number, if any, and the... information on race, national origin, gender and disability of an applicant/or employee in accordance with...

  10. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire Short-Form and Prevalence of Problematic Online Gaming in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D.; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Felvinczi, Katalin; Oláh, Attila; Elekes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The rise and growing popularity of online games has led to the appearance of excessive gaming that in some cases can lead to physical and psychological problems. Several measures have been developed to explore the nature and the scale of the phenomenon. However, few measures have been validated psychometrically. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the 12-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire Short-Form (POGQ-SF) and to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming. Data collection was carried out to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national representative adolescent sample by using an offline (pen and pencil) method. A total of 5,045 secondary school students were assessed (51% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years) of which 2,804 were gamers (65.4% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the measurement model of problematic online gaming, and latent profile analysis was used to identify the proportion of gamers whose online game use can be considered problematic. Results showed that the original six-factor model yielded appropriate fit to the data, and thus the POGQ-SF has appropriate psychometric properties. Latent profile analysis revealed that 4.6% of the adolescents belong to a high risk group and an additional 13.3% to a low risk group. Due to its satisfactory psychometric characteristics, the 12-item POGQ-SF appears to be an adequate tool for the assessment of problematic online gaming. PMID:23621688

  12. Influence of gag reflex on removable prosthetic restoration tolerance according to the patient section of the short form of the Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Akarslan, Zuhre Zafersoy

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess removable prosthetic restoration tolerance according to the patient section of the short form of the Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire (GPA-pa SF) and the influence of gender, education level and prosthesis type and denture-related mucosal irritation on the GPA-pa SF scores before treatment and over a period of two months after prosthesis insertion. MATERIALS AND METHODS 130 participants who required removable prosthesis were surveyed with a standard form that included questions regarding age, gender, education level, dental attendance, and prosthetic restoration type. Participants answered the GPA-pa SF before restoration (T0) and 1 day (T1), 2 days (T2), 15 days (T3), 1 month (T4), and 2 months (T5) after prosthesis insertion. RESULTS Of the 130 participants, 110 participants completed the prosthetic restoration procedure, but only 93 of these were able to use the prosthesis over the two-month period. The mean GPA-pa SF score obtained at T0 was higher than the scores obtained at the other periods in the total of the sample. Significant difference was present between mean scores obtained at T0-T1 and T2-T3 than scores obtained at other periods (P<.05). Female participants and participants with denture-related mucosal irritation had higher GPA-pa SF scores at all time points analysed. Significant difference was present between mean GPA-pa SF scores obtained at T2-T3 than scores obtained at other periods for females and participants with denture-related mucosal irritation (P<.05). Education level and prosthesis type did not significantly influence the GPA-pa SF score at any time point analysed (P>.05). CONCLUSION GPA-pa SF scores were higher before the restoration procedure began, and decreased over time with the use of prosthesis. Gender and denture-related mucosal irritation affected the GPA-pa SF scores. PMID:25551008

  13. Validation of the Kinyarwanda-version Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index to assess dyspepsia prevalence and quality-of-life impact in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Nkurunziza, Arcade; Dusabejambo, Vincent; Everhart, Kelly; Bensen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to develop and validate Kinyarwanda versions of Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (SF-LDQ) and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) to measure the frequency and severity of dyspepsia and associated quality-of-life impact in Rwanda. Setting A single, tertiary care centre in Rwanda. Participants 200 consecutive Kinyarwanda-speaking patients referred to endoscopy (100 patients) or medical outpatients (100 patients). Interventions Kinyarwanda versions of the SF-LDQ and SF-NDI were developed from English versions by translation, with back translation, crosschecking and pilot testing. Study participants completed these questionnaires at enrolment (time 1), and then completed the surveys again with blinded phone interviewers 3 days later (time 2). 20 randomly selected participants, diagnosed with a peptic ulcer on index endoscopy, completed a third survey by phone at day 30 (time 3), after therapy. Primary outcome measures Internal consistency at time 1 (by Cronbach's α) and test–retest reliability between time 1 and time 2 (Spearman's correlation coefficient) for translated SF-LDQ and SF-NDI; validity versus clinical diagnosis (by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve) and responsiveness to treatment for SF-LDQ (by change in mean score). All outcomes were measured as per protocol. Results Cronbach's α of the translated SF-LDQ was 0.93, showing high internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient comparing time 1 and time 2 was 0.978 (p<0.001), demonstrating high reliability. Cronbach's α for the translated SF-NDI was 0.92. A cut-off score of 16 on the SF-LDQ showed a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 71% for the diagnosis of dyspepsia, correctly classifying 89% of patients. In the responsiveness analysis, the mean SF-LDQ score was reduced from 20.1 prior to treatment to 13.9 after 30 days of treatment (p=0.003). Conclusions The Kinyarwanda versions of the SF-LDQ and SF-NDI were valid, reliable and

  14. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity of Brazilian Schoolchildren: Usability Testing of a Web-Based Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used with increasing frequency for the assessment of diet and physical activity in health surveys. A number of Web-based questionnaires have been developed for children and adolescents. However, their usability characteristics have scarcely been reported, despite their potential importance for improving the feasibility and validity of ICT-based methods. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the usability evaluation of the Consumo Alimentar e Atividade Física de Escolares (CAAFE) questionnaire (Food Consumption and Physical Activity Questionnaire for schoolchildren), a new Web-based survey tool for the self-assessment of diet and physical activity by schoolchildren. Methods A total of 114 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years took part in questionnaire usability testing carried out in computer classrooms at five elementary schools in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Schoolchildren used a personal computer (PC) equipped with software for recording what is on the computer screen and the children’s speech during usability testing. Quantitative and qualitative analyses took into account objective usability metrics such as error counts and time to complete a task. Data on the main difficulties in accomplishing the task and the level of satisfaction expressed by the children were assessed by the observers using a standardized form and interviews with the children. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to summarize both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of the data obtained. Results The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 13.7 minutes (SD 3.68). Compared to the children in 2nd or 3rd grades, those in 4th or 5th grades spent less time completing the questionnaire (median 12.4 vs 13.3 minutes, P=.022), asked for help less frequently (median 0 vs 1.0 count, P=.005), had a lower error count (median 2.0 vs 8.0 count, P<.001), and obtained a higher overall

  15. A modified nomogram for ramp treadmill testing using the Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Jamal; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor

    2014-09-01

    Studies performed over the past 2 decades have supported the recommendation that the exercise test protocol be individualized and that a targeted duration of 8 to 12 minutes is optimal. However, this is not always implemented clinically because of the complication of having to choose a specific ramp to match a patient. We present a simple nomogram based on a questionnaire to choose 1 of 4 possible ramp protocols that provide individualized ramp rates for subjects undergoing clinical exercise testing. PMID:25034327

  16. Prediction of VO[subscript 2]max in Children and Adolescents Using Exercise Testing and Physical Activity Questionnaire Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Nate E.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a treadmill walk-jog-run exercise test previously validated in adults and physical activity questionnaire data to estimate maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2]max) in boys (n = 62) and girls (n = 66) aged 12 to 17 years old. Methods: Data were collected from Physical Activity…

  17. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ) which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Methods Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%). Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity). Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities) were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED), non-sedentary (non-SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary) or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC) or kappa (κ) values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Results Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day-1) and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day-1), was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day-1) and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day-1) or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day-1) cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA) was 20.9 mins.day-1 and 45.2 mins.day-1. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from 0

  18. Development and community-based validation of the IDEA study Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IDEA-IADL) questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Collingwood, Cecilia; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Kisoli, Aloyce; Dotchin, Catherine L.; Gray, William K.; Mbowe, Godfrey; Mkenda, Sarah; Urasa, Sarah; Mushi, Declare; Chaote, Paul; Walker, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The dementia diagnosis gap in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is large, partly due to difficulties in assessing function, an essential step in diagnosis. Objectives As part of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) study, to develop, pilot, and validate an Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) questionnaire for use in a rural Tanzanian population to assist in the identification of people with dementia alongside cognitive screening. Design The questionnaire was developed at a workshop for rural primary healthcare workers, based on culturally appropriate roles and usual activities of elderly people in this community. It was piloted in 52 individuals under follow-up from a dementia prevalence study. Validation subsequently took place during a community dementia-screening programme. Construct validation against gold standard clinical dementia diagnosis using DSM-IV criteria was carried out on a stratified sample of the cohort and validity assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis. Results An 11-item questionnaire (IDEA-IADL) was developed after pilot testing. During formal validation on 130 community-dwelling elderly people who presented for screening, the AUROC curve was 0.896 for DSM-IV dementia when used in isolation and 0.937 when used in conjunction with the IDEA cognitive screen, previously validated in Tanzania. The internal consistency was 0.959. Performance on the IDEA-IADL was not biased with regard to age, gender or education level. Conclusions The IDEA-IADL questionnaire appears to be a useful aid to dementia screening in this setting. Further validation in other healthcare settings in SSA is required. PMID:25537940

  19. Overview of LANL short-pulse ion acceleration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, Kirk A.; Schmitt, Mark J.; Offermann, Dustin; Cobble, James A.; Gautier, Donald; Kline, John; Workman, Jonathan; Archuleta, Fred; Gonzales, Raymond; Hurry, Thomas; Johnson, Randall; Letzring, Samuel; Montgomery, David; Reid, Sha-Marie; Shimada, Tsutomu; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Bussman, Michael; Kluge, Thomas; Cowan, Thomas E.; Rassuchine, Jenny M.; Lowenstern, Mario E.; Mucino, J. Eduardo; Gall, Brady; Korgan, Grant; Malekos, Steven; Adams, Jesse; Bartal, Teresa; Chawla, Surgreev; Higginson, Drew; Beg, Farhat; Nilson, Phil; Mac Phee, Andrew; Le Pape, Sebastien; Hey, Daniel; Mac Kinnon, Andy; Geissel, Mattias; Schollmeier, Marius; Stephens, Rich

    2009-12-02

    An overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory's activities related to short-pulse ion acceleration is presented. LANL is involved is several projects related to Inertial Confinement Fusion (Fast Ignition) and Laser-Ion Acceleration. LANL has an active high energy X-ray backlighter program for radiographing ICF implosions and other High Energy Density Laboratory Physics experiments. Using the Trident 200TW laser we are currently developing high energy photon (>10 keV) phase contrast imaging techniques to be applied on Omega and the NIF. In addition we are engaged in multiple programs in laser ion acceleration to boost the ion energies and efficiencies for various potential applications including Fast Ignition, active material interrogation, and medical applications. Two basic avenues to increase ion performance are currently under study: one involves ultra-thin targets and the other involves changing the target geometry. We have recently had success in boosting proton energies above 65 MeV into the medical application range. Highlights covered in the presentation include: The Trident Laser System; X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging for ICF and HEDLP; Improving TNSA Ion Acceleration; Scaling Laws; Flat Targets; Thin Targets; Cone Targets; Ion Focusing;Trident; Omega EP; Scaling Comparisons; and, Conclusions.

  20. Reliability of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey, physical activity (CAPANS-PA) questionnaire among chinese-australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that differences exist in physical activity (PA) participation among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) children and adolescents. It is possible that these differences could be influenced by variations in measurement technique and instrument reliability. However, culturally sensitive instruments for examining PA behaviour among CALD populations are lacking. This study tested the reliability of the Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS-PA) recall questionnaire among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods The psychometric property of the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was examined among a sample of 77 Chinese-Australian youth (aged 11 - 14 y) who completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days. Test-retest reliability of individual items and scales within the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was determined using Kappa statistics for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Results The CAPANS-PA questionnaire demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for frequency and duration of time spent in weekly Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) (ICC ≥ 0.70) for all participants. Test-retest reliability for time spent in weekly sedentary activities was acceptable for females (ICC = 0.82) and males (ICC = 0.72). Conclusions The results suggest the CAPANS-PA questionnaire provides reliable estimates for type, frequency and duration of MVPA participation among Chinese-Australian youth. Further investigation into the reliability of the sedentary items within the CAPANS-PA is required before these items can be used with confidence. This study is novel in that the reliability of instruments among CALD groups nationally and internationally remains sparse and this study contributes to the wider body of available psychometrically tested instruments. In addition, this study is the first to our knowledge to successfully engage and investigate the basic health

  1. Short-period Stellar Activity Cycles with Kepler Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2015-07-01

    We study the short-periodic component of stellar activity with a cycle period of {P}{cyc}\\lt {10}3 days using the Kepler mission photometry of fast-rotating (1\\lt P\\lt 4 days) stars with spectra of M4V to F3V. Applying the originally developed two non-spectral methods, we measured the effective period of stellar cycles in 462 objects. The obtained results are in accordance with previous measurements by Vida et al. and do not seem to result from a beating effect. The performed measurements of Pcyc cluster in a specific branch that covers the previously unstudied region in the Saar & Brandenburg diagram and connects the branch of inactive stars with the area populated by super-active objects. It is shown that the formation of the discovered branch is due to the α-quenching effect, which saturates the magnetic dynamo and decreases the cycle periods with the increase of the inverted Rossby number. This finding is important in the context of the discussion on catastrophic quenching and other heuristic approximations of the nonlinear α-effect.

  2. Teacher Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Questionnaire was designed to provide demographic information about the teacher, information on the school organizational climate, information about instructional and classroom management practices, and a measure of the teacher's verbal facility. Section 1 contains 23 items identifying specific teacher traits and characteristics (sex,…

  3. Assessing face validity of a physical activity questionnaire for Spanish-speaking women in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A review of the literature produced no rigorously tested and validated Spanish-language physical activity survey or evaluation tools for use by USDA’s food assistance and education programs. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the face validity of a visually enha...

  4. Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Assessing Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Marshall, Alison L.; Craig, Cora; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The single most commonly reported physical activity in public health surveys is walking. As evidence accumulates that walking is important for preventing weight gain and reducing the risk of diabetes, there is increased need to capture this behavior in a valid and reliable manner. Although the disadvantages of a self-report methodology are well…

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Self- and Interviewer-Administered Versions of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Anne H. Y.; Ng, Sheryl H. X.; Koh, David; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was originally designed to be interviewer-administered by the World Health Organization in assessing physical activity. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of a self-administered GPAQ with the original interviewer-administered approach. Additionally, this study explored whether using different accelerometry-based physical activity bout definitions might affect the questionnaire’s validity. Methods A total of 110 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to an interviewer- (n = 56) or a self-administered (n = 54) group for test-retest reliability, of which 108 participants who met the wear time criteria were included in the validity study. Reliability was assessed by administration of questionnaires twice with a one-week interval. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing against seven-day accelerometer measures. Two definitions for accelerometry-data scoring were employed: (1) total-min of activity, and (2) 10-min bout. Results Participants had similar baseline characteristics in both administration groups and no significant difference was found between the two formats in terms of validity (correlations between the GPAQ and accelerometer). For validity, the GPAQ demonstrated fair-to-moderate correlations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for self-administration (rs = 0.30) and interviewer-administration (rs = 0.46). Findings were similar when considering 10-min activity bouts in the accelerometer analysis for MVPA (rs = 0.29 vs. 0.42 for self vs. interviewer). Within each mode of administration, the strongest correlations were observed for vigorous-intensity activity. However, Bland-Altman plots illustrated bias toward overestimation for higher levels of MVPA, vigorous- and moderate-intensity activities, and underestimation for lower levels of these measures. Reliability for MVPA revealed moderate correlations (rs = 0.61 vs. 0.63 for self vs

  6. UV Chromospheric Activity in Cool, Short-Period Contact Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    We have completed our analysis of the IUE spectra of the short-period contact binary OO Aql. OO Aql is a rare W UMa-type eclipsing binary in which the two solar-type stars may have only recently evolved into contact. The binary has an unusually high mass ratio (0.84), and a relatively long orbital period (0.506 d) for its spectral type (mid-G). Twelve ultraviolet spectra of OO Aql were obtained in 1988 with the IUE satellite, including a series of consecutive observations that cover nearly a complete orbital cycle. Chromospheric activity is studied by means of the Mg II h+k emission at 2800 A. The Mg II emission is found to vary, even when the emission is normalized to the adjacent continuum flux. This variation may be correlated with orbital phase in the 1988 observations. It also appears that the normalized Mg H emission varies with time, as seen in spectra obtained at two different epochs in 1988 and when compared with two spectra obtained several years earlier. The level of chromospheric activity in OO Aql is less than that of other W UMa-type binaries of similar colors, but this is attributed to its early stage of contact binary evolution. Ultraviolet light curves were composed from measurements of the ultraviolet continuum in the spectra. These were analyzed along with visible light curves of OO Aql to determine the system parameters. The large wavelength range in the light curves enabled a well-constrained fit to a cool spot in the system. A paper on these results is scheduled for publication in the February 2001 issue of the Astronomical Journal.

  7. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  8. Validation of the Long- and Short-Form of the Ethical Values Assessment (EVA): A Questionnaire Measuring the Three Ethics Approach to Moral Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura Maria; Jensen, Lene Arnett

    2016-01-01

    Moral psychology has been moving toward consideration of multiple kinds of moral concepts and values, such as the Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity. While these three ethics have commonly been measured qualitatively, the current study sought to validate the long and short forms of the Ethical Values Assessment (EVA), which is a…

  9. Assessing activity limitations in patients with neuromuscular diseases: is the ACTIVLIM questionnaire linked to ICF and ICF-CY?

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore to what extent the ACTIVLIM questionnaire, designed to evaluate limitations in activities involving upper and lower limbs in adults and children with neuromuscular diseases, is linked to the domains of the Activities and Participation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to its Children and Youth version (ICF-CY). Standardized ICF linking rules were applied. Items were linked to the most specific ICF-CY codes (e.g. d4501 - Walking long distances), and rolling-up procedures were applied to report information to more generic and informative upper-level codes (e.g. d450 - Walking). ACTIVLIM items were linked to 13 second-level ICF codes of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic life chapters. The majority of ACTIVLIM items are liked to d510 - Washing oneself, d445 - Hand and arm use, and d410 - Changing basic body position. None of the ACTIVLIM items links to the codes added by the new ICF-CY classification. Disability is a multidimensional phenomenon, and measurements of disability should reflect this multidimensionality. The good psychometric properties of ACTIVLIM are demonstrated, and the aim of this mapping exercise is to provide information on its content. A relevant part of ACTIVLIM items is linked to a few ICF codes, referred to as basic body movements and washing, and other activities are less represented. We think that the ACTIVLIM covers a circumscribed set of activities and, therefore, we suggest using it together with other functional evaluation tools, to complement the range of information on activity limitations that are not covered by its items.

  10. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  11. Functional Activities Questionnaire items that best discriminate and predict progression from clinically normal to mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Zoller, Amy S.; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) emerges in the transition from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. Some IADL scales are sensitive to early deficits in MCI, but none have been validated for detecting subtle functional changes in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD. Methods Data from 624 subjects participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and 524 subjects participating in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, which are two large cohorts including CN elderly and MCI subjects, were used to determine which Functional Activities Questionnaire items best discriminate between and predict progression from CN to MCI. Results We found that “Remembering appointments” and “assembling tax records” best discriminated between CN and MCI subjects, while worse performance on “paying attention and understanding a TV program”, “paying bills/balancing checkbook”, and “heating water and turning off the stove” predicted greater hazard of progressing from a diagnosis of CN to MCI. Conclusions These results demonstrate that certain questions are especially sensitive in detecting the earliest functional changes in CN elderly at risk for AD. As the field moves toward earlier intervention in preclinical AD, it is important to determine which IADL changes can be detected at that stage and track decline over time. PMID:26017560

  12. 76 FR 70110 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Miscellaneous Short Supply Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Supply Activities AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This information collection is comprised of two rarely used short supply activities: ``Registration of U.S. Agricultural Commodities for Exemption from Short Supply Limitations...

  13. Evaluation of active control technology for short haul aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bennett, J. A.; Harris, O. C.; Honrath, J. F.; Patterson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of the economics of short-haul aircraft designed with active controls technology and low wing-loading to achieve short field performance with good ride quality is presented. Results indicate that for such a system incorporating gust load alleviation and augmented stability the direct operating cost is better than for aircraft without active controls.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Social Cognitive Theory questionnaire for physical activity in a sample of Iranian adolescent girl students.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, M S; Niknami, S; Hidarnia, A; Hajizadeh, E

    2016-05-01

    This research examined the validity and reliability of a researcher-developed questionnaire based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to assess the physical activity behaviour of Iranian adolescent girls (SCT-PAIAGS). Psychometric properties of the SCT-PAIAGS were assessed by determining its face validity, content and construct validity as well as its reliability. In order to evaluate factor structure, cross-sectional research was conducted on 400 high-school girls in Tehran. Content validity index, content validity ratio and impact score for the SCT-PAIAGS varied between 0.97-1, 0.91-1 and 4.6-4.9 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis approved a six-factor structure comprising self-efficacy, self-regulation, family support, friend support, outcome expectancy and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments. Factor loadings, t-values and fit indices showed that the SCT model was fitted to the data. Cronbach's α-coefficient ranged from 0.78 to 0.85 and intraclass correlation coefficient from 0.73 to 0.90. PMID:27553398

  15. Psychometric properties of the Social Cognitive Theory questionnaire for physical activity in a sample of Iranian adolescent girl students.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, M S; Niknami, S; Hidarnia, A; Hajizadeh, E

    2016-08-18

    This research examined the validity and reliability of a researcher-developed questionnaire based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to assess the physical activity behaviour of Iranian adolescent girls (SCT-PAIAGS). Psychometric properties of the SCT-PAIAGS were assessed by determining its face validity, content and construct validity as well as its reliability. In order to evaluate factor structure, cross-sectional research was conducted on 400 high-school girls in Tehran. Content validity index, content validity ratio and impact score for the SCT-PAIAGS varied between 0.97-1, 0.91-1 and 4.6-4.9 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis approved a six-factor structure comprising self-efficacy, self-regulation, family support, friend support, outcome expectancy and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments. Factor loadings, t-values and fit indices showed that the SCT model was fitted to the data. Cronbach's α-coefficient ranged from 0.78 to 0.85 and intraclass correlation coefficient from 0.73 to 0.90.

  16. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    population surveyed. The questionnaires can easily be adapted for the use in other diets (e.g. Asian diet), but reliability and validity should then be examined again. Also, validity remains to be tested in other population groups (i.e. low socio economic status groups, other age groups). PMID:27441632

  17. A short food-group-based dietary questionnaire is reliable and valid for assessing toddlers' dietary risk in relatively advantaged samples.

    PubMed

    Bell, Lucinda K; Golley, Rebecca K; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-08-28

    Identifying toddlers at dietary risk is crucial for determining who requires intervention to improve dietary patterns and reduce health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to develop a simple tool that assesses toddlers' dietary risk and investigate its reliability and validity. The nineteen-item Toddler Dietary Questionnaire (TDQ) is informed by dietary patterns observed in Australian children aged 14 (n 552) and 24 (n 493) months and the Australian dietary guidelines. It assesses the intake of 'core' food groups (e.g. fruit, vegetables and dairy products) and 'non-core' food groups (e.g. high-fat, high-sugar and/or high-salt foods and sweetened beverages) over the previous 7 d, which is then scored against a dietary risk criterion (0-100; higher score = higher risk). Parents of toddlers aged 12-36 months (Socio-Economic Index for Areas decile range 5-9) were asked to complete the TDQ for their child (n 111) on two occasions, 3·2 (SD 1·8) weeks apart, to assess test-retest reliability. They were also asked to complete a validated FFQ from which the risk score was calculated and compared with the TDQ-derived risk score (relative validity). Mean scores were highly correlated and not significantly different for reliability (intra-class correlation = 0·90, TDQ1 30·2 (SD 8·6) v. TDQ2 30·9 (SD 8·9); P= 0·14) and validity (r 0·83, average TDQ ((TDQ1+TDQ2)/2) 30·5 (SD 8·4) v. FFQ 31·4 (SD 8·1); P= 0·05). All the participants were classified into the same (reliability 75 %; validity 79 %) or adjacent (reliability 25 %; validity 21 %) risk category (low (0-24), moderate (25-49), high (50-74) and very high (75-100)). Overall, the TDQ is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying at-risk toddlers in relatively advantaged samples.

  18. [Activity of Ginkgo biloba extract on short-term memory].

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1986-09-25

    Eight healthy female volunteers were included in a double-blind, cross-over trial comparing Ginkgo biloba extract in acute and ascending doses (120, 240, 600 mg) with a placebo. One hour after treatment they were subjected to a battery of tests, including: critical flicker fusion, choice reaction time, subjective rating scale and Sternberg memory scanning test. No statistically significant differences with the placebo were observed in the first three tests. In contrast, short term memory, as assessed by the Sternberg technique, was very significantly improved following 600 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract, as compared with the placebo. These results differentiate Ginkgo biloba extract from sedative and stimulant drugs and suggest a specific effect on memory processes.

  19. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Improves the Quality of Life Measured with a Short Form-36 Questionnaire in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The main purpose of performing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is to improve the quality of life (QoL) and alleviate AF-related symptoms. We aimed to determine the qualitative and quantitative effects of RFCA on the QoL in AF patients. Methods We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis using a random effects model. We searched for the studies that reported the physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) of the short form-36, a validated system to assess and quantify the QoL, before and after RFCA in AF patients. PCS and MCS are T-scores with a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10. Results Of the 470 studies identified through systematic search, we included 13 studies for pre-RFCA vs. the post-RFCA analysis and 5 studies for treatment success vs. AF recurrence analyses. In the pre-RFCA vs. post-RFCA analysis, RFCA was associated with a significant increase in both the PCS (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 6.33 [4.81–7.84]; p < 0.001) and MCS (WMD = 7.80 [6.15–9.44]; p < 0.001). The ΔPCS (post-RFCA PCS–pre-RFCA PCS) and ΔMCS values were used for the treatment success vs. AF recurrence analysis. Patients with successful ablation had a higher ΔPCS (WMD = 7.46 [4.44–10.49]; p < 0.001) and ΔMCS (WMD = 7.59 [4.94–10.24]; p < 0.001). Conclusions RFCA is associated with a significant increase in the PCS and MCS in AF patients. Patients without AF recurrence after RFCA had a better improvement in the PCS and MCS than patients who had AF recurrence. PMID:27681507

  20. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  1. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  2. Comparison of the Effect of Dry Cupping Therapy and Acupressure at BL23 Point on Intensity of Postpartum Perineal Pain Based on the Short Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzade, Marzieh; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Azizi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineal pain is a major morbidity in the first few days after delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dry cupping therapy and acupressure at BL23 point on the intensity of postpartum perineal pain based on the short-form of McGill pain questionnaire (SMPQ). Methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 150 subjects in 3 groups of 50 cases. After at least 4–8 hr of delivery, cupping therapy was performed for 15–20 min up to 3 times a week (once a day) and acupressure was performed for 15–20 min based on clockwise model. The short-form of McGill pain questionnaire was completed both before and after the intervention. The SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data using repeated measures ANOVA. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the cupping therapy group, mean of the perineal pain intensity reduced from 37.5±6.8 before the intervention to 11.1±6.1, 6.9±4.7, and 3.8±3.6 immediately, 24 hr, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively. The results of study showed that the differences between the intervention and control groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). Mean difference of the perineal pain intensity in the acupressure group reached from 35.6±8.1 before the intervention to 10.4±5.5 two weeks after the intervention, so the variation between intervention and control groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The study findings showed that cupping therapy and acupressure reduced perineal pain. Therefore, they may be considered as effective treatments for reducing pain intensity of allowing delivery. PMID:26962482

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Learning Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Y. H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of Chinese undergraduate students at the Hong Kong Polytechnic that was conducted to examine the reliability and predictive validity of a short form of Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles Questionnaire. Correlations between learning style scores and preferences for different types of learning activities are discussed. (16…

  4. Improvements in short-term forecasting of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ramkumar; Reiff, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    We have improved our space weather forecasting algorithms to now predict Dst and AE in addition to Kp for up to 6 h of forecast times. These predictions can be accessed in real time at http://mms.rice.edu/realtime/forecast.html. In addition, in the event of an ongoing or imminent activity, e-mail "alerts" based on key discriminator levels have been going out to our subscribers since October 2003. The neural network-based algorithms utilize ACE data to generate full 1, 3, and 6 h ahead predictions of these indices from the Boyle index, an empirical approximation that estimates the Earth's polar cap potential using solar wind parameters. Our models yield correlation coefficients of over 0.88, 0.86, and 0.83 for 1 h predictions of Kp, Dst, and AE, respectively, and 0.86, 0.84, and 0.80 when predicting the same but 3 h ahead. Our 6 h ahead predictions, however, have slightly higher uncertainties. Furthermore, the paper also tests other solar wind functions—the Newell driver, the Borovsky control function, and adding solar wind pressure term to the Boyle index—for their ability to predict geomagnetic activity.

  5. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.105 Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires...

  6. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs... Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires to potential producers/suppliers of the product to determine whether it is in short supply....

  7. Binding among select episodic elements is altered via active short-term retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Donna J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-08-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated memory of associated objects, which was associated with unique patterns of viewing behavior during study and enhanced ERP correlates of retrieval during test, relative to other reminder cues that were not actively retrieved. Active short-term retrieval therefore enhanced binding of retrieved elements with others, thus creating powerful memory cues for entire episodes. PMID:26179229

  8. The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.

    PubMed

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Neilson, Heather K; Kopciuk, Karen A; Khandwala, Farah; Liu, Andrew; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Bryant, Heather E; Lau, David C W; Robson, Paula J

    2014-08-15

    We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ρs of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.

  9. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  10. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  11. Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, S. M.; Qasim, M. M.; Cheng, K. T.; Castles, F.; Ko, D.-H.; Gardiner, D. J.; Nosheen, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Coles, H. J.; Burgess, C.; Hill, L.

    2013-09-01

    We report the demonstration of an optically activated shutter based upon a short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal (LC) device sandwiched between crossed polarizers. This LC is comprised of photo-active chiral dopants. In the trans-state, the LC appears dark between crossed polarizers due to the very short pitch. As the pitch is extended through exposure to ultraviolet light, the device becomes transmissive reaching a maximum for a particular value of the pitch. As a result, it is possible to switch between the light and dark states by subjecting the device to visible light so as to cause a cis-trans photo-isomerisation.

  12. Short half-life activation analysis in biomedical and scientific research

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    There are a number of elements that upon neutron irradiation produce very short-lived activation products, which are potentially useful for neutron activation analysis (NAA). In some cases these nuclides may be the only available activation product (e.g., for fluorine, oxygen, and lead). In other cases, the nuclides are activation products that provide improved sensitivity, accuracy, or ease of determination (e.g., for selenium, silver, and rhodium). The existing pneumatic tubes in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) nuclear reactor have relatively long transfer times (3 to 15 s) and have no accurate timing capability. These deficiencies make them relatively useless for the measurement of very short half-life activation products.

  13. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  14. A short-term physical activity randomized trial in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a short-term pedometer-based intervention results in immediate increases in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a minimal educational intervention. A sample of 43 overweight adults 35 to 64 years of age participated in...

  15. The promotion of antimicrobial activity on silicon substrates using a "click" immobilized short peptide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Junjian; Shi, Lin; Shi, Zhifeng; Ren, Li; Wang, Yingjun

    2014-01-28

    We demonstrated, for the first time, that the short antimicrobial peptide Tet213 could be conjugated onto the silicon surface by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The modified surface exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli, and low cytotoxicity to rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs).

  16. The Survey Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  17. Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling

    Cancer.gov

    This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.

  18. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was...

  19. Liking and wanting of drug and nondrug rewards in active cocaine users: the STRAP-R questionnaire

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A..; Moeller, S.J.; Telang, F.; Jayne, M.; Wong, C.; Wang, G-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have examined the subjective value attributed to drug rewards specifically as it compares with the value attributed to primary non-drug rewards in addicted individuals. The objective of this study is to assess liking and wanting of expected drug rewards as compared to food and sex while respondents report about three different situations (current, and hypothetical in general, and under drug influence). In all, 20 cocaine-addicted individuals (mean abstinence = 2 days) and 20 healthy control subjects were administered the STRAP-R (Sensitivity To Reinforcement of Addictive and other Primary Rewards) questionnaire after receiving an oral dose of the dopamine agonist methylphenidate (20 mg) or placebo. The reinforcers relative value changed within the addicted sample when reporting about the under drug influence situation (drug > food; otherwise, drug < food). This change was highest in the addicted individuals with the youngest age of cocaine use onset. Moreover, drug wanting exceeded drug liking in the addicted subjects when reporting about this situation during methylphenidate. Thus, cocaine-addicted individuals assign the highest subjective valence to drug rewards but only when recalling cue-related situations. When recalling this situation, they also report higher drug wanting than hedonic liking, a motivational shift that was only significant during methylphenidate. Together, these valence shifts may underlie compulsive stimulant abuse upon pharmacological or behavioural cue exposure in addicted individuals. Additional studies are required to assess the reliability of the STRAP-R in larger samples and to examine its validity in measuring the subjective value attributed to experienced reinforcers or in predicting behaviour.

  20. Biogenic amines and the effect of short term lithium administration on open field activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine whether the effects of short-term lithium administration on cerebral biogenic amine metabolism might be related to its action on open field activity. Rats received intragastric injections of lithium chloride (1.5 mEq/kg) twice daily for 5 days. This lead to a decrease in exploratory behavior in the open field. Administration of imipramine, which blocks the efffects of short-term lithium administration on norepinephrine turnover and uptake in the brain, failed to influence the effect of lithium on exploratory activity. Parachlorophenylalanine, which inhibits cerebral serotonin synthesis and depletes brain catecholamines, prevented the behavioral effect of lithium. Injection of pargyline, which inhibits cerebral monoamine oxidase activity, counteracted the effect of lithium on exploratory behavior and also influenced the emotionality of the animals in the open field. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cerebral monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity play a role in the effect of short-term lithium administration on open field activity in rats.

  1. Arousal Modulates Activity in the Medial Temporal Lobe during a Short-Term Relational Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Christian; Jensen, Jimmy; Sigvartsen, Niels Petter B; Bolstad, Ingeborg; Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal relative to task. Subjects' own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  2. Short term integrative meditation improves resting alpha activity and stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaxin; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2014-12-01

    Our previous research showed that short term meditation training reduces the time to resolve conflict in the flanker task. Studies also show that resting alpha increases with long term meditation practice. The aim of this study is to determine whether short term meditation training both increases resting alpha activity and reduces the time to resolve conflict in the Stroop task and whether these two effects are related. Forty-three Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned an experiment group given 5 days meditation training using integrative body-mind training (IBMT) and a relaxation training control. After training, only the IBMT group showed decreased conflict reaction time (RT), and increased resting mean alpha power. Moreover, the higher the enhancement of resting alpha power, the stronger the improvement of conflict RT. The results indicate that short term meditation diffusely enhances alpha and improves the ability to deal with conflict and moreover these two effects are positively related.

  3. Estimation of Physical Activity Levels Using Cell Phone Questionnaires: A Comparison With Accelerometry for Evaluation of Between-Subject and Within-Subject Variations

    PubMed Central

    Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity promotes health and longevity. Further elaboration of the role of physical activity for human health in epidemiological studies on large samples requires accurate methods that are easy to use, cheap, and possible to repeat. The use of telecommunication technologies such as cell phones is highly interesting in this respect. In an earlier report, we showed that physical activity level (PAL) assessed using a cell phone procedure agreed well with corresponding estimates obtained using the doubly labeled water method. However, our earlier study indicated high within-subject variation in relation to between-subject variations in PAL using cell phones, but we could not assess if this was a true variation of PAL or an artifact of the cell phone technique. Objective Our objective was to compare within- and between-subject variations in PAL by means of cell phones with corresponding estimates using an accelerometer. In addition, we compared the agreement of daily PAL values obtained using the cell phone questionnaire with corresponding data obtained using an accelerometer. Methods PAL was measured both with the cell phone questionnaire and with a triaxial accelerometer daily during a 2-week study period in 21 healthy Swedish women (20 to 45 years of age and BMI from 17.7 kg/m2 to 33.6 kg/m2). The results were evaluated by fitting linear mixed effect models and descriptive statistics and graphs. Results With the accelerometer, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40%-66%) of the variation was within subjects, while with the cell phone, within-subject variation was 76% (95% CI 59%-83%). The day-to-day variations in PAL observed using the cell phone questions agreed well with the corresponding accelerometer results. Conclusions Both the cell phone questionnaire and the accelerometer showed high within-subject variations. Furthermore, day-to-day variations in PAL within subjects assessed using the cell phone agreed well with corresponding accelerometer

  4. Development and psychometric properties of the Y-PASS questionnaire to assess correlates of lunchtime and after-school physical activity in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To frame interventions, it is useful to understand context- and time-specific correlates of children’s physical activity. To do this, we need accurate assessment of these correlates. There are currently no measures that assess correlates at all levels of the social ecological model, contain items that are specifically worded for the lunchtime and/or after-school time periods, and assess correlates that have been conceptualised and defined by children. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the lunchtime and after-school Youth Physical Activity Survey for Specific Settings (Y-PASS) questionnaires. Methods The Y-PASS questionnaire was administered to 264 South Australian children (146 boys, 118 girls; mean age = 11.7 ± 0.93 years). Factorial structure and internal consistency of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy lunchtime and after-school subscales were examined through an exploratory factor analysis. The test-retest reliability of the Y-PASS subscales was assessed over a one-week period on a subsample of children (lunchtime Y-PASS: n = 12 boys, 12 girls, mean age of 11.6 ± 0.8 years; after-school Y-PASS: n = 9 boys, 13 girls; mean age = 11.4 ± 0.9 years). Results For the lunchtime Y-PASS, three factors were identified under each of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy subscales. For the after-school Y-PASS, six factors were identified in the intrapersonal subscale, four factors in the sociocultural subscale and seven factors in the physical environmental/policy subscale. Following item reduction, all subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.78 – 0.85), except for the lunchtime sociocultural subscale (Cronbach alpha = 0.55). The factors and items demonstrated fair to very high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.26 – 0.93). Conclusion The preliminary reliability and

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Criterion Validity of the Health Survey for England Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire as Compared With Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Coombs, Ngaire; Pedisic, Zeljko; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Bauman, Adrian; Rowlands, Alex V.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The criterion validity of the 2008 Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ) was examined in a nationally representative sample of 2,175 persons aged ≥16 years in England using accelerometry. Using accelerometer minutes/day greater than or equal to 200 counts as a criterion, Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) for PASBAQ-assessed total activity was 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.35) in women and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.26) in men. Correlations between accelerometer counts/minute of wear time and questionnaire-assessed relative energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent-minutes/day) were higher in women (ρ = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.46) than in men (ρ = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.38). Similar correlations were observed for minutes/day spent in vigorous activity (women: ρ = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.46; men: ρ = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.36) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (women: ρ = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.48; men: ρ = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.45). Correlations for time spent being sedentary (<100 counts/minute) were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.35) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.30) in women and men, respectively. Sedentary behavior correlations showed no sex difference. The validity of sedentary behavior and total physical activity was higher in older age groups, but validity was higher in younger persons for vigorous-intensity activity. The PASBAQ is a useful and valid instrument for ranking individuals according to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. PMID:24863551

  6. Design and simulation of two-section DFB lasers with short active-section lengths.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gongyuan; Sun, Junqiang; Xi, Yanping; Gao, Dingshan; Lu, Qiaoyin; Guo, Weihua

    2016-05-16

    Distributed feedback lasers comprised of a reflection section and an active section have been proposed for high direct-modulation bandwidth. The reflection section has the same core layer as the active section so butt-joint re-growth is avoided. Without current injection the reflection section will be pumped to near transparency by the emission from the laser itself so high reflection (> 0.75) can still be achieved as confirmed by the simulation. Therefore a short (150 µm) active section can be used, which enables a low threshold current (~5 mA) and a high direct modulation bandwidth (>30 GHz) as demonstrated by the simulation. PMID:27409881

  7. Effects of short vacations, vacation activities and experiences on employee health and well-being.

    PubMed

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2012-10-01

    It was investigated (1) whether employee health and well-being (H&W) improve during short vacations (4-5 days), (2) how long this improvement lasts after returning home and resuming work and (3) to what extent vacation activities and experiences explain health improvements during and after short vacations. Eighty workers reported their H&W 2 weeks before vacation (Pre), during vacation (Inter), on the day of return (Post 1) and on the third and 10th day after returning home (Post 2 and Post 3, respectively). The results showed improvements in H&W during short vacations (d=0.62), although this effect faded out rather quickly. Partial correlations and regression analyses showed that employees reported higher H&W during vacation, the more relaxed and psychologically detached they felt, the more time they spent on conversations with the partner, the more pleasure they derived from their vacation activities and the lower the number of negative incidents during vacation. Experiences of relaxation and detachment from work positively influenced H&W even after returning home. Working during vacation negatively influenced H&W after vacation. In conclusion, short vacations are an effective, although not very long lasting, 'cure' to improve employees' H&W. PMID:22213478

  8. Effects of short vacations, vacation activities and experiences on employee health and well-being.

    PubMed

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2012-10-01

    It was investigated (1) whether employee health and well-being (H&W) improve during short vacations (4-5 days), (2) how long this improvement lasts after returning home and resuming work and (3) to what extent vacation activities and experiences explain health improvements during and after short vacations. Eighty workers reported their H&W 2 weeks before vacation (Pre), during vacation (Inter), on the day of return (Post 1) and on the third and 10th day after returning home (Post 2 and Post 3, respectively). The results showed improvements in H&W during short vacations (d=0.62), although this effect faded out rather quickly. Partial correlations and regression analyses showed that employees reported higher H&W during vacation, the more relaxed and psychologically detached they felt, the more time they spent on conversations with the partner, the more pleasure they derived from their vacation activities and the lower the number of negative incidents during vacation. Experiences of relaxation and detachment from work positively influenced H&W even after returning home. Working during vacation negatively influenced H&W after vacation. In conclusion, short vacations are an effective, although not very long lasting, 'cure' to improve employees' H&W.

  9. Downstream Effect of Ramping Neuronal Activity through Synapses with Short-Term Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-04-01

    Ramping neuronal activity refers to spiking activity with a rate that increases quasi-linearly over time. It has been observed in multiple cortical areas and is correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work, we investigated the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtained an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD and numerically investigated the general case when a synapse displays both STF and STD. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation of many inputs converging onto a postsynaptic neuron, even when fluctuations in the ramping input are strong. Activation of a synapse with STF shows an initial cubical increase with time, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD grows in time to a maximum before falling and reaching a plateau, and this steady state is independent of the slope of the ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, an increase in the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τ(F) to a value much larger than τ(F) leads to a transition from facilitation dominance to depression dominance. Therefore, our work provides insights into the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses that display short-term plasticity. In a perceptual decision-making process, ramping activity has been observed in the parietal and prefrontal cortices, with a slope that decreases with task difficulty. Our work predicts that neurons downstream from such a decision circuit could instead display a firing plateau independent of the task difficulty, provided that the synaptic connection is endowed with short-term depression. PMID:26890350

  10. Function-based classification of carbohydrate-active enzymes by recognition of short, conserved peptide motifs.

    PubMed

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-06-01

    Functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes is difficult due to low sequence identity. However, similar enzymes often share a few short motifs, e.g., around the active site, even when the overall sequences are very different. To exploit this notion for functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes, we developed a simple algorithm, peptide pattern recognition (PPR), that can divide proteins into groups of sequences that share a set of short conserved sequences. When this method was used on 118 glycoside hydrolase 5 proteins with 9% average pairwise identity and representing four characterized enzymatic functions, 97% of the proteins were sorted into groups correlating with their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we analyzed 8,138 glycoside hydrolase 13 proteins including 204 experimentally characterized enzymes with 28 different functions. There was a 91% correlation between group and enzyme activity. These results indicate that the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes can be predicted with high precision by finding short, conserved motifs in their sequences. The glycoside hydrolase 61 family is important for fungal biomass conversion, but only a few proteins of this family have been functionally characterized. Interestingly, PPR divided 743 glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins into 16 subfamilies useful for targeted investigation of the function of these proteins and pinpointed three conserved motifs with putative importance for enzyme activity. Furthermore, the conserved sequences were useful for cloning of new, subfamily-specific glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins from 14 fungi. In conclusion, identification of conserved sequence motifs is a new approach to sequence analysis that can predict carbohydrate-active enzyme functions with high precision. PMID:23524681

  11. Function-based classification of carbohydrate-active enzymes by recognition of short, conserved peptide motifs.

    PubMed

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-06-01

    Functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes is difficult due to low sequence identity. However, similar enzymes often share a few short motifs, e.g., around the active site, even when the overall sequences are very different. To exploit this notion for functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes, we developed a simple algorithm, peptide pattern recognition (PPR), that can divide proteins into groups of sequences that share a set of short conserved sequences. When this method was used on 118 glycoside hydrolase 5 proteins with 9% average pairwise identity and representing four characterized enzymatic functions, 97% of the proteins were sorted into groups correlating with their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we analyzed 8,138 glycoside hydrolase 13 proteins including 204 experimentally characterized enzymes with 28 different functions. There was a 91% correlation between group and enzyme activity. These results indicate that the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes can be predicted with high precision by finding short, conserved motifs in their sequences. The glycoside hydrolase 61 family is important for fungal biomass conversion, but only a few proteins of this family have been functionally characterized. Interestingly, PPR divided 743 glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins into 16 subfamilies useful for targeted investigation of the function of these proteins and pinpointed three conserved motifs with putative importance for enzyme activity. Furthermore, the conserved sequences were useful for cloning of new, subfamily-specific glycoside hydrolase 61 proteins from 14 fungi. In conclusion, identification of conserved sequence motifs is a new approach to sequence analysis that can predict carbohydrate-active enzyme functions with high precision.

  12. The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living questionnaire for use in COPD patients: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Junkes-Cunha, Maíra; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig; Reis, Cardine; Yohannes, Abebaw M.; Maurici, Rosemeri

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To translate The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living (MRADL) questionnaire into Portuguese and to create a version of the MRADL that is cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil. Methods : The English-language version of the MRADL was translated into Portuguese by two health care researchers who were fluent in English. A consensus version was obtained by other two researchers and a pulmonologist. That version was back-translated into English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The cognitive debriefing process consisted in having 10 COPD patients complete the translated questionnaire in order to test its understandability, clarity, and acceptability in the target population. On the basis of the results, the final Portuguese-language version of the MRADL was produced and approved by the committee and one of the authors of the original questionnaire. Results : The author of the MRADL questioned only a few items in the translated version, and some changes were made to the mobility and personal hygiene domains. Cultural differences regarding the domestic activities domain were found, in particular regarding the item "Do you have the ability to do a full clothes wash and hang them out to dry?", due to socioeconomic and climatic issues. The item "Do you take care of your garden?" was questioned by the participants who lived in apartments, being modified to "Do you take care of your garden or plants in your apartment?" Conclusions : The final Portuguese-language version of the MRADL adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied. PMID:26982036

  13. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Tom; Watson, Kathy; Bachman, Christine; Baranowski, Janice C; Thompson, Debbe; Hernández, Arthur E; Venditti, Elizabeth; Blackshear, Tara; Moe, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Background Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was used to develop new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy scales. The validity of the new scales was compared with accelerometer assessments of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods New PASE and sedentary behavior change (TV viewing, computer video game use, and telephone use) self-efficacy items were developed. The scales were completed by 714, 6th grade students in seven US cities. A limited number of participants (83) also wore an accelerometer for five days and provided at least 3 full days of complete data. The new scales were analyzed using Classical Test Theory (CTT) and IRM; a reduced set of items was produced with IRM and correlated with accelerometer counts per minute and minutes of sedentary, light and moderate to vigorous activity per day after school. Results The PASE items discriminated between high and low levels of PASE. Full and reduced scales were weakly correlated (r = 0.18) with accelerometer counts per minute after school for boys, with comparable associations for girls. Weaker correlations were observed between PASE and minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (r = 0.09 – 0.11). The uni-dimensionality of the sedentary scales was established by both exploratory factor analysis and the fit of items to the underlying variable and reliability was assessed across the length of the underlying variable with some limitations. The reduced sedentary behavior scales had poor reliability. The full scales were moderately correlated with light intensity physical activity after school (r = 0.17 to 0.33) and sedentary behavior (r = -0.29 to -0.12) among the boys, but not for girls. Conclusion New physical activity

  14. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  15. False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-12-01

    Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces.

  16. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  17. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  18. Inhibitory short-term plasticity modulates neuronal activity in the rat entopeduncular nucleus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lavian, Hagar; Korngreen, Alon

    2016-04-01

    The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is one of the basal ganglia output nuclei integrating synaptic information from several pathways within the basal ganglia. The firing of EP neurons is modulated by two streams of inhibitory synaptic transmission, the direct pathway from the striatum and the indirect pathway from the globus pallidus. These two inhibitory pathways continuously modulate the firing of EP neurons. However, the link between these synaptic inputs to neuronal firing in the EP is unclear. To investigate this input-output transformation we performed whole-cell and perforated-patch recordings from single neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus in rat brain slices during repetitive stimulation of the striatum and the globus pallidus at frequencies within the in vivo activity range of these neurons. These recordings, supplemented by compartmental modelling, showed that GABAergic synapses from the striatum, converging on EP dendrites, display short-term facilitation and that somatic or proximal GABAergic synapses from the globus pallidus show short-term depression. Activation of striatal synapses during low presynaptic activity decreased postsynaptic firing rate by continuously increasing the inter-spike interval. Conversely, activation of pallidal synapses significantly affected postsynaptic firing during high presynaptic activity. Our data thus suggest that low-frequency striatal output may be encoded as progressive phase shifts in downstream nuclei of the basal ganglia while high-frequency pallidal output may continuously modulate EP firing.

  19. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Huang, Wendy Y.J.; Maddison, Ralph; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Methods Sample 1 (n = 273, aged 8–12 years) was recruited (May–June, 2013) from two primary schools. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to assess factorial validity. Criterion validity was assessed by correlating measured constructs with self-reported PA. Cronbach's alpha was computed to assess scale internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was performed to assess scale test–retest reliability. Criterion validity was further examined in Sample 2 (n = 84, aged 8–12 years) from a third school by correlating measured constructs with objectively measured PA collected in September 2013 and February 2014. Results The CFA results supported the one-factor structure of the scales. All PA correlates were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with self-reported PA in Sample 1. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with objectively measured PA in Sample 2. All the scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. All ICC values of the scales suggested acceptable test–retest reliability. Conclusion The results provide psychometric support for using the scales to measure PA correlates among Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26844039

  20. Validation of the Japanese version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire that includes physician-based assessments in a large observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, Y; Baba, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Gono, T; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2016-04-01

    The Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) is a patient-reported outcome for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to translate it into Japanese and further investigate its validity and reliability. The English version of the SLAQ was translated into Japanese and administered to Japanese SLE patients at our university clinic. Physicians assessed disease activity using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). The patients were prospectively followed for repeat assessment a year later. Ultimately, 255 patients participated. The patients' 10-point ratings of disease activity and SLAQ scores were significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.53). The SLAQ score was weakly correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)-nolab (omitting laboratory items; ρ = 0.18) but not with the SLEDAI-2K (ρ = 0.02). These results suggested its convergent and discriminant validity. The SLAQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80), and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). The effect sizes and the standardized response means of the SLAQ were as follows: clinical worsening, 0.26 and 0.31, and improvement, -0.39 and -0.41, respectively, which indicated a small but significant responsiveness. The Japanese version of the SLAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity; its performance was comparable to that of the original version.

  1. Cross-cultural, age and gender validation of a computerised questionnaire measuring personal, social and environmental associations with children's physical activity: the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Page, Angie; Ku, Po-Wen; Cooper, Ashley R

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the construct validity of a computerised self-assessment tool to measure psychological, social and environmental influences of young peoples' physical activity. First, analyses of the measure's factorial validity, invariance across, age, gender culture were conducted. Second, the ability of the derived subscales to discriminate between children representing different levels of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour was examined. Methods Participants were 1875 boys and 2078 girls (total = 3958) aged 9–10 years (n = 1955, mean age = 9.65 ± 0.42) and 15–16 years (n = 2003, mean age = 15.49 ± 0.50) from four European countries in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Children completed the computerised self-assessment tool with support from the researcher if requested. Self-reported exercise and an objective measure of physical activity (Actigraph model 7164) were used for additional construct validation purposes. Results Overall evidence of good fit indicating satisfactory factorial validity and cross-cultural, age and gender invariance for 3 of the 4 measurement models were obtained. The majority of measures were also significantly different for those with high versus low levels of physical activity. Conclusion Overall, the computerised questionnaire holds promise for use cross-culturally with male and female children and adolescents to measure perceived personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity. Further development of the measures pertaining to perceived environmental influences seems warranted. PMID:18489736

  2. Downstream effect of ramping neural activity through synapses with short-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Ramping neuronal activity has been observed in multiple cortical areas correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work we investigate the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtain an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD, and investigate the general case when both STF and STD exist numerically. In neural circuits, the ramping inputs usually have strong fluctuation and each downstream neuron receives converging inputs from many presynaptic neurons. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation that a postsynaptic neuron receives in a neural circuit, even when the fluctuation in ramping input is strong. Therefore our work provides insights on the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses displaying short-term plasticity. Specifically, activation of a synapse with STF shows a sublinear increase with time and is insensitive to the slopes of ramping inputs during the initial period, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD, on the other hand, develops a local maximum before reaching a steady state, which is independent of the slope of ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, increase of the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τF to a value much larger than τF leads to a transition from facilitation domination to depression domination. By utilizing STD in the corticostriatal synapses, our work provides an understanding of the saturation of striatal activity as observed for monkeys performing evidence accumulation. Our work also predicts that in the fixed duration version of motion discrimination tasks the stationary state of neuronal activity downstream to the

  3. Spatial Patterns of Persistent Neural Activity Vary with the Behavioral Context of Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daie, Kayvon

    2015-01-01

    Summary A short-term memory can be evoked by different inputs and control separate targets in different behavioral contexts. To address the circuit mechanisms underlying context-dependent memory function, we determined through optical imaging how memory is encoded at the whole-network level in two behavioral settings. Persistent neural activity maintaining a memory of desired eye position was imaged throughout the oculomotor integrator after saccadic or optokinetic stimulation. While eye position was encoded by the amplitude of network activity, the spatial patterns of firing were context-dependent: cells located caudally generally were most persistent following saccadic input, whereas cells located rostrally were most persistent following optokinetic input. To explain these data, we computationally identified four independent modes of network activity and found these were differentially accessed by saccadic and optokinetic inputs. These results show how a circuit can simultaneously encode memory value and behavioral context, respectively, in its amplitude and spatial pattern of persistent firing. PMID:25661184

  4. Short-term changes in solar oscillation frequencies and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.; Kuhn, J. R.; Murray, N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the frequencies of solar rho-mode oscillations change significantly over periods as short as one month. These changes correlate significantly with variations in the strength of surface solar activity as measured by the average, over the sun's visible surface, of the magnitude of the line-of-sight magnetic field component from magnetograms. The frequency and mean magnetic variations are found to obey a linear relationship. It is seen that the mean frequency shift at any time depends on the history of solar activity over an interval of, at most, several months prior to the measurement and conclude that the dominant mechanism of the frequency shift is correlated with surface magnetic activity.

  5. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids exhibit antimicrobial activity for oral microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chifu B.; Altimova, Yelena; Myers, Taylor M.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the antibacterial activity of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids against various oral microorganisms. Methods The short-chain fatty acids [formic acid (C1), acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), butyric acid (C4), isobutyric acid (C4), isovaleric acid (C5), hexanoic acid (C6)], medium-chain fatty acids [octanoic acid (C8), capric acid (C10), lauric acid (12)], and long-chain fatty acids [myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16)], were investigated for antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, Candida albicans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Results The data demonstrated that the fatty acids exhibited patterns of inhibition against oral bacteria with some specificity that appeared related more to the bacterial species that the general structural characteristics of the microorganism. As a group the fatty acids were much less effective against C. albicans than the oral bacteria, with effectiveness limited to hexanoic, octanoic, and lauric acids. Formic acid, capric, and lauric acids were broadly inhibitory for the bacteria. Interestingly, fatty acids that are produced at metabolic end-products by a number of these bacteria, were specifically inactive against the producing species, while substantially inhibiting the growth of other oral microorganisms. Conclusions The results indicate that the antimicrobial activity of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) could influence the microbial ecology in the oral cavity via at least 2 potential pathways. First, the agents delivered exogenously as therapeutic adjuncts could be packaged to enhance a microbial-regulatory environment in the subgingival sulcus. Second, it would be the intrinsic nature of these fatty acid inhibitors in contributing to the characteristics of the microbial biofilms, their evolution, and emergence of

  6. Reliability and validity of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey (CAPANS-C) questionnaire examining potential correlates of physical activity participation among Chinese-Australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, few questionnaires examining psychosocial influences of physical activity (PA) participation have been psychometrically tested among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) youth. An understanding of these influences may help explain the observed differences in PA among CALD youth. Therefore, this study examined the reliability and predictive validity of a brief self-report questionnaire examining potential psychological and social correlates of physical activity among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods Two Chinese-weekend cultural schools from eastern metropolitan Melbourne consented to participate in this study. In total, 505 students aged 11 to 16 years were eligible for inclusion in the present study, and of these, 106 students agreed to participate (21% response rate). Participants completed at 37-item self-report questionnaire examining perceived psychological and social influences on physical activity participation twice, with a test–retest interval of 7 days. Predictive validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability were evaluated using exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach’s α coefficient, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Predictive validity was assessed by correlating responses against duration spent in self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed a nine factor structure, with the majority of factors exhibiting high internal consistency (α ≥ 0.6). In addition, four of the nine factors had an ICC ≥ 0.6. Spearman rank-order correlations coefficients between the nine factors and self-reported minutes spent in MVPA ranged from -0.5 to 0.3 for all participants. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the psychometric properties of a potential psychological and social correlates questionnaire among Chinese-Australian youth. The questionnaire was found to provide reliable estimates on a range

  7. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Aging (AHA): The European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA Reference Site Questionnaire: Montpellier October 20-21, 2014, Lisbon July 2, 2015.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Malva, Joao; Nogues, Michel; Mañas, Leocadio Rodriguez; Vellas, Bruno; Farrell, John

    2015-12-01

    A core operational definition of active and healthy aging (AHA) is needed to conduct comparisons. A conceptual AHA framework proposed by the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing Reference Site Network includes several items such as functioning (individual capability and underlying body systems), well-being, activities and participation, and diseases (including noncommunicable diseases, frailty, mental and oral health disorders). The instruments proposed to assess the conceptual framework of AHA have common applicability and availability attributes. The approach includes core and optional domains/instruments depending on the needs and the questions. A major common domain is function, as measured by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). WHODAS 2.0 can be used across all diseases and healthy individuals. It covers many of the AHA dimensions proposed by the Reference Site network. However, WHODAS 2.0 does not include all dimensions proposed for AHA assessment. The second common domain is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A report of the AHA questionnaire in the form of a spider net has been proposed to facilitate usual comparisons across individuals and groups of interest.

  8. Intervention to induce short-term increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if a short-term pedometer-based educational intervention results in short-term increases in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to an education-only intervention, and whether increases in the number of steps taken per day correlate with...

  9. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  10. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  11. Short-Term Displacement and Reproducibility of the Breast and Nodal Targets Under Active Breathing Control

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Jean M. . E-mail: jmmoran@med.umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Marsh, Robin B. C; Herk, Marcel van; Pierce, Lori J.

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients receiving loco-regional breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients underwent computed tomographic scanning using an ABC device at breath-hold states of end-exhale and 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of vital capacity (VC). Patients underwent scanning before treatment and at one third and two thirds of the way through treatment. A regional registration was performed for each target using a rigid-body transformation with mutual information as a metric. Results: Between exhale and 40% of VC, the mean displacement was 0.27/0.34, 0.24/0.31, 0.22/0.19, and 0.13/0.19 cm anterior/superior for the breast or chest wall, and IM, ICV, and SCV nodes, respectively. At 80% of VC, the mean displacement from exhale was 0.84/.88, 0.76/.79, 0.70/0.79, and 0.54/0.56 cm anterior/superior for the breast or chest wall, and IM, ICV, and SCV nodes, respectively. The short-term reproducibility (standard deviation) was <0.3 and {<=}0.4 cm for 40% and 80% of VC, respectively. Displacements up to 1.9 cm were observed for individual patients. Conclusions: The short-term reproducibility of target position is {<=}0.4 cm using ABC for all structures for all breath-hold states. This information can be used to guide treatment planning optimization studies that consider the effect of motion on target and normal tissue doses with and without active breathing control.

  12. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning. PMID:25676856

  13. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  14. Wesleyan University Student Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haagen, C. Hess

    This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…

  15. Questionnaire for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The 116-item parent questionnaire is designed for parents of elementary school children. It is intended to be used with the child's mother, or the person acting as the child's mother. The questionnaire consists of a section devoted to demographic variables and scales measuring 14 parent variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the…

  16. Write Your Own Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David I.

    1975-01-01

    Contends that student evaluative questionnaires should be designed by instructors themselves to help improve their classroom performance and therefore should contain only questions that students are capable of answering objectively and not, for instance, questions about the relevancy of the course. Contains a sample questionnaire. (GH)

  17. Validation of a questionnaire measuring the regulation of autonomic function

    PubMed Central

    Kröz, M; Feder, G; von Laue, HB; Zerm, R; Reif, M; Girke, M; Matthes, H; Gutenbrunner, C; Heckmann, C

    2008-01-01

    Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR), i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (♀: N = 316, ♂: N = 124): 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ) and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-α: rα = 0.65 – 0.75) and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85). AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR) (0.49 – 0.13, all p < 0.05). Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance. PMID:18533043

  18. Magnetic activity and orbital period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary DV Psc

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Xi-liang

    2014-03-01

    We present six new BVR{sub c}I{sub c} CCD light curves of a short-period RS CVn binary DV Psc obtained in 2010-2012. The light curve distortions change on both short and long timescales, which is explained by two starspots on the primary component. Moreover, five new flare events were detected and the flare ratio of DV Psc is about 0.082 flares per hour. There is a possible relation between the phases (longitude) of the flares and starspots for all of the available data of late-type binaries, which implies a correlation of the stellar activity of the spots and flares. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 4.9 ± 0.4 yr, may result from the magnetic activity cycle, identified by the variability of Max. I-Max. II. Until now, there were no spectroscopic studies of chromospheric activity indicators of the H{sub β} and H{sub γ} lines for DV Psc. Our observations of these indicators show that DV Psc is active, with excess emissions. The updated O – C diagram with an observing time span of about 15 yr shows an upward parabola, which indicates a secular increase in the orbital period of DV Psc. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = 2.0×10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1}, which might be explained by the angular momentum exchanges or mass transfer from the secondary to primary component.

  19. A comparison of two short-term intensive physical activity interventions: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increases in chronic illness due to sedentary lifestyles and poor metabolic fitness have led to numerous intervention strategies to promote physical activity (PA). This paper describes the methodological strategies of two short-term PA interventions. Outcome measures reported are PA adherence and compliance rates during the intervention and at 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Methods The 40-day interventions were: a pedometer-based walking program (n = 251) and a group-based intensive program (n = 148). There was also an active control group (n = 135). Intervention subjects were prescribed PA each day and required to record all activity sessions (pedometer steps or energy expenditure from heart rate monitors). Results Compliance (≥ 150 min/wk PA) was highest post-intervention (81.1% and 64.5% for the group and pedometer subjects, respectively) and then progressively decreased across the 12-month follow-up period (final compliance rates were 53.5% and 46.6%, respectively) although they remained significantly higher than pre-intervention rates (zero %). There was significantly higher adherence to 6 months (75.0% and 64.9%), and compliance to 3 months (64.9% and 51.0%), for group versus pedometer subjects. The active control group maintained the highest adherence and compliance rates across the study. Conclusions The group-based program resulted in higher adherence and compliance rates post-intervention although both types of interventions showed long-term effectiveness to increase activity patterns. PMID:22136578

  20. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all p<0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  1. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  2. Short-term and long-term treatment outcomes with Class III activator

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyo-kyung; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate short-term and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. Methods A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), and the long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. Results The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1-T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Conclusions Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage. PMID:26445717

  3. Parental authority questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  4. Parental authority questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

  5. Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Methods We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Results We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusion Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike. PMID:20515456

  6. The Short French Internet Addiction Test Adapted to Online Sexual Activities: Validation and Links With Online Sexual Preferences and Addiction Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wéry, Aline; Burnay, Jonathan; Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the short Internet Addiction Test adapted to online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex). The French version of the s-IAT-sex was administered to a sample of 401 men. The participants also completed a questionnaire that screened for sexual addiction (PATHOS). The relationships of s-IAT-sex scores with time spent online for online sexual activities (OSAs) and the types of OSAs favored were also considered. Confirmatory analyses supported a two-factor model of s-IAT-sex, corresponding to the factorial structure found in earlier studies that used the short IAT. The first factor regroups loss of control and time management, whereas the second factor regroups craving and social problems. Internal consistency for each factor was evaluated with Cronbach's α coefficient, resulting in .87 for Factor 1, .76 for Factor 2, and .88 for the global scale. Concurrent validity was supported by relationships with symptoms of sexual addiction, types of OSAs practiced, and time spent online for OSAs. The prevalence of sexual addiction (measured by PATHOS) was 28.1% in the current sample of self-selected male OSA users. The French version of the s-IAT-sex presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a useful tool for researchers and practitioners.

  7. Examining the reliability and validity of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, long form (IPAQ-LF) in Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Bello, Umar M; Philemon, Saratu T; Aliyu, Habeeb N; Majidadi, Rebecca W; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the reliability and an aspect of validity of a modified version of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-LF) in Nigeria. Design Cross-sectional study, examining the reliability and construct validity of the Hausa IPAQ-LF compared with anthropometric and biological variables. Setting Metropolitan Maiduguri, the capital city of Borno State in Nigeria. Participants 180 Nigerian adults (50% women) with a mean age of 35.6 (SD=10.3) years, recruited from neighbourhoods with diverse socioeconomic status and walkability. Outcome measures Domains (domestic physical activity (PA), occupational PA, leisure-time PA, active transportation and sitting time) and intensities of PA (vigorous, moderate and walking) were measured with the Hausa IPAQ-LF on two different occasions, 8 days apart. Outcomes for construct validity were measured body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results The Hausa IPAQ-LF demonstrated good test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC>75) for total PA (ICC=0.79, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.82), occupational PA (ICC=0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.82), active transportation (ICC=0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.87) and vigorous intensity activities (ICC=0.82, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.87). Reliability was substantially higher for total PA (ICC=0.80), occupational PA (ICC=0.78), leisure-time PA (ICC=0.75) and active transportation (ICC=0.80) in men than in women, but domestic PA (ICC=0.38) and sitting time (ICC=0.71) demonstrated more substantial reliability coefficients in women than in men. For the construct validity, domestic PA was significantly related mainly with SBP (r=−0.27) and DBP (r=−0.17), and leisure-time PA and total PA were significantly related only with SBP (r=−0.16) and BMI (r=−0.29), respectively. Similarly, moderate-intensity PA was mainly related with SBP (r=−0.16, p<0.05) and DBP (r=−0.21, p<0.01), but vigorous-intensity PA was only

  8. Emitted short wavelength infrared radiation for detection and monitoring of volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thematic Mapper images from LANDSAT were used to monitor volcanoes. Achievements include: (1) the discovery of a magmatic precursor to the 16 Sept. 1986 eruption of Lascar, northern Chile, on images from Mar. and July 1985 and of continuing fumarolic activity after the eruption; (2) the detection of unreported major changes in the distribution of lava lakes on Erta'Ale, Ethiopia; and (3) the mapping of a halo of still-hot spatter surrounding a vent on Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on an image acquired 5 min after a minor eruption otherwise known only from seismic records. A spaceborne short wavelength infrared sensor for observing hot phenomena of volcanoes is proposed. A polar orbit is suggested.

  9. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. PMID:23735800

  10. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater.

  11. Short term prediction of dynamic hydra precipitation activity using a microwave radiometer over Eastern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.

    2015-12-01

    First ever study of the feasibility of ground based radiometric study to predict a very short term based rain precipitation study has been conducted in eastern Himalaya, Darjeeling (27.01°N, 88.15°E, 2200 masl). Short term prediction or nowcasting relates to forecasting convective precipitation for time periods less than a few hours to avoid its effect on agriculture, aviation and lifestyle. Theoretical models involving radiometric predictions are not well understood and lack in temporal and spatial resolution. In this study specific utilization of a microwave Radiometer (Radiometrics Corporation, USA) for online monitoring of precipitable rainfall activity has been observed repeatability of data has been established. Previous few studies have shown the increase of water vapour and corresponding Brightness Temperature, but in mountain climatic conditions over Darjeeling, due to presence of fog 90 % of the year, water vapour monitoring related predictions can lead to false alarms. The measurement of blackbody emission noise in the bands of 23.8 GHz and 31.4 GHz, using a quadratic regression retrieval algorithm is converted to atmospheric parameters like integrated water vapour and liquid water content. It has been found in our study that the liquid water shows significant activity prior to precipitation events even for mild and stratiform rainfall. The alarm can be generated well 20 mins before the commencement of actual rain events even in the upper atmosphere of 6 Kms, measured by a rain radar also operating in 24 Ghz microwave band. Although few rain events were found and reported which do not respond in the microwave liquid water channel. Efforts to identify such rain events and their possible explanation is going on and shall be reported in near future. Such studies are important to predict flash flooding in the Himalayas. Darjeeling owing to its geographical conditions experiences mild to very heavy rain. Such studies help improve aspects of Himalayas as

  12. Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapaglia, J.; Ferrarin, C.; Zaggia, L.; Umgiesser, G.; Zuppi, G.; Manfe', G.

    2008-12-01

    Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass balance of radium found that SGD was 5-26 times greater than total river discharge (35.5 m3 s-1), and that total SGD could differ by almost an order of magnitude pending season. Several possible parameters, which may cause the seasonal variation, were tested. These included precipitation events, average tidal elevation, average tidal excursion, wind speed and direction, yet none provided a satisfactory explanation for the difference. Residence time based on a hydrodynamic model, however, was very strongly correlated with the observed variation. When the average residence time in the lagoon was low (5 days) the SGD was calculated to be 930 m3 s-1 and when the average residence time was high (9 days) the SGD was quantified as 160 m3 s-1. Radioactive decay is already accounted for in the mass balance model and therefore this correlation must be explained by another process. The Venice Lagoon is characterized by low residence time during periods of spring tides and bora or northerly winds, both of which create exceptionally strong currents in the Venice Lagoon. The currents as well as the large tidal excursion which occurs at spring tides drive a recirculation of seawater through the surface sediments, which greatly increases short-lived Ra activity in the surface waters. This evidence suggests, therefore, that short-lived Ra mass balance studies, which are based on a single survey, may under or overestimate the mean annual SGD pending the hydrodynamics of the investigated location.

  13. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130

  14. The Effectiveness of Visual Short-Time Neurofeedback on Brain Activity and Clinical Characteristics in Alcohol Use Disorders: Practical Issues and Results.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F; Skliris, Dimitris; Wood, Guilherme; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Neuper, Christa; Gruzelier, John H

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the efficacy of alpha/theta neurofeedback (NF) with a new visual paradigm in a cohort of alcohol use disordered (AUD) patients (n = 25) treated in an Austrian therapeutic community center. The experimental study design focused on changes in absolute and relative resting EEG band power as well as in clinical variables, including depression (Beck Depresion Inventory [BDI-V]), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI], coping (Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness [FKV-lis]), psychotherapy motivation (Therapy Motivation Questionnaire [FPTM-23]), sense of coherence (Sense of Coherence Scale [SOC-13]), posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory [PPR]), and alcohol cravings (Alcohol Craving Questionnaire [ACQ]). For measuring training effects, participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: an experimental group (EG, n = 13) and a control group (CG, n = 12). Patients in EG received 12 sessions of visual NF training over a period of 6 weeks to enhance alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) frequency band power in addition to the standard treatment program of the rehabilitation center. Participants in CG received no additional NF intervention. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed a change by trend in absolute alpha and theta power in the EG. Even though no MANCOVA effects were found in the clinical scales, AUD patients reported increasing control of their brain activity during the course of NF. However, changes in several clinical scales (BDI-V, BSI, FKV-lis, PPR) from pre- to posttest were observed only in the EG contrary to the CG. The findings of this pilot study provide first evidence for the practicality and effectiveness of visual short-term NF as an additive intervention in the therapeutic community. PMID:26415612

  15. Emerging liquid crystal waveguide technology for low SWaP active short-wave infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Sean D.; Uyeno, Gerald P.; Lynch, Ted; Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Pino, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Raytheon's innovative active short wave infrared (SWIR) imager uses Vescent Photonic's emerging liquid crystal waveguide (LCWG) technology to continuously steer the illumination laser beam over the imager field of view (FOV). This approach instantly illuminates a very small fraction of the FOV, which significantly reduces the laser power compared to flash illumination. This reduced laser power directly leads to a reduction in the size, weight and power (SWaP) of the laser. The reduction in laser power reduces the input power and thermal rejection, which leads to additional reduction in the SWaP of the power supplies and thermal control. The high-speed steering capability of the LCWG enables the imager's SWaP reduction. The SWaP reduction is possible using either global or rolling shutter detectors. In both cases, the LCWG steers the laser beam over the entire FOV while the detector is integrating. For a rolling shutter detector, the LCWG synchronizes the steering with the rolling shutter to illuminate only regions currently integrating. Raytheon's approach enables low SWaP active SWIR imagers without compromising image quality. This paper presents the results of Raytheon's active SWIR imager demonstration including steering control and synchronization with the detector integration.

  16. Short and long-term changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of TLR9

    PubMed Central

    Klaschik, Sven; Tross, Debra; Shirota, Hidekazu; Klinman, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    CpG DNA binds to Toll-like receptor 9 to stimulate a strong innate immune response. The magnitude, duration and scope of CpG-induced changes in gene expression is incompletely understood despite extensive studies of TLR9 mediated signal transduction pathways. In particular, the prolonged effects of CpG DNA on gene activation have not been investigated despite evidence that a single dose of CpG DNA alters immune reactivity for several weeks. This study used gene expression analysis to monitor changes in mRNA levels for 14 days, and identified the genes, pathways and functional groups triggered in vivo following CpG DNA administration. Two discrete peaks of gene activation (at 3 hr and 5 days) were observed after CpG injection. Both the behavior and function of genes activated during the second peak differed from those triggered shortly after CpG administration. Initial gene up-regulation corresponded to a period when TLR9 ligation stimulated genes functionally associated with the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses (e.g. the NF-kB and B-cell receptor pathways). The second peak reflected processes associated with cell division (e.g., cell cycle and DNA replication & repair). The complex bimodal pattern of gene expression elicited by CpG DNA administration provides novel insights into the long term effects of TLR9 engagement on genes associated with immunity and cell proliferation. PMID:20005572

  17. Continuous Melatonin Attenuates the Regressing Activities of Short Photoperiod in Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan

    2013-01-01

    Golden hamsters reproduce in a limited time of a year. Their sexual activities are active in summer but inactive in winter during which day length does not exceed night time and environmental conditions are severe to them. The reproductive activities are determined by the length of light in a day (photoperiod). Melatonin is synthesized and secreted only at night time from the pineal gland. Duration of elevated melatonin is longer in winter than summer, resulting in gonadal regression. The present study aimed at the influences of continuous melatonin treatments impinging on the gonadal function in male golden hamsters. Animals received empty or melatonin-filled capsules for 10 weeks. They were divided into long photoperiod (LP) and short photoperiod (SP). All the animals maintained in LP (either empty or melatonin-filled capsules) showed large testes, implying that melatonin had no effects on testicular functions. Animals housed in SP displayed completely regressed testes. But animals kept in SP and implanted with melatonin capsules exhibited blockage of full regression by SP. These results suggest that constant release of melatonin prohibits the regressing influence of SP. PMID:25949127

  18. Visual short-term memory: activity supporting encoding and maintenance in retinotopic visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sneve, Markus H; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; Greenlee, Mark W; Magnussen, Svein

    2012-10-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that retinotopic cortex maintains information about visual stimuli during retention intervals. However, the process by which transient stimulus-evoked sensory responses are transformed into enduring memory representations is unknown. Here, using fMRI and short-term visual memory tasks optimized for univariate and multivariate analysis approaches, we report differential involvement of human retinotopic areas during memory encoding of the low-level visual feature orientation. All visual areas show weaker responses when memory encoding processes are interrupted, possibly due to effects in orientation-sensitive primary visual cortex (V1) propagating across extrastriate areas. Furthermore, intermediate areas in both dorsal (V3a/b) and ventral (LO1/2) streams are significantly more active during memory encoding compared with non-memory (active and passive) processing of the same stimulus material. These effects in intermediate visual cortex are also observed during memory encoding of a different stimulus feature (spatial frequency), suggesting that these areas are involved in encoding processes on a higher level of representation. Using pattern-classification techniques to probe the representational content in visual cortex during delay periods, we further demonstrate that simply initiating memory encoding is not sufficient to produce long-lasting memory traces. Rather, active maintenance appears to underlie the observed memory-specific patterns of information in retinotopic cortex.

  19. Highly heterogeneous, activated and short-lived regulatory T cells during chronic filarial infection

    PubMed Central

    Metenou, Simon; Coulibaly, Yaya I.; Sturdevant, Daniel; Dolo, Housseini; Diallo, Abdallah A.; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E.; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Porcella, Stephen F.; Klion, Amy D.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the increase in the numbers of regulatory T (Treg) cells in chronic infection settings remain unclear. Here we have delineated the phenotype and transcriptional profiles of Treg cells from 18 filarial-infected (Fil+) and 19 filarial-uninfected (Fil-) subjects. We found that the frequencies of Foxp3+ Treg cells expressing CTLA-4, GITR, LAG-3 and IL-10 were significantly higher in Fil+ subjects compared with that in Fil- subjects. Foxp3-expressing Treg-cell populations in Fil+ subjects were also more heterogeneous and had higher expression of IL-10, CCL-4, IL-29, CTLA-4 and TGF-β than Fil- subjects, each of these cytokines having been implicated in immune suppression. Moreover, Foxp3-expressing Treg cells from Fil+ subjects had markedly upregulated expression of activation-induced apoptotic genes with concomitant downregulation of those involved in cell survival. To determine whether the expression of apoptotic genes was due to Treg-cell activation, we found that the expression of CTLA-4, CDk8, RAD50, TNFRSF1A, FOXO3 and RHOA were significantly upregulated in stimulated cells compared with unstimulated cells. Taken together, our results suggest that in patent filarial infection, the expanded Treg-cell populations are heterogeneous, short-lived, activated and express higher levels of molecules known to modulate immune responsiveness, suggesting that filarial infection is associated with high Treg-cell turnover. PMID:24737144

  20. V4 activity predicts the strength of visual short-term memory representations.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Ilja G; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2009-06-10

    Recent studies have shown the existence of a form of visual memory that lies intermediate of iconic memory and visual short-term memory (VSTM), in terms of both capacity (up to 15 items) and the duration of the memory trace (up to 4 s). Because new visual objects readily overwrite this intermediate visual store, we believe that it reflects a weak form of VSTM with high capacity that exists alongside a strong but capacity-limited form of VSTM. In the present study, we isolated brain activity related to weak and strong VSTM representations using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that activity in visual cortical area V4 predicted the strength of VSTM representations; activity was low when there was no VSTM, medium when there was a weak VSTM representation regardless of whether this weak representation was available for report or not, and high when there was a strong VSTM representation. Altogether, this study suggests that the high capacity yet weak VSTM store is represented in visual parts of the brain. Allegedly, only some of these VSTM traces are amplified by parietal and frontal regions and as a consequence reside in traditional or strong VSTM. The additional weak VSTM representations remain available for conscious access and report when attention is redirected to them yet are overwritten as soon as new visual stimuli hit the eyes. PMID:19515911

  1. Influence of short-time imidacloprid and acetamiprid application on soil microbial metabolic activity and enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Yi, Zhengji; Choi, Martin M F

    2014-09-01

    The influence of two neonicotinoids, i.e., imidacloprid (IMI) and acetamiprid (ACE), on soil microbial activities was investigated in a short period of time using a combination of the microcalorimetric approach and enzyme tests. Thermodynamic parameters such as Q T (J g(-1) soil), ∆H met (kJ mol(-1)), J Q/S (J g(-1) h(-1)), k (h(-1)), and soil enzymatic activities, dehydrogenase, phosphomonoesterase, arginine deaminase, and urease, were used to evaluate whole metabolic activity changes and acute toxicity following IMI and ACE treatment. Various profiles of thermogenic curves reflect different soil microbial activities. The microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q T (expect for IMI), and inhibitory ratio I show linear relationship with the doses of IMI and ACE. Q T for IMI increases at 0.0-20 μg g(-1) and then decreases at 20-80 μg g(-1), possibly attributing to the presence of tolerant microorganisms. The 50 % inhibitory ratios (IC50) of IMI and ACE are 95.7 and 77.2 μg g(-1), respectively. ACE displays slightly higher toxicity than IMI. Plots of k and Q T against microbial biomass-C indicate that the k and Q T are growth yield-dependent. IMI and ACE show 29.6; 40.4 and 23.0; and 23.3, 21.7, and 30.5 % inhibition of dehydrogenase, phosphomonoesterase, and urease activity, respectively. By contrast, the arginine deaminase activity is enhanced by 15.2 and 13.2 % with IMI and ACE, respectively. The parametric indices selected give a quantitative dose-response relationship of both insecticides and indicate that ACE is more toxic than IMI due to their difference in molecular structures. PMID:24819438

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe. PMID:27228050

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe.

  4. Short duration waveforms recorded extracellularly from freely moving rats are representative of axonal activity

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Ashlee A.; Fox, Steven E.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.; Barry, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    While extracellular somatic action potentials from freely moving rats have been well characterized, axonal activity has not. We report direct extracellular tetrode recordings of putative axons whose principal feature is a short duration waveform (SDW) with an average peak-trough length less than 179 μs. While SDW recordings using tetrodes have previously been treated as questionable or classified as cells, we hypothesize that they are representative of axonal activity. These waveforms have significantly shorter duration than somatic action potentials, are triphasic and are therefore similar to classic descriptions of microelectrode recordings in white matter and of in vitro action potential propagation along axons. We describe SDWs recorded from pure white-matter tracts including the alveus and corpus callosum. Recordings of several SDWs in the alveus exhibit grid-like firing patterns suggesting these axons carry spatial information from entorhinal cortical neurons. Finally, we locally injected the GABAA agonist Muscimol into layer CA1 of the hippocampus while simultaneously recording somatic activity and SDWs on the same tetrodes. The persistent activity of SDWs during Muscimol inactivation of somatic action potentials indicates that SDWs are representative of action potential propagation along axons projecting from more distal somata. This characterization is important as it illustrates the dangers of exclusively using spike duration as the sole determinant of unit type, particularly in the case of interneurons whose peak-trough times overlap with SDWs. It may also allow future studies to explore how axonal projections from disparate brain regions integrate spatial information in the hippocampus, and provide a basis for studying the effects of pharmaceutical agents on signal transmission in axons, and ultimately to aid in defining the potential role of axons in cognition. PMID:24348338

  5. Monitoring polio supplementary immunization activities using an automated short text messaging system in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, A; Khoja, S; Zaidi, AK; Ali, SA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem Polio remains endemic in many areas of Pakistan, including large urban centres such as Karachi. Approach During each of seven supplementary immunization activities against polio in Karachi, mobile phone numbers of the caregivers of a random sample of eligible children were obtained. A computer-based system was developed to send two questions – as short message service (SMS) texts – automatically to each number after the immunization activity: “Did the vaccinator visit your house?” and “Did the enrolled child in your household receive oral polio vaccine?” Persistent non-responders were phoned directly by an investigator. Local setting A cluster sampling technique was used to select representative samples of the caregivers of young children in Karachi in general and of such caregivers in three of the six “high-risk” districts of the city where polio cases were detected in 2011. Relevant changes In most of the supplementary immunization activities investigated, vaccine coverages estimated using the SMS system were very similar to those estimated by interviewing by phone those caregivers who never responded to the SMS messages. In the high-risk districts investigated, coverages estimated using the SMS system were also similar to those recorded – using lot quality assurance sampling – by the World Health Organization. Lessons learnt For the monitoring of coverage in supplementary immunization activities, automated SMS-based systems appear to be an attractive and relatively inexpensive option. Further research is needed to determine if coverage data collected by SMS-based systems provide estimates that are sufficiently accurate. Such systems may be useful in other large-scale immunization campaigns. PMID:24700982

  6. Distribution, activity and function of short-chain alkane degrading phylotypes in hydrothermal vent sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. M.; Joye, S. B.; Hoarfrost, A.; Girguis, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. These systems are also characterized by sharp physicochemical gradients that have been shown to have a pronounced effect on microbial ecology and activity. Sediments were collected from a Middle Valley field with relatively high concentrations of short-chain alkanes and incubated in anaerobic batch reactors with each individual alkane (C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively) at a range of temperatures (25, 55 and 75 °C) to mimic environmental physico-chemical conditions in a closed system. Stable carbon isotope ratios and radiotracer incubations provide clear evidence for C2-C4 alkane oxidation in the sediments over time. Upon identifying sediments with anaerobic alkane oxidation activity, microbial communities were screened via 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and key phylotypes were then quantified using both molecular and microscopic methods. There were shifts in overall community composition and putative alkane-oxidizing phylotypes after the incubation period with the alkane substrates. These are the first evidence to date indicating that anaerobic C2-C4 alkane oxidation occurs across a broad range of temperatures in metalliferous sediments.

  7. Inhibitory activities of short linear motifs underlie Hox interactome specificity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baëza, Manon; Viala, Séverine; Heim, Marjorie; Dard, Amélie; Hudry, Bruno; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Rogulja-Ortmann, Ana; Brun, Christine; Merabet, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Hox proteins are well-established developmental regulators that coordinate cell fate and morphogenesis throughout embryogenesis. In contrast, our knowledge of their specific molecular modes of action is limited to the interaction with few cofactors. Here, we show that Hox proteins are able to interact with a wide range of transcription factors in the live Drosophila embryo. In this context, specificity relies on a versatile usage of conserved short linear motifs (SLiMs), which, surprisingly, often restrains the interaction potential of Hox proteins. This novel buffering activity of SLiMs was observed in different tissues and found in Hox proteins from cnidarian to mouse species. Although these interactions remain to be analysed in the context of endogenous Hox regulatory activities, our observations challenge the traditional role assigned to SLiMs and provide an alternative concept to explain how Hox interactome specificity could be achieved during the embryonic development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06034.001 PMID:25869471

  8. Applying Learning Strategy Questionnaires: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…

  9. Short latency activation of pyramidal tract cells by Group I afferent volleys in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Swett, John E.; Bourassa, Charles M.

    1967-01-01

    1. The contralateral bulbar pyramids were explored with low impedance micro-electrodes in cats anaesthetized with chloralose to reveal the effect of Group I afferent volleys (deep radial nerve of the forelimb) on pyramidal tract (Pt) cells. 2. Low rate (0·5/sec) stimulation of Group I afferents produced small responses (5-30 μV) in the bulbar pyramid which could be detected only with response averaging methods. The responses appeared with an initial latency of 7·0-11·2 msec and reached peak amplitude in 15·7 msec (mean latency). The pyramidal tract origin of the potential was demonstrated by its depression at stimulus rates above 1-2 sec and its disappearance at rates above 4/sec. 3. Recordings of neurones in the Group I cortical projection zone of the posterior sigmoid gyrus revealed that several types of cells, including Pt cells, were activated by Group I afferent volleys. 4. Pt cells responding to Group I afferent volleys frequently received convergent actions from low threshold cutaneous nerve volleys. 5. Averaged response recordings from electrodes positioned in the medial portions of the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord at the level of C2, revealed a response to Group I afferent volleys as early as 7·4 msec which possessed the same characteristics as the relayed response to Group I in the bulbar pyramids. Some Pt cells, activated by Group I volleys orthodromically, could also be antidromically activated by stimulation of the recording site in C2. 6. It was concluded that group I afferent volleys can influence, after short latencies, Pt and non-Pt cells and that some of these Pt cells gave rise to axons incorporated in the corticospinal tract. PMID:16992239

  10. Evolutionary origins of retinoid active short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases of SDR16C family

    PubMed Central

    Belyaeva, Olga V.; Chang, Chenbei; Berlett, Michael C; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate enzymes that belong to the 16C family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR16C) were shown to play an essential role in the control of retinoic acid (RA) levels during development. To trace the evolution of enzymatic function of SDR16C family, and to examine the origins of the pathway for RA biosynthesis from vitamin A, we identified putative SDR16C enzymes through the extensive search of available genome sequencing data in a subset of species representing major metazoan phyla. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that enzymes from protostome, non-chordate deuterostome and invertebrate chordate species are found in three clades of SDR16C family containing retinoid active enzymes, which are retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10), retinol dehydrogenases E2 (RDHE2) and RDHE2-similar, and dehydrogenase reductase (SDR family) member 3 (DHRS3). For the initial functional analysis, we cloned RDH10- and RDHE2-related enzymes from the early developmental stages of a non-chordate deuterostome, green sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, and an invertebrate chordate, sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. In situ hybridization revealed that these proteins are expressed in a pattern relevant to development, while assays performed on proteins expressed in mammalian cell culture showed that they possess retinol-oxidizing activity as their vertebrate homologs. The existence of invertebrate homologs of DHRS3 was inferred from the analysis of phylogeny and cofactor-binding residues characteristic of preference for NADP(H). The presence of invertebrate homologs in the DHRS3 group of SDR16C is interesting in light of the complex mutually activating interaction, which we have recently described for human RDH10 and DHRS3 enzymes. Further functional analysis of these homologs will establish whether this interaction evolved to control retinoid homeostasis only in vertebrates, or is also conserved in pre-vertebrates. PMID:25451586

  11. Contrasting early visual cortical activation states causally involved in visual imagery and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Silvanto, Juha

    2009-10-01

    Whether visual imagery and visual short-term memory (STM) share the same neural resources, and the extent to which the early visual cortex (V1/V2) is involved in these processes, has been the subject of much debate. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in two separate experiments to contrast the neural states associated with visual imagery and visual STM in the early visual cortex. In Experiment 1, we investigated V1/V2 activation states at the end of the retention phase in a visual imagery and a visual STM task. V1/V2 TMS facilitated performance in both tasks; the finding that imagery and STM interacted with TMS in the same way suggests that the two processes have similar effects on early visual cortical excitability. In Experiment 2, we investigated V1/V2 activation states at the beginning of the retention phase. V1/V2 TMS impaired performance in the visual STM task, whereas it had no effect on the imagery task. Taken together, our findings show that the late phases of the early visual cortical activation state associated with visual imagery and visual STM are similar; differences between the two processes are apparent in the early phases of the tasks. Our results also suggest that the causal role of the early visual cortex in visual STM includes both the initial translation of the visual input into working memory and the subsequent maintenance of the mental representation. Finally, our findings indicate that visual STM sensory recruitment in working memory might act via excitability modulation of V1/V2 neurons.

  12. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  13. Short-term Internet-search practicing modulates brain activity during recollection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-29

    Internet-searching behaviors may change ways in which we find, store and consider information. In this study, we tested the effect of short-term Internet-search practicing on recollection processes. Fifty-nine human subjects with valid data (Experimental group, 43; Control group, 16) completed procedures involving a pre-test, 6days of practicing, and a post-test. Behavioral and imaging results were obtained and within- and between-group comparisons were made at pre-test and post-test times. With respect to behavioral performance, six days of practicing was associated with improved behavioral performance during Internet searching: subjects in the experimental group showed shorter response times (RTs) and similar accuracy rates during recollection at post-test as compared to pre-test. During imaging and as compared to pre-test data, subjects in the experimental group showed during post-test recall relatively decreased brain activations bilaterally in the middle frontal and temporal gyri. Such findings were not observed in the control group. The findings suggest that six days of practicing Internet searching may improve the efficiency of Internet searching without influencing the accuracy of recollection, with neuroimaging results implicating cortical regions involved in long-term memory and executive processing. PMID:27555549

  14. Specific activity of tissue culture antirabic vaccine Rabivak-Vnukovo-32 with short intramuscular vaccination schedule.

    PubMed

    Selimov, M A; Toigombaeva, V S; Zgurskaya, G N; Kulikova, L G; Kodkind, G Kh

    1988-05-01

    Tissue culture rabies vaccine has been used for subcutaneous immunization of 158 subjects according to official instructions and also for intramuscular immunization of 128 subjects according to a short schedule with booster inoculations. All 286 subjects were either bitten or contaminated with saliva of rabid animals or animals suspected of having rabies. The 1168 serum samples were tested by neutralization test (NT) in mice, by radial haemolysis (RH) and by indirect haemagglutination (IHA). The highest, earliest and longest active post-vaccination immunity was registered after the most intensive subcutaneous vaccination course at a dose of 5 ml for 25 days with 3 booster inoculations. Subcutaneous inoculation of 3 ml vaccine for 12 days (36 ml) failed to produce a satisfactory elevation of antibody titre. After 2 to 4 booster inoculations, however, a satisfactory level of antibody was observed. The tissue culture vaccine was shown to have good prospects for clinical vaccination by intramuscular route. On intramuscular vaccination at 1.5 ml for 9 days with 6 booster inoculations on days 16, 23, 30, 37, 67 and 97 (initial vaccine volume 45 ml) the mean geometric antibody titres (MGT) reached 93, 160, 322 and 165 on days 30, 60, 90 and 112, respectively. The economically efficient and rapid IHA and RH tests were confirmed to be specific and suitable for titration of antirabies antibody.

  15. Short-term Internet-search practicing modulates brain activity during recollection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-29

    Internet-searching behaviors may change ways in which we find, store and consider information. In this study, we tested the effect of short-term Internet-search practicing on recollection processes. Fifty-nine human subjects with valid data (Experimental group, 43; Control group, 16) completed procedures involving a pre-test, 6days of practicing, and a post-test. Behavioral and imaging results were obtained and within- and between-group comparisons were made at pre-test and post-test times. With respect to behavioral performance, six days of practicing was associated with improved behavioral performance during Internet searching: subjects in the experimental group showed shorter response times (RTs) and similar accuracy rates during recollection at post-test as compared to pre-test. During imaging and as compared to pre-test data, subjects in the experimental group showed during post-test recall relatively decreased brain activations bilaterally in the middle frontal and temporal gyri. Such findings were not observed in the control group. The findings suggest that six days of practicing Internet searching may improve the efficiency of Internet searching without influencing the accuracy of recollection, with neuroimaging results implicating cortical regions involved in long-term memory and executive processing.

  16. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Sean P.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9 h light/day) photoperiods were subjected to a timed-feeding schedule for 10 days, during which food was available only during a 5 h interval of the light phase. Running wheel activity occurring within a 3 h window immediately prior to actual or anticipated food delivery was operationally-defined as food anticipatory activity (FAA). After the timed-feeding interval, hamsters were fed ad libitum, and FAA was assessed 2 and 7 days later via probe trials of total food deprivation. During timed-feeding, all hamsters exhibited increases FAA, but FAA emerged more rapidly in SD; in probe trials, FAA was greater in magnitude and persistence in SD. Gonadectomy in LD did not induce the SD-like FAA phenotype, indicating that withdrawal of gonadal hormones is not sufficient to mediate the effects of photoperiod on FAA. Entrainment of the circadian system to light markedly affects the functional output of the FEO via gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms. Rapid emergence and persistent expression of FAA in SD may reflect a seasonal adaptation that directs behavior toward sources of nutrition with high temporal precision at times of year when food is scarce. PMID:24666779

  17. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sean P; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9h light/day) photoperiods were subjected to a timed-feeding schedule for 10 days, during which food was available only during a 5h interval of the light phase. Running wheel activity occurring within a 3h window immediately prior to actual or anticipated food delivery was operationally-defined as food anticipatory activity (FAA). After the timed-feeding interval, hamsters were fed ad libitum, and FAA was assessed 2 and 7 days later via probe trials of total food deprivation. During timed-feeding, all hamsters exhibited increases FAA, but FAA emerged more rapidly in SD; in probe trials, FAA was greater in magnitude and persistence in SD. Gonadectomy in LD did not induce the SD-like FAA phenotype, indicating that withdrawal of gonadal hormones is not sufficient to mediate the effects of photoperiod on FAA. Entrainment of the circadian system to light markedly affects the functional output of the FEO via gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms. Rapid emergence and persistent expression of FAA in SD may reflect a seasonal adaptation that directs behavior toward sources of nutrition with high temporal precision at times of year when food is scarce.

  18. Short wavelengths active bichromatic pulsed pyrometer for solids and liquids designed for measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navello, L.; Lebedinsky, J.; Offret, J. P.; Serio, B.; Davin, T.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Optical passive methods for temperature measurements such as thermography or optical pyrometry are very interesting because they allow a non-intrusive measurement when the emissivity is known. The knowledge of this coefficient is critical for determining the actual temperature of a surface from the thermal radiation emitted in a wavelength band. The bichromatic pulsed pyrometer allows to overcome the knowledge of this parameter provided that precautions are taken in the choice of the values of wavelengths. When the object to be measured is placed in harsh environments, such passive optical methods are greatly disturbed by the presence of an optically absorbing medium. They are also distorted when the measured objects are located in very hot environments emitting intense disturbing radiation. In this study, we present an active bichromatic radiometric method for measuring the temperature of a surface in harsh environments. The method is based on a localized excitation by a modulated laser source in the infrared range. Detecting the temperature modulation, which is correlated with the excitation, is performed using a lock-in amplifier able to extract the signal embedded in a noise up to a million times superior. Working at short wavelengths (visible range and near infrared range) offers a large dynamic range and minimizes the error due to variations in emissivity with the wavelength. This system collects the radiation emitted by the object at a distance from a few meters up to dozens of meters depending on the configuration of the optical system. Both the principle and the design of the active bichromatic optical surface thermometer are presented and discussed. To demonstrate the method, results obtained on a molten ceramic stream are presented.

  19. The menstrual attitude questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Ruble, D N

    1980-09-01

    In order to examine the relationship of attitudes about menstruation to self-reports of menstrual-related symptomatology as well as to other aspects of behavior, an instrument to measure attitudes concerning menstruation was developed. After constructing the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), the factor analytic structure of the original MAQ sample was replicated on a second sample. Summary statistics are presented for college women, college men, and adolescent girls, and the relationship between menstrual-related attitudes, expectations, and experience is examined.

  20. Food frequency questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Aranceta, Javier; Salvador, Gemma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-02-26

    Food Frequency Questionnaires are dietary assessment tools widely used in epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between dietary intake and disease or risk factors since the early '90s. The three main components of these questionnaires are the list of foods, frequency of consumption and the portion size consumed. The food list should reflect the food habits of the study population at the time the data is collected. The frequency of consumption may be asked by open ended questions or by presenting frequency categories. Qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaires do not ask about the consumed portions; semi-quantitative include standard portions and quantitative questionnaires ask respondents to estimate the portion size consumed either in household measures or grams. The latter implies a greater participant burden. Some versions include only close-ended questions in a standardized format, while others add an open section with questions about some specific food habits and practices and admit additions to the food list for foods and beverages consumed which are not included. The method can be self-administered, on paper or web-based, or interview administered either face-to-face or by telephone. Due to the standard format, especially closed-ended versions, and method of administration, FFQs are highly cost-effective thus encouraging its widespread use in large scale epidemiological cohort studies and also in other study designs. Coding and processing data collected is also less costly and requires less nutrition expertise compared to other dietary intake assessment methods. However, the main limitations are systematic errors and biases in estimates. Important efforts are being developed to improve the quality of the information. It has been recommended the use of FFQs with other methods thus enabling the adjustments required.

  1. Active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone technology in patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Anton R; Gridnev, Vladimir I; Shvartz, Vladimir A; Posnenkova, Olga M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Ya

    2012-01-01

    The use of short message services and mobile phone technology for ambulatory care management is the most accessible and most inexpensive way to transition from traditional ambulatory care management to active ambulatory care management in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone technology with traditional ambulatory care management in AH patients. The study included 97 hypertensive patients under active ambulatory care management and 102 patients under traditional ambulatory care management. Blood pressure levels, body mass, and smoking history of patients were analyzed in the study. The duration of study was 1 year. In the active ambulatory care management group, 36% of patients were withdrawn from the study within a year. At the end of the year, 77% of patients from the active care management group had achieved the goal blood pressure level. That was more than 5 times higher than that in the traditional ambulatory care management group (P < .001). The risk ratio of achieving and maintaining the goal blood pressure in patients of active care management group was 5.44, CI (3.2-9.9; P = .005). Implementation of active ambulatory care management supported by short message services and mobile phone improves the quality of ambulatory care of hypertensive patients.

  2. Contralateral Cortical Organisation of Information in Visual Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Lateralized Brain Activity during Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Robert; McDonald, John J.; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a…

  3. Innovative Training of In-Service Teachers for Active Learning: A Short Teacher Development Course Based on Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Genaro; Alarcon, Hugo; Benegas, Julio

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we describe a short development course for in-service physics teachers. The course structure and materials are based on the results of educational research, and its main objective is to provide in-service teachers with a first contact with the active learning strategy "Tutorials in Introductory Physics," developed by the…

  4. Coupling aboveground and belowground activities using short term fluctuations in 13C composition of soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Parent, F.; Grossiord, C.; Plain, C.; Longdoz, B.; Granier, A.

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence that belowground processes in forest ecosystems are tightly coupled to aboveground activities. Soil CO2 efflux, the largest flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, is dominated by root respiration and by respiration of microorganisms that find the carbohydrates required to fulfil their energetic costs in the rhizosphere. A close coupling between aboveground photosynthetic activity and soil CO2 efflux is therefore expected. The isotopic signature of photosynthates varies with time because photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination is dynamically controlled by environmental factors. This temporal variation of δ13C of photosynthate is thought to be transferred along the tree-soil continuum and it will be retrieved in soil CO2 efflux after a time lag that reflects the velocity of carbon transport from canopy to belowground. However, isotopic signature of soil CO2 efflux is not solely affected by photosynthetic carbon discrimination, bur also by post photosynthetic fractionation, and especially by fractionation processes affecting CO2 during the transport from soil layers to surface. Tunable diode laser spectrometry is a useful tool to quantify short-term variation in δ13C of soil CO2 efflux and of CO2 in the soil atmosphere. We set up hydrophobic tubes to measure the vertical profile of soil CO2 concentration and its δ13C composition in a temperate beech forest, and we monitored simultaneously δ13C of trunk and soil CO2 efflux, δ13C of phloem exudate and δ13C of leaf sugars. We evidenced that temporal changes in δ13C of soil CO2 and soil CO2 efflux reflected changes in environmental conditions that affect photosynthetic discrimination and that soil CO2 was 4.4% enriched compared to soil CO2 efflux according to diffusion fractionation. However, this close coupling can be disrupted when advective transport of CO2 took place. We also reported evidences that temporal variations in the isotopic composition of soil CO2 efflux reflect

  5. The reliability and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire among 9–11-year olds: a multinational study on three middle-income and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Saloheimo, T; González, S A; Erkkola, M; Milauskas, D M; Meisel, J D; Champagne, C M; Tudor-Locke, C; Sarmiento, O; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire with 23 food groups (I-FFQ) among a sample of 9–11-year-old children from three different countries that differ on economical development and income distribution, and to assess differences between country sites. Furthermore, we assessed factors associated with I-FFQ's performance. Methods: This was an ancillary study of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Reliability (n=321) and validity (n=282) components of this study had the same participants. Participation rates were 95% and 70%, respectively. Participants completed two I-FFQs with a mean interval of 4.9 weeks to assess reliability. A 3-day pre-coded food diary (PFD) was used as the reference method in the validity analyses. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and cross-classifications were used to assess the reliability of I-FFQ. Spearman correlation coefficients, percentage difference and cross-classifications were used to assess the validity of I-FFQ. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relation of selected variables with the estimate of validity. Analyses based on information in the PFDs were performed to assess how participants interpreted food groups. Results: Reliability correlation coefficients ranged from 0.37 to 0.78 and gross misclassification for all food groups was <5%. Validity correlation coefficients were below 0.5 for 22/23 food groups, and they differed among country sites. For validity, gross misclassification was <5% for 22/23 food groups. Over- or underestimation did not appear for 19/23 food groups. Logistic regression showed that country of participation and parental education were associated (P⩽0.05) with the validity of I-FFQ. Analyses of children's interpretation of food groups suggested that the meaning of most food groups was understood by the children. Conclusion: I-FFQ is a

  6. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  7. Functional analysis and molecular docking identify two active short-chain prenyltransferases in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Lei; Li, Zheng-Xi

    2012-10-01

    Short-chain prenyltransferases are responsible for biosynthesis of the C(10)-C(20) precursors of a variety of isoprenoids. We previously isolated two different short-chain prenyltransferases from the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (MpIPPS1 and MpIPPS2). In this study, the activity of the two aphid prenyltransferases was analyzed in vitro. Kinetic analysis using recombinant enzymes showed that both prenyltransferases could efficiently catalyze the formation of C(10) geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and C(15) farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) from the C(5) substrates isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), and MpIPPS2 had higher catalytic activity than MpIPPS1. Product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that FPP was generated as the major product, but GPP could be detected at low enzyme concentrations. Molecular docking revealed that MpIPPS2 had higher binding affinity with the substrates DMAPP, IPP, and GPP than MpIPPS1, which supported the experimentally determined kinetic parameters. Molecular docking also identified an amino acid residue (K266) critical to the catalytic activity of both MpIPPS1 and MpIPPS2. This prediction was subsequently confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, in which a point mutation (K266I) abolished the activity of both MpIPPS1 and MpIPPS2. Our data illustrate that both aphid short-chain prenyltransferases are active forms, which is in contrast to the previously reported results.

  8. Atmospheric Electrical Activity and the Prospects for Improving Short-Term, Weather Forcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    How might lightning measurements be used to improve short-term (0-24 hr) weather forecasting? We examine this question under two different prediction strategies. These include integration of lightning data into short-term forecasts (nowcasts) of convective (including severe) weather hazards and the assimilation of lightning data into cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction models. In each strategy we define specific metrics of forecast improvement and a progress assessment. We also address the conventional observing system deficiencies and potential gap-filling information that can be addressed through the use of the lightning measurement.

  9. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  10. A Neurocognitive Model for Short-Term Sensory and Motor Preparatory Activity in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Carlos M.; Vaquero, Encarna; Vazquez-Marrufo, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present information from different experiments that supports the proposal that brain systems are able to predict, in a short-term interval, certain characteristics about the next incoming stimuli. This ability allows the subject to be ready for the stimuli and be more efficient in completing the required task.…

  11. Short photoperiod-induced decrease of histamine H3 receptors facilitates activation of hypothalamic neurons in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Barrett, P; van den Top, M; Wilson, D; Mercer, J G; Song, C K; Bartness, T J; Morgan, P J; Spanswick, D

    2009-08-01

    Nonhibernating seasonal mammals have adapted to temporal changes in food availability through behavioral and physiological mechanisms to store food and energy during times of predictable plenty and conserve energy during predicted shortage. Little is known, however, of the hypothalamic neuronal events that lead to a change in behavior or physiology. Here we show for the first time that a shift from long summer-like to short winter-like photoperiod, which induces physiological adaptation to winter in the Siberian hamster, including a body weight decrease of up to 30%, increases neuronal activity in the dorsomedial region of the arcuate nucleus (dmpARC) assessed by electrophysiological patch-clamping recording. Increased neuronal activity in short days is dependent on a photoperiod-driven down-regulation of H3 receptor expression and can be mimicked in long-day dmpARC neurons by the application of the H3 receptor antagonist, clobenproprit. Short-day activation of dmpARC neurons results in increased c-Fos expression. Tract tracing with the trans-synaptic retrograde tracer, pseudorabies virus, delivered into adipose tissue reveals a multisynaptic neuronal sympathetic outflow from dmpARC to white adipose tissue. These data strongly suggest that increased activity of dmpARC neurons, as a consequence of down-regulation of the histamine H3 receptor, contributes to the physiological adaptation of body weight regulation in seasonal photoperiod.

  12. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  13. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  14. Effects of Active Versus Passive Recovery on Power Output During Repeated Bouts of Short Term, High Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Declan AJ.; Brennan, Kevin M.; Lauzon, Christie D.

    2003-01-01

    ATP repletion following exhaustive exercise is approximated to be 90-95% complete in 3 minutes, and is crucial in the performance of short duration, high intensity work. Few studies appear to have used this 3-minute interval in the investigation of recovery modes, blood lactate accumulation and power output. Thus, our aim was to investigate changes in peak power (PP), average power (AP) and blood lactate during repeated bouts of high intensity, short duration cycling, comprising active and passive recovery modes lasting 3 minutes. Seven male cyclists (age 21.8±3.3 yrs, mass 73.0±3.8kgs, height 177.3±3.4cm) performed both an active (3 min at 80rpm & 1kg resistance) and a passive recovery (no work between bouts) protocol. Following a warm-up, subjects performed six 15-second maximal sprints against a fixed workload of 5.5kg. Mean PP across the six trials was 775±11.2Watts (W) and 772±33.4W for active and passive protocols respectively; whereas mean AP was 671±26.4W and 664±10.0W, respectively. Neither was significantly different. There was a significant difference within trials for both peak power and average power (p<0.05), with both values decreasing over time. However, the decrease was significantly smaller for both PP and AP values during the active recovery protocol (p<0.05). In the current study, variation in power output cannot be explained by lactate values, as values did not differ between the active and passive protocol (p=0.37). Lactate values did differ significantly between trials within protocols (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that an active recovery of 3 minutes between high intensity, short duration exercise bouts significantly increases PP and AP compared to a passive recovery, irrespective of changes in blood lactate levels. PMID:24616610

  15. Lymphoedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire Turkish version: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation

    PubMed Central

    Kostanoglu, Alis; Hosbay, Zeynep; Tarakci, Ela

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to adapt the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire into the Turkish language, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] After the translation, inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed between patients and physiotherapists using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema were asked to fill out the Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire two times, one week apart. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha, and the test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient. Construct validity was investigated by comparing the results of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health and Short Form-36 questionnaires. [Results] The test-retest reliability and inter-tester reliability of the Lymphedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire total score, physical function score, mental function score, household activities score, mobility activities score, life and social activities score were excellent. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable for patients with breast cancer related lymphedema. PMID:27390404

  16. The questionnaire on autonomic regulation: a useful concept for integrative medicine?

    PubMed

    Kröz, Matthias; Reif, Marcus; Pranga, Danilo; Zerm, Roland; Schad, Friedemann; Baars, Erik Wim; Girke, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    The concept of autonomic regulation (aR) reflects the relevance of the function of different autonomic systems for health. aR can be captured by questionnaires. We differentiate between a trait or constitutional aR questionnaire version including 12 (short-version) or 18 items, respectively, with three subscales (orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation), and an 18-item state aR questionnaire on the preceding week with four subscales (rest/activity, orthostatic-circulatory, thermo- and digestive regulation). The validated questionnaires show satisfying to good reliability and robust validity with clear construct validity. In this article, we summarized the actually available literature on aR and the use of aR questionnaires in clinical and observational studies. We described the relationship of high aR with health and in case of low aR or loss of regulation with disease and functional disorder in the three (four) different subscales and functional systems, such as rest/activity, orthostatic-circulatory or digestive regulation (thermoregulation) with the consecutive therapeutic need. Finally, we gave perspectives of its further application in clinical research. PMID:27641604

  17. The Perceived Deficits Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Allison; Nikelshpur, Olga M.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction affects approximately 43% to 70% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is an important determinant of several functional outcomes in MS and quality of life. Brief neuropsychological test batteries have been developed specifically for use in MS and are widely used to aid clinicians in assessing levels of cognitive impairment in MS. Neuropsychologists and neurologists also frequently use briefer screening measures, such as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), to assist in determining whether a more extensive neuropsychological evaluation is warranted. However, despite the ease of such measures, the relationship between self-report and objective cognitive impairment has been inconsistent, at best. Moreover, factors such as depression, fatigue, anxiety, and personality have been found to be more related to reports of cognitive difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between subjective cognitive concerns and objective cognitive impairment while accounting for related symptoms. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported cognitive concerns on the PDQ with objective cognitive measures, as well as depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Results: There was no relationship between self-reported cognitive concerns and objective performance. Rather, reports on the PDQ were more correlated with reports of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Depression and poor self-efficacy can contribute to reports of cognitive difficulties. Effective treatment to improve these factors seems warranted given the impact of perceived cognitive impairment on outcomes in MS and the potential for more accurate self-reports. PMID:27551243

  18. De Novo Design and Synthesis of Ultra-Short Peptidomimetic Antibiotics Having Dual Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Mija; Hwang, Eunha; Sohn, Hoik; Park, Hyo-Nam; Lee, Eunjung; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Cheong, Chaejoon; Nam, Ky-Youb; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Kim, Yangmee; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Background Much attention has been focused on the design and synthesis of potent, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, their development into therapeutic agents has been limited mainly due to their large size (12 to 50 residues in length) and poor protease stability. Methodology/Principal Findings In an attempt to overcome the issues described above, a set of ultra-short, His-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAMPs) has been developed for the first time. Through systematic tuning of pendant hydrophobic alkyl tails at the N(π)- and N(τ)-positions on His, and the positive charge of Arg, much higher prokaryotic selectivity was achieved, compared to human AMP LL-37. Additionally, the most potent HDAMPs showed promising dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as anti–methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity and proteolytic resistance. Our results from transmission electron microscopy, membrane depolarization, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, and calcein-dye leakage experiments propose that HDAMP-1 kills microbial cells via dissipation of the membrane potential by forming pore/ion channels on bacterial cell membranes. Conclusion/Significance The combination of the ultra-short size, high-prokaryotic selectivity, potent anti-MRSA activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and proteolytic resistance of the designed HDAMP-1, -3, -5, and -6 makes these molecules promising candidates for future antimicrobial therapeutics. PMID:24302996

  19. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  20. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  1. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  2. Short-term desensitization of G-protein-activated, inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) currents in pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex.

    PubMed

    Sickmann, Thomas; Alzheimer, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Whole cell recordings from acutely isolated rat neocortical pyramidal cells were performed to study the kinetics and the mechanisms of short-term desensitization of G-protein-activated, inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) currents during prolonged application (5 min) of baclofen, adenosine, or serotonin. Most commonly, desensitization of GIRK currents was characterized by a biphasic time course with average time constants for fast and slow desensitization in the range of 8 and 120 s, respectively. The time constants were independent of the agonist used to evoke the current. The biphasic time course was preserved in perforated-patch recordings, indicating that neither component of desensitization is attributable to cell dialysis. Desensitization of GIRK currents displayed a strong heterologous component in that application of a second agonist substantially reduced the responsiveness to a test agonist. Fast desensitization, but not slow desensitization, was lost in cells loaded with GDP, suggesting that the hydrolysis cycle of G proteins might underlie the initial, rapid current decline. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol biphosphate is an unlikely candidate underlying short-term desensitization, because both components of desensitization were preserved in the presence of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. We conclude that short-term desensitization does neither result from receptor downregulation nor from altered channel gating but might involve modifications of the G-protein-dependent pathway that serves to translate receptor activation into channel opening.

  3. Long and short timescale variability of magnetic activity on the BY Dra star BD+26 deg 730

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Golub, L.; Bopp, B.; Herbst, W.; Huovelin, J.

    1990-01-01

    BD+26 degree 730 is a very active K5V flare star with a 60 year starspot cycle. Since it is also nearly pole-on, it presents an unusual opportunity to study purely temporal evolution of magnetic activity. Contemporaneous International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), magnetic flux, polarimetric, and H alpha observations of the star taken over several rotational periods in 1988 are presented. When combined with older photometry, optical and IUE archive spectra, the data show a surprising lack of any activity variability on either short (few days) or long (years) timescales. The lack of variability is suggested to be due to a nearly saturated level of magnetic activity on the star, as indicated by its large magnetic filling factor.

  4. Localization of brain activity during auditory verbal short-term memory derived from magnetic recordings.

    PubMed

    Starr, A; Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1991-09-01

    We have studied magnetic and electrical fields of the brain in normal subjects during the performance of an auditory verbal short-term memory task. On each trial 3 digits, selected from the numbers 'one' through 'nine', were presented for memorization followed by a probe number which could or could not be a member of the preceding memory set. The subject pressed an appropriate response button and accuracy and reaction time were measured. Magnetic fields recorded from up to 63 sites over both hemispheres revealed a transient field at 110 ms to both the memory item and the probe consistent with a dipole source in Heschl's gyrus; a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the memory items localized to the temporal lobe slightly deeper and posterior to Heschl's gyri; and a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the probes localized bilaterally to the medio-basal temporal lobes. These results are related to clinical disorders of short-term memory in man.

  5. Short-term effects of integrated motor imagery practice on muscle activation and force performance.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, F; Blache, Y; Kanthack, T F D; Monteil, K; Collet, C; Guillot, A

    2015-10-01

    The effect of motor imagery (MI) practice on isometric force development is well-documented. However, whether practicing MI during rest periods of physical training improves the forthcoming performance remains unexplored. We involved 18 athletes in a counterbalanced design including three physical training sessions scheduled over five consecutive days. Training involved 10 maximal isometric contractions against a force plate, with the elbow at 90°. During two sessions, we integrated MI practice (focusing on either muscle activation or relaxation) during the inter-trial rest periods. We measured muscle performance from force plate and electromyograms of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoideus. We continuously monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) to control sympathetic nervous system activity. MI of muscle activation resulted in higher isometric force as compared to both MI of muscle relaxation and passive recovery (respectively +2.1% and +3.5%). MI practice of muscle relaxation also outperformed the control condition (+1.9%). Increased activation of the biceps brachii was recorded under both MI practice conditions compared to control. Biceps brachii activation was similar between the two MI practice conditions, but electromyography revealed a marginal trend toward greater activation of the anterior deltoideus during MI practice of muscle activation. EDA and self-reports indicated that these effects were independent from physiological arousal and motivation. These results might account for priming effects of MI practice yielding to higher muscle activation and force performance. Present findings may be of interest for applications in sports training and neurologic rehabilitation. PMID:26241339

  6. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  7. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  8. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.

  9. Changes in Short-Term Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise of University Personal Wellness Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…

  10. A Search for Short Timescale Microvariability in Active Galactic Nuclei in the Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.; Clark, L. Lee

    2003-01-01

    We observed four AGNs (the type-1 Seyfert systems 3C249.1, NGC 6814 and Mrk 205, and the BL Lac object 3C371) using the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for short timescale microvariability in the W. Continuous observations of 3 0 0 0 s duration were obtained for each system on several consecutive HST orbits using a 1 s sample time in a 1400 - 3000 2 bandpass. variability > 0.3 % (0 . 003 mag) was detected in any AGN on timescales shorter than 1500 s. The distribution of photon arrival times observed from each source was consistent with Poisson statistics. Because of HST optical problems, the limit on photometric variability at longer timescales is less precise. These results restrict models of supermassive black holes as the central engine of an AGN and the diskoseismology oscillations of any accretion disk around such a black hole.

  11. Short communication: Effect of genetic type on antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese made from the milk of 2 breeds, Italian Brown and Italian Holstein, and ripened for 1, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d. The antioxidant activity of cheese was measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. Italian Brown cheese had higher antioxidant activity than Italian Holstein cheese, and antioxidant activity increased during ripening of both cheeses types. Moreover, antioxidant activity varied during ripening depending on the rate of formation of soluble peptides. To date, few studies have evaluated the effect of genetic type on antioxidant capacity of the pasta filata cheeses; thus, this study forms the basis of new knowledge that could lead to the production of a pasta filata cheese with specific nutraceutical characteristics.

  12. Platelet-Derived Short-Chain Polyphosphates Enhance the Inactivation of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor by Activated Coagulation Factor XI

    PubMed Central

    Puy, Cristina; Tucker, Erik I.; Ivanov, Ivan S.; Gailani, David; Smith, Stephanie A.; Morrissey, James H.; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Factor (F) XI supports both normal human hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Activated FXI (FXIa) promotes thrombin generation by enzymatic activation of FXI, FIX, FX, and FV, and inactivation of alpha tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPIα), in vitro. Some of these reactions are now known to be enhanced by short-chain polyphosphates (SCP) derived from activated platelets. These SCPs act as a cofactor for the activation of FXI and FV by thrombin and FXIa, respectively. Since SCPs have been shown to inhibit the anticoagulant function of TFPIα, we herein investigated whether SCPs could serve as cofactors for the proteolytic inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa, further promoting the efficiency of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation to generate thrombin. Methods and Results Purified soluble SCP was prepared by size-fractionation of sodium polyphosphate. TFPIα proteolysis was analyzed by western blot. TFPIα activity was measured as inhibition of FX activation and activity in coagulation and chromogenic assays. SCPs significantly accelerated the rate of inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa in both purified systems and in recalcified plasma. Moreover, platelet-derived SCP accelerated the rate of inactivation of platelet-derived TFPIα by FXIa. TFPIα activity was not affected by SCP in recalcified FXI-depleted plasma. Conclusions Our data suggest that SCP is a cofactor for TFPIα inactivation by FXIa, thus, expanding the range of hemostatic FXIa substrates that may be affected by the cofactor functions of platelet-derived SCP. PMID:27764259

  13. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review.

    PubMed

    Chaieb, Kamel; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Zmantar, Tarek; Kahla-Nakbi, Amel Ben; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Mahdouani, Kacem; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-06-01

    The essential oil extracted from the dried flower buds of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata L. Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), is used as a topical application to relieve pain and to promote healing and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. The main constituents of the essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The biological activity of Eugenia caryophyllata has been investigated on several microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, Herpes simplex and hepatitis C viruses. In addition to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activity, clove essential oil possesses antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, insect repellent and anaesthetic properties. This short review addresses the chemical composition and biological effects of clove essential oil, and includes new results from GC/MS analysis and a study of its antimicrobial activity against a large number of multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from dialysis biomaterials.

  14. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review.

    PubMed

    Chaieb, Kamel; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Zmantar, Tarek; Kahla-Nakbi, Amel Ben; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Mahdouani, Kacem; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-06-01

    The essential oil extracted from the dried flower buds of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata L. Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), is used as a topical application to relieve pain and to promote healing and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. The main constituents of the essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The biological activity of Eugenia caryophyllata has been investigated on several microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, Herpes simplex and hepatitis C viruses. In addition to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activity, clove essential oil possesses antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, insect repellent and anaesthetic properties. This short review addresses the chemical composition and biological effects of clove essential oil, and includes new results from GC/MS analysis and a study of its antimicrobial activity against a large number of multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from dialysis biomaterials. PMID:17380552

  15. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

    PubMed

    Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades, particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. PMID:12067569

  16. Short and efficient synthetic route to methyl α-trioxacarcinoside B and anomerically activated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Magauer, Thomas; Myers, Andrew G

    2011-10-21

    A 9-step synthetic route to the complex carbohydrate methyl α-trioxacarcinoside B from 2-acetylfuran is described. Anomerically activated forms, including 1-phenylthio, 1-O-(4'-pentenyl), 1-fluoro, and 1-O-acetyl derivatives are also prepared.

  17. The Long and the Short of It: Comments on Multiple Timescale Studies of Human Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    2001-01-01

    Comments on four articles in a special issue of the Journal of the Learning Sciences on methodology in learning sciences. Analyzes the articles within a general model seeking to analyze human activity across multiple time scales. (Author/MM)

  18. Effects of short-term acetaminophen and celecoxib treatment on orthodontic tooth movement and neuronal activation in rat.

    PubMed

    Stabile, A C; Stuani, M B S; Leite-Panissi, C R A; Rocha, M J A

    2009-08-14

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used for pain relief in orthodontics, but clinical studies reported that they may reduce tooth movement (TM). By other side, TM seems to activate brain structures related to nociception, but the effects of NSAIDs in this activation have not been studied yet. We analyzed the effect of short-term treatment with acetaminophen or celecoxib in the separation of rat upper incisors, as well as in neuronal activation of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, following tooth movement. Thirty rats (400-420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage (1 ml/dose) with acetaminophen (200mg/kg), celecoxib (50mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance for TM. In controls, this appliance was immediately removed after its introduction. Rats received ground food, and every 12h, one of the drugs or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized, maxilla was radiographed, and were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Brains were further processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. TM induced incisor distalization (p<0.05) and neuronal activation of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Treatment with both drugs did not affect tooth movement, but reduced c-fos expression in the caudalis subnucleus. No changes in c-fos expression were seen in the oralis and interpolaris subnuclei. We conclude that neither celecoxib nor acetaminophen seems to affect tooth movement, when used for 2 days, but both drugs are able to reduce the activation of brain structures related to nociception. Short-term treatment with celecoxib, thus, may be a therapeutic alternative to acetaminophen when the latter is contraindicated.

  19. Autoinhibition of GEF activity in intersectin 1 is mediated by the short SH3-DH domain linker

    PubMed Central

    Kintscher, Carsten; Wuertenberger, Silvia; Eylenstein, Roy; Uhlendorf, Theresia; Groemping, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Intersectin 1L (ITSN1L) acts as a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small guanine nucleotide binding protein Cdc42 via its C-terminal DH domain. Interestingly, constructs of ITSN1L that comprise additional domains, for instance the five SH3 domains amino-terminal of the DH domain, were shown to be inhibited in their exchange factor activity. Here, we investigate the inhibitory mechanism of ITSN1L in detail and identify a novel short amino acid motif which mediates autoinhibition. We found this motif to be located in the linker region between the SH3 domains and the DH domain, and we show that within this motif W1221 acts as key residue in establishing the inhibitory interaction. This assigns ITSN1L to a growing class of GEFs that are regulated by a short amino acid motif inhibiting GEF activity by an intramolecular interaction. Moreover, we quantify the interaction between the ITSN1L SH3 domains and the Cdc42 effector N-WASP using fluorescence anisotropy binding experiments. As the SH3 domains are not involved in autoinhibition, binding of N-WASP does not release inhibition of nucleotide exchange activity in kinetic experiments, in contrast to earlier observations. PMID:20842712

  20. Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Teresia M.; Cerin, Ester; Robles, Jessica; Lee, Rebecca E.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Butte, Nancy; Mendoza, Jason A.; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and social environmental factors influence young children's physical activity, yet little is known about where Hispanic children are more likely to be active. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously measuring, then processing objective measures of location and physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. Preschool-aged Hispanic children (n = 15) simultaneously wore QStarz BT100X global positioning system (GPS) data loggers and Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for a 24- to 36-hour period, during which time their parents completed a location and travel diary. Data were aggregated to the minute and processed using the personal activity location measurement system (PALMS). Children successfully wore the GPS data loggers and accelerometers simultaneously, 12 of which yielded data that met quality standards. The average percent correspondence between GPS- and diary-based estimates of types of location was high and Kappa statistics were moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.49-0.99. The between-method (GPS monitor, parent-reported diary) correlations of estimated participant-aggregated minutes spent on vehicle-based trips were strong. The simultaneous use of GPS and accelerometers to assess Hispanic preschool children's location and physical activity is feasible. This methodology has the potential to provide more precise findings to inform environmental interventions and policy changes to promote physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. PMID:23733298

  1. Attention and awareness each influence amygdala activity for dynamic bodily expressions—a short review

    PubMed Central

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Hortensius, Ruud; Tamietto, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala (AMG) has long been viewed as the gateway to sensory processing of emotions and is also known to play an important role at the interface between cognition and emotion. However, the debate continues on whether AMG activation is independent of attentional demands. Recently, researchers started exploring AMG functions using dynamic stimuli rather than the traditional pictures of facial expressions. Our present goal is to review some recent studies using dynamic stimuli to investigate AMG activation and discuss the impact of different viewing conditions, including oddball detection, explicit or implicit recognition, variable cognitive task load, and non-conscious perception. In the second part, we sketch a dynamic dual route perspective of affective perception and discuss the implications for AMG activity. We sketch a dynamic dual route perspective of affective perception. We argue that this allows for multiple AMG involvement in separate networks and at different times in the processing streams. Attention has a different impact on these separate but interacting networks. Route I is engaged in early emotion processing, is partly supported by AMG activity, and is possibly independent of attention, whereas activity related to late emotion processing is influenced by attention. Route II is a cortical-based network that underlies body recognition and action representation. The end result of route I and II is reflexive and voluntary behavior, respectively. We conclude that using dynamic emotion stimuli and a dynamic dual route model of affective perception can provide new insights into the varieties of AMG activation. PMID:22876223

  2. Effects of Short-Term Physical Activity Interventions on Simple and Choice Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Kevin; Norton, Lynda; Lewis, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Response time (RT) is important for health and human performance and provides insight into cognitive processes. It deteriorates with age, is associated with chronic physical activity (PA), and improves with PA interventions. We investigated associations between the amount and type of PA undertaken and the rate of change in RT for low-active adults across the age range 18–63 yr. Methods. Insufficiently active adults were assigned to either a walking (n = 263) or higher-intensity (n = 380) exercise program conducted over 40 days. Active controls were also recruited (n = 135). Simple response time (SRT) and choice response time (CRT) were measured before and after the intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results. SRT and CRT slowed across the age range; however, habitually active participants at baseline had significantly faster CRT (p < 0.05). The interventions increased weekly PA with corresponding increases in physical fitness. These changes were mirrored in faster CRT across the study for both intervention groups (p < 0.05). No changes were found for SRT. Conclusions. Both PA interventions resulted in improvements in CRT among adults starting from a low activity base. These improvements were relatively rapid and occurred in both interventions despite large differences in exercise volume, type, and intensity. There were no effects on SRT in either intervention. PMID:27190993

  3. Short, Synthetic Cationic Peptides Have Antibacterial Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis by Forming Pores in Membrane and Synergizing with Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kajal; Singh, Sameer; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are constantly exposed to a multitude of pathogenic microbes. Infection is inhibited in vivo by the innate and adaptive immune system. Mycobacterium species have emerged that are resistant to most antibiotics. We identified several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides that were active at low micromolar concentrations against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Human-derived cathelicidin LL-37 is well characterized and studied against M. smegmatis; we compared LL-37 with Chinese cobra-derived cathelicidin NA-CATH and mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP). Two synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1A and ATRA-2) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were tested for their activity against M. smegmatis along with a short synthetic peptide derivative from the human beta-defensin hBD3 (hBD3-Pep4). We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides may demonstrate antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and at less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds or use in combination with antibiotics. These peptides have antimicrobial activity with EC50 ranging from 0.05 to 1.88 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The ATRA-1A short peptide was found to be the most effective antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (EC50 = 0.05 μg/mL). High bactericidal activity correlated with bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization activities. The efficacy of the peptides was further analyzed through Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays. The MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The peptide mCRAMP showed the best MIC activity at 15.6 μg/mL. Neither of the effective short synthetic peptides demonstrated synergy with the antibiotic rifampicin, although both demonstrated synergy with the cyclic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B. The peptides LL-37 and mCRAMP displayed synergism with rifampicin in MIC assays, whereas antibiotic polymyxin B displayed synergism

  4. Distributed patterns of activity in sensory cortex reflect the precision of multiple items maintained in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Stephen M; Riggall, Adam C; Larocque, Joshua J; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-04-10

    Traditionally, load sensitivity of sustained, elevated activity has been taken as an index of storage for a limited number of items in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Recently, studies have demonstrated that the contents of a single item held in VSTM can be decoded from early visual cortex, despite the fact that these areas do not exhibit elevated, sustained activity. It is unknown, however, whether the patterns of neural activity decoded from sensory cortex change as a function of load, as one would expect from a region storing multiple representations. Here, we use multivoxel pattern analysis to examine the neural representations of VSTM in humans across multiple memory loads. In an important extension of previous findings, our results demonstrate that the contents of VSTM can be decoded from areas that exhibit a transient response to visual stimuli, but not from regions that exhibit elevated, sustained load-sensitive delay-period activity. Moreover, the neural information present in these transiently activated areas decreases significantly with increasing load, indicating load sensitivity of the patterns of activity that support VSTM maintenance. Importantly, the decrease in classification performance as a function of load is correlated with within-subject changes in mnemonic resolution. These findings indicate that distributed patterns of neural activity in putatively sensory visual cortex support the representation and precision of information in VSTM.

  5. Short KR-12 analogs designed from human cathelicidin LL-37 possessing both antimicrobial and antiendotoxic activities without mammalian cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Binu; Park, Il-Seon; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Shin, Song Yub

    2013-11-01

    KR-12 (residues 18-29 of LL-37) was known to be the smallest peptide of human cathelicidin LL-37 possessing antimicrobial activity. In order to optimize α-helical short antimicrobial peptides having both antimicrobial and antiendotoxic activities without mammalian cell toxicity, we designed and synthesized a series of KR-12 analogs. Highest hydrophobic analogs KR-12-a5 and KR-12-a6 displayed greater inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α production and higher LPS-binding activity. We have observed that antimicrobial activity is independent of charge, but LPS neutralization requires a balance of hydrophobicity and net positive charge. Among KR-12 analogs, KR-12-a2, KR-12-a3 and KR-12-a4 showed much higher cell specificity for bacteria over erythrocytes and retained antiendotoxic activity, relative to parental LL-37. KR-12-a5 displayed the strongest antiendotoxic activity but almost similar cell specificity as compared with LL-37. Also, these KR-12 analogs (KR-12-a2, KR-12-a3, KR-12-a4 and KR-12-a5) exhibited potent antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration: 4 μM) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Taken together, these KR-12 analogs have the potential for future development as a novel class of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.

  6. Short-term modulation of cerebellar Purkinje cell activity after spontaneous climbing fiber input.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Miura, A; Fushiki, H; Kawasaki, T

    1992-12-01

    1. There are two opposite points of view concerning the way climbing fiber input in a Purkinje cell modifies simple spike (SS) activity transiently: depression versus enhancement of SS activity. The different groups of investigators favored one effect predominating over the other. In the decerebrate unanesthetized cat, we recorded spontaneous activity of single Purkinje cells and investigated time course of SS activity after the complex spike (CS). 2. In the peri-CS time histogram, there was a SS pause lasting, on average, 10.8 ms after onset of the CS in all of the 316 cells recorded. The pause was followed by a rapid increase in SS activity to a maximum, which was on average 175.6% of a pre-CS control level, and a gradual return to around the control level in the majority of the cells recorded (pause-facilitation type, 71.2%). The increase in SS activity was significant (P < 0.01, t test) during 20-100 ms. The SS activity during the 20-100 ms was, on average, 163.7% of the control level. In some cells (pure-pause type, 25.3%), no significant changes were found (P > 0.01) in the post-pause SS firing. In contrast, only 3.5% of the cells (pause-reduction type) showed a significant (P < 0.01) firing decrease (average 54.0% of the control level) lasting 20-60 ms after the pause period. 3. Analysis of the pre-CS time histogram revealed no significant differences (P > 0.01) in the SS activity between pre-CS periods in all of the cells recorded, suggesting that the SS activity enhancement is not due to a coactivated mossy fiber input just preceding the activation of the climbing fiber input. 4. Analysis of the raster diagram revealed variability of individual SS responses after the CS. The probability of occurrence of the increase in SS number during a post-CS period of 0-100 ms with respect to that during a pre-CS period of -100-0 ms in individual raster traces was high (on average 78.2%), medium (57.3%), and low (36.3%) in the pause-facilitation, pure-pause, and pause

  7. Physicochemical Properties That Enhance Discriminative Antibacterial Activity of Short Dermaseptin Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Shahar; Radzishevsky, Inna; Mor, Amram

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are widely believed to exert their effects by nonspecific mechanisms. We assessed the extent to which physicochemical properties can be exploited to promote discriminative activity by manipulating the N-terminal sequence of the 13-mer dermaseptin derivative K4-S4(1-13) (P). Inhibitory activity determined in culture media against 16 strains of bacteria showed that when its hydrophobicity and charge were changed, P became predominantly active against either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Thus, conjugation of various aminoacyl-lysin moieties (e.g., aminohexyl-K-P) led to inactivity against gram-positive bacteria (MIC50 > 50 μM) but potent activity against gram-negative bacteria (MIC50, 6.2 μM). Conversely, conjugation of equivalent acyls to the substituted analog M4-S4(1-13) (e.g., hexyl-M4-P) led to inactivity against gram-negative bacteria (MIC50 > 50 μM) but potent activity against gram-positive bacteria (MIC50, 3.1 μM). Surface plasmon resonance experiments, used to investigate peptides' binding properties to lipopolysaccharide-containing idealized phospholipid membranes, suggest that although the acylated derivatives have increased lipophilic properties with parallel antibacterial behavior, hydrophobic derivatives are prevented from reaching the cytoplasmic membranes of gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, unlike modifications that enhanced the activity against gram-positive bacteria, which also enhanced hemolysis, we found that modifications that enhanced activity against gram-negative bacteria generally reduced hemolysis. Thus, compared with the clinically tested peptides MSI-78 and IB-367, the dermaseptin derivative aminohexyl-K-P performed similarly in terms of potency and bactericidal kinetics but was significantly more selective in terms of discrimination between bacteria and human erythrocytes. Overall, the data suggest that similar strategies maybe useful to derive potent and safe compounds from known antimicrobial

  8. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  9. Short communication: Bovine-derived proteins activate STAT3 in human skeletal muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Caldow, M K; Digby, M R; Cameron-Smith, D

    2015-05-01

    Bovine milk contains biologically active peptides that may modulate growth and development within humans. In this study, targeted bovine-derived proteins were evaluated for their effects on signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle cells. Following an acute exposure, bovine-derived acidic fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) activated STAT3 in differentiating myotubes. Chronic exposure to FGF and LIF during the proliferative phase reduced myoblast proliferation and elevated MyoD and creatine kinase (CKM) mRNA expression without altering apoptotic genes. In mature myotubes, neither FGF nor LIF elicited any action. Together, these data indicate that a reduction in proliferation in the presence of bovine-derived FGF or LIF may stimulate early maturation of myoblasts. PMID:25726111

  10. Changes in the Size of the Active Microbial Pool Explain Short-Term Soil Respiratory Responses to Temperature and Moisture.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Villegas, Alejandro; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic respiration contributes a substantial fraction of the carbon flux from soil to atmosphere, and responds strongly to environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms through which short-term changes in environmental conditions affect microbial respiration still remain unclear. Microorganisms cope with adverse environmental conditions by transitioning into and out of dormancy, a state in which they minimize rates of metabolism and respiration. These transitions are poorly characterized in soil and are generally omitted from decomposition models. Most current approaches to model microbial control over soil CO2 production relate responses to total microbial biomass (TMB) and do not differentiate between microorganisms in active and dormant physiological states. Indeed, few data for active microbial biomass (AMB) exist with which to compare model output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences in soil microbial respiration rates across various environmental conditions are more closely related to differences in AMB (e.g., due to activation of dormant microorganisms) than in TMB. We measured basal respiration (SBR) of soil incubated for a week at two temperatures (24 and 33°C) and two moisture levels (10 and 20% soil dry weight [SDW]), and then determined TMB, AMB, microbial specific growth rate, and the lag time before microbial growth (t lag ) using the Substrate-Induced Growth Response (SIGR) method. As expected, SBR was more strongly correlated with AMB than with TMB. This relationship indicated that each g active biomass C contributed ~0.04 g CO2-C h(-1) of SBR. TMB responded very little to short-term changes in temperature and soil moisture and did not explain differences in SBR among the treatments. Maximum specific growth rate did not respond to environmental conditions, suggesting that the dominant microbial populations remained similar. However, warmer temperatures and increased soil moisture both reduced t lag , indicating that favorable

  11. Changes in the Size of the Active Microbial Pool Explain Short-Term Soil Respiratory Responses to Temperature and Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Villegas, Alejandro; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic respiration contributes a substantial fraction of the carbon flux from soil to atmosphere, and responds strongly to environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms through which short-term changes in environmental conditions affect microbial respiration still remain unclear. Microorganisms cope with adverse environmental conditions by transitioning into and out of dormancy, a state in which they minimize rates of metabolism and respiration. These transitions are poorly characterized in soil and are generally omitted from decomposition models. Most current approaches to model microbial control over soil CO2 production relate responses to total microbial biomass (TMB) and do not differentiate between microorganisms in active and dormant physiological states. Indeed, few data for active microbial biomass (AMB) exist with which to compare model output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences in soil microbial respiration rates across various environmental conditions are more closely related to differences in AMB (e.g., due to activation of dormant microorganisms) than in TMB. We measured basal respiration (SBR) of soil incubated for a week at two temperatures (24 and 33°C) and two moisture levels (10 and 20% soil dry weight [SDW]), and then determined TMB, AMB, microbial specific growth rate, and the lag time before microbial growth (tlag) using the Substrate-Induced Growth Response (SIGR) method. As expected, SBR was more strongly correlated with AMB than with TMB. This relationship indicated that each g active biomass C contributed ~0.04 g CO2-C h−1 of SBR. TMB responded very little to short-term changes in temperature and soil moisture and did not explain differences in SBR among the treatments. Maximum specific growth rate did not respond to environmental conditions, suggesting that the dominant microbial populations remained similar. However, warmer temperatures and increased soil moisture both reduced tlag, indicating that favorable

  12. Changes in the Size of the Active Microbial Pool Explain Short-Term Soil Respiratory Responses to Temperature and Moisture.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Villegas, Alejandro; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic respiration contributes a substantial fraction of the carbon flux from soil to atmosphere, and responds strongly to environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms through which short-term changes in environmental conditions affect microbial respiration still remain unclear. Microorganisms cope with adverse environmental conditions by transitioning into and out of dormancy, a state in which they minimize rates of metabolism and respiration. These transitions are poorly characterized in soil and are generally omitted from decomposition models. Most current approaches to model microbial control over soil CO2 production relate responses to total microbial biomass (TMB) and do not differentiate between microorganisms in active and dormant physiological states. Indeed, few data for active microbial biomass (AMB) exist with which to compare model output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences in soil microbial respiration rates across various environmental conditions are more closely related to differences in AMB (e.g., due to activation of dormant microorganisms) than in TMB. We measured basal respiration (SBR) of soil incubated for a week at two temperatures (24 and 33°C) and two moisture levels (10 and 20% soil dry weight [SDW]), and then determined TMB, AMB, microbial specific growth rate, and the lag time before microbial growth (t lag ) using the Substrate-Induced Growth Response (SIGR) method. As expected, SBR was more strongly correlated with AMB than with TMB. This relationship indicated that each g active biomass C contributed ~0.04 g CO2-C h(-1) of SBR. TMB responded very little to short-term changes in temperature and soil moisture and did not explain differences in SBR among the treatments. Maximum specific growth rate did not respond to environmental conditions, suggesting that the dominant microbial populations remained similar. However, warmer temperatures and increased soil moisture both reduced t lag , indicating that favorable

  13. Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2012-07-01

    Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.

  14. Strength Training to Contraction Failure Increases Voluntary Activation of the Quadriceps Muscle Shortly After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Elin Karin; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Andersen, Lars Louis; Bandholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to investigate voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during one set of knee extensions performed until contraction failure in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. Design This was a cross-sectional study of 24 patients with total knee arthroplasty. One set of knee extensions was performed until contraction failure, using a predetermined 10 repetition maximum loading. In the operated leg, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral and medial vastus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles was recorded during the set. Muscle activity (%EMGmax) and median power frequency of the EMG power spectrum were calculated for each repetition decile (10%–100% contraction failure). Results Muscle activity increased significantly over contractions from a mean of 90.0 and 93.6 %EMGmax (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 99.3 and 105.5 %EMGmax at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.009 and 0.004). Median power frequency decreased significantly over contractions from a mean of 66.8 and 64.2 Hz (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 59.9 and 60.1 Hz at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.0006 and 0.0187). Conclusion In patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty, 10 repetition maximum–loaded knee extensions performed in one set until contraction failure increases voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during the set. Clinical Trials Gov-identifier: NCT01713140 to the abstract to increase trial transparency. PMID:26339729

  15. Effect of short term external perturbations on bacterial ecology and activities in a partial nitritation and anammox reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sha; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S; Weissbrodt, David G; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-11-01

    This research investigated the short term effects of temperature changes (lasting 2-4weeks each) from 35±2°C to 21±2°C and 13±2°C and sulfide toxicity on partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) system. Temperatures below 20°C and sulfide content as low as 5mgSL(-1) affected both aerobic and anaerobic catabolic activities of ammonia oxidation and the expression of related functional gene markers. The activity of AOB was inversely correlated with ammonium monooxygenase (amoA) gene expression. In contrast, the activity of AMX bacteria was positively correlated with the expression of their hydrazine synthase (hzsA) gene. Although the overall activities of AMX bacteria decreased at lower temperatures, the AMX bacteria were still active at the low temperatures. The inverse correlation between amoA gene expressions and the corresponding AOB activities was surprising. 16S rDNA based high throughput amplicon sequencing revealed the dominance of Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria phyla the distribution of which changed with temperature changes. PMID:27522119

  16. A Short and Efficient Synthetic Route to Methyl α-Trioxacarcinoside B and Anomerically Activated Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Magauer, Thomas; Myers, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    A 9-step synthetic route to the complex carbohydrate methyl α-trioxacarcinoside B from 2-acetylfuran is described. Anomerically activated forms, including 1-phenylthio, 1-O-(4’f-pentenyl), 1-fluoro, and 1-O-acetyl derivatives are also prepared. PMID:21958151

  17. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli. PMID:26902326

  18. Short-Term Motor Memory as a Function of Feedback and Interpolated Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwitz, L.

    1974-01-01

    In the present study, a single -trial learn-recall design was employed to eliminate the possibility of interference and to provide a clean test of the trace decay theory, which predicts forgetting under impoverished feedback and interpolated noninterfering activity because of covert-rehersal restrictions. (Author)

  19. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se H.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.; Lee, Pyung C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4′-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli. PMID:26902326

  20. Short-term meditation modulates brain activity of insight evoked with solution cue.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoqian; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Cao, Chen; Deng, Yuqin; Wang, Yan; Xin, Xiu; Posner, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has been shown to improve creativity in some situation. However, little is known about the brain systems underling insight into a problem when the person fails to solve the problem. Here, we examined the neural correlation using Chinese Remote Association Test, as a measure of creativity. We provide a solution following the failure of the participant to provide one. We examine how meditation in comparison with relaxation influences the reaction of the participant to a correct solution. The event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed greater activity, mainly distributed in the right cingulate gyrus (CG), insula, putamen, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG). This pattern of activation was greater following 5 h of meditation training than the same amount of relaxation. Based on prior research, we speculate on the function of this pattern of brain activity: (i) CG may be involved in detecting conflict and breaking mental set, (ii) MFG/IFG may play an important role in restructuring of the problem representation, (iii) insula, IPL and STG may be associated with error detection, problem understanding or general attentive control and (iv) putamen may be activated by 'Aha' feeling.

  1. Persistent Associative Plasticity at an Identified Synapse Underlying Classical Conditioning Becomes Labile with Short-Term Homosynaptic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schacher, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Synapses express different forms of plasticity that contribute to different forms of memory, and both memory and plasticity can become labile after reactivation. We previously reported that a persistent form of nonassociative long-term facilitation (PNA-LTF) of the sensorimotor synapses in Aplysia californica, a cellular analog of long-term sensitization, became labile with short-term heterosynaptic reactivation and reversed when the reactivation was followed by incubation with the protein synthesis inhibitor rapamycin. Here we examined the reciprocal impact of different forms of short-term plasticity (reactivations) on a persistent form of associative long-term facilitation (PA-LTF), a cellular analog of classical conditioning, which was expressed at Aplysia sensorimotor synapses when a tetanic stimulation of the sensory neurons was paired with a brief application of serotonin on 2 consecutive days. The expression of short-term homosynaptic plasticity [post-tetanic potentiation or homosynaptic depression (HSD)], or short-term heterosynaptic plasticity [serotonin-induced facilitation or neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFa)-induced depression], at synapses expressing PA-LTF did not affect the maintenance of PA-LTF. The kinetics of HSD was attenuated at synapses expressing PA-LTF, which required activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Both PA-LTF and the attenuated kinetics of HSD were reversed by either a transient blockade of PKC activity or a homosynaptic, but not heterosynaptic, reactivation when paired with rapamycin. These results indicate that two different forms of persistent synaptic plasticity, PA-LTF and PNA-LTF, expressed at the same synapse become labile when reactivated by different stimuli. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Activity-dependent changes in neural circuits mediate long-term memories. Some forms of long-term memories become labile and can be reversed with specific types of reactivations, but the mechanism is complex. At the cellular level

  2. Short-term foreshock activity and its value for the earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Daskalaki, Elena; Minadakis, George; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos

    2014-05-01

    Seismicity often occurs in space-time clusters: swarms, short-term foreshocks, aftershocks. Swarms are space-time clusters that do not conclude with a mainshock. Earthquake statistics shows that in areas of good seismicity monitoring foreshocks precede sizeable (M5.5 or more) mainshocks at a rate of about half percent. Therefore, discrimination between foreshocks and swarms is of crucial importance with the aim to use foreshocks as a diagnostic of forthcoming strong mainshock in real-time conditions. We analyzed seismic sequences in Greece and Italy with the application of our algorithm FORMA (Foreshocks-Mainshock-Aftershocks) and discriminate between foreshocks and swarms based on the seismicity significant changes in the space-time-magnitude domains. We support that different statistical properties is a diagnostic of foreshocks (e.g. b-value drop) against swarms (b-value increase). A complementary approach is based on the development of Poisson Hidden Markov Models (PHMM's) which are introduced to model significant temporal seismicity changes. In a PHMM the unobserved sequence of states is a finite-state Markov chain and the distribution of the observation at any time is Poissonian with rate depending only on the current state of the chain. Thus, PHMM allows a region to have varying seismicity rate. PHMM is a promising diagnostic since the transition from one state to another does not only depend on the total number of events involved but also on the current state of the system. A third methodological experiment was performed based on the complex network theory. We found that the earthquake networks examined form a scale-free degree distribution. By computing their basic statistical measures, such as the Average Clustering Coefficient, Mean Path Length and Entropy, we found that they underline the strong space-time clustering of swarms, foreshocks and aftershocks but also their important differences. Therefore, network theory is an additional, promising tool to

  3. Short-term prospective study of prescribed physical activity in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Galanti, Giorgio; Stefani, Laura; Mascherini, Gabriele; Petri, Cristian; Corsani, Ilaria; Francini, Lorenzo; Cattozzo, Andrea; Gianassi, Marco; Minetti, Enrico; Pacini, Alessandro; Calà, Pier Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Regular physical exercise plays a role in improving cardiovascular and muscular fitness in many metabolic diseases. This study aims to verify any possible benefits, including the eventual influence on any associated risk factors, in a group of kidney transplant recipients after a short period of personalized training programs with mixed exercises. In January 2013, at the Sports Medicine Center of the University of Florence, Italy, we began studying a group of 20 kidney transplant recipients. After 6 months of exercise, they underwent Cardiopulmonary Test (CPET), ECG, skin fold, bioimpedance analysis and stress test for the lower and upper limbs. EF increased significantly from 63.38 ± 4 to 67.30 ± 5.9 with p < 0.05; the anaerobic threshold improved from 14.48 ± 6.3 to 20.24 ± 3.7 (p < 0.05) with good stress tolerance, estimated by CR10 scale; weight decreased significantly (70.06-65.03 kg) as did skin folds at pectoral level (p < 0.002). Upper limb muscular strength increased significantly (p < 0.005). Regular mixed exercise is a proposed program in post-transplant syndrome with the expectation of improving cardiovascular performance and enhancing exercise tolerance. Muscle strength improves with physical fitness with consequent reduction of risk factors linked to visceral fat. Proof of an eventual positive impact on other complex aspects associated with post-transplant metabolic syndrome will require a longer follow-up. PMID:26341217

  4. Name Modelling Activities for the CAST/Contrast/Attrex Very Short Lived Species Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, N. R. P.; Filus, M. T.; Ashfold, M.; Pyle, J. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Manning, A.; Meneguz, E.

    2014-12-01

    The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME) is used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of transport of very short-lived halogenated organic species (VSLS), in particular bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, within the West Pacific tropical region. The NAME modelling results are compared with airborne measurements of VSLS taken during NASA ATTREX, NCAR CONTRAST and NERC CAST campaigns in January-March, 2014. In this work, the NAME model is used to link the aircraft measurements to examine the vertical distribution of VSLS in the West Pacific troposphere. The major focus will be on assessing vertical transport in deep convection which is one of the crucial factors in redistributing chemicals within the tropical troposphere. The work presented shows the analysis of NAME runs made from the ATTREX flights over the East Pacific in January-February, 2013 and the ATTREX and CONTRAST flight tracks over the West Pacific in January-March, 2014. Each ATTREX 2013 and 2014 flight track is divided into segments, from which particles are released and followed backward to identify the low-level sources of air. Particles (10,000 per single point along the flight track) are released from the flight tracks and followed 12-days backwards. Fractions of trajectories are calculated according to particles which crossed below 5 and 1 km (corresponding to low troposphere and oceanic boundary layer, respectively). Then, initial concentrations for VSLS are assigned to particles which originated from below 5/1 km and final concentrations at flight altitudes are determined based on e-folding equations. Results, obtained by running NAME, are compared with ATTREX VSLS flight measurements.

  5. Short fungal fractions of β-1,3 glucans affect platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Vancraeyneste, Hélène; Charlet, Rogatien; Guerardel, Yann; Choteau, Laura; Bauters, Anne; Tardivel, Meryem; François, Nadine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Soloviev, Dmitry; Poulain, Daniel; Sendid, Boualem; Jawhara, Samir

    2016-09-01

    Platelets are capable of binding, aggregating, and internalizing microorganisms, which enhances the elimination of pathogens from the blood. The yeast Candida albicans is a pathobiont causing life-threatening invasive infections. Its cell wall contains β-1,3 glucans that are known to trigger a wide range of host cell activities and to circulate during infection. We studied the effect of β-1,3 glucan fractions (BGFs) consisting of diglucosides (Glc2), tetraglucosides (Glc4), and pentaglucosides (Glc5) on human platelets, their mechanisms of action, and their possible impact on host defenses. The effect of BGFs on the coagulation process was determined by measuring thrombin generation. Platelets pretreated with BGFs were analyzed in terms of activation, receptor expression, aggregation, and adhesion to neutrophils and to C. albicans The results show that BGFs affected the endogenous thrombin potential in a concentration-dependent manner. For platelet activation, BGFs at a low concentration (2 μmol/l) reduced ATP release and prevented the phosphorylation of protein kinase C. BGFs diminished the expression of P-selectin and the activation of αIIbβ3 BGFs decreased platelet aggregation and the interaction between thrombin-stimulated platelets and neutrophils, fibrinogen, and C. albicans GLc5 decreased ATP release and TGF-β1 production in response to TLR4 upregulation in thrombin-stimulated platelets, but TLR4 blockage abolished the effect of BGFs on platelets. This study provides evidence that fungal pentaglucosides modulate platelet activity mediated via TLR4 stimulation and reduce platelet-neutrophil interaction. PMID:27288438

  6. Activation energy study of electron transport in high performance short wavelengths quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Lyakh, Arkadiy; Wang, Qi Jie; Maulini, Richard; Tsekoun, Alexei; Patel, C Kumar N; Wang, Xiaojun; Capasso, Federico

    2010-01-18

    We present a method to study current paths through quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The temperature dependence of the current is measured at a fixed voltage. At low temperatures we find activation energies that correspond to the energy difference between the injector ground state and the upper laser level. At higher temperatures additional paths with larger activation energies are found. Application of this method to high performance QCLs based on strained InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells and barriers with different band-offsets allows us to identify individual parasitic current paths through the devices. The results give insight into the transport properties of quantum cascade lasers thus providing a useful tool for device optimization.

  7. Active Shape-Morphing Elastomeric Colloids in Short-Pitch Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Julian S.; Sun, Yaoran; Senyuk, Bohdan; Keller, Patrick; Pergamenshchik, Victor M.; Lee, Taewoo; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2013-05-01

    Active elastomeric liquid crystal particles with initial cylindrical shapes are obtained by means of soft lithography and polymerization in a strong magnetic field. Gold nanocrystals infiltrated into these particles mediate energy transfer from laser light to heat, so that the inherent coupling between the temperature-dependent order and shape allows for dynamic morphing of these particles and well-controlled stable shapes. Continuous changes of particle shapes are followed by their spontaneous realignment and transformations of director structures in the surrounding cholesteric host, as well as locomotion in the case of a nonreciprocal shape morphing. These findings bridge the fields of liquid crystal solids and active colloids, may enable shape-controlled self-assembly of adaptive composites and light-driven micromachines, and can be understood by employing simple symmetry considerations along with electrostatic analogies.

  8. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. II. Short term studies with high nitrate supply

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr) were grown in sand culture with 2 millimolar nitrate for 37 days and then supplied with 15 millimolar nitrate for 7 days. Control plants received 2 millimolar nitrate and 13 millimolar chloride and, after the 7-day treatment period, all plants were supplied with nil nitrate. The temporary treatment with high nitrate inhibited nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity by 80% whether or not Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids had nitrate reductase (NR) activity. The pattern of nitrite accumulation in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ rhizobia was inversely related to the decrease and recovery of nitrogenase activity. However, nitrite concentration in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ rhizobia appeared to be too low to explain the inhibition of nitrogenase. Nodules on plants treated with 15 millimolar nitrate contained higher concentrations of amino N and, especially, ureide N than control nodules and, after withdrawal of nitrate, reduced N content of treated and control nodules returned to similar levels. The accumulation of N/sub 2/ fixation products in nodules in response to high nitrate treatment was observed with three R. japonicum strains, two NR/sup +/ and one NR/sup -/.

  9. Comparison of distribution and activity of nanoparticles with short interfering DNA (Dbait) in various living systems.

    PubMed

    Berthault, N; Maury, B; Agrario, C; Herbette, A; Sun, J-S; Peyrieras, N; Dutreix, M

    2011-10-01

    Introducing small DNA molecules (Dbait) impairs the repair of damaged chromosomes and provides a new method for enhancing the efficiency of radiotherapy in radio-resistant tumors. The radiosensitizing activity is dependent upon the efficient delivery of Dbait molecules into the tumor cells. Different strategies have been compared, to improve this key step. We developed a pipeline of assays to select the most efficient nanoparticles and administration protocols before preclinical assays: (i) molecular analyses of complexes formed with Dbait molecules, (ii) cellular tests for Dbait uptake and activity, (iii) live zebrafish embryo confocal microscopy monitoring for in vivo distribution and biological activity of the nanoparticles and (iv) tumor growth and survival measurement on mice with xenografted tumors. Two classes of nanoparticles were compared, polycationic polymers with linear or branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and covalently attached cholesterol (coDbait). The most efficient Dbait transfection was observed with linear PEI complexes, in vitro and in vivo. Doses of coDbait ten-fold higher than PEI/Dbait nanoparticles, and pretreatment with chloroquine, were required to obtain the same antitumoral effect on xenografted melanoma. However, with a 22-fold lower 'efficacy dose/toxicity dose' ratio as compared with Dbait/PEI, coDbait was selected for clinical trials. PMID:21799529

  10. Patrol of the short wavelength activity and flares of Sun as star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, I.; Avakyan, S.; Leonov, N.; Serova, A.; Voronin, N.

    Monitoring of the spectral range which most affects solar-terrestrial relationship - soft X-ray and extreme UV-radiations allows to solve ? problem of solar activity influence on all aspects of the Sun - Earth ties and to select the most important precursors of solar flares and the solar events related with a flare (such as proton events, high-velocity plasma streams in the solar wind, shock waves, coronal mass ejection and, the most important, the beginning of principal magnetic storms). Solar activity is constantly monitored at present (in the USA) only in two sections of the spectrum of ionizing radiation: <0.8 nm and >115 (119) nm. However, so far there has been no monitoring of the flux in the most geoeffective region of the spectrum (0.8-115 nm) from the entire disk of the sun; this region completely monitors the main part of the ionosphere of the earth and the ionosphere of the other planets of the solar system, including the formation and status of the main ionospheric maxima. This occurs solely because of technical and methodological difficulties in performing the measurements and calibration in this spectral range on spacecraft, because it is necessity to use only windowless optics. At the present the solar the optical - electronic equipment (OEE) is testing and there are plans to launch OEE of Space Solar Patrol (SSP) consisting of solar radiometers and spectrometers at the Russian Module of the International Space Station. So the solving the problem of the permanent monitoring-patrol of ionizing radiation from the full disk of the Sun appears in the main tasks of fundamental scientific studies in space. The results of this monitoring can be contribution in development of simultaneous studies in several sciences, such as: - solar astrophysics (state of all solar atmospheric regions), - meteorology, physics of atmosphere (the influence of solar activity on global changes, climate and weather including the effects of atmo s pheric electricity), - aeronomy

  11. Contralateral cortical organisation of information in visual short-term memory: evidence from lateralized brain activity during retrieval.

    PubMed

    Fortier-Gauthier, Ulysse; Moffat, Nicolas; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; McDonald, John J; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    We studied brain activity during retention and retrieval phases of two visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiments. Experiment 1 used a balanced memory array, with one color stimulus in each hemifield, followed by a retention interval and a central probe, at the fixation point that designated the target stimulus in memory about which to make a determination of orientation. Retrieval of information from VSTM was associated with an event-related lateralization (ERL) with a contralateral negativity relative to the visual field from which the probed stimulus was originally encoded, suggesting a lateralized organization of VSTM. The scalp distribution of the retrieval ERL was more anterior than what is usually associated with simple maintenance activity, which is consistent with the involvement of different brain structures for these distinct visual memory mechanisms. Experiment 2 was like Experiment 1, but used an unbalanced memory array consisting of one lateral color stimulus in a hemifield and one color stimulus on the vertical mid-line. This design enabled us to separate lateralized activity related to target retrieval from distractor processing. Target retrieval was found to generate a negative-going ERL at electrode sites found in Experiment 1, and suggested representations were retrieved from anterior cortical structures. Distractor processing elicited a positive-going ERL at posterior electrodes sites, which could be indicative of a return to baseline of retention activity for the discarded memory of the now-irrelevant stimulus, or an active inhibition mechanism mediating distractor suppression.

  12. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Of Microbial Communities From Active Layer And Permafrost After Short-Term Thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chauhan, A.; Saarunya, G.; Murphy, J.; Williams, D.; Layton, A. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Sanders, R.; Lau, C. M.; myneni, S.; Phelps, T. J.; Fountain, A. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    .Permafrost areas occupy 20-25% of the Earth and extend of 1 km depths. The total number of prokaryotes and their biomass in cold regions are estimated to be 1 x 1030 cells and 140 x1015 g of C, respectively. Thus these environments serve as a reservoir of microbial and biogeochemical activity, which is likely to increase upon thawing. We are currently performing long-term thawing experiments at 4o C on 18, geochemically well-characterized, 1 meter long, intact cores consisting of active-layer (0-70 cm depth) and permafrost, collected from a 7 meter diameter ice-wedge polygon located at the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. The organic carbon content of these cores averages ~1% at depth but increases to 5.4% in the top 10 cm. The cores were subdivided into four treatment groups: saturated cores (thawed while receiving artificial rain), drained cores (being thawed under natural hydrological conditions), dark cores (thawed under natural hydrological conditions with no light input) and control cores (maintain permafrost table at 70 cm depth). Over the course of 10 weeks the cores were progressively thawed from -4oC to 4oC from the top down to simulate spring thaw conditions in the Arctic. The temperatures at 5 cm, 35 cm, 65 cm, and below the permafrost table in the core were recorded continuously. Pore water and gas samples from 4 depths in each core were collected every two weeks and analyzed for pH, anions, cations, H2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, CO2 and δ13C of CO2. Headspace gas samples were collected weekly and analyzed for the same gases as the pore gases. Sediment sub-samples from the 4 depths were collected and total community genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated using FastDNA SPIN kit followed by Qiagen column purification. The average yield of gDNA was ~3.5 μg/g of soil for the upper 5 cm active layers and decreased to ~1.5 μg/g of soil in the permafrost. The bacterial 16S copy numbers estimated by real-time quantitative PCR

  13. Short communication: Comparison of estrus characteristics in Holstein heifers by 2 activity monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Silper, B F; Madureira, A M L; Kaur, M; Burnett, T A; Cerri, R L A

    2015-05-01

    Two activity monitoring systems-Heatime (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) and IceTag (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, UK)-were compared on their ability to detect and quantify estrus expression. Holstein heifers (n=57) were fitted with Heatime (HT) and IceTag (IT) sensors from 12 mo of age until confirmation of pregnancy. Upon detection of high activity by HT, ovaries were scanned by ultrasound, a blood sample was collected for analysis of plasma estradiol, and signs of estrus (clear vaginal mucus, uterine muscle tone, visual mounting activity, standing to be mounted, or rump showing signs of repeated acceptance of mounts) were recorded. Because only estrus episodes detected by HT (n=111) were further evaluated, only the positive predictive value was measured. Heifers were housed in groups of 24 in a freestall pen. Data were analyzed using Proc CORR and GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The positive predictive value was 84.7% (94/111) for HT and 98.7% (74/75) for IT. Estrus duration was recorded by HT as 14.3±4.1h [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and by IT as 15.0±4.0h; duration measurements were correlated (r=0.60). The mean duration difference was 0.74±3.52h. Recordings of onset and end of estrus by IT were 3.5±4.3h and 2.9±4.9h earlier than those by HT. The overlap in duration was 9h. Measurements of estrus intensity were correlated (r=0.63). Peak activity was 77.3±19.5 index value (approximately 7.7 SD from basal activity) on HT. The relative increase in activity measured by IT was 360±170% baseline value. Measurements of intensity and duration from HT were correlated (r=0.64) but those from IT were not (r=0.13). Plasma estradiol concentration (11.2±4.6pg/mL) was not correlated with preovulatory follicle diameter or with duration or intensity of estrus. Diameter of preovulatory follicle (15.7±2.6mm) had no correlation with duration of estrus and was only weakly correlated with intensity measured by either system. Baseline steps/hour was

  14. Short communication: Comparison of estrus characteristics in Holstein heifers by 2 activity monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Silper, B F; Madureira, A M L; Kaur, M; Burnett, T A; Cerri, R L A

    2015-05-01

    Two activity monitoring systems-Heatime (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) and IceTag (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, UK)-were compared on their ability to detect and quantify estrus expression. Holstein heifers (n=57) were fitted with Heatime (HT) and IceTag (IT) sensors from 12 mo of age until confirmation of pregnancy. Upon detection of high activity by HT, ovaries were scanned by ultrasound, a blood sample was collected for analysis of plasma estradiol, and signs of estrus (clear vaginal mucus, uterine muscle tone, visual mounting activity, standing to be mounted, or rump showing signs of repeated acceptance of mounts) were recorded. Because only estrus episodes detected by HT (n=111) were further evaluated, only the positive predictive value was measured. Heifers were housed in groups of 24 in a freestall pen. Data were analyzed using Proc CORR and GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The positive predictive value was 84.7% (94/111) for HT and 98.7% (74/75) for IT. Estrus duration was recorded by HT as 14.3±4.1h [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and by IT as 15.0±4.0h; duration measurements were correlated (r=0.60). The mean duration difference was 0.74±3.52h. Recordings of onset and end of estrus by IT were 3.5±4.3h and 2.9±4.9h earlier than those by HT. The overlap in duration was 9h. Measurements of estrus intensity were correlated (r=0.63). Peak activity was 77.3±19.5 index value (approximately 7.7 SD from basal activity) on HT. The relative increase in activity measured by IT was 360±170% baseline value. Measurements of intensity and duration from HT were correlated (r=0.64) but those from IT were not (r=0.13). Plasma estradiol concentration (11.2±4.6pg/mL) was not correlated with preovulatory follicle diameter or with duration or intensity of estrus. Diameter of preovulatory follicle (15.7±2.6mm) had no correlation with duration of estrus and was only weakly correlated with intensity measured by either system. Baseline steps/hour was

  15. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ≥2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy.

  16. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ≥2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. PMID:25022682

  17. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of cathelicidins and short, synthetic peptides against Francisella.

    PubMed

    Amer, Lilian S; Bishop, Barney M; van Hoek, Monique L

    2010-05-28

    Francisella infects the lungs causing pneumonic tularemia. Focusing on the lung's host defense, we have examined antimicrobial peptides as part of the innate immune response to Francisella infection. Interest in antimicrobial peptides, such as the cathelicidins, has grown due their potential therapeutic applications and the increasing problem of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Only one human cathelicidin, LL-37, has been characterized. Helical cathelicidins have also been discovered in snakes including the Chinese King Cobra, Naja atra (NA-CATH). Four synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1, -2, -1A and -1P) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were designed. We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides could have excellent antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds. We tested the susceptibility of F. novicida to four ATRA peptides, LL-37, and NA-CATH. Two of the ATRA peptides had high antimicrobial activity (microM), while the two proline-containing ATRA peptides had low activity. The ATRA peptides did not show significant hemolytic activity even at high peptide concentration, indicating low cytotoxicity against host cells. NA-CATH killed Francisella bacteria more quickly than LL-37. However, LL-37 was the most effective peptide against F. novicida (EC50=50 nM). LL-37 mRNA was induced in A549 cells by Francisella infection. We recently demonstrated that F. novicida forms in vitro biofilms. LL-37 inhibited F. novicida biofilm formation at sub-antimicrobial concentrations. Understanding the properties of these peptides, and their endogenous expression in the lung could lead to potential future therapeutic interventions for this lung infection. PMID:20399752

  18. Short communication: Combined antimicrobial activity of reuterin and diacetyl against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Langa, S; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Montiel, R; Landete, J M; Medina, M; Arqués, J L

    2014-10-01

    Reuterin (β-hydroxypropionialdehyde) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial substance produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri during anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. Some of these strains are able to survive and produce reuterin in cheese and yogurt when added as adjuncts to the starter. Similarly, in fermented dairy foods, other inhibitory compounds such as lactic acid and diacetyl are produced during fermentation. In this work, we studied the combined effect of reuterin and diacetyl under different pH conditions against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Results from agar spot assays showed that the antimicrobial activity of reuterin-producing strains against the gram-negative bacteria tested was enhanced as the concentration of diacetyl increased to 50 mg/kg, and was higher under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) for the 3 pathogenic strains. The combination of reuterin and diacetyl had an additive effect against L. monocytogenes only at diacetyl concentrations of 50 mg/kg and pH 5.0. In addition, growth kinetics studies showed that the combination of 1 activity unit (AU)/mL of reuterin with 100mg/kg diacetyl increased the lag time of the 3 pathogens. In milk, synergistic antimicrobial activity was observed with the combination of 1 AU/mL reuterin and 50 or 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on the gram-negative strains tested, and with 1 AU/mL reuterin and 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on L. monocytogenes. The greatest inhibition of the 3 pathogens was achieved in acidified milk at pH 5.0 with reuterin (1 AU/mL) and diacetyl (100 mg/kg). Based on these results, the combination of reuterin and diacetyl in acidified dairy products could be a promising strategy to control food pathogens in these products.

  19. Short-term bioassays for microsome-activated toxicants using bovine submitochondrial particles (SMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Read, H.; Blondin, G.; Harkin, J.; Gustavson, K.; Vohmann, C.

    1994-12-31

    In vitro toxicity tests using SMP are good predictors of acute toxicity in standard fish and cell culture assays for a number of chemical classes. The tests are simple, fast (< 1 h), convenient and inexpensive. However, SMP assays are generally less sensitive to mutagenic chemicals activated after being metabolism by cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Protocols for assays incorporating rat liver microsomes have been devised, are under development and are being tested with a series of model compounds. Comparisons of procedures and of relative sensitivities with other in vitro and whole-organism bioassays will be presented.

  20. Enhanced Amphiphilic Profile of a Short β-Stranded Peptide Improves Its Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Giorgia; Scorciapino, Mariano A.; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Bürck, Jochen; Montaldo, Nicola Pietro; Pintus, Manuela; Sanna, Roberta; Casu, Mariano; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Luca, Vincenzo; Ulrich, Anne S.; Rinaldi, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    SB056 is a novel semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide with a dimeric dendrimer scaffold. Active against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, its mechanism has been attributed to a disruption of bacterial membranes. The branched peptide was shown to assume a β-stranded conformation in a lipidic environment. Here, we report on a rational modification of the original, empirically derived linear peptide sequence [WKKIRVRLSA-NH2, SB056-lin]. We interchanged the first two residues [KWKIRVRLSA-NH2, β-SB056-lin] to enhance the amphipathic profile, in the hope that a more regular β-strand would lead to a better antimicrobial performance. MIC values confirmed that an enhanced amphiphilic profile indeed significantly increases activity against both Gram-positive and -negative strains. The membrane binding affinity of both peptides, measured by tryptophan fluorescence, increased with an increasing ratio of negatively charged/zwitterionic lipids. Remarkably, β-SB056-lin showed considerable binding even to purely zwitterionic membranes, unlike the original sequence, indicating that besides electrostatic attraction also the amphipathicity of the peptide structure plays a fundamental role in binding, by stabilizing the bound state. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and solid-state 19F-NMR were used to characterize and compare the conformation and mobility of the membrane bound peptides. Both SB056-lin and β-SB056-lin adopt a β-stranded conformation upon binding POPC vesicles, but the former maintains an intrinsic structural disorder that also affects its aggregation tendency. Upon introducing some anionic POPG into the POPC matrix, the sequence-optimized β-SB056-lin forms well-ordered β-strands once electro-neutrality is approached, and it aggregates into more extended β-sheets as the concentration of anionic lipids in the bilayer is raised. The enhanced antimicrobial activity of the analogue correlates with the formation of these extended β-sheets, which

  1. Short communication: Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model Queso Fresco cheeses.

    PubMed

    Paul, M; Van Hekken, D L

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic-style cheeses are one of the fastest growing varieties in the United States, making up approximately 2% of the total cheese production in this country. Queso Fresco is one of most popular Hispanic-style cheeses. Protein extracts from several varieties of Mexican Queso Fresco and model Queso Fresco were analyzed for potential antihypertensive activity. Many Quesos Frescos obtained from Mexico are made from raw milk and therefore the native microflora is included in the cheese-making process. Model Queso Fresco samples were made from pasteurized milk and did not utilize starter cultures. Water-soluble protein extracts from 6 Mexican Quesos Frescos and 12 model cheeses were obtained and assayed for their ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, implying potential as foods that can help to lower blood pressure. All model cheeses displayed antihypertensive activity, but mainly after 8 wk of aging when they were no longer consumable, whereas the Mexican samples did display some angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory action after minimal aging.

  2. Effect of short-chain primary alcohols on fluidity and activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Vaz, W L; Stümpel, J; Madeira, V M

    1986-08-26

    Intramolecular excimer formation with the fluorescent probe 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl)propane, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were used to assess the effect of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol on the bilayer organization in model membranes, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lipids and native SR membranes. These alcohols have fluidizing effects on membranes and lower the main transition temperature of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), but only 1-hexanol alters the cooperativity of the phase transition and significantly increases the thickness of DMPC bilayers. The interaction of the three alcohols with the SR Ca2+ pump was also investigated. Hydrolysis of ATP and coupled Ca2+ uptake are differently sensitive to the three alcohols. Whereas ethanol and 1-butanol inhibited the Ca2+ uptake, 1-hexanol stimulated it. Nevertheless, the energetic efficiency of the pump (Ca2+/ATP) is not significantly affected by ethanol or 1-hexanol, but uncoupling was observed with 1-butanol at high concentrations. The different effects of alcohols on the activity of SR membranes rule out an unitary mechanism of action on the basis of fluidity changes induced in the lipid bilayer. Depending on the chain length, the alcohols interact with the SR membranes in different domains, perturbing differently the Ca2+-pump activity.

  3. Do personalized feedback messages about activity patterns stimulate patients with chronic low back pain to change their activity behavior on a short term notice?

    PubMed

    Dekker-van Weering, Marit G H; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R; Hermens, Hermie J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether patients responded to personalized messages on top of continuous visual feedback by changes in activity patterns and whether this response is related to the stages of change and the pain intensity levels. Patients wore a movement sensor and a PDA for 2 weeks and received continuously feedback and time-related messages to influence activity behavior. The response was calculated by calculating the activity 30 min before and after a message. In addition, the readiness to change was measured with the Stage of Change questionnaire and pain intensity was measured on a visual analogue scale. Sixteen patients participated, receiving a total of 517 messages. Overall, patients responded to personalized messages (p < .049), with a higher response in the morning. Patients in different stages of change responded differently to the messages (p = .009) and the response was significantly related to the pain intensity levels (Pearson correlation -.226) in the second week of feedback. This study suggests that personalized messages have the potential to influence activity behavior. It seems relevant to take time of the day, the stages of change and pain intensity levels of the patient into account to further optimize the feedback strategy used.

  4. Conformational Flexibility of a Short Loop near the Active Site of the SARS-3CLpro is Essential to Maintain Catalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunmei; Teng, Xin; Qi, Yifei; Tang, Bo; Shi, Hailing; Ma, Xiaomin; Lai, Luhua

    2016-02-01

    The SARS 3C-like proteinase (SARS-3CLpro), which is the main proteinase of the SARS coronavirus, is essential to the virus life cycle. This enzyme has been shown to be active as a dimer in which only one protomer is active. However, it remains unknown how the dimer structure maintains an active monomer conformation. It has been observed that the Ser139-Leu141 loop forms a short 310-helix that disrupts the catalytic machinery in the inactive monomer structure. We have tried to disrupt this helical conformation by mutating L141 to T in the stable inactive monomer G11A/R298A/Q299A. The resulting tetra-mutant G11A/L141T/R298A/Q299A is indeed enzymatically active as a monomer. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the L141T mutation disrupts the 310-helix and helps to stabilize the active conformation. The coil-310-helix conformational transition of the Ser139-Leu141 loop serves as an enzyme activity switch. Our study therefore indicates that the dimer structure can stabilize the active conformation but is not a required structure in the evolution of the active enzyme, which can also arise through simple mutations.

  5. Short Communication: Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of Harmine, Harmaline, Nicotine and their complexes.

    PubMed

    Salman, Saad; Idrees, Fariha; Pervaiz, Sadia; Shah, Fahad Hassan; Badshah, Sareer; Abdullah; Usman, Mohammad; Halimi, Sm Ashhad; Idrees, Jawaria

    2016-07-01

    Harmine, Harmaline, Nicotine and its various complexes synthesized have been characterized by physical, spectral and analytical methods and curtained for in-vitro antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal species at two different concentrations i.e.100μ/100µl and 200μ/100µl dose level respectively. Analysis showed that Nicotine, Zinc-Nico, Cd-Nico, Hg-Nico, Ni-Nico, Cu-Nico, Co-Nico, Harmine, and Harmaline having conc. of 100ug/ 100ul had antibacterial activity on zero, 5, 4, 10, zero, 5, 7, zero, zero strain of bacteria having an average of zero (SD=0.0000), 15.2000 (SD=1.30384), 18.2500 (SD=3.30404), 20.2000 (SD=1.39841), zero (SD=0.0000), 14.6000 (SD=0.89443), 15.8571 (SD=1.34519), zero (SD=0.0000), zero (SD=0.0000) respectively. Zinc (II) chloride, Cadmium (II) Iodide, Mercury (II) chloride, Nickel (II) chloride, Copper (II) chloride, Cobalt (II) chloride, Mercury (II) chloride, Mercury (II) harmine, Mercury (II) harmaline at 100ug/100ul is valid for 7, 8, 9, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 8 strains of bacteria with an average of 7.1429 (SD=1.06904), 10.0000 (SD=5.01427), 14.8889 (SD=6.00925), 6.0000 (SD=0.0000), 8.5714 (SD=4.27618), 8.2500 (SD=0.88641), 14.8889 (SD=6.00925), 18.6000 (SD=2.45855), 18.5000 (SD=1.85164) respectively. The above given compounds at the conc. of 200 μ/100ul is valid for 10, 9, 10, 8, 8, 10, 10, 10, 10 strains of bacteria with an average of 8.1 (SD=1.66333), 11.7778 (SD=5.28625), 16.1000 (SD=6.36745), 6.5000 (SD=0.92582), 9.7500 (SD=4.43203), 9.9000 (SD=2.76687), 16.1000 (SD=6.36745), 22.0000 (SD=2.44949), 20.4000 (SD=2.75681) respectively. The above given compounds at conc. of 200 μ/100ul showed antibacterial action on 3, 8, 8, 10, 3, 9, 8, zero, 3 strains of bacteria with an average of 14(SD=0.000), 16.8750 (SD=1.35620), 18.2500 (SD=3.45378), 22.7000 (SD=1.82878), 14.3333 (SD=0.57735), 16.7778 (SD=1.71594), zero (SD=0.000), 12.0000 (SD=1.00000) respectively. Hence according to the average value of the zone of inhibition

  6. Role of peptide bond in the realization of biological activity of short peptides.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Tarnovskaya, S I; Lin'kova, N S; Chervyakova, N A; Nichik, T E; Elashkina, E V; Chalisova, N I

    2015-02-01

    We performed a comparative analysis of biological activity of Lys-Glu peptide and its amino acid constituents. It was established that Lys-Glu stimulated proliferation of splenic cells in organotypic culture, while the mixture of glutamic acid and lysine inhibited culture growth. Using the method of molecular docking, we showed that glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide can interact with different DNA sequences. The energy of interaction and the most beneficial localization of glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide in DNA molecule was calculated. We demonstrated the interaction of the peptide and amino acids with DNA along the minor groove. The energy of DNA interaction with the peptide is higher than with individual amino acids. The peptide bonds increase the interaction of Lys-Glu peptide with DNA, which potentiates the biological effect on cell proliferation in organotypic culture of splenic cells.

  7. Short Self-Assembling Peptides Are Able to Bind to Copper and Activate Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Makhlynets, Olga V; Gosavi, Pallavi M; Korendovych, Ivan V

    2016-07-25

    We have shown that de novo designed peptides self-assemble in the presence of copper to create supramolecular assemblies capable of carrying out the oxidation of dimethoxyphenol in the presence of dioxygen. Formation of the supramolecular assembly, which is akin to a protein fold, is critical for productive catalysis since peptides possessing the same functional groups but lacking the ability to self-assemble do not catalyze substrate oxidation. The ease with which we have discovered robust and productive oxygen activation catalysts suggests that these prion-like assemblies might have served as intermediates in the evolution of enzymatic function and opens the path for the development of new catalyst nanomaterials. PMID:27276534

  8. Short-term withdrawal from developmental exposure to cocaine activates the glucocorticoid receptor and alters spine dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caffino, Lucia; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Malpighi, Chiara; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Although glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) contribute to the action of cocaine, their role following developmental exposure to the psychostimulant is still unknown. To address this issue, we exposed adolescent male rats to cocaine (20mg/kg/day) from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed them at PND 45 or 90. We studied the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that is still developing during adolescence. In PND 45 rats we found enhanced GR transcription and translation as well as increased trafficking toward the nucleus of the receptor, with no alteration in plasma corticosterone levels. We also showed reduced expression of the GR co-chaperone FKBP51, that normally keeps the receptor in the cytoplasm, and increased expression of Src1, which cooperates in the activation of GR transcriptional activity, revealing that short withdrawal alters the finely tuned mechanisms regulating GR action. Since activation of GRs regulate dendritic spine morphology, we next investigated spine dynamics in cocaine-withdrawn rats. We found that PSD95, cofilin and F-actin, molecules regulating spine actin network, are reduced in the mPFC of PND 45 rats suggesting reduced spine density, confirmed by confocal imaging. Further, formation of filopodia, i.e. the inactive spines, is enhanced suggesting the formation of non-functional spines. Of note, no changes were found in molecules related to GR machinery or spine dynamics following long-term abstinence, i.e. in adult rats (PND 90). These findings demonstrate that short withdrawal promotes plastic changes in the developing brain via the dysregulation of the GR system and alterations in the spine network. PMID:26004981

  9. Short-term physical activity intervention decreases femoral bone marrow adipose tissue in young children: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, K; Hanks, LJ; Hidalgo, B; Hu, HH; Affuso, O

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is necessary for maximization of geometrical properties of bone mineralization contributing to long-term strength. The amount of mineralization in bones has been reciprocally related to volume of bone marrow adipose tissue and this relationship is suggested to be an independent predictor of fracture. Physical activity represents an extrinsic factor that impacts both mineralization and marrow volume exerting permissive capacity of the growing skeleton to achieve its full genetic potential. Because geometry- and shape-determining processes primarily manifest during the linear growth period, the accelerated structural changes accompanying early childhood (ages 3 to 6 y) may have profound impact on lifelong bone health. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if a short-term physical activity intervention in young children would result in augmentation of geometric properties of bone. Three days per week the intervention group (n=10) participated in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity, such as jumping, hopping and running, and stretching activities, whereas controls (n=10) underwent usual activities during the 10-week intervention period. Femoral bone marrow adipose tissue volume and total body composition were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively, at baseline and after ten weeks. Although after 10-weeks, intergroup differences were not observed, a significant decrease in femoral marrow adipose tissue volume was observed in those participating in physical activity intervention. Our findings suggest physical activity may improve bone quality via antagonistic effects on femoral bone marrow adipose tissue and possibly long-term agonistic effects on bone mineralization. PMID:21939791

  10. Antimicrobial activity, improved cell selectivity and mode of action of short PMAP-36-derived peptides against bacteria and Candida.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yinfeng; Yang, Yang; Lyu, Xiting; Dong, Na; Shan, Anshan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as promising antibiotic candidates, but some obstacles such as toxicity and high synthesis cost must be addressed before developing them further. For developing short peptides with improved cell selectivity, we designed a series of modified PMAP-36 analogues. Antimicrobial assays showed that decreasing chain length in a certain range retained the high antimicrobial activity of the parental peptide and reduced hemolysis. The 18-mer peptide RI18 exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi, and its hemolytic activity was observably lower than PMAP-36 and melittin. The selectivity indexes of RI18 against bacteria and fungi were improved approximately 19-fold and 108-fold, respectively, compared to PMAP-36. In addition, serum did not affect the antibacterial activity of RI18 against E. coli but inhibited the antifungal efficiency against C. albicans. Flow cytometry and electron microscopy observation revealed that RI18 killed microbial cells primarily by damaging membrane integrity, leading to whole cell lysis. Taken together, these results suggest that RI18 has potential for further therapeutic research against frequently-encountered bacteria and fungi. Meanwhile, modification of AMPs is a promising strategy for developing novel antimicrobials to overcome drug-resistance. PMID:27251456

  11. Biochemical Activities of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Homology Region 2 Domains of Sarcomere Length Short (SALS) Protein.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Mónika Ágnes; Majoros, Andrea Kinga; Vig, Andrea Teréz; Migh, Ede; Nyitrai, Miklós; Mihály, József; Bugyi, Beáta

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster sarcomere length short (SALS) is a recently identified Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain protein involved in skeletal muscle thin filament regulation. SALS was shown to be important for the establishment of the proper length and organization of sarcomeric actin filaments. Here, we present the first detailed characterization of the biochemical activities of the tandem WH2 domains of SALS (SALS-WH2). Our results revealed that SALS-WH2 binds both monomeric and filamentous actin and shifts the monomer-filament equilibrium toward the monomeric actin. In addition, SALS-WH2 can bind to but fails to depolymerize phalloidin- or jasplakinolide-bound actin filaments. These interactions endow SALS-WH2 with the following two major activities in the regulation of actin dynamics: SALS-WH2 sequesters actin monomers into non-polymerizable complexes and enhances actin filament disassembly by severing, which is modulated by tropomyosin. We also show that profilin does not influence the activities of the WH2 domains of SALS in actin dynamics. In conclusion, the tandem WH2 domains of SALS are multifunctional regulators of actin dynamics. Our findings suggest that the activities of the WH2 domains do not reconstitute the presumed biological function of the full-length protein. Consequently, the interactions of the WH2 domains of SALS with actin must be tuned in the cellular context by other modules of the protein and/or sarcomeric components for its proper functioning.

  12. Antimicrobial activity, improved cell selectivity and mode of action of short PMAP-36-derived peptides against bacteria and Candida

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yinfeng; Yang, Yang; Lyu, Xiting; Dong, Na; Shan, Anshan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as promising antibiotic candidates, but some obstacles such as toxicity and high synthesis cost must be addressed before developing them further. For developing short peptides with improved cell selectivity, we designed a series of modified PMAP-36 analogues. Antimicrobial assays showed that decreasing chain length in a certain range retained the high antimicrobial activity of the parental peptide and reduced hemolysis. The 18-mer peptide RI18 exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi, and its hemolytic activity was observably lower than PMAP-36 and melittin. The selectivity indexes of RI18 against bacteria and fungi were improved approximately 19-fold and 108-fold, respectively, compared to PMAP-36. In addition, serum did not affect the antibacterial activity of RI18 against E. coli but inhibited the antifungal efficiency against C. albicans. Flow cytometry and electron microscopy observation revealed that RI18 killed microbial cells primarily by damaging membrane integrity, leading to whole cell lysis. Taken together, these results suggest that RI18 has potential for further therapeutic research against frequently-encountered bacteria and fungi. Meanwhile, modification of AMPs is a promising strategy for developing novel antimicrobials to overcome drug-resistance. PMID:27251456

  13. V380 Dra: New short-period totally eclipsing active binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdarcan, O.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, first complete and standard BVR light curves and photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary system V380 Dra are presented. Photometric analysis result indicates that the system has components which are cool main sequence stars. In light and color curves, remarkable asymmetry is observed, especially after secondary minimum, which is believed to be a result of chromospheric activity in one or both components. O-C diagram of available small number of eclipse times, together with new eclipse timings in this work, exhibits no significant variation. Preliminary light curve solution shows that the secondary minimum is total eclipse. By using the advantage of total eclipse and mass-luminosity relation, it is found that the system has a possible mass ratio of q = 0.81. First estimation of masses and radii of primary and secondary components are M1 = 0.77 M⊙,M2 = 0.62 M⊙ and R1 = 0.93 R⊙,R2 = 0.77 R⊙, respectively.

  14. The influence of short-term firefighting activity on information processing performance.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Tina A; Horn, Gavin; Smith, Denise L; Fahey, George; Goldstein, Eric; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the following: effects of simulated firefighting (FF) activities under heat stress on sustained attention; whether incident rehabilitation (IR) influences performance; and relationships between performance, affect and personality. Firefighters performed ~18 min of FF. Attention, physiological, perceptual and psychological assessments were made before and after FF, IR and recovery. IR had no effects. Self-rated Energy increased, Tiredness decreased and Anxiety increased immediately post-FF; all returned to baseline 120 min post. The immediate effect of FF was faster reaction time (RT) followed by slowing after recovery. Perceived Energy at baseline was associated (p-values < 0.05) with faster and Tiredness with slower post-FF RTs; Accuracy was unaffected. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with RT before and 120 min following FF. RTs were faster following FF, accuracy was unchanged. Higher baseline Energy/lower Tiredness were associated with faster, less variable RTs at baseline and post-FF. Those with higher Conscientiousness had faster RTs. Research should further investigate higher-level cognitive processing following, or ideally during, FF.

  15. Solar irradiance observed at Summit, Greenland: Possible links to magnetic activity on short timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, John E.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level visible sunlight (400-600 nm) from Summit, Greenland over the period August 2004 through October 2014 define the attenuation provided by cloudiness, including its dependence on solar elevation and season. The long-term mean cloud-attenuation increases with increasing solar zenith angle, consistent with radiative transfer calculations which treat a cloud as a plane parallel layer with a strong bias toward forward scattering and an albedo for diffuse radiation near 0.1. The ratio of measured irradiance to clear-sky irradiance for solar zenith angles greater than 66° has a small, but statistically significant, positive correlation with the previous day's magnetic activity as measured by the daily Ap index, but no clear relationship exists between the irradiance ratio and daily changes in the ground-level neutron flux measured at Thule over the time frame considered. A high value of Ap on one day tends to be followed by a day whose ground-level solar irradiance is slightly greater than would occur otherwise. In an average sense, the visible irradiance following a day with Ap>16 exceeds that following a day with Ap≤16 by 1.2-1.3% with a 95% confidence range of approximately ±1.0%. The results are broadly compatible with small changes in atmospheric scattering following magnetic disturbances.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Chlorpromazine on Oxidative Stress in Erythrocyte Functionality: Activation of Metabolism and Membrane Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Ficarra, Silvana; Russo, Annamaria; Barreca, Davide; Giunta, Elena; Galtieri, Antonio; Tellone, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on the short-term effects of chlorpromazine on erythrocytes because it is reported that the drug, unstable in plasma but more stable in erythrocytes, interacts with erythrocyte membranes, membrane lipids, and hemoglobin. There is a rich literature about the side and therapeutic effects or complications due to chlorpromazine, but most of these studies explore the influence of long-term treatment. We think that evaluating the short-term effects of the drug may help to clarify the sequence of chlorpromazine molecular targets from which some long-term effects derive. Our results indicate that although the drug is primarily intercalated in the innermost side of the membrane, it does not influence band 3 anionic flux, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation processes. On the other hand, it destabilizes and increases the autooxidation of haemoglobin, induces activation of caspase 3, and, markedly, influences the ATP and reduced glutathione levels, with subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Overall our observations on the early stage of chlorpromazine influence on erythrocytes may contribute to better understanding of new and interesting characteristics of this compound improving knowledge of erythrocyte metabolism. PMID:27579150

  17. Short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from damage via corticosterone-mediated activation of the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Forkwa, Tembei K; Neumann, Inga D; Tamm, Ernst R; Ohlmann, Andreas; Reber, Stefan O

    2014-02-01

    Apoptotic death of photoreceptors in hereditary retinal degenerations can be prevented by neuroprotective molecules. Here, we report that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) released during psychosocial stress protect photoreceptors from apoptosis after light damage. Psychosocial stress is known to be the main type of stressor humans are exposed to and was induced here in mice by 10h of chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC). Photoreceptor damage was generated by subsequent exposure to white light. Short-term psychosocial stress prior to illumination significantly reduced the number of apoptotic photoreceptors, an effect that was absent in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. The neuroprotective effect was completely restored in ADX mice substituted with GC. Moreover, phosphorylation of retinal AKT increased following CSC or exogenous GC treatment, an effect that was again absent in ADX mice exposed to CSC. Finally, inhibition of AKT signaling with triciribine blocked the stress- and GC-mediated neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors. In summary, we provide evidence that 1) short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage and 2) the protective effect is most likely mediated by GC-induced activation of the AKT signaling pathway.

  18. Short-Term Effects of Chlorpromazine on Oxidative Stress in Erythrocyte Functionality: Activation of Metabolism and Membrane Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Ficarra, Silvana; Russo, Annamaria; Barreca, Davide; Giunta, Elena; Galtieri, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on the short-term effects of chlorpromazine on erythrocytes because it is reported that the drug, unstable in plasma but more stable in erythrocytes, interacts with erythrocyte membranes, membrane lipids, and hemoglobin. There is a rich literature about the side and therapeutic effects or complications due to chlorpromazine, but most of these studies explore the influence of long-term treatment. We think that evaluating the short-term effects of the drug may help to clarify the sequence of chlorpromazine molecular targets from which some long-term effects derive. Our results indicate that although the drug is primarily intercalated in the innermost side of the membrane, it does not influence band 3 anionic flux, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation processes. On the other hand, it destabilizes and increases the autooxidation of haemoglobin, induces activation of caspase 3, and, markedly, influences the ATP and reduced glutathione levels, with subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Overall our observations on the early stage of chlorpromazine influence on erythrocytes may contribute to better understanding of new and interesting characteristics of this compound improving knowledge of erythrocyte metabolism. PMID:27579150

  19. Variable transposition of eight maize activator (ac) elements located on the short arm of chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, William F

    2011-09-01

    Eight Activator (Ac) transposable elements mapped to the maize chromosome arm 1S were assessed for Ac transposition rates. For each of the Ac stocks, plants homozygous for the single Ac element and the Ds reporter r1-sc:m3 on chromosome 10 were crossed as females by a homozygous r1-sc:m3 tester color-converted W22 line. The resulting ears produced mostly coarsely spotted kernels and a low frequency of either near-colorless fine-spotted kernels or nonspotted kernels. The relative frequency of these two types of near-colorless kernels differed among the eight Ac stocks. The extent to which increased Ac dosage results in nonspotted kernels may be Ac-specific. Although all of the Ac elements are in near-isogenic inbred W22 lines, they varied to a large extent in their transposition frequency. These differences might possibly result from structural differences among the Ac elements. Because one pair of Ac elements derived from Ac33 on chromosome arm 5S differed about 13-fold in transposition frequency and a second pair of Ac elements derived from Ac12 on chromosome arm 1S differed about 3-fold in transposition frequency, this is not a likely explanation for all eight Ac elements. The data presented here support the notion that the differences in transposition frequency of the eight Ac elements may be a reflection of variability in Ac transcription or accessibility of the transposase to the Ac element, resulting from differences in the chromatin environments wherein the Ac elements are located. This is the first report of variability in transposition rates among different Ac donor lines.

  20. Activation of Short and Long Chain Fatty Acid Sensing Machinery in the Ileum Lowers Glucose Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Duca, Frank A; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Bauer, Paige V; Côté, Clémence D; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2016-04-15

    Evidence continues to emerge detailing the myriad of ways the gut microbiota influences host energy homeostasis. Among the potential mechanisms, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the byproducts of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, exhibit correlative beneficial metabolic effects in humans and rodents, including improvements in glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive. We here report that one of the main bacterially produced SCFAs, propionate, activates ileal mucosal free fatty acid receptor 2 to trigger a negative feedback pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in healthy rats in vivo We further demonstrate that an ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent neuronal network is necessary for ileal propionate and long chain fatty acid sensing to regulate glucose homeostasis. These findings highlight the potential to manipulate fatty acid sensing machinery in the ileum to regulate glucose homeostasis.

  1. Fundamental issues in questionnaire design.

    PubMed

    Murray, P

    1999-07-01

    The questionnaire is probably the most common form of data collection tool used in nursing research. There is a misconception that anyone with a clear grasp of English and a modicum of common sense can design an effective questionnaire. Contrary to such common belief, this article will demonstrate that questionnaire design is a complex and time consuming process, but a necessary labour to ensure valid and reliable data is collected. In addition, meticulous construction is more likely to yield data that can be utilized in the pursuit of objective, quantitative and generalizable truths, upon which practice and policy decisions can be formulated. This article examines a myriad of fundamental issues surrounding questionnaire design, which encompass question wording, question order, presentation, administration and data collection, amongst other issues.

  2. A General Questionnaire Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R.

    1978-01-01

    A general FORTRAN computer program for analyzing categorical or frequency data obtained from questionnaires is described. A variety of descriptive statistics, chi square, Kendall's tau and Cramer's statistic are provided. (Author/JKS)

  3. The MPC&A Questionnaire

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.

  4. Short-term effects of endothelins on tyrosine hydroxylase activity and expression in the olfactory bulb of normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nabhen, Sabrina L; Perfume, Guadalupe; Battistone, María A; Rossi, Andrés; Abramoff, Tamara; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Vatta, Marcelo S

    2009-05-01

    The olfactory system in rats is part of the limbic region with extensive afferent connections with brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviour and autonomic responses. The existence of the endothelin system and catecholaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb suggests that endothelins may modulate noradrenergic transmission and diverse olfactory mediated processes. In the present work we studied the effect of endothelin-1 and -3 on neuronal norepinephrine release and the short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb. Results showed that both endothelins increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity through the activation of a non-conventional endothelin G-protein coupled receptor, coupled to the stimulation of protein kinase A and C, as well as Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. On the other hand, neither endothelin-1 nor endothelin-3 modified tyrosine hydroxylase total protein levels, but both peptides increased the phosphorylation of serine residues of the enzyme at sites 19 and 40. Furthermore, endothelins enhanced norepinephrine release in olfactory neurons suggesting that this event may contribute to increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity by reducing the feedback inhibition. Taken together present findings show a clear interaction between the endothelin system, and the catecholaminergic transmission in the olfactory bulb. Additional studies are required to evaluate the physiological functions regulated by endothelins at this brain level.

  5. Innovative Training of In-service Teachers for Active Learning: A Short Teacher Development Course Based on Physics Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Genaro; Alarcón, Hugo; Benegas, Julio

    2007-08-01

    In this contribution we describe a short development course for in-service physics teachers. The course structure and materials are based on the results of educational research, and its main objective is to provide in-service teachers with a first contact with the active learning strategy “Tutorials in Introductory Physics,” developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Washington. The course was organized in a constructivist, active learning environment, so that teachers have first to experience, as regular students, the whole Tutorial sequence of activities: Tutorial pre-test, Tutorial, and Tutorial Homework. After each Tutorial, teachers reflect on, and recognize their own students’ learning difficulties, discussing their teaching experiences with their colleagues in small collaborative groups first and the whole class later. Finally they read and discuss specific Physics Education Research literature, where these learning difficulties have been extensively studied by researchers. At the beginning and at the end of the course the participants were given the conceptual multiple-choice test Force Concept Inventory (FCI). The pre-/post-instruction FCI data were presented as a practical example of the use of a research-based test widely used in educational research and in formative assessment processes designed to improve instruction.

  6. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation.

  7. The actin-microtubule cross-linking activity of Drosophila Short stop is regulated by intramolecular inhibition.

    PubMed

    Applewhite, Derek A; Grode, Kyle D; Duncan, Mara C; Rogers, Stephen L

    2013-09-01

    Actin and microtubule dynamics must be precisely coordinated during cell migration, mitosis, and morphogenesis--much of this coordination is mediated by proteins that physically bridge the two cytoskeletal networks. We have investigated the regulation of the Drosophila actin-microtubule cross-linker Short stop (Shot), a member of the spectraplakin family. Our data suggest that Shot's cytoskeletal cross-linking activity is regulated by an intramolecular inhibitory mechanism. In its inactive conformation, Shot adopts a "closed" conformation through interactions between its NH(2)-terminal actin-binding domain and COOH-terminal EF-hand-GAS2 domain. This inactive conformation is targeted to the growing microtubule plus end by EB1. On activation, Shot binds along the microtubule through its COOH-terminal GAS2 domain and binds to actin with its NH(2)-terminal tandem CH domains. We propose that this mechanism allows Shot to rapidly cross-link dynamic microtubules in response to localized activating signals at the cell cortex.

  8. Short stature

    MedlinePlus

    Idiopathic short stature; Non-growth hormone deficient short stature ... Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...

  9. Discovery of an ultra-short linear antibacterial tetrapeptide with anti-MRSA activity from a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Qiu Ying; Ng, Fui Mee; Cheong, Jin Wei Darryl; Yap, Yi Yong Alvin; Tan, Yoke Yan Fion; Jureen, Roland; Hill, Jeffrey; Chia, Cheng San Brian

    2015-11-13

    The overuse and misuse of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the primary pathogen responsible for human skin and soft-tissue infections. Antibacterial peptides are known to kill bacteria by rapidly disrupting their membranes and are deemed plausible alternatives to conventional antibiotics. One advantage of their membrane-targeting mode of action is that bacteria are unlikely to develop resistance as changing their cell membrane structure and morphology would likely involve extensive genetic mutations. However, major concerns in using peptides as antibacterial drugs include their instability towards plasma proteases, toxicity towards human cells due to their membrane-targeting mode of action and high manufacturing cost. These concerns can be mitigated by developing peptides as topical agents, by the judicial selection of amino acids and developing very short peptides respectively. In this preliminary report, we reveal a linear, non-hemolytic tetrapeptide with rapid bactericidal activity against MRSA developed from a structure-activity relationship study based on the antimicrobial hexapeptide WRWRWR-NH2. Our finding opens promising avenues for the development of ultra-short antibacterials to treat multidrug-resistant MRSA skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:26489599

  10. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  11. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Laura R; Ather, Jennifer L; Randall, Matthew J; DePuccio, Daniel P; Landry, Christopher C; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-15

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol, and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation or N-methyl-d-asparate receptor inhibition but were associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other

  12. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Laura R; Ather, Jennifer L; Randall, Matthew J; DePuccio, Daniel P; Landry, Christopher C; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-15

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol, and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation or N-methyl-d-asparate receptor inhibition but were associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other

  13. Double-stranded endonuclease activity in Bacillus halodurans clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas2 protein.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Ding, Fran; Haitjema, Charles; Huang, Qingqiu; DeLisa, Matthew P; Ke, Ailong

    2012-10-19

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system is a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against extrachromosomal genetic elements. Cas2 is a universally conserved core CRISPR-associated protein required for the acquisition of new spacers for CRISPR adaptation. It was previously characterized as an endoribonuclease with preference for single-stranded (ss)RNA. Here, we show using crystallography, mutagenesis, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the Bacillus halodurans Cas2 (Bha_Cas2) from the subtype I-C/Dvulg CRISPR instead possesses metal-dependent endonuclease activity against double-stranded (ds)DNA. This activity is consistent with its putative function in producing new spacers for insertion into the 5'-end of the CRISPR locus. Mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed that a single divalent metal ion (Mg(2+) or Mn(2+)), coordinated by a symmetric Asp pair in the Bha_Cas2 dimer, is involved in the catalysis. We envision that a pH-dependent conformational change switches Cas2 into a metal-binding competent conformation for catalysis. We further propose that the distinct substrate preferences among Cas2 proteins may be determined by the sequence and structure in the β1-α1 loop.

  14. A distinct contribution of short-wavelength-sensitive cones to light-evoked activity in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Allen, Annette E; Brown, Timothy M; Lucas, Robert J

    2011-11-16

    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) combine inputs from outer-retinal rod/cone photoreceptors with their intrinsic phototransduction machinery to drive a wide range of so-called non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light. Defining the contribution of each photoreceptor class to evoked responses is vital for determining the degree to which our sensory capabilities depend on melanopsin and for optimizing NIF responses to benefit human health. We addressed this problem by recording electrophysiological responses in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus (PON) (a target of ipRGCs and origin of the pupil light reflex) to a range of gradual and abrupt changes in light intensity. Dim stimuli drove minimal changes in PON activity, suggesting that rods contribute little under these conditions. To separate cone from melanopsin influences, we compared responses to short (460 nm) and longer (600/655 nm) wavelengths in mice carrying a red shifted cone population (Opn1mw®) or lacking melanopsin (Opn4⁻/⁻). Our data reveal a surprising difference in the quality of information available from medium- and short-wavelength-sensitive cones. The majority cone population (responsive to 600/655 nm) supported only transient changes in firing and responses to relatively sudden changes in light intensity. In contrast, cones uniquely sensitive to the shorter wavelength (S-cones) were better able to drive responses to gradual changes in illuminance, contributed a distinct off inhibition, and at least partially recapitulated the ability of melanopsin to sustain responses under continuous illumination. These data reveal a new role for S-cones unrelated to color vision and suggest renewed consideration of cone contributions to NIF vision at shorter wavelengths.

  15. Short- and Long-Term Theory-Based Predictors of Physical Activity in Women Who Participated in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserkampf, A.; Silva, M. N.; Santos, I. C.; Carraça, E. V.; Meis, J. J. M.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Teixeira, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age…

  16. Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire. Assessment Report #92-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Central Community Coll., New Haven, CT.

    During 1991-92, South Central Community College (SCCC), in Connecticut, administered student experience questionnaires to 600 students who were to graduate in June 1991 or were enrolled in fall 1991 and spring 1992 credit courses. The questionnaire sought information on student background, program of study, courses taken, activities, perceptions…

  17. JPSS Proving Ground Activities with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed

  18. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function

  19. An evaluation of short-term exposures of brake mechanics to asbestos during automotive and truck brake cleaning and machining activities.

    PubMed

    Richter, Richard O; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Williams, Pamela R D; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Historically, the greatest contributions to airborne asbestos concentrations during brake repair work were likely due to specific, short-duration, dust-generating activities. In this paper, the available short-term asbestos air sampling data for mechanics collected during the cleaning and machining of vehicle brakes are evaluated to determine their impact on both short-term and daily exposures. The high degree of variability and lack of transparency for most of the short-term samples limit their use in reconstructing past asbestos exposures for brake mechanics. However, the data are useful in evaluating how reducing short-term, dust-generating activities reduced long-term exposures, especially for auto brake mechanics. Using the short-term dose data for grinding brake linings from these same studies, in combination with existing time-weighted average (TWA) data collected in decades after grinding was commonplace in rebuilding brake shoes, an average 8-h TWA of approximately 0.10 f/cc was estimated for auto brake mechanics that performed arc grinding of linings during automobile brake repair (in the 1960s or earlier). In the 1970s and early 1980s, a decline in machining activities led to a decrease in the 8-h TWA to approximately 0.063 f/cc. Improved cleaning methods in the late 1980s further reduced the 8-h TWA for most brake mechanics to about 0.0021 f/cc. It is noteworthy that when compared with the original OSHA excursion level, only 15 of the more than 300 short-term concentrations for brake mechanics measured during the 1970s and 1980s possibly exceeded the standard. Considering exposure duration, none of the short-term exposures were above the current OSHA excursion level.

  20. Short-term variations of methane concentrations and methanotrophic activity in a coastal inlet (Eckernförde Bay, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richner, Dominik; Niemann, Helge; Steinle, Lea; Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Urban, Peter; Hoffmann, Jasper; Schmidt, Mark; Treude, Tina; Lehmann, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated into the overlying water column and, potentially, into the atmosphere. However, a sequence of microbially mediated methane oxidation pathways in sediments and the water column mitigate the contribution of oceans to the atmospheric methane budget. Of particular importance are methanotrophic bacteria in the water column that mediate the aerobic oxidation of methane (MOx), and represent the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. However methane cycling in (aerobic) marine waters is not well constrained. Particularly little is known about spatiotemporal aspects of MOx activity and the underlying key physical, chemical and biological factors. Here we show results from our investigations on methane dynamics on very short time scales of hours to days in the Eckernförde Bay (E-Bay), a costal inlet of the Baltic Sea in northern Germany featuring seasonal bottom water hypoxia/anoxia. In autumn 2014, we observed highly spatiotemporal variations in water column methane contents and MOx activity: Anoxic bottom waters in a trough in the northern part of the bay contained extremely high methane concentrations of up to 800 nM, which sharply declined at the midwater redox interface (methane remained supersaturated with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium throughout the water column at all times). The methane decrease at the redox interface was related to highly active MOx communities consuming methane under microoxic conditions at rates of up 40 nM/d. About 12 hours later, the methane content and the extend of bottom water anoxia was much lower and MOx activity was highly reduced in the northern part but strongly elevated in the southern part of the bay. A few days later, bottom water anoxia, methane loading and MOx activity was partially re-established. In this contribution, we will discuss potential forcing

  1. Narcotics Center Questionnaire (Spring 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, John B.; And Others

    This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 115 items (multiple choice, yes/no, agree/disagree, or completion) deal with personal and demographic data, general attitudes, attitudes toward institutions (police, American business, Army, etc.),…

  2. Parent Questionnaire on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vineland School District, NJ.

    This document provides a questionnaire to be used to determine the attitudes and influence of parents who have children in bilingual education programs. Thirty seven questions are listed, covering such factors as family background, language usage at home, and aspirations for the education of the children. Techniques for administering the…

  3. Questionnaire Research in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the survey as a research method based on three questionnaire surveys developed and administered in educational settings: (1) a survey exploring the status aspiration and gender awareness of undergraduate women completed by 62 respondents; (2) a survey of computer-assisted instruction completed by 111…

  4. College Student Services Accreditation Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1979-01-01

    This questionnaire is intended for use as one aspect in accrediting the "Student Personnel Services" which an institution of higher learning provides for students. Areas in question include personal development, health fostering, vocational preparation, effective personalized learning, economic viability, transpersonal offerings, and satisfactory…

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  6. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    PubMed

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory.

  7. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are short-lived: reappraising the influence of migration, genetic factors and activation on estimation of lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yifan; Chow, Kevin V.; Soo, Priscilla; Xu, Zhen; Brady, Jamie L.; Lawlor, Kate E.; Masters, Seth L.; O’keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Lew, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an important role in immunity to certain pathogens and immunopathology in some autoimmune diseases. They are thought to have a longer lifespan than conventional DCs (cDCs), largely based on a slower rate of BrdU labeling by splenic pDCs. Here we demonstrated that pDC expansion and therefore BrdU labeling by pDCs occurs in bone marrow (BM). The rate of labeling was similar between BM pDCs and spleen cDCs. Therefore, slower BrdU labeling of spleen pDCs likely reflects the “migration time” (∼2 days) for BrdU labeled pDCs to traffic to the spleen, not necessarily reflecting longer life span. Tracking the decay of differentiated DCs showed that splenic pDCs and cDCs decayed at a similar rate. We suggest that spleen pDCs have a shorter in vivo lifespan than estimated utilizing some of the previous approaches. Nevertheless, pDC lifespan varies between mouse strains. pDCs from lupus-prone NZB mice survived longer than C57BL/6 pDCs. We also demonstrated that activation either positively or negatively impacted on the survival of pDCs via different cell-death mechanisms. Thus, pDCs are also short-lived. However, the pDC lifespan is regulated by genetic and environmental factors that may have pathological consequence. PMID:27112985

  8. RADIAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND MAGNETIC BARRIER FOR SHORT-TYPE GAMMA-RAY-BURST CENTRAL ENGINE ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tong; Gu Weimin; Hou Shujin; Liang Enwei; Lei Weihua; Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Dai Zigao

    2012-11-20

    Soft extended emission (EE) following initial hard spikes up to 100 s was observed with Swift/BAT for about half of known short-type gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). This challenges the conversional central engine models of SGRBs, i.e., compact star merger models. In the framework of black-hole-neutron-star merger models, we study the roles of radial angular momentum transfer in the disk and the magnetic barrier around the black hole in the activity of SGRB central engines. We show that radial angular momentum transfer may significantly prolong the lifetime of the accretion process, which may be divided into multiple episodes by the magnetic barrier. Our numerical calculations based on models of neutrino-dominated accretion flows suggest that disk mass is critical for producing the observed EE. In the case of the mass being {approx}0.8 M {sub Sun }, our model can reproduce the observed timescale and luminosity of both the main and the EE episodes in a reasonable parameter set. The predicted luminosity of the EE component is lower than the observed EE within about one order of magnitude and the timescale is shorter than 20 s if the disk mass is {approx}0.2 M {sub Sun }. Swift/BAT-like instruments may be not sensitive enough to detect the EE component in this case. We argue that the EE component could be a probe for the merger process and disk formation for compact star mergers.

  9. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal driven by short-chain fatty acids produced from waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2007-10-15

    This paper examines the feasibility of using alkaline fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the carbon sources of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microorganisms. First, the released phosphorus was recovered from the SCFA-containing alkaline fermentation liquid by the formation of struvite precipitation, and 92.8% of the soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) could be recovered under conditions of Mg/P = 1.8 (mol/mol), pH 10.0, and a reaction time of 2 min. One reason for a Mg addition required in this study that was higher than the theoretical value was thatthe organic compounds consumed Mg. Then, two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, with acetic acid and alkaline fermentative SCFAs as the carbon source of EBPR. The transformations of SOP, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen and the removal of phosphorus were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was around 98% with the fermentative SCFAs, and about 71% with acetic acid, although the former showed much lower transformations of both PHAs and glycogen. The reasons that fermentative SCFAs caused much higher SOP removal than acetic acid were due to less PHAs used for glycogen synthesis and a higher PHA utilization efficiency for SOP uptake. Finally, the toxicity of fermentation liquid to EBPR microorganisms was examined, and no inhibitory effect was observed. It can be concluded from this studythatthe SCFAs from alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge were a superior carbon source for EBPR microorganisms than pure acetic acid.

  10. Short-term low-dose secondary prophylaxis for severe/moderate haemophilia A children is beneficial to reduce bleed and improve daily activity, but there are obstacle in its execution: a multi-centre pilot study in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Wu, R; Sun, J; Zhang, X; Feng, X; Zhang, X; Luke, K-H; Poon, M-C

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed in a single centre trial that low-dose secondary prophylaxis in severe/moderate haemophilia patients with arthropathy is feasible and beneficial. However, this regimen has not been validated in a multicentre setting and what obstacles are there to prophylaxis remain unclear. (i) Benefit study: to confirm the benefits of similar prophylaxis protocol in severe/moderate haemophilia A (HA) in a multicentre setting in China. (ii) Follow-up obstacle study: to investigate obstacles in compliance to prophylaxis treatment. (i) Benefit study: severe/moderate HA children with arthropathy from 15 centres were enrolled to undergo an 8-week on-demand treatment, followed by 6 to 12-week low-dose secondary prophylaxis. Outcomes compared in the two periods include joint and severe bleeding, daily activities and factor consumption. (ii) Obstacle study: questionnaires to investigators to collect data on patient and centre factors contributing to inability to comply with prophylaxis. We enrolled 191 patients from 15 centres. Sixty-six (34.6%) from three centres completed the prophylaxis protocol, and they had significantly decreased bleeding (78.8% haemarthrosis and 68.9% severe bleedings) and improved daily activities with no increase in factor consumption over that in the on-demand therapy period. The remaining 125 patients from 12 centres were not compliant to the prophylaxis protocol; questionnaire data indicated that the major obstacles were inability of patients/parents to accept (41.7%) or to adhere (33.3%) to the prophylaxis protocol, mostly because of failure to understand the benefits and to accept the frequent injections. Non-availability of a centre comprehensive care team was another important determinant. Short-term low-dose secondary prophylactic therapy is beneficial without increasing factors consumption for severe/moderate HA with arthropathy in a multi-centre setting in China. Obstacles to overcome must include improvement in comprehensive care

  11. Dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions counteract decreases in locomotor activity in male Syrian hamsters transferred from long to short day lengths.

    PubMed

    Jarjisian, Stephan G; Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Place, Ned J; Prendergast, Brian J; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2015-02-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) of the hypothalamus has been implicated in seasonal control of reproduction. Syrian hamsters with DMN lesions, unlike control hamsters, do not undergo testicular regression after transfer from a long day length (14 h of light per day; LD) to a short day length (8 h of light per day; SD). SDs also markedly reduce hamster locomotor activity (LMA). To assess whether the DMN is a component of the neural circuitry that mediates seasonal variation in LMA, neurologically intact males (controls) and hamsters that had sustained lesions of the DMN (DMNx) were housed in an LD or SD photoperiod for 26 weeks. DMNx that prevented testicular regression counteracted decreases in LMA during 8 to10 weeks of SD treatment; steroid-independent effects of SDs did not override high levels of LMA in DMNx males. As in previous studies, testosterone (T) restoration increased LMA in LD but not SD castrated control males. In the present study, T also failed to increase LMA in SD-DMNx hamsters. The DMN is not necessary to maintain decreased responsiveness of locomotor activity systems to T in SDs, which presumably is mediated by other central nervous system androgen target tissues. Finally, DMNx did not interfere with the spontaneous increase in LMA exhibited by photorefractory hamsters after 26 weeks of SD treatment. We propose that DMN is an essential part of the substrate that mediates seasonal decreases in LMA as day length decreases but is not required to sustain decreased SD responsiveness to T or for development of refractoriness to SDs.

  12. Real time electromagnetic monitoring system used for short-term earthquakes forecast related to the seismic-active Vrancea zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanica, Dumitru; Armand Stanica, Dragos

    2016-04-01

    The existence of the pre-seismic electromagnetic signals related to the earthquakes is still under scientific debate and requires new reliable information about their possible inter-relationship. In this paper, to obtain new insights into the seismic active Vrancea zone (Romania), a 3-D magnetotelluric imaging has been used to strengthen the connection between the geodynamic model and a possible generation mechanism of the intermediate depth earthquakes. Consequently, it is considered that before an earthquake initiation, due to the torsion effect, a high stress reached inside the seismogenic volume that may generates dehydration and rupture processes of the rocks, associated with the fluid migration through the lithospheric faults system, what leads to the resistivity changes. These changes have been investigated by using ULF electromagnetic data recorded in real time at the Geodynamic Observatory Provita de Sus (GOPS), placed on the Carpathian Electrical Conductivity Anomaly (CECA) at about 100km far from the seismic active Vrancea zone. The daily mean distribution of the normalized function Bzn(f) = Bz(f)/Bperp(f) (where: Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to strike; f is frequency in Hz) and its standard deviation are performed by using a FFT band-pass filter analysis in the ULF range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz, for which a 2-D geoelectrical structure under GOPS has been identified. To provide reliable information in anticipating the likelihood occurrence of an earthquake of Mw higher than 4, a statistical analysis based on standardized random variable equation has been used to identify the anomalous intervals on the new time series (Bzn*) carried out in a span of three years (2013-2015). The final conclusion is that the Bzn* shows a significant anomalous effect some days (weeks) before an impending earthquake and it should be used for short-term earthquakes forecast.

  13. Short-term calorie restriction protects against renal senescence of aged rats by increasing autophagic activity and reducing oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yi-Chun; Cai, Guang-Yan; Zhuo, Li; Gao, Jian-Jun; Dong, Dan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Feng, Zhe; Shi, Suo-Zhu; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effect of short-term calorie restriction (CR) on renal aging, 8-week CR with 60% of the food intake of the ad libitum group was administered in 25-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Aged rats subjected to short-term CR had lower body weight, level of triglycerides and ratio of urine protein to urine creatinine, respectively. Short-term CR blunted the increased glomerular volume, the degree of fibrosis, p16 and the positive rate of senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining of the kidneys in old ad libitum group. Light chain 3/Atg8 as an autophagy marker exhibited a marked decline in aged kidneys, which was increased by short-term CR. The levels of p62/SQSTM1 and polyubiquitin aggregates, which were increased in older kidneys, were blunted by short-term CR. Short-term CR retarded the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage. Moreover, we found an increased level of SIRT1 and AMPK, and a decreased level of mTOR in aged kidneys after short-term CR. These results suggested that short-term CR could be considered as a potential intervention for retardation of renal senescence by increasing autophagy and subsequently reducing oxidative damage. Three master regulators of energy metabolism, SIRT1, AMPK and mTOR are associated with these effects.

  14. Optimal warm-up stimuli of muscle activation to enhance short and long-term acute jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Saez Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; González-Badillo, Juan J; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different types of active warm-up stimuli of muscle activation on explosive jumping performance after short (5 min postwarm-up) and long (6 h postwarm-up) recovery periods following warm-up. Twelve trained volleyball players (21-24 years) performed different types of specific warm-up stimuli (WP) after baseline measurements [e.g., countermovement jump (CMJ) without and with extra load and Drop jump (DJ)] on randomized separate occasions: (1) three sets of five jumps with extra load (WP1), (2) two sets of four reps at 80% of 1RM parallel squat (1RM(PS)) and two sets of two reps at 85% of 1RM(PS) (WP2), (3) two sets of four reps at 80% of 1RM(PS) and two sets of two reps at 90% of 1RM(PS) and two sets of one rep at 95% of 1RM(PS) (WP3), (4) three sets of five DJs (WP4), (5) specified warm-up for a volleyball match (WP5), (6) three sets of five reps at 30% 1RM(PS) (WP6), and (7) an experimental condition of no active warm-up. Height in DJ significantly improved (P < 0.05) after WP1 (4.18%), WP2 (2.98%), WP3 (5.47%), and WP5 (4.49%). Maximal power output during CMJ with extra load significantly improved (P < 0.05) after WP2 (11.39%), WP5 (10.90%), WP3 (9%), and WP1 (2.47%). High-intensity dynamic loading (e.g., 80-95% 1RM), as well as specific volleyball warm-up protocol bring about the greatest effects on subsequent neuromuscular explosive responses. Acute positive effects on jumping performance after warm-up were maintained after long recovery periods (e.g., 6 h following warm-up), particularly when prior high-intensity dynamic actions were performed. PMID:17394010

  15. Development of a "Steps Questionnaire".

    PubMed

    Gilbert, F S

    1991-07-01

    Thousands of men and women have begun their recovery from alcoholism through the support of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its well-known "12-Step" program. The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale to measure alcoholics' levels of agreement with the first three of AA's 12 Steps and to test the relationship between sobriety and belief in these three steps. Using both factor analysis and Rasch analysis, two versions of a "Steps Questionnaire" were developed. A 96-member subset of the original subject pool was assessed quarterly for 1 year following inpatient treatment to determine the predictive validity of the questionnaire. The results of this study suggested that agreement with AA's first three steps can be measured and that agreement with AA's first step correlates with number of sober days posttreatment. The dichotomization of Steps Questionnaire scores into total agreement versus partial agreement with Step 1, and from this the reduction of uncertainty in the prediction of abstention over a lengthy follow-up period, provides support for AA's contention that total surrender to one's powerlessness over alcohol is part of the process of achieving abstention.

  16. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Spilsbury, James C.; Drotar, Dennis; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Developed the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a brief, self-completed instrument to measure excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Participants: A subsample of 411 adolescents 11–17 years of age recruited from area schools, churches, and “control” participants in a sleep disordered breathing cohort study; a second subsample of 62 adolescents with diagnosed sleep disordered breathing also participating in the sleep disordered breathing study. Measurements: Participants completed the CASQ along with two other available measures of daytime sleepiness and other sleep parameters (sleep duration on school nights, sleep duration on non-school nights, and sleep debt, defined as non-school night sleep duration minus school-night sleep duration). Demographic information was obtained from a caregiver-completed questionnaire. The CASQ was developed using exploratory factor analysis, followed by confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling techniques. Results: Goodness-of-fit measures for the final 16-item scale structure ranged from good to excellent. The CASQ's internal consistency was good (α = 0.89). Correlations between the CASQ, two other measures of daytime sleepiness, and sleep parameters gave preliminary evidence of the CASQ's construct validity. Conclusion: The CASQ shows promise as a valid measure of daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Citation: Spilsbury JC; Drotar D; Rosen CL et al. The cleveland adolescent sleepiness questionnaire: a new measure to assess excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. PMID:17993042

  17. Short delays and low pulse amplitudes produce widespread activation in the target-distance processing area of auditory cortex of the mustached bat.

    PubMed

    Macías, Silvio; Hechavarría, Julio C

    2016-08-01

    While approaching an object, echolocating bats decrease the amplitude of their vocalizations. This behavior is known as "echo-level compensation." Here, the activation pattern of the cortical FM-FM (frequency modulated) area of the mustached bat is assessed by using acoustic stimuli that correspond to sonar signals and their echoes emitted during echo-level compensation behavior. Activation maps were calculated from the delay response areas of 86 cortical neurons, and these maps were used to explore the topography of cortical activation during echolocation and its relation to the bats' cortical "chronotopy." Chronotopy predicts short echo-delays to be represented by rostral auditory cortex neurons while caudal neurons represent long echo-delays. The results show that a chronotopic activation of the cortex is evident only at loud pulse amplitudes [80-90 dB sound pressure level (SPL)]. In response to fainter pulse levels (60-70 dB SPL), as those produced as the animals zoom-in on targets, chronotopic activation of the cortex becomes less clear because units throughout the FM-FM area start firing, especially in response to short echo-delays. The fact that cortical activity is more widespread in response to combinations of short echo-delays and faint pulse amplitudes could represent an adaptation that enhances cortical activity in the late stages of echo-level compensation. PMID:27586724

  18. Short delays and low pulse amplitudes produce widespread activation in the target-distance processing area of auditory cortex of the mustached bat.

    PubMed

    Macías, Silvio; Hechavarría, Julio C

    2016-08-01

    While approaching an object, echolocating bats decrease the amplitude of their vocalizations. This behavior is known as "echo-level compensation." Here, the activation pattern of the cortical FM-FM (frequency modulated) area of the mustached bat is assessed by using acoustic stimuli that correspond to sonar signals and their echoes emitted during echo-level compensation behavior. Activation maps were calculated from the delay response areas of 86 cortical neurons, and these maps were used to explore the topography of cortical activation during echolocation and its relation to the bats' cortical "chronotopy." Chronotopy predicts short echo-delays to be represented by rostral auditory cortex neurons while caudal neurons represent long echo-delays. The results show that a chronotopic activation of the cortex is evident only at loud pulse amplitudes [80-90 dB sound pressure level (SPL)]. In response to fainter pulse levels (60-70 dB SPL), as those produced as the animals zoom-in on targets, chronotopic activation of the cortex becomes less clear because units throughout the FM-FM area start firing, especially in response to short echo-delays. The fact that cortical activity is more widespread in response to combinations of short echo-delays and faint pulse amplitudes could represent an adaptation that enhances cortical activity in the late stages of echo-level compensation.

  19. Mechanism of hyperinsulinism in short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency involves activation of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhong; Chen, Pan; Palladino, Andrew; Narayan, Srinivas; Russell, Laurie K; Sayed, Samir; Xiong, Guoxiang; Chen, Jie; Stokes, David; Butt, Yasmeen M; Jones, Patricia M; Collins, Heather W; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S; Nissim, Itzhak; Smith, Thomas J; Strauss, Arnold W; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD deficiency. hadh(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to oral amino acid with decrease of glucose level and elevation of insulin. Hypersensitivity to oral amino acid in hadh(-/-) mice can be explained by abnormal insulin responses to a physiological mixture of amino acids and increased sensitivity to leucine stimulation in isolated perifused islets. Measurement of cytosolic calcium showed normal basal levels and abnormal responses to amino acids in hadh(-/-) islets. Leucine, glutamine, and alanine are responsible for amino acid hypersensitivity in islets. hadh(-/-) islets have lower intracellular glutamate and aspartate levels, and this decrease can be prevented by high glucose. hadh(-/-) islets also have increased [U-(14)C]glutamine oxidation. In contrast, hadh(-/-) mice have similar glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared with controls. Perifused hadh(-/-) islets showed no differences from controls in response to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, even with addition of either a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoate) or a long-chain fatty acid (palmitate). Pull-down experiments with SCHAD, anti-SCHAD, or anti-GDH antibodies showed protein-protein interactions between SCHAD and GDH. GDH enzyme kinetics of hadh(-/-) islets showed an increase in GDH affinity for its substrate, α-ketoglutarate. These studies indicate that SCHAD deficiency causes hyperinsulinism by activation of GDH via loss of inhibitory regulation of GDH by SCHAD.

  20. Automated system for neutron activation analysis determination of short lived isotopes at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieman, J. J.; Rigot, W. L.; Romick, J. D.; Quinn, T. J.; Kocher, C. W.

    1994-12-01

    An automated neutron activation analysis (NAA) system for the determination of short lived isotopes was constructed at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA Research Reactor in 1993. The NAA group of the Analytical Sciences Laboratory uses the reactor for thousands of analyses each year and therefore automation is important to achieve and maintain high throughput and precision (productivity). This project is complementary to automation of the long-lived counting facilities (see Romick et al., these Proceedings). Canberra/Nuclear Data Systems DEC-based software and electronics modules and an I/O mounting board are the basic commercial components. A Fortran program on a VAX computer controls I/O via ethernet to an Acquisition Interface Module (AIM). The AIM controls the γ spectrometer modules and is interfaced to a Remote Parallel Interface (RPI) module which controls the pneumatic transfer apparatus with TTL signals to the I/O mounting board. Near-infrared sensors are used to monitor key points in the transfer system. Spectra are acquired by a single HPGe detector mounted on a sliding rail to allow flexible and more reproducible counting geometries than with manual sample handling. The maximum sample size is 8 ml in a heat-sealed two dram vial. The sample vial is nested into a "rabbit" vial for irradiation which can be automatically removed prior to spectrum collection. The system was designed to be used by the reactor operator at the control console without the aid of an additional experimenter. Applications include the determination of selenium and silver in coal and water, fluorine in tetra-fluoro ethylene (TFE) coated membranes, aluminum and titanium in composite materials and trace fluorine in non-chlorinated cleaning solvents. Variable dead time software allows analysis for 77mSe despite high dead times from 16N encountered in samples.

  1. A new process to improve short-chain fatty acids and bio-methane generation from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    As an important intermediate product, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be generated after hydrolysis and acidification from waste activated sludge, and then can be transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion process. In order to obtain more SCFA and methane, most studies in literatures were centered on enhancing the hydrolysis of sludge anaerobic digestion which was proved as un-efficient. Though the alkaline pretreatment in our previous study increased both the hydrolysis and acidification processes, it had a vast chemical cost which was considered uneconomical. In this paper, a low energy consumption pretreatment method, i.e. enhanced the whole three stages of the anaerobic fermentation processes at the same time, was reported, by which hydrolysis and acidification were both enhanced, and the SCFA and methane generation can be significantly improved with a small quantity of chemical input. Firstly, the effect of different pretreated temperatures and pretreatment time on sludge hydrolyzation was compared. It was found that sludge pretreated at 100°C for 60min can achieve the maximal hydrolyzation. Further, effects of different initial pHs on acidification of the thermal pretreated sludge were investigated and the highest SCFA was observed at initial pH9.0 with fermentation time of 6d, the production of which was 348.63mg COD/gVSS (6.8 times higher than the blank test) and the acetic acid was dominant acid. Then, the mechanisms for this new pretreatment significantly improving SCFA production were discussed. Finally, the effect of this low energy consumption pretreatment on methane generation was investigated.

  2. The SHORT-ROOT-like gene PtSHR2B is involved in Populus phellogen activity.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Andreia; Milhinhos, Ana; Novák, Ondřej; Jones, Brian; Miguel, Célia M

    2016-03-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a GRAS transcription factor first characterized for its role in the specification of the stem cell niche and radial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana (At) roots. Three SHR-like genes have been identified in Populus trichocarpa (Pt). PtSHR1 shares high similarity with AtSHR over the entire length of the coding sequence. The two other Populus SHR-like genes, PtSHR2A and PtSHR2B, are shorter in their 5' ends when compared with AtSHR. Unlike PtSHR1, that is expressed throughout the cambial zone of greenhouse-grown Populus trees, PtSHR2Bprom:uidA expression was detected in the phellogen. Additionally, PtSHR1 and PtSHR2B expression patterns markedly differ in the shoot apex and roots of in vitro plants. Transgenic hybrid aspen expressing PtSHR2B under the 35S constitutive promoter showed overall reduced tree growth while the proportion of bark increased relative to the wood. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed increased transcript levels of cytokinin metabolism and response-related genes in the transgenic plants consistent with an increase of total cytokinin levels. This was confirmed by cytokinin quantification by LC-MS/MS. Our results indicate that PtSHR2B appears to function in the phellogen and therefore in the regulation of phellem and periderm formation, possibly acting through modulation of cytokinin homeostasis. Furthermore, this work points to a functional diversification of SHR after the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. This finding may contribute to selection and breeding strategies of cork oak in which, unlike Populus, the phellogen is active throughout the entire tree lifespan, being at the basis of a highly profitable cork industry.

  3. Adaptation of short-term plasticity parameters via error-driven learning may explain the correlation between activity-dependent synaptic properties, connectivity motifs and target specificity

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Umberto; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical connectivity among neurons has been experimentally found to be largely non-random across brain areas. This means that certain connectivity motifs occur at a higher frequency than would be expected by chance. Of particular interest, short-term synaptic plasticity properties were found to colocalize with specific motifs: an over-expression of bidirectional motifs has been found in neuronal pairs where short-term facilitation dominates synaptic transmission among the neurons, whereas an over-expression of unidirectional motifs has been observed in neuronal pairs where short-term depression dominates. In previous work we found that, given a network with fixed short-term properties, the interaction between short- and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission is sufficient for the emergence of specific motifs. Here, we introduce an error-driven learning mechanism for short-term plasticity that may explain how such observed correspondences develop from randomly initialized dynamic synapses. By allowing synapses to change their properties, neurons are able to adapt their own activity depending on an error signal. This results in more rich dynamics and also, provided that the learning mechanism is target-specific, leads to specialized groups of synapses projecting onto functionally different targets, qualitatively replicating the experimental results of Wang and collaborators. PMID:25688203

  4. Pre-Reading and Pre-Writing Activities to Prepare and Motivate Foreign Language Students to Read Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcuri, Guy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a model for preparing secondary school Spanish students for short-story reading comprehension. The model focuses primarily on eliciting students' personal responses to stories so that they will "invest" more into comprehending and appreciating the text. (CB)

  5. Priming of Short-Term Potentiation and Synaptic Tagging/Capture Mechanisms by Ryanodine Receptor Activation in Rat Hippocampal CA1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Li, Qin; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Xiao, Zhi Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are considered to be cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Strengthening of a synapse for a few seconds or minutes is termed short-term potentiation (STP) and is normally unable to take part in the processes of synaptic…

  6. NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of short-lived color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.

    1987-11-01

    It was found that the short-lived color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.

  7. Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review

  8. Statistical properties of short-selling and margin-trading activities and their impacts on returns in the Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Gao, Yao

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the collective behaviors of short-selling and margin-trading between Chinese stocks and their impacts on the co-movements of stock returns by cross-correlation and partial correlation analyses. We find that the collective behaviors of margin-trading are largely attributed to the index cohesive force, while those of short-selling are mainly due to some direct interactions between stocks. Interestingly, the dominant role the finance industry plays in the collective behaviors of short-selling could make it more important in affecting the co-movement structure of stock returns by strengthening its relationship with the market index. By detecting the volume-return and volume-volatility relationships, we find that the investors of the two leverage activities are positively triggered by individual stock volatility first, and next, at the return level, margin-buyers show trend-following properties, while short-sellers are probably informative traders who trade on the information impulse of specific firms. However, the return predictability of the two leverage trading activities and their impacts on stock volatility are not significant. Moreover, both tails of the cumulative distributions of the two leverage trading activities are found following the stretched exponential law better than the power-law.

  9. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  10. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  11. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  12. Haemangioma family burden: creation of a specific questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Olivia; Méni, Cecile; Léauté-Labreze, Christine; Bodemer, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Dufresne, Hélène; Brauchoux, Sébastien; Taieb, Charles

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a specific questionnaire to assess burden on families of children with infantile haemangioma (IH): the Haemangioma Family Burden questionnaire (HFB). Items were generated from a literature review and a verbatim report from parents. Subsequently, a study was implemented at the Necker Hospital and the Pellegrin Children's Hospital for psychometric analysis. The HFB was refined via item reduction according to inter-question correlations, consensus among experts and exploratory factor analysis. A 20-item questionnaire, grouped into 5 dimensions, was obtained. Construct validity was demonstrated and HFB showed good internal coherence (Cronbach's α: 0.93). The HFB was significantly correlated with the mental dimension of the Short-Form-12 (r = -0.75), and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (r = -0.61). HFB scores differed significantly according to the size and localization of the IH. A validated tool for assessing the burden on families of children with IH is now available.

  13. Investigating pristine inner experience: implications for experience sampling and questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We argue that inquiring about directly apprehended ("pristine") inner experience requires four overlapping methodological characteristics: effectively limiting investigation to specific, clearly identified moments; effectively limiting investigation to pristine experience; bracketing presuppositions; and iteratively acquiring skills. We compare and contrast Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES), other (non-DES) experience sampling methods, and questionnaires and conclude that whereas non-DES sampling methods and questionnaires appear to inquire about pristine inner experience, they fall short on all four methodological counts and therefore might be better understood as investigating an ill-defined mixture of presuppositions, judgments about experience, and pristine experience itself. Typical experience sampling studies and questionnaires can be valid and useful, but their validity and utility does not (or at least does not necessarily) arise from their phenomenological fidelity.

  14. Verbal Short-Term Memory Deficits in Chinese Children with Dyslexia may not be a Problem with the Activation of Phonological Representations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Yang; Song, Yao-Wu; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. Twenty-four children with dyslexia and 28 age-matched normal readers participated in the study. They were required to memorize a visually presented series of six Chinese characters and identify them from a list also including code-specific distracters and non-code-specific distracters. Error rates were recorded and were higher for code-specific distracters in all three conditions, revealing phonological, visual, and semantic similarity effects respectively. Group comparisons showed a stronger phonological similarity effect in dyslexic group, suggesting intact activation of phonological representations of target characters. Children with dyslexia also exhibited a greater semantic similarity effect, revealing stronger activation of semantic representations, while visual similarity effects were equivalent to controls. These results suggest that the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese dyslexics might not stem from insufficient activation of phonological information. Based the semantic activation of target characters in dyslexics is greater than in controls, it is possible that the memory deficit of dyslexia is related with deficient inhibition of target semantic representations in short-term memory.

  15. Cystic acne improved by photodynamic therapy with short-contact 5-aminolevulinic acid and sequential combination of intense pulsed light and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with short-contact 5-aminolevulinic acid (Levulan Kerastick, Dusa Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and activation by intense pulsed light in an initial treatment and blue light in 3 subsequent treatments has resulted in significant improvement in severity of acne, reduction in the number of lesions, improvement in skin texture, and smoothing of scar edges in an Asian patient with severe (class 4) facial cystic acne and scarring. PMID:16302560

  16. Theoretical study of cw to short pulse conversion in an active cw-injected ring cavity with a Yb3+:YAG amplifier.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyun; Bourdet, Gilbert L

    2007-05-10

    The short laser pulse generated from an active cw-injected ring cavity with Yb3+:YAG crystal, which is treated as the homogeneously broadened amplifier, is studied theoretically. Based on the derived results, the impacts of the amplifier length, the seeding laser intensity and frequency, the pump intensity, the efficiency of the acousto-optic modulator (AOM), and the frequency shift generated by the AOM on the performance of the laser pulse are analyzed. PMID:17446920

  17. [Short-term changes of pH value and Al activity in acid soils after urea fertilization].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingru; Liao, Bohan; Jiang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Xihong; Tang, Can; Zhong, Ning

    2005-02-01

    Acidic soils are widely distributed in South China, and their acidity is the major environmental stress factor limiting the growth of most crops. It is well known that soil Al solubilized at low pH is a main toxic factor for plant growth. Our study with three acidic soils showed that soil pH increased quickly, while soil exchangeable Al decreased sharply with the increasing concentrations of applied urea. The time-course experiment revealed that the increase of soil pH was short-lived, with a subsequently slow drop after reached its maximum. Urea fertilization caused a drastic change of soil pH during 2-4 weeks of the experimental period. There was a negative relationship between soil pH and soil exchangeable Al. Biological toxicity test demonstrated that applying urea to acidic soils could obviously decrease the aluminum toxicity of maize in a short-term period.

  18. Surveys and questionnaires in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Fiona

    2015-06-17

    Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires.

  19. The Stages of Mailed Questionnaire Returning Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Daniel C.

    1984-01-01

    Six stages are hypothesized that define the behavior of returning mailed questionnaires: receiving the questionnaire, opening the mail, forming an overall impression, answering the questions, returning the questionnaire, and dealing with nonrespondents. The researcher must provide incentives at each stage if potential respondents are to complete a…

  20. 75 FR 16737 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Pretesting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Questionnaire Pretesting Research AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of...-scale questionnaire pretesting activities under this generic clearance. A block of hours will be... will be used by the Census Bureau and survey sponsors to improve questionnaires and procedures,...

  1. 78 FR 23743 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Pretesting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Questionnaire Pretesting Research AGENCY: Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... of small-scale questionnaire pretesting activities under this generic clearance. A block of hours... research program will be used by the Census Bureau and survey sponsors to improve questionnaires...

  2. The telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Bruno Bernardes; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Vera, Elsa; Tejera, Agueda; Harley, Calvin B.; Blasco, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we show that a small-molecule activator of telomerase (TA-65) purified from the root of Astragalus membranaceus is capable of increasing average telomere length and decreasing the percentage of critically short telomeres and of DNA damage in haploinsufficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that harbor critically short telomeres and a single copy of the telomerase RNA Terc gene (G3 Terc+/− MEFs). Importantly, TA-65 does not cause telomere elongation or rescues DNA damage in similarly treated telomerase-deficient G3 Terc−/− littermate MEFs. These results indicate that TA-65 treatment results in telomerase-dependent elongation of short telomeres and rescue of associated DNA damage, thus demonstrating that TA-65 mechanism of action is through the telomerase pathway. In addition, we demonstrate that TA-65 is capable of increasing mTERT levels in some mouse tissues and elongating critically short telomeres when supplemented as part of a standard diet in mice. Finally, TA-65 dietary supplementation in female mice leads to an improvement of certain health-span indicators including glucose tolerance, osteoporosis and skin fitness, without significantly increasing global cancer incidence. PMID:21426483

  3. The involvement of the olfactory bulbs in the regulation of gonadal and thyroidal activities of male red-winged blackbirds, exposed to short-day light regime.

    PubMed

    Robinzon, B; Katz, Y; Rogers, J G

    1979-01-01

    Surgical removal of the olfactory bulbs (OB) was performed in mature male red-winged blackbirds, maintained under a short-day light regime. Bulbectomy caused hyperphagia, which was not accompanied by obesity. Bulbectomized (OBX) birds had incresaed thyroid follicular activity and had greater developed testes than sham-operated controls. In the adenohypophyses of the OB-removed birds there was an increase in the populations of 4 types of chromophils: alcianophils, PAS-positive basophils, orangeophils and PAS-positive acidophils. The possibility that the OB are involved in the photoperiodic regulation of the activity of the gonads and thyroids is discussed.

  4. Development and Validation of the Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Dover, Geoffrey; Amar, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Context The fear-avoidance model was developed in an attempt to explain the process by which “pain experience” and “pain behavior” become dissociated from the actual pain sensation in individuals who manifest the phenomenon of exaggerated pain perception. High levels of fear avoidance can lead to chronic pain and disability and have successfully predicted rehabilitation time in the work-related–injury population. Existing fear-avoidance questionnaires have all been developed for the general population, but these questionnaires may not be specific enough to fully assess fear avoidance in an athletic population that copes with pain differently than the general population. Objective To develop and validate the Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire (AFAQ). Design Qualitative research to develop the AFAQ and a cross-sectional study to validate the scale. Patients or Other Participants For questionnaire development, a total of 8 experts in the fields of athletic therapy, sport psychology, and fear avoidance were called upon to generate and rate items for the AFAQ. For determining concurrent validity, 99 varsity athletes from various sports participated. Data Collection and Analysis A total of 99 varsity athletes completed the AFAQ, the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. We used Pearson correlations to establish concurrent validity. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between the AFAQ and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire-Physical Activity (r = 0.352, P > .001) as well as with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (r = 0.587, P > .001). High internal consistency of our questionnaire was established with a Cronbach α coefficient of 0.805. The final version of the questionnaire includes 10 items with good internal validity (P < .05). Conclusions We developed a questionnaire with good internal and external validity. The AFAQ is a scale that measures sport-injury–related fear avoidance in

  5. An Active Immune Defense with a Minimal CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J.; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3′ handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3′ handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5′ handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. PMID:25512373

  6. An active immune defense with a minimal CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 protein.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-02-13

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3' handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3' handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5' handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference.

  7. An active immune defense with a minimal CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 protein.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-02-13

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3' handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3' handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5' handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. PMID:25512373

  8. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) and the sage brush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, C.; Linder, A.D.

    1985-10-31

    A mark-recapture study of the short-horned lizard (Phyrnosoma douglassi) and the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) was performed from 1976 to 1977 in southeastern Idaho. Both species had mean cloacal temperatures of approximately 33 C. However, P. douglassi had more variable cloacal temperatures, particularly during morning and evening periods. This was caused by differences in sleeping sites chosen by the two species. Adults of both species were active from mid-April through late August, with peak activity in June. Juvenile P. douglassi displayed a seasonal activity pattern similar to that of adults. Juvenile S. graciosus were most active later in the year (August), when adults were disappearing. In both species, young-of-the-year appeared in early to mid-August. Adult and juvenile P. douglassi were active during all daylight hours and displayed no activity peaks, whereas young-of-the-year displayed a bimodal activity pattern. Adult and juvenile S. graciosus were active over all daylight hours but had peak activity between 1200 and 1500 h. Ants (Pogonomyrmex) were the lizard's principle prey. However, only young-of-the-year P. douglassi had activity patterns that paralleled that of ants on their mounds. 22 references, 4 figures.

  9. Changes in neural resting state activity in primary and higher-order motor areas induced by a short sensorimotor intervention based on the Feldenkrais method

    PubMed Central

    Verrel, Julius; Almagor, Eilat; Schumann, Frank; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate short-term neural effects of a brief sensorimotor intervention adapted from the Feldenkrais method, a movement-based learning method. Twenty-one participants (10 men, 19–30 years) took part in the study. Participants were in a supine position in the scanner with extended legs while an experienced Feldenkrais practitioner used a planar board to touch and apply minimal force to different parts of the sole and toes of their left foot under two experimental conditions. In the local condition, the practitioner explored movement within foot and ankle. In the global condition, the practitioner focused on the connection and support from the foot to the rest of the body. Before (baseline) and after each intervention (post-local, post-global), we measured brain activity during intermittent pushing/releasing with the left leg and during resting state. Independent localizer tasks were used to identify regions of interest (ROI). Brain activity during left-foot pushing did not significantly differ between conditions in sensorimotor areas. Resting state activity (regional homogeneity, ReHo) increased from baseline to post-local in medial right motor cortex, and from baseline to post-global in the left supplementary/cingulate motor area. Contrasting post-global to post-local showed higher ReHo in right lateral motor cortex. ROI analyses showed significant increases in ReHo in pushing-related areas from baseline to both post-local and post-global, and this increase tended to be more pronounced post-local. The results of this exploratory study show that a short, non-intrusive sensorimotor intervention can have short-term effects on spontaneous cortical activity in functionally related brain regions. Increased resting state activity in higher-order motor areas supports the hypothesis that the global intervention engages action-related neural processes. PMID:25972804

  10. Changes in neural resting state activity in primary and higher-order motor areas induced by a short sensorimotor intervention based on the Feldenkrais method.

    PubMed

    Verrel, Julius; Almagor, Eilat; Schumann, Frank; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate short-term neural effects of a brief sensorimotor intervention adapted from the Feldenkrais method, a movement-based learning method. Twenty-one participants (10 men, 19-30 years) took part in the study. Participants were in a supine position in the scanner with extended legs while an experienced Feldenkrais practitioner used a planar board to touch and apply minimal force to different parts of the sole and toes of their left foot under two experimental conditions. In the local condition, the practitioner explored movement within foot and ankle. In the global condition, the practitioner focused on the connection and support from the foot to the rest of the body. Before (baseline) and after each intervention (post-local, post-global), we measured brain activity during intermittent pushing/releasing with the left leg and during resting state. Independent localizer tasks were used to identify regions of interest (ROI). Brain activity during left-foot pushing did not significantly differ between conditions in sensorimotor areas. Resting state activity (regional homogeneity, ReHo) increased from baseline to post-local in medial right motor cortex, and from baseline to post-global in the left supplementary/cingulate motor area. Contrasting post-global to post-local showed higher ReHo in right lateral motor cortex. ROI analyses showed significant increases in ReHo in pushing-related areas from baseline to both post-local and post-global, and this increase tended to be more pronounced post-local. The results of this exploratory study show that a short, non-intrusive sensorimotor intervention can have short-term effects on spontaneous cortical activity in functionally related brain regions. Increased resting state activity in higher-order motor areas supports the hypothesis that the global intervention engages action-related neural processes. PMID:25972804

  11. Comparing the activity of aluminum in two B horizons developed from volcanic ash deposits in Japan, dominated by short-range ordered aluminosilicates and crystalline clay minerals, respectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagasaki, Yasumi; Mulder, Jan; Okazaki, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the activity of free aluminum (Al) in Bw1 horizons of soils developed from volcanic ash deposits in Japan were investigated by means of acid-base titrations and kinetic studies. In a Bw1 horizon, with a high content of acid-oxalate extractable Al, soil solution reached equilibrium with short-range ordered aluminosilicates in the order of days. Relatively fast kinetics of the release and precipitation of Al and Si indicate a high reactivity of short-range ordered aluminosilicates in the soil. In the Bw1 horizon of an adjacent soil, with a high content of crystalline clay minerals like halloysite and interlayered vermiculite, solution remained well undersaturated with respect to short-range ordered aluminosilicates and aluminum hydroxide. Apparent equilibrium with respect to halloysite occurred after more than 30 days. This halloysite ( logKso0=3.74±0.02 (25 °C)) has a solubility that is less than that reported in the literature ( logKso0=4.36 (25°C)). Our findings suggest that different reactive aluminosilicates may control the activity of free Al in sub-surface horizons of volcanic ash soils with different mineralogy.

  12. The water balance questionnaire: design, reliability and validity of a questionnaire to evaluate water balance in the general population.

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2012-03-01

    There is a need to develop a questionnaire as a research tool for the evaluation of water balance in the general population. The water balance questionnaire (WBQ) was designed to evaluate water intake from fluid and solid foods and drinking water, and water loss from urine, faeces and sweat at sedentary conditions and physical activity. For validation purposes, the WBQ was administrated in 40 apparently healthy participants aged 22-57 years (37.5% males). Hydration indices in urine (24 h volume, osmolality, specific gravity, pH, colour) were measured through established procedures. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered twice to 175 subjects to evaluate its reliability. Kendall's τ-b and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the questionnaire's validity and reliability. The proposed WBQ to assess water balance in healthy individuals was found to be valid and reliable, and it could thus be a useful tool in future projects that aim to evaluate water balance.

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) prediction of (eco)toxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as a group of very promising compounds due to their excellent properties (practical non-volatility, high thermal stability and very good and diverse solving capacity). The ILs have a good prospect of replacing traditional organic solvents in vast variety of applications. However, the complete information on their environmental impact is still not available. There is also an enormous number of possible combinations of anions and cations which can form ILs, the fact that requires a method allowing the prediction of toxicity of existing and potential ILs. In this study, a group contribution QSAR model has been used in order to predict the (eco)toxicity of protic and aprotic ILs for five tests (Microtox®, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor growth inhibition test, and Acetylcholinestherase inhibition and Cell viability assay with IPC-81 cells). The predicted and experimental toxicity are well correlated. A prediction of EC50 for these (eco)toxicity tests has also been made for eight representatives of the new family of short aliphatic protic ILs, whose toxicity has not been determined experimentally to date. The QSAR model applied in this study can allow the selection of potentially less toxic ILs amongst the existing ones (e.g. in the case of aprotic ILs), but it can also be very helpful in directing the synthesis efforts toward developing new "greener" ILs respectful with the environment (e.g. short aliphatic protic ILs). PMID:25728357

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) prediction of (eco)toxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as a group of very promising compounds due to their excellent properties (practical non-volatility, high thermal stability and very good and diverse solving capacity). The ILs have a good prospect of replacing traditional organic solvents in vast variety of applications. However, the complete information on their environmental impact is still not available. There is also an enormous number of possible combinations of anions and cations which can form ILs, the fact that requires a method allowing the prediction of toxicity of existing and potential ILs. In this study, a group contribution QSAR model has been used in order to predict the (eco)toxicity of protic and aprotic ILs for five tests (Microtox®, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor growth inhibition test, and Acetylcholinestherase inhibition and Cell viability assay with IPC-81 cells). The predicted and experimental toxicity are well correlated. A prediction of EC50 for these (eco)toxicity tests has also been made for eight representatives of the new family of short aliphatic protic ILs, whose toxicity has not been determined experimentally to date. The QSAR model applied in this study can allow the selection of potentially less toxic ILs amongst the existing ones (e.g. in the case of aprotic ILs), but it can also be very helpful in directing the synthesis efforts toward developing new "greener" ILs respectful with the environment (e.g. short aliphatic protic ILs).

  15. Ambient Ozone Control in a Photochemically Active Region: Short-Term Despiking or Long-Term Attainment?

    PubMed

    Ou, Jiamin; Yuan, Zibing; Zheng, Junyu; Huang, Zhijiong; Shao, Min; Li, Zekun; Huang, Xiaobo; Guo, Hai; Louie, Peter K K

    2016-06-01

    China has made significant progress decreasing the ambient concentrations of most air pollutants, but ozone (O3) is an exception. O3 mixing ratios during pollution episodes are far higher than the national standard in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), thus greater evidence-based control efforts are needed for O3 attainment. By using a validated O3 modeling system and the latest regional emission inventory, this study illustrates that control strategies for short-term O3 despiking and long-term attainment in the PRD may be contradictory. VOC-focused controls are more efficient for O3 despiking in urban and industrial areas, but significant NOx emission reductions and a subsequent transition to a NOx-limited regime are required for O3 attainment. By tracking O3 changes along the entire path toward long-term attainment, this study recommends to put a greater focus on NOx emission controls region-wide. Parallel VOC reductions around the Nansha port are necessary in summertime and should be extended to the urban and industrial areas in fall with a flexibility to be strengthened on days forecasted to have elevated O3. Contingent VOC-focused controls on top of regular NOx-focused controls would lay the groundwork for striking a balance between short-term despiking and long-term attainment of O3 concentrations in the PRD. PMID:27135547

  16. Wounding Sheets of Epithelial Cells Activates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor through Distinct Short- and Long-Range Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Block, Ethan R.

    2008-01-01

    Wounding epithelia induces activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is absolutely required for induction of motility. ATP is released from cells after wounding; it binds to purinergic receptors on the cell surface, and the EGFR is subsequently activated. Exogenous ATP activates phospholipase D, and we show here that ATP activates the EGFR through the phospholipase D2 isoform. The EGFR is activated in cells far (>0.3 cm) from wounds, which is mediated by diffusion of extracellular ATP because activation at a distance from wounds is abrogated by eliminating ATP in the medium with apyrase. In sharp contrast, activation of the EGFR near wounds is not sensitive to apyrase. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that cells exhibit increased motilities near edges of wounds; this increase in motility is not sensitive to apyrase, and apyrase does not detectably inhibit healing of wounds in epithelial sheets. This novel ATP/PLD2-independent pathway activates the EGFR by a transactivation process through ligand release, and it involves signaling by a member of the Src family of kinases. We conclude that wounding activates two distinct signaling pathways that induce EGFR activation and promote healing of wounds in epithelial cells. One pathway signals at a distance from wounds through release of ATP, and another pathway acts locally and is independent on ATP signaling. PMID:18799627

  17. A short-term longitudinal study of preschoolers' (Homo sapiens) sex segregation: the role of physical activity, sex, and time.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Long, Jeffrey D; Roseth, Cary J; Bohn, Catherine M; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2007-08-01

    The interactive influence of preschool children's level of physical activity, sex, and time on the degree of sex segregation was assessed. A sample of nursery school children was observed across much of a school year, and levels of physical activity and sex segregation were sampled during their free play periods. Following sexual selection theory, we predicted a Sex X Time X Physical Activity interaction on segregation such that high-activity girls early in the school year would interact with boys but, with time, the high-activity girls would be segregated among themselves. Boys (both high- and low-activity) should remain segregated across the year. The hypothesis was supported, and results are discussed in terms of the interactive role of biology and socialization on sex segregation. PMID:17696654

  18. Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Emmanuelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),1 relating to “Anomalous Perceptions” and “Threatening Events” themes. Method: Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. Results: The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Conclusions: Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas. PMID:23413104

  19. Electroencephalographic recordings in dogs suffering from idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy: diagnostic value of interictal short time EEG protocols supplemented by two activation techniques.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Christina; Kästner, Sabine B R; Rohn, Karl; Schenk, Henning C; Tünsmeyer, Julia; Tipold, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    The diagnostic value of interictal short time electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in epileptic dogs under general anaesthesia with propofol and the muscle relaxant rocuronium bromide was investigated. Two activation techniques, namely photic stimulation and hyperventilation, were evaluated for their potential to enhance the diagnostic validity of these recordings. Sixty-one dogs suffering from idiopathic epilepsy and 28 dogs suffering from symptomatic epilepsy were included. Electroencephalograms were recorded using five subdermal EEG electrodes (F3, F4, Cz, O1 and O2). All 89 EEGs were analysed visually and 61 were also evaluated quantitatively with fast Fourier transformation. Interictal paroxysmal epileptiform activity was found in 25% of idiopathic and in 29% of symptomatic epileptic dogs. Quantitative analysis of the EEGs (qEEGs) detected significant differences of frequency analysis in single reading points without any continuous changes of frequency bands. A comparison between healthy and affected brain hemispheres in seven dogs with focal lesions of one hemisphere did not show any significant differences in qEEG analysis. qEEG was not more sensitive than visual evaluation. Despite the use of activation techniques, the results showed that short time EEG recordings in epileptic dogs can detect interictal epileptic activity in less than one third of all seizuring dogs and is not a useful screening method.

  20. Limitations of short range Mexican hat connection for driving target selection in a 2D neural field: activity suppression and deviation from input stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mégardon, Geoffrey; Tandonnet, Christophe; Sumner, Petroc; Guillaume, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Neural Field models (DNF) often use a kernel of connection with short range excitation and long range inhibition. This organization has been suggested as a model for brain structures or for artificial systems involved in winner-take-all processes such as saliency localization, perceptual decision or target/action selection. A good example of such a DNF is the superior colliculus (SC), a key structure for eye movements. Recent results suggest that the superficial layers of the SC (SCs) exhibit relatively short range inhibition with a longer time constant than excitation. The aim of the present study was to further examine the properties of a DNF with such an inhibition pattern in the context of target selection. First we tested the effects of stimulus size and shape on when and where self-maintained clusters of firing neurons appeared, using three variants of the model. In each model variant, small stimuli led to rapid formation of a spiking cluster, a range of medium sizes led to the suppression of any activity on the network and hence to no target selection, while larger sizes led to delayed selection of multiple loci. Second, we tested the model with two stimuli separated by a varying distance. Again single, none, or multiple spiking clusters could occur, depending on distance and relative stimulus strength. For short distances, activity attracted toward the strongest stimulus, reminiscent of well-known behavioral data for saccadic eye movements, while for larger distances repulsion away from the second stimulus occurred. All these properties predicted by the model suggest that the SCs, or any other neural structure thought to implement a short range MH, is an imperfect winner-take-all system. Although, those properties call for systematic testing, the discussion gathers neurophysiological and behavioral data suggesting that such properties are indeed present in target selection for saccadic eye movements.

  1. Limitations of short range Mexican hat connection for driving target selection in a 2D neural field: activity suppression and deviation from input stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mégardon, Geoffrey; Tandonnet, Christophe; Sumner, Petroc; Guillaume, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Neural Field models (DNF) often use a kernel of connection with short range excitation and long range inhibition. This organization has been suggested as a model for brain structures or for artificial systems involved in winner-take-all processes such as saliency localization, perceptual decision or target/action selection. A good example of such a DNF is the superior colliculus (SC), a key structure for eye movements. Recent results suggest that the superficial layers of the SC (SCs) exhibit relatively short range inhibition with a longer time constant than excitation. The aim of the present study was to further examine the properties of a DNF with such an inhibition pattern in the context of target selection. First we tested the effects of stimulus size and shape on when and where self-maintained clusters of firing neurons appeared, using three variants of the model. In each model variant, small stimuli led to rapid formation of a spiking cluster, a range of medium sizes led to the suppression of any activity on the network and hence to no target selection, while larger sizes led to delayed selection of multiple loci. Second, we tested the model with two stimuli separated by a varying distance. Again single, none, or multiple spiking clusters could occur, depending on distance and relative stimulus strength. For short distances, activity attracted toward the strongest stimulus, reminiscent of well-known behavioral data for saccadic eye movements, while for larger distances repulsion away from the second stimulus occurred. All these properties predicted by the model suggest that the SCs, or any other neural structure thought to implement a short range MH, is an imperfect winner-take-all system. Although, those properties call for systematic testing, the discussion gathers neurophysiological and behavioral data suggesting that such properties are indeed present in target selection for saccadic eye movements. PMID:26539103

  2. Development and validation of sunlight exposure measurement questionnaire (SEM-Q) for use in adult population residing in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants were asked to wear a dosimeter between sunrise and sunset and report time spent and activities undertaken in the sun for questionnaire validation. Algorithm for item weightage was created as an average score based on ultraviolet B percentage received. Blood samples were obtained for serum vitamin D. Results The mean time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days (±SD) was 69.5 (±32) for low, 83.5 (±29.7) for moderate and 329 (±115) for high exposure group. The correlation between average time (minutes) spent in sun over 4 days and mean change in absorbance of UV dosimeters for 4 days was 0.60 (p < 0.01). Correlation between average score and vitamin D levels was found to be 0.36 (p = 0.01) for short term questionnaire score, 0.43 (p = 0.01) for long term questionnaire score in summers and 0.48 (p = 0.01) in winters. Conclusions The sunlight exposure measurement questionnaires were valid tools for use in large epidemiological studies to quantify sunlight exposure. PMID:22682277

  3. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%). PMID:11990874

  4. 78 FR 45259 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of Labor Relations, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is... Standards Questionnaire; Complaint Intake Form. OMB Approval Number: 2501-0018. Type of Request: Extension... 4730SP, Federal Labor Standards Questionnaires, will be used by HUD and agencies administering...

  5. 75 FR 41876 - Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of the...: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form. OMB Approval Number: 2501-0018....

  6. The Healthy Heart Race: A Short-Duration, Hands-on Activity in Cardiovascular Physiology for Museums and Science Festivals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Thomas A.; Limson, Melvin; Byse, Miranda; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2011-01-01

    The "Healthy Heart Race" activity provides a hands-on demonstration of cardiovascular function suitable for lay audiences. It was field tested during the United States of America Science and Engineering Festival held in Washington, DC, in October 2010. The basic equipment for the activity consisted of lengths of plastic tubing, a hand pump,…

  7. Short-term dietary energy restriction reduces lean body mass but not performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Ezell, D M; Cline, A D; Ricketts, J C; Vicknair, P C; Schorle, S M; Ryan, D H

    2001-05-01

    We studied the effect of moderate, short-term energy restriction on physical performance in physically fit men (n = 13) and women (n = 11) in a controlled clinical research setting with a metabolic kitchen, exercise testing laboratory and training facility. The experiment consisted of a 10 d baseline period followed by either 2 wk of dietary energy restriction (750 kcal/d; n = 16) or energy balance (control; n = 8). During this 24 day study, exercise energy expenditure averaged 465 +/- 5.7 kcal/d in all subjects and was accomplished through treadmill running at a self-selected pace. Body weight was maintained in the control group (-0.36 +/- 0.24kg), but energy restriction resulted in weight loss of -1.29 +/- 0.16 kg (p < 0.001). There was a trend for lean body mass to decline more in the energy restriction group (p = 0.093), accounting for 61% of the weight loss, and urinary nitrogen excretion also tended to be higher in the energy restriction vs. control group (i.e., 13.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.0g/d; p = 0.089). Muscle strength (leg & shoulder press; 1 repetition maximum) was maintained or increased during the energy restriction period. Muscle endurance, assessed by leg squats to fatigue, and 5 mile run time improved following two weeks of energy restriction or balance. Anaerobic capacity (Wingate Test) increased slightly in the restriction (+ 368 +/- 219 joules) but declined in the control group 649 +/- 288 joules; p<0.05). We conclude that short-term (2 weeks) moderate energy restriction (approximately 750 kcal/d) results in weight loss but does not impair performance in physically fit young men and women.

  8. Short-Term PTEN Inhibition Improves In Vitro Activation of Primordial Follicles, Preserves Follicular Viability, and Restores AMH Levels in Cryopreserved Ovarian Tissue From Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Novella-Maestre, Edurne; Herraiz, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Beatriz; Díaz-García, César; Pellicer, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In vitro activation and growth of primordial dormant follicles to produce fertilizable oocytes would provide a useful instrument for fertility preservation. The employment of Phosphatase and TENsin homolog (PTEN) inhibitors, in combination with Protein kinase B (Akt) stimulating molecules, has been previously employed to increase follicular activation through the stimulation of the PTEN-Akt pathway. Methods We aim to establish improved in vitro activation also for cancer patients whose ovarian tissue has already been cryopreserved. Fresh and previously cryopreserved human ovarian cortex were exposed to short-term, low-concentration and ovary-specific treatment with only a PTEN inhibitor. Results Our in vitro activation protocol enhances the activation mechanisms of primordial follicles in both fresh and cryopreserved samples, and enlarges growing populations without inducing apoptosis in either follicles or the surrounding stroma. Treatment augments estradiol secretion and restores the expression levels of the previously diminished Anti-Müllerian hormone by means of cryopreservation procedures. Genomic modulation of the relative expression of PTEN pathway genes was found in treated samples. Conclusion The in vitro activation protocol offers new alternatives for patients with cryopreserved tissue as it increases the pool of viable activated follicles available for in vitro growth procedures. The combination of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and in vitro activation of primordial follicles, the main ovarian reserve component, will be a major advancement in fertility preservation. PMID:26024525

  9. Detection of short-term activity avalanches in human brain default mode network with ultrafast MR encephalography

    PubMed Central

    Rajna, Zalán; Kananen, Janne; Keskinarkaus, Anja; Seppänen, Tapio; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies pinpoint visually cued networks of avalanches with MEG/EEG data. Co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis can be used to detect single brain volume activity profiles and hemodynamic fingerprints of neuronal avalanches as sudden high signal activity peaks in classical fMRI data. In this study, we aimed to detect dynamic patterns of brain activity spreads with the use of ultrafast MR encephalography (MREG). MREG achieves 10 Hz whole brain sampling, allowing the estimation of spatial spread of an avalanche, even with the inherent hemodynamic delay of the BOLD signal. We developed a novel computational method to separate avalanche type fast activity spreads from motion artifacts, vasomotor fluctuations, and cardio-respiratory noise in human brain default mode network (DMN). Reproducible and classical DMN sources were identified using spatial ICA prior to advanced noise removal in order to assure that ICA converges to reproducible networks. Brain activity peaks were identified from parts of the DMN, and normalized MREG data around each peak were extracted individually to show dynamic avalanche type spreads as video clips within the DMN. Individual activity spread video clips of specific parts of the DMN were then averaged over the group of subjects. The experiments show that the high BOLD values around the peaks are mostly spreading along the spatial pattern of the particular DMN segment detected with ICA. With also the spread size and lifetime resembling the expected power law distributions, this indicates that the detected peaks are parts of activity avalanches, starting from (or crossing) the DMN. Furthermore, the split, one-sided sub-networks of the DMN show different spread directions within the same DMN framework. The results open possibilities to follow up brain activity avalanches in the hope to understand more about the system wide properties of diseases related to DMN dysfunction. PMID:26321936

  10. Detection of short-term activity avalanches in human brain default mode network with ultrafast MR encephalography.

    PubMed

    Rajna, Zalán; Kananen, Janne; Keskinarkaus, Anja; Seppänen, Tapio; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies pinpoint visually cued networks of avalanches with MEG/EEG data. Co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis can be used to detect single brain volume activity profiles and hemodynamic fingerprints of neuronal avalanches as sudden high signal activity peaks in classical fMRI data. In this study, we aimed to detect dynamic patterns of brain activity spreads with the use of ultrafast MR encephalography (MREG). MREG achieves 10 Hz whole brain sampling, allowing the estimation of spatial spread of an avalanche, even with the inherent hemodynamic delay of the BOLD signal. We developed a novel computational method to separate avalanche type fast activity spreads from motion artifacts, vasomotor fluctuations, and cardio-respiratory noise in human brain default mode network (DMN). Reproducible and classical DMN sources were identified using spatial ICA prior to advanced noise removal in order to assure that ICA converges to reproducible networks. Brain activity peaks were identified from parts of the DMN, and normalized MREG data around each peak were extracted individually to show dynamic avalanche type spreads as video clips within the DMN. Individual activity spread video clips of specific parts of the DMN were then averaged over the group of subjects. The experiments show that the high BOLD values around the peaks are mostly spreading along the spatial pattern of the particular DMN segment detected with ICA. With also the spread size and lifetime resembling the expected power law distributions, this indicates that the detected peaks are parts of activity avalanches, starting from (or crossing) the DMN. Furthermore, the split, one-sided sub-networks of the DMN show different spread directions within the same DMN framework. The results open possibilities to follow up brain activity avalanches in the hope to understand more about the system wide properties of diseases related to DMN dysfunction.

  11. Detection of short-term activity avalanches in human brain default mode network with ultrafast MR encephalography.

    PubMed

    Rajna, Zalán; Kananen, Janne; Keskinarkaus, Anja; Seppänen, Tapio; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies pinpoint visually cued networks of avalanches with MEG/EEG data. Co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis can be used to detect single brain volume activity profiles and hemodynamic fingerprints of neuronal avalanches as sudden high signal activity peaks in classical fMRI data. In this study, we aimed to detect dynamic patterns of brain activity spreads with the use of ultrafast MR encephalography (MREG). MREG achieves 10 Hz whole brain sampling, allowing the estimation of spatial spread of an avalanche, even with the inherent hemodynamic delay of the BOLD signal. We developed a novel computational method to separate avalanche type fast activity spreads from motion artifacts, vasomotor fluctuations, and cardio-respiratory noise in human brain default mode network (DMN). Reproducible and classical DMN sources were identified using spatial ICA prior to advanced noise removal in order to assure that ICA converges to reproducible networks. Brain activity peaks were identified from parts of the DMN, and normalized MREG data around each peak were extracted individually to show dynamic avalanche type spreads as video clips within the DMN. Individual activity spread video clips of specific parts of the DMN were then averaged over the group of subjects. The experiments show that the high BOLD values around the peaks are mostly spreading along the spatial pattern of the particular DMN segment detected with ICA. With also the spread size and lifetime resembling the expected power law distributions, this indicates that the detected peaks are parts of activity avalanches, starting from (or crossing) the DMN. Furthermore, the split, one-sided sub-networks of the DMN show different spread directions within the same DMN framework. The results open possibilities to follow up brain activity avalanches in the hope to understand more about the system wide properties of diseases related to DMN dysfunction. PMID:26321936

  12. Validating the Food Behavior Questions from the Elementary School SPAN Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajah, Krisha; Fly, Alyce D.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bai, Yeon; Lo, Kaman; Leone, Angela; Shertzer, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) questionnaire was developed as a surveillance instrument to measure physical activity, nutrition attitudes, and dietary and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. The SPAN questionnaire has 2 versions. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of…

  13. Short communication: Presence of neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity of Bacillus cereus isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Montanhini, M T M; Colombo, M; Nero, L A; Bersot, L S

    2013-09-01

    The control of proteolytic microorganisms is one of the main challenges of the dairy industry, due to their spoilage activity that jeopardizes the quality of their products. Seventy-four Bacillus cereus strains isolated from powdered, UHT, and pasteurized milks were tested for the presence of the neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity at 7, 10, 25, 30, and 37°C. All strains had the npr gene, and proteolytic activity increased with the incubation temperature. The obtained results highlight the relevance of B. cereus as a spoiling agent in the dairy industry in terms of its genetic predisposition for proteolytic capacity, especially at room temperature.

  14. Short communication: Presence of neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity of Bacillus cereus isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Montanhini, M T M; Colombo, M; Nero, L A; Bersot, L S

    2013-09-01

    The control of proteolytic microorganisms is one of the main challenges of the dairy industry, due to their spoilage activity that jeopardizes the quality of their products. Seventy-four Bacillus cereus strains isolated from powdered, UHT, and pasteurized milks were tested for the presence of the neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity at 7, 10, 25, 30, and 37°C. All strains had the npr gene, and proteolytic activity increased with the incubation temperature. The obtained results highlight the relevance of B. cereus as a spoiling agent in the dairy industry in terms of its genetic predisposition for proteolytic capacity, especially at room temperature. PMID:23849645

  15. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark-light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism.

  16. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin–Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark–light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin–Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:26842981

  17. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark-light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:26842981

  18. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities item banks and short forms

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI)-focused version of PROMIS and Neuro-QOL social domain item banks; evaluate the psychometric properties of items developed for adults with SCI; and report information to facilitate clinical and research use. Design We used a mixed-methods design to develop and evaluate Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities items. Focus groups helped define the constructs; cognitive interviews helped revise items; and confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods helped calibrate item banks and evaluate differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. Setting Five SCI Model System sites and one Veterans Administration medical center. Participants The calibration sample consisted of 641 individuals; a reliability sample consisted of 245 individuals residing in the community. Results A subset of 27 Ability to Participate and 35 Satisfaction items demonstrated good measurement properties and negligible differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. The SCI-specific measures correlate strongly with the PROMIS and Neuro-QOL versions. Ten item short forms correlate >0.96 with the full banks. Variable-length CATs with a minimum of 4 items, variable-length CATs with a minimum of 8 items, fixed-length CATs of 10 items, and the 10-item short forms demonstrate construct coverage and measurement error that is comparable to the full item bank. Conclusion The Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities CATs and short forms demonstrate excellent psychometric properties and are suitable for clinical and research applications. PMID:26010974

  19. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  20. From convenience to hazard: a short history of the emergence of the menstrual activism movement, 1971-1992.

    PubMed

    Bobel, Chris

    2008-08-01

    In this article, I explore the early history of contemporary menstrual activism in the United States by looking through the lens of the first seven editions of the feminist women's health classic, Our Bodies, Ourselves (OBOS). This analysis illustrates the development of a critical menstrual consciousness as three key phases of the emerging movement, offers a representation of the dynamic nature of feminist health consciousness, and highlights the importance of linking current activism to its past.