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Sample records for activity recall questions

  1. Self-Generated Questions and Reading Recall: Does Training Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Trained junior high school students were compared with untrained students on comprehension and recall after both were told to construct questions while reading text passages. Results indicate that training improved the question quality only for those students who had above average pretest free recall scores. (Author/LMO)

  2. Orthopedic medical devices: ethical questions, implant recalls and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Racine, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    The hip replacement is a surgical procedure to replace the femoral head and acetabulum with prosthetic implants to improve function, increase mobility, and relieve pain caused by damage from disorders such as osteoarthritis and fractures. In recent years, we have seen several recalls of poorly functioning implant systems, most recently, the Johnson and Johnson (J&J) Articular Surface Replacement device. Product recalls are often the results of premature failure of implants requiring additional surgery to exchange the failed device. This raises many questions - technical, medical, regulatory, ethical, and legal - that ultimately put patients at risk, compromise confidence in medicine and regulatory agencies, and important relationships including those between the physician-patient and physician-industry. Where do the responsibilities lie for the patients' suffering, morbidity, and costs of removing the failed device? This article discusses the current recall of the J&J implant, the responsibilities of the manufacturer, surgeons, and the regulatory agency. PMID:23741723

  3. Recalls

    MedlinePlus

    ... XP Turbo Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles Due to Fire Hazard; Severe Burn Injuries; Includes Previously Recalled RZR ... Salewa North America Recalls Wild Country Climbing Harnesses Due to Fall Hazard (Recall ...

  4. The Effect of Question Repetition within Interviews on Young Children's Eyewitness Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahenbuhl, Sarah; Blades, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of question repetition and question type (answerable, unanswerable, or opinion seeking) on children's recall. A total of 136 children (5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds) watched a live 15-min presentation. One week later, the children were asked 20 questions that were repeated an additional two times within the…

  5. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  6. Physical Activity Information Seeking and Advertising Recall

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (N = 1211) showed that gender, age, education, and activity level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (N = 1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18 – 54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information seeking behaviour on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  7. Identifying the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: implications of results from recall and recognition questions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This analysis assessed whether Blacks, Whites and Puerto-Rican (PR) Hispanics differed in their ability to identify the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS) via open-ended questions following lead-in recognition and recall questions. Methods The Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Questionnaire was administered via a Random-Digit Dial (RDD) telephone survey to a stratified random sample of Black, White and PR Hispanic adults in three U.S. cities. Results The TLP Questionnaire was administered to 1,162 adults (356 African-Americans, 313 PR Hispanics, and 493 non-Hispanic Whites) in San Juan, PR, Baltimore, MD and New York City, NY. Recall question data revealed: 1) that 89% or more of Blacks, Whites, and PR Hispanics were not able to name or definitely identify the Tuskegee Syphilis Study by giving study attributes; and, 2) that Blacks were the most likely to provide an open-ended answer that identified the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as compared to Whites and PR Hispanics (11.5% vs 6.3% vs 2.9%, respectively) (p ≤ 0.002). Even when probed by a recognition question, only a minority of each racial/ethnic group (37.1%, 26.9%, and 8.6%, for Blacks, Whites and PR Hispanics, respectively) was able to clearly identify the TSS (p < 0.001). Conclusions The two major implications of these findings for health disparity researchers are 1) that it is unlikely that detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study has any current widespread influence on the willingness of minorities to participate in biomedical research, and 2) that caution should be applied before assuming that what community leaders 'know and are aware of' is equally 'well known' within their community constituencies. PMID:20015361

  8. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  9. Adapting the cognitive interview to enhance long-term (35 years) recall of physical activities.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R P; Falkner, K L; Trevisan, M; McCauley, M R

    2000-04-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) was modified for use in an epidemiological study in which respondents were asked to recall their daily physical activities from the distant past (35 years ago). In comparison to a traditional epidemiological interview, the CI elicited many more responses and also more precise responses. Several practical costs, however, were incurred by the CI: additional time to train interviewers and to conduct interviews and difficulties in coding the responses. The costs and benefits of conducting the CI are addressed, along with conceptual and methodological challenges. The article ends with an existential question: Is the CI a singular technique if it can be modified so radically for different settings? PMID:10783535

  10. The Effects of Student Response System and Single Student Questioning Technique on Graduate Students' Recall and Application of Lecture Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, Sara; Bicard, David F.; Casey, Laura Baylot; Smith, Clinton; Plank, Esther; Casey, Cort

    2008-01-01

    This study was an empirical investigation of active student responding (ASR) utilizing a student response system (SRS) vs. single student questioning (SSQ) and no student responding in a graduate level special education class of 23 participants. During the SRS condition, every participant responded to questions using remotes/clickers. During the…

  11. Effects of Active vs. Passive Review Strategies on Recalling Information from an Interactive Video Instructional Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Mariela

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that was conducted to investigate the effect of two review strategies on the recall of information from an interactive video program. Treatments for the active review group, the passive review group, and the control group are described. Recall posttests and amount of time required to complete the instruction…

  12. Kynurenine pathway metabolites are associated with hippocampal activity during autobiographical memory recall in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Young, Kymberly D; Drevets, Wayne C; Dantzer, Robert; Teague, T Kent; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savitz, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation-related changes in the concentrations of inflammatory mediators such as c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 1β (IL-1), and IL-6 as well as kynurenine metabolites are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and affect depressive behavior, cognition, and hippocampal plasticity in animal models. We previously reported that the ratios of kynurenic acid (KynA) to the neurotoxic metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) and quinolinic acid (QA), were positively correlated with hippocampal volume in depression. The hippocampus is critical for autobiographical memory (AM) recall which is impaired in MDD. Here we tested whether the ratios, KynA/3HK and KynA/QA were associated with AM recall performance as well as hippocampal activity during AM recall. Thirty-five unmedicated depressed participants and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent fMRI scanning while recalling emotionally-valenced AMs and provided serum samples for the quantification of kynurenine metabolites, CRP, and cytokines (IL-1 receptor antagonist - IL-1RA; IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha - TNF, interferon gamma -IFN-γ, IL-10). KynA/3HK and KynA/QA were lower in the MDD group relative to the HCs. The concentrations of the CRP and the cytokines did not differ significantly between the HCs and the MDD group. Depressed individuals recalled fewer specific AMs and displayed increased left hippocampal activity during the recall of positive and negative memories. KynA/3HK was inversely associated with left hippocampal activity during specific AM recall in the MDD group. Further, KynA/QA was positively correlated with percent negative specific memories recalled in the MDD group and showed a non-significant trend toward a positive correlation with percent positive specific memories recalled in HCs. In contrast, neither CRP nor the cytokines were significantly associated with AM recall or activity of the hippocampus during AM recall. Conceivably, an imbalance in levels of KynA versus QA

  13. The Effect of Prior Knowledge Activation on Text Recall: An Investigation of Two Conflicting Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; And Others

    Two hypotheses, the cognitive capacity hypothesis and the selective attention hypothesis, try to account for the facilitation effects of prior knowledge activation. They appear to be mutually exclusive since they predict different recall patterns as a result of prior knowledge activation. This study was designed to determine whether the two…

  14. Metamemory judgments and the benefits of repeated study: improving recall predictions through the activation of appropriate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Heather L; Leboe, Jason P

    2009-05-01

    Correspondence between judgments of learning (JOLs) and actual recall tends to be poor when the same items are studied and recalled multiple times (e.g., A. Koriat, L. Sheffer, & H. Ma'ayan, 2002). The authors investigated whether making relevant metamemory knowledge more salient would improve the association between actual and predicted recall as a function of repeated exposure to the same study list. In 2 experiments, participants completed 4 study-recall phases involving the same list of items. In addition to having participants make item-by-item JOLs during each study phase, after the 1st study-recall phase participants also generated change-in-recall estimates as to how many more or fewer words they would recall given another exposure to the same study list. This estimation procedure was designed to highlight repeated study as a factor that can contribute to recall performance. Activating metamemory knowledge about the benefits of repeated study for recall in this way allowed participants to accurately express this knowledge in a free-recall context (Experiment 2), but less so when the memory test was cued recall (Experiment 1). PMID:19379052

  15. Memory and the operational witness: Police officer recall of firearms encounters as a function of active response role.

    PubMed

    Hope, Lorraine; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona; Sauer, James D; Lewinski, William; Mirashi, Arta; Atuk, Emel

    2016-02-01

    Investigations after critical events often depend on accurate and detailed recall accounts from operational witnesses (e.g., law enforcement officers, military personnel, and emergency responders). However, the challenging, and often stressful, nature of such events, together with the cognitive demands imposed on operational witnesses as a function of their active role, may impair subsequent recall. We compared the recall performance of operational active witnesses with that of nonoperational observer witnesses for a challenging simulated scenario involving an armed perpetrator. Seventy-six police officers participated in pairs. In each pair, 1 officer (active witness) was armed and instructed to respond to the scenario as they would in an operational setting, while the other (observer witness) was instructed to simply observe the scenario. All officers then completed free reports and responded to closed questions. Active witnesses showed a pattern of heart rate activity consistent with an increased stress response during the event, and subsequently reported significantly fewer correct details about the critical phase of the scenario. The level of stress experienced during the scenario mediated the effect of officer role on memory performance. Across the sample, almost one-fifth of officers reported that the perpetrator had pointed a weapon at them although the weapon had remained in the waistband of the perpetrator's trousers throughout the critical phase of the encounter. These findings highlight the need for investigator awareness of both the impact of operational involvement and stress-related effects on memory for ostensibly salient details, and reflect the importance of careful and ethical information elicitation techniques. PMID:26436335

  16. Amygdala activity at encoding correlated with long-term, free recall of emotional information.

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, L; Haier, R J; Fallon, J; Alkire, M T; Tang, C; Keator, D; Wu, J; McGaugh, J L

    1996-01-01

    Positron emission tomography of cerebral glucose metabolism in adult human subjects was used to investigate amygdaloid complex (AC) activity associated with the storage of long-term memory for emotionally arousing events. Subjects viewed two videos (one in each of two separate positron emission tomography sessions, separated by 3-7 days) consisting either of 12 emotionally arousing film clips ("E" film session) or of 12 relatively emotionally neutral film clips ("N" film session), and rated their emotional reaction to each film clip immediately after viewing it. Three weeks after the second session, memory for the videos was assessed in a free recall test. As expected, the subjects' average emotional reaction to the E films was higher than that for the N films. In addition, the subjects recalled significantly more E films than N films. Glucose metabolic rate of the right AC while viewing the E films was highly correlated with the number of E films recalled. AC activity was not significantly correlated with the number of N films recalled. The findings support the view derived from both animal and human investigations that the AC is selectively involved with the formation of enhanced long-term memory associated with emotionally arousing events. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8755595

  17. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  18. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  19. HEALTHY BOUTS OF ACTIVITY: INTEGRATING GPS AND ACCELEROMETRY FOR MAP-PROMPTED BOUT RECALLS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Barbara B.; Wilson, Laura; Tribby, Calvin P.; Werner, Carol M.; Wolf, Jean; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obtaining the “when, where, and why” of healthy bouts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) provides insights into natural physical activity Design In Salt Lake City, Utah, adults wore accelerometer and GPS loggers for a week in a cross-sectional study to establish baseline travel and activity patterns near a planned Complete Street intervention involving a new rail line, new sidewalks, and a bike path. Results At the end of the week research assistants met with the 918 participants who had at least three 10-hour days of good accelerometer readings. Accelerometer and GPS data were uploaded and integrated within a custom application, and participants were provided with maps and time information for past MVPA bouts of ≥ 3 minutes to help them recall bout details. Participants said that ‘getting someplace” was, on average, a more important motivation for their bouts than leisure or exercise. A series of recall tests showed that participants recalled most bouts they were asked about, regardless of duration of the bout, suggesting that participant perceptions of their shorter lifestyle bouts can be studied with this methodology. Visual prompting with a map depicting where each bout took place yielded more accurate recall than prompting with time cues alone. Conclusion These techniques provide a novel way to understand participant memories of the context and subjective assessments associated with healthy bouts of physical activity. Prompts with time-stamped maps that illustrate places of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity offer an effective method to improve understanding of activity and its supportive socio-physical contexts. PMID:24815545

  20. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  1. 76 FR 38184 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... reporting requirements on FDA recalls. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection... techniques, when appropriate, and other forms of information technology. FDA Recall Regulations--21 CFR...

  2. Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    2010-10-01

    The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model's fit is compared to that of one-process models. The power of this approach is illustrated in some experiments that dealt with two classic questions: (a) What are the process-level differences between associative and free recall, and (b) why does taxonomic organization improve free recall but impair associative recall? Fit results showed that a dual-retrieval model is both necessary and sufficient to account for associative and free recall data, in contrast to the sufficient-but-not-necessary pattern that prevails in the recognition literature. Key substantive findings were that associative recall is more reliant on recollective retrieval and less reliant on nonrecollective retrieval than free recall, that taxonomic organization impairs recollective retrieval in both paradigms, and that taxonomic organization enhances the reconstruction component of nonrecollective retrieval in free recall. PMID:22279248

  3. Choosing a Retirement Community: Ask These 10 Physical Activity Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Choosing a Retirement Community Ask These 10 Physical Activity Questions As you visit potential retirement communities, consider their physical activity offerings. If you’ ...

  4. Hippocampal Activation during Episodic and Semantic Memory Retrieval: Comparing Category Production and Category Cued Recall

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M.; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest. PMID:18420234

  5. Right hemisphere neural activations in the recall of waking fantasies and of dreams.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Ranieri, Rebecca; Genduso, Valeria; Cavallotti, Simone; Castelnovo, Anna; Smeraldi, Enrico; Scarone, Silvio; D'Agostino, Armando

    2015-10-01

    The story-like organization of dreams is characterized by a pervasive bizarreness of events and actions that resembles psychotic thought, and largely exceeds that observed in normal waking fantasies. Little is known about the neural correlates of the confabulatory narrative construction of dreams. In this study, dreams, fantasies elicited by ambiguous pictorial stimuli, and non-imaginative first- and third-person narratives from healthy participants were recorded, and were then studied for brain blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while listening to their own narrative reports and attempting a retrieval of the corresponding experience. In respect to non-bizarre reports of daytime activities, the script-driven recall of dreams and fantasies differentially activated a right hemisphere network including areas in the inferior frontal gyrus, and superior and middle temporal gyrus. Neural responses were significantly greater for fantasies than for dreams in all regions, and inversely proportional to the degree of bizarreness observed in narrative reports. The inferior frontal gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyrus have been implicated in the semantic activation, integration and selection needed to build a coherent story representation and to resolve semantic ambiguities; in deductive and inferential reasoning; in self- and other-perspective taking, theory of mind, moral and autobiographical reasoning. Their degree of activation could parallel the level of logical robustness or inconsistency experienced when integrating information and mental representations in the process of building fantasy and dream narratives. PMID:25871325

  6. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  7. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Multimedia Activity Recall in Children and Adults (MARCA) in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Toby; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the reliability and validity of the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design People with COPD and their carers completed the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) for four, 24-hour periods (including test-retest of 2 days) while wearing a triaxial accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+®), a multi-sensor armband (Sensewear Pro3®) and a pedometer (New Lifestyles 1000®). Setting Self reported activity recalls (MARCA) and objective activity monitoring (Accelerometry) were recorded under free-living conditions. Participants 24 couples were included in the analysis (COPD; age 74.4±7.9 yrs, FEV1 54±13% Carer; age 69.6±10.9 yrs, FEV1 99±24%). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Test-retest reliability was compared for MARCA activity domains and different energy expenditure zones. Validity was assessed between MARCA-derived physical activity level (in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) per minute), duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity (min) and related data from the objective measurement devices. Analysis included intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman analyses, paired t-tests (p) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs). Results Reliability between occasions of recall for all activity domains was uniformly high, with test-retest correlations consistently >0.9. Validity correlations were moderate to strong (rs = 0.43–0.80) across all comparisons. The MARCA yields comparable PAL estimates and slightly higher moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) estimates. Conclusion In older adults with chronic illness, the MARCA is a valid and reliable tool for capturing not only the time and energy expenditure associated with physical and sedentary activities but also information on the types of activities. PMID:24312284

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN FACT AND SOURCE RECALL: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM EXECUTIVE FUNCTION AND BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vinaya; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Source memory involves recollecting the contextual details surrounding a memory episode. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic in nature. Unfortunately, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its formation in early development. This study examined the development of source memory in middle childhood. Measures of executive function were examined as potential sources of variation in fact and source recall. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected during baseline and fact and source retrieval in order to examine memory-related changes in EEG power. Six and 8-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources and recall for fact and source information was later tested. Older children were better on fact recall, but both ages were comparable on source recall. However, source recall performance was poor at both ages, suggesting that this ability continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Regression analyses revealed that executive function uniquely predicted variance in source recall performance. Task-related increases in theta power were observed at frontal, temporal and parietal electrode sites during fact and source retrieval. This investigation contributes to our understanding of age-related differences in source memory processing in middle childhood. PMID:25459873

  10. Development of the Physical Activity Interactive Recall (PAIR) for Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon

    2004-03-29

    BACKGROUND: Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). METHODS: During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8) from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR). In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. RESULTS: Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was judged to be adequate

  11. Development of the Physical Activity Interactive Recall (PAIR) for Aboriginal children

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Background Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Methods During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8) from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR). In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. Results Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was judged to be adequate

  12. Examining the spatial congruence between data obtained with a novel activity location questionnaire, continuous GPS tracking, and prompted recall surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Place and health researchers are increasingly interested in integrating individuals’ mobility and the experience they have with multiple settings in their studies. In practice, however, few tools exist which allow for rapid and accurate gathering of detailed information on the geographic location of places where people regularly undertake activities. We describe the development and validation of a new activity location questionnaire which can be useful in accounting for multiple environmental influences in large population health investigations. Methods To develop the questionnaire, we relied on a literature review of similar data collection tools and on results of a pilot study wherein we explored content validity, test-retest reliability, and face validity. To estimate convergent validity, we used data from a study of users of a public bicycle share program conducted in Montreal, Canada in 2011. We examined the spatial congruence between questionnaire data and data from three other sources: 1) one-week GPS tracks; 2) activity locations extracted from the GPS tracks; and 3) a prompted recall survey of locations visited during the day. Proximity and convex hull measures were used to compare questionnaire-derived data and GPS and prompted recall survey data. Results In the sample, 75% of questionnaire-reported activity locations were located within 400 meters of an activity location recorded on the GPS track or through the prompted recall survey. Results from convex hull analyses suggested questionnaire activity locations were more concentrated in space than GPS or prompted-recall locations. Conclusions The new questionnaire has high convergent validity and can be used to accurately collect data on regular activity spaces in terms of locations regularly visited. The methods, measures, and findings presented provide new material to further study mobility in place and health research. PMID:24025119

  13. The Effects of Writing as a Prereading Activity on Delayed Recall of Narrative Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Jacqueline L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Grounded in schema and generative theories, this research suggests a theoretical framework and a task-specific procedure for integrating reading and writing. Fourth grade students were given a text-related generative writing task and reading recall test. Results support the notion of using writing as an orienting task prior to reading. (DST)

  14. Individual differences in oscillatory brain activity in response to varying attentional demands during a word recall and oculomotor dual task

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Gusang; Lim, Sanghyun; Kim, Min-Young; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Suh, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Every day, we face situations that involve multi-tasking. How our brain utilizes cortical resources during multi-tasking is one of many interesting research topics. In this study, we tested whether a dual-task can be differentiated in the neural and behavioral responses of healthy subjects with varying degree of working memory capacity (WMC). We combined word recall and oculomotor tasks because they incorporate common neural networks including the fronto-parietal (FP) network. Three different types of oculomotor tasks (eye fixation, Fix-EM; predictive and random smooth pursuit eye movement, P-SPEM and R-SPEM) were combined with two memory load levels (low-load: five words, high-load: 10 words) for a word recall task. Each of those dual-task combinations was supposed to create varying cognitive loads on the FP network. We hypothesize that each dual-task requires different cognitive strategies for allocating the brain’s limited cortical resources and affects brain oscillation of the FP network. In addition, we hypothesized that groups with different WMC will show differential neural and behavioral responses. We measured oscillatory brain activity with simultaneous MEG and EEG recordings and behavioral performance by word recall. Prominent frontal midline (FM) theta (4–6 Hz) synchronization emerged in the EEG of the high-WMC group experiencing R-SPEM with high-load conditions during the early phase of the word maintenance period. Conversely, significant parietal upper alpha (10–12 Hz) desynchronization was observed in the EEG and MEG of the low-WMC group experiencing P-SPEM under high-load conditions during the same period. Different brain oscillatory patterns seem to depend on each individual’s WMC and varying attentional demands from different dual-task combinations. These findings suggest that specific brain oscillations may reflect different strategies for allocating cortical resources during combined word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks. PMID:26175681

  15. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care. PMID:24479985

  16. Compound cuing in free recall.

    PubMed

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  17. Metamemory Judgments and the Benefits of Repeated Study: Improving Recall Predictions through the Activation of Appropriate Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiede, Heather L.; Leboe, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    Correspondence between judgments of learning (JOLs) and actual recall tends to be poor when the same items are studied and recalled multiple times (e.g., A. Koriat, L. Sheffer, & H. Ma'ayan, 2002). The authors investigated whether making relevant metamemory knowledge more salient would improve the association between actual and predicted recall as…

  18. The Top 10 Questions for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. -C.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement and issues around removal of debris from the earth orbital environment. The 10 questions discussed are: 1. Which region (LEO/MEO/GEO) has the fastest projected growth rate and the highest collision activities? 2. Can the commonly-adopted mitigation measures stabilize the future environment? 3. What are the objectives of active debris removal (ADR)? 4. How can effective ADR target selection criteria to stabilize the future LEO environment be defined? 5. What are the keys to remediate the future LEO environment? 6. What is the timeframe for ADR implementation? 7. What is the effect of practical/operational constraints? 8. What are the collision probabilities and masses of the current objects? 9. What are the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers? 10. What is the next step?

  19. Subliminal psychodynamic activation: methodological problems and questions in Silverman's experiments.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R

    1999-08-01

    Analyses of procedures in Lloyd H. Silverman's subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments identify problems and questions. Given the information provided, none of his experiments can be replicated, and none of his positive results were found under luminance conditions he reckoned in 1983 were typical of such outcomes. Furthermore, there is no evidence in any of his experiments that all stimuli were presented completely within the fovea, a condition critical to the production of positive findings (Silverman & Geisler, 1986). These considerations and the fact that no experiment using Silverman's procedures can yield unambiguous positive results (Fudin, 1986) underscore the need to start anew research in this area. Such research should be undertaken with a greater appreciation of methodological issues involved in exposing and encoding subliminal stimuli than that found in all but a few experiments on subliminal psychodynamic activation. PMID:10544424

  20. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years) participated in either a 12-week course containing a “meditation laboratory” or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music). Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course. Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.02]. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [F(1, 56) = 3.0, p = 0.09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being (r = 0.31, p = 0.02) and decreased clinical symptoms (r = −0.29, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing. Future

  1. Recall in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion; Ricks, Margaret

    1979-01-01

    Free recall, cued recall, color recall, organization in recall, and sorting of three and four year olds were assessed on nine-item lists of objects that were orthogonally varied on color and category dimensions. Subjects were 64 boys and girls. (Author/MP)

  2. Healthy individuals treated with clomipramine: an fMRI study of brain activity during autobiographical recall of emotions.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, C T; Sato, J R; de Almeida, J R C; Amaro, E; Leite, C C; Gorenstein, C; Gentil, V; Busatto, G F

    2014-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance imaging studies addressed the effects of antidepressant drugs on brain functioning in healthy subjects; however, none specifically investigated positive mood changes to antidepressant drug. Sixteen subjects with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorders were selected from an ongoing 4-week open trial of small doses of clomipramine. Follow-up interviews documented clear positive treatment effects in six subjects, with reduced irritability and tension in social interactions, improved decision making, higher self-confidence and brighter mood. These subjects were then included in a placebo-controlled confirmatory trial and were scanned immediately after 4 weeks of clomipramine use and again 4 weeks after the last dose of clomipramine. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were run during emotion-eliciting stimuli. Repeated-measures analysis of variance of brain activity patterns showed significant interactions between group and treatment status during induced irritability (P<0.005 cluster-based) but not during happiness. Individuals displaying a positive subjective response do clomipramine had higher frontoparietal cortex activity during irritability than during happiness and neutral emotion, and higher temporo-parieto-occipital cortex activity during irritability than during happiness. We conclude that antidepressants not only induce positive mood responses but also act upon autobiographical recall of negative emotions. PMID:24984192

  3. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  4. From Monty Python to Total Recall: A Feature Film Activity for the Cognitive Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, David B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a college psychology course activity designed to help students define the parameters of cognitive psychology. Students selected a feature film and a journal article that represented some aspect of cognitive psychology. They then wrote a paper discussing the theoretical and empirical connections between the sources and the topic. (MJP)

  5. Can Reading Questions Foster Active Learning? A Study of Six College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koontz, T. M.; Plank, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors strive to encourage student reading outside of class and active learning in class. One pedagogical tool, structured reading questions, can help do both. Using examples from question sets across six courses, the authors illustrate how reading questions can help students achieve the six active-learning principles described by…

  6. A validation study concerning the effects of interview content, retention interval, and grade on children’s recall accuracy for dietary intake and/or physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Hitchcock, David B.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Puryear, Megan P.; Royer, Julie A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Wilson, Dawn K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Practitioners and researchers are interested in assessing children’s dietary intake and physical activity together to maximize resources and minimize subject burden. Objective To investigate differences in dietary and/or physical-activity recall accuracy by content (diet-only; physical-activity-only; diet-&-physical-activity), retention interval (same-day-recalls-in-the-afternoon; previous-day-recalls-in-the-morning), and grade (third; fifth). Design Children (n=144; 66% African American, 13% White, 12% Hispanic, 9% Other; 50% girls) from four schools were randomly selected for interviews about one of three contents. Each content group was equally divided by retention interval, each equally divided by grade, each equally divided by sex. Information concerning diet and physical activity at school was validated with school-provided breakfast and lunch observations, and accelerometry, respectively. Dietary accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and kilocalorie correspondence rate and inflation ratio. Physical activity accuracy measures were absolute and arithmetic differences for moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity minutes. Statistical analyses performed For each accuracy measure, linear models determined effects of content, retention interval, grade, and their two-way and three-way interactions; ethnicity and sex were control variables. Results Content was significant within four interactions: intrusion rate (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0004), correspondence rate (content-×-grade; p=.0004), inflation ratio (content-×-grade; p=.0104), and arithmetic difference (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0070). Retention interval was significant for correspondence rate (p=.0004), inflation ratio (p=.0014), and three interactions: omission rate (retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0095), intrusion rate, and arithmetic difference (both already mentioned). Grade was significant for absolute difference (p=.0233) and five

  7. Source Memory in the Absence of Successful Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gabriel I.; Marsh, Richard L.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to address the question of whether source information could be accessed in the absence of being able to recall an item. The authors used a paired-associate learning paradigm in which cue-target word pairs were studied, and target recall was requested in the presence of the cue. When target recall failed,…

  8. Becoming a Reflective Teacher: The Role of Stimulated Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wear, Stella Brown; Harris, Jimmy Carl

    1994-01-01

    Recall of teaching events from a lesson is an important part of reflectivity for preservice teachers. Researchers examined questions about the differences between unaided and aided recall of deviations from planned lessons. Results indicated student teachers recalled less than half their deviations and were prone to forgetting student-initiated…

  9. Neural activity patterns evoked by a spouse's incongruent emotional reactions when recalling marriage-relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, Rachel Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Resonance with the inner states of another social actor is regarded as a hallmark of emotional closeness. Nevertheless, sensitivity to potential incongruities between one's own and an intimate partner's subjective experience is reportedly also important for close relationship quality. Here, we tested whether perceivers show greater neurobehavioral responsiveness to a spouse's positive (rather than negative) context-incongruent emotions, and whether this effect is influenced by the perceiver's satisfaction with the relationship. Thus, we used fMRI to scan older long-term married female perceivers while they judged either their spouse's or a stranger's affect, based on incongruent nonverbal and verbal cues. The verbal cues were selected to evoke strongly polarized affective responses. Higher perceiver marital satisfaction predicted greater neural processing of the spouse's (rather than the strangers) nonverbal cues. Nevertheless, across all perceivers, greater neural processing of a spouse's (rather than a stranger's) nonverbal behavior was reliably observed only when the behavior was positive and the context was negative. The spouse's positive (rather than negative) nonverbal behavior evoked greater activity in putative mirror neuron areas, such as the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL). This effect was related to a stronger inhibitory influence of cognitive control areas on mirror system activity in response to a spouse's negative nonverbal cues, an effect that strengthened with increasing perceiver marital satisfaction. Our valence-asymmetric findings imply that neurobehavioral responsiveness to a close other's emotions may depend, at least partly, on cognitive control resources, which are used to support the perceiver's interpersonal goals (here, goals that are relevant to relationship stability). PMID:26219536

  10. The science of recalls.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Melvin N; Coto, Daniel; Weidner, J David

    2005-09-01

    Morbidity due to foodborne illnesses in the US has decreased over the last ten years. During the same time period recalls affecting the meat and poultry industry have increased from 38 in 1993 to a peak of 128 in 2002. Recalls due to L. monocytogenes (LM) and E. coli O157:H7 have accounted for the majority of recalls in recent years, while incidence rates for these pathogens have decreased. Incidence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 cases since 1996 have decreased 17% and 42% respectively while product positives in ready to eat foods for LM has decreased from 3% in 1995 to 0.75% in 2003. In response to the increasing number of recalls, members of the meat and poultry industry have developed recall plans to effectively manage a recall crisis. A detailed recall plan which is tested through mock scenarios is essential to reducing the economic and negative consumer confidence impact of recalls. PMID:22064061

  11. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  12. Cued recall in depression.

    PubMed

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1987-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which a depressed and a control group were tested on free recall, cued recall and recognition memory for a prose passage. As expected from previous work the depressives tended to show less impairment on recognition than on free recall. However, contrary to what some theories would predict, cued recall performance was no better than free recall. The implications of this finding for the nature of the depressive memory deficit for neutral materials are discussed. It seems that neither the amount of verbal output required, nor the need to generate retrieval cues, are critical factors. PMID:3580652

  13. Do Personally Tailored Videos in a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention Lead to Higher Attention and Recall? – An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Jennings, Cally; Persaud, Nayadin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Horsley, Mike; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the Australian population does not meet physical activity guidelines and has an increased risk of chronic disease. Web-based physical activity interventions have the potential to reach large numbers of the population at low-cost, however issues have been identified with usage and participant retention. Personalized (computer-tailored) physical activity advice delivered through video has the potential to address low engagement, however it is unclear whether it is more effective in engaging participants when compared to text-delivered personalized advice. This study compared the attention and recall outcomes of tailored physical activity advice in video- vs. text-format. Participants (n = 41) were randomly assigned to receive either video- or text-tailored feedback with identical content. Outcome measures included attention to the feedback, measured through advanced eye-tracking technology (TobiiX 120), and recall of the advice, measured through a post intervention interview. Between group ANOVA’s, Mann–Whitney U tests and chi square analyses were applied. Participants in the video-group displayed greater attention to the physical activity feedback in terms of gaze-duration on the feedback (7.7 vs. 3.6 min, p < 001), total fixation-duration on the feedback (6.0 vs. 3.3 min, p < 001), and focusing on feedback (6.8 vs. 3.5 min, p < 001). Despite both groups having the same ability to navigate through the feedback, the video-group completed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher percentage of feedback sections (95%) compared to the text-group (66%). The main messages were recalled in both groups, but many details were forgotten. No significant between group differences were found for message recall. These results suggest that video-tailored feedback leads to greater attention compared to text-tailored feedback. More research is needed to determine how message recall can be improved, and whether video-tailored advice can lead to

  14. Impact of Online Support for Teachers' Open-Ended Questioning in Pre-K Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju; Kinzie, Mable B.; Whittaker, Jessica Vick

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of teacher supports in enhancing teachers' open-ended questioning in pre-k activities. The blended teacher supports included online video demonstrations of questioning techniques and companion workshop activities. Twenty-five teachers received the blended supports while the control group did not. The data consisted of…

  15. What Is Life? An Activity to Convey the Complexities of This Simple Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2013-01-01

    "What is life?" This deceptively simple question lies at the heart of biology. In this activity, students work in groups to come up with their own definition using a set of prompting cards that differs for each team. In doing so, students gain an appreciation of the complexities of addressing this question. The activity takes approximately 60-90…

  16. Failure to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly…

  17. Creativity and Dream Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creative interests and dream recall frequency (DRF) by having 44 adults complete dream recall journals as well as a verbal creativity test. Results indicate that persons with both visual and verbal creative skills remember their dreams more. Visual memory may be a mediating variable between…

  18. Hypermnesia in free recall and cued recall.

    PubMed

    Payne, D G; Hembrooke, H A; Anastasi, J S

    1993-01-01

    In three experiments, categorized lists and both free recall and cued recall tests were used to examine hypermnesia. In Experiment 1, materials were drawn from obvious and nonobvious categories in an attempt to vary the amount of relational processing at encoding. The study materials in Experiment 2 consisted of a long word list that comprised several exemplars from each of a number of common categories. In Experiment 3, a single exemplar was drawn from each of 45 categories. In each experiment, similar magnitudes of hypermnesia were obtained on free and cued recall tests. Examination of the specific items recalled across tests indicated that similar processes underlie the hypermnesic effect for both test conditions. Implications of the results for extant accounts of the hypermnesic effect are discussed. It is concluded that the dynamics of retrieval processes change in a systematic fashion across repeated tests and the retention interval following study and that an adequate account of the nature of these changes in retrieval dynamics is essential to our understanding of hypermnesia and related phenomena. PMID:8433647

  19. Inhibiting the Activity of CA1 Hippocampal Neurons Prevents the Recall of Contextual Fear Memory in Inducible ArchT Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masanori; Kim, Karam; Yu, Lily Mae Yee; Hashikawa, Yoshiko; Sekine, Yukiko; Okumura, Yuki; Kawano, Masako; Hayashi, Masanobu; Kumar, Deependra; Boyden, Edward S.; McHugh, Thomas J.; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The optogenetic manipulation of light-activated ion-channels/pumps (i.e., opsins) can reversibly activate or suppress neuronal activity with precise temporal control. Therefore, optogenetic techniques hold great potential to establish causal relationships between specific neuronal circuits and their function in freely moving animals. Due to the critical role of the hippocampal CA1 region in memory function, we explored the possibility of targeting an inhibitory opsin, ArchT, to CA1 pyramidal neurons in mice. We established a transgenic mouse line in which tetracycline trans-activator induces ArchT expression. By crossing this line with a CaMKIIα-tTA transgenic line, the delivery of light via an implanted optrode inhibits the activity of excitatory CA1 neurons. We found that light delivery to the hippocampus inhibited the recall of a contextual fear memory. Our results demonstrate that this optogenetic mouse line can be used to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying behavior. PMID:26075894

  20. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity research in people with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; Du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Diedens, Jolien; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence illustrating the benefits of physical activity for people with binge eating disorder, engaging this population in physical activity is challenging. The International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health (IOPTMH) set out to summarize, appraise, and strengthen the direction of physical activity endeavors. This process led to the identification of 10 important research questions which are discussed. Addressing these 10 research questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in people with binge eating disorder. PMID:26694684

  1. Cognitive testing of physical activity and acculturation questions in recent and long-term Latino immigrants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We ascertained the degree to which language (English versus Spanish), and residence time in the US influence responses to survey questions concerning two topics: self-reported acculturation status, and recent physical activity (PA). This topic is likely to be of general interest because of growing numbers of immigrants in countries worldwide. Methods We carried out qualitative (cognitive) interviews of survey items on acculturation and physical activity on 27 Latino subjects from three groups: (a) In Spanish, of those of low residence time (less than five years living in the U.S.) (n = 9); (b) In Spanish, of those of high residence time (15 or more years in the U.S) (n = 9); and (c) in English, of those of high residence time (n = 9). Results There were very few language translation problems; general question design defects and socio-cultural challenges to survey responses were more common. Problems were found for both acculturation and PA questions, with distinct problem types for the two question areas. Residence time/language group was weakly associated with overall frequency of problems observed: low residence time/Spanish (86%), high residence time/Spanish (67%), and English speaking groups (62%). Conclusions Standardized survey questions related to acculturation and physical activity present somewhat different cognitive challenges. For PA related questions, problems with such questions were similar regardless of subject residence time or language preference. For acculturation related questions, residence time/language or education level influenced responses to such questions. These observations should help in the interpretation of survey results for culturally diverse populations. PMID:20707902

  2. Insights and clinical questions about the active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas [Review].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Oda, Hitomi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2016-04-25

    Over 20 years ago, two Japanese institutions initiated an active surveillance policy for papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) without high-risk features (such as clinical lymph node and distant metastases) and suspected trachea or recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion. Since the most recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines adopt active surveillance as a therapy option for low-risk PMCs, the number of institutions worldwide carrying out this policy can be expected to increase. However, before adopting an active surveillance strategy, some important clinical questions must be considered. In this review, conceivable clinical questions with our answers based on the present accumulation of low-risk PMC surveillance data are presented. PMID:26632168

  3. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  4. Motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention: questions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Guyaux, Janneke; Van Keulen, Hilde M; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify which question/reflection format leads to the most favorable results in terms of effect on autonomous motivation and appreciation for the intervention in a web-based computer-tailored physical activity (PA) intervention, based on principles from self-determination theory (SDT) and motivational interviewing (MI). For this purpose, a randomized trial was conducted among 465 Dutch adults, comparing three web-based computer-tailored MI/SDT PA interventions, including (i) exclusively open-ended questions (without skillful reflections), (ii) exclusively multiple choice questions (with skillful reflections) and (iii) including both question types (with skillful reflections). Measurements included motivation-related determinants of PA and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1-month post-intervention. Results suggest that open-ended questions represent an important element in web-based MI in terms of effect on autonomous motivation. In order to optimize appreciation of the intervention, a combination of both open-ended and multiple choice question types seems to hold most promise. The findings of this study suggest that both open-ended and multiple choice questions should be included in web-based computer-tailored SDT/MI PA interventions. More research is needed to reveal the optimal configuration of this novel intervention type. PMID:24101160

  5. Top 10 research questions related to physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Brown, William H; McIver, Kerry L; Howie, Erin K; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the effects of physical activity on the development of healthy weight, the effects of physical activity on learning and behavior, and the health implications of sedentary behavior. Research questions concerning patterns of physical activity include determining the prevalence of 3- to 5-year-olds meeting the current physical activity guidelines; the social and environmental factors that influence physical activity in home, preschool, and community settings; and how physical activity tracks into later childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Research questions about interventions and policies include identifying the most effective strategies to promote physical activity in home, child care, and community settings and to reach diverse populations of young children, identifying effective intervention implementation and dissemination strategies, and determining the effectiveness of national, state, local, and institutional policies for increasing physical activity. In conclusion, research is needed to establish a full understanding of the health implications of physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children, to better understand the nature of physical activity behavior in this group, and to learn how to promote physical activity in young children. PMID:24592775

  6. Positive and negative generation effects, hypermnesia, and total recall time.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Duke, Marquinn D

    2002-10-01

    Self-generated information is typically remembered better than perceived information (the generation effect). Experimental design produces an important limiting condition for this effect: Generation enhances recall in within-subjects designs, but typically not in between-subjects designs. However, Mulligan (2001) found that the generation effect emerged over repeated recall tests in a between-subjects design, calling into question the generality of this limiting condition. Two experiments further delineated the emergent generation effect Experiment 1 demonstrated that this effect does not require multiple discrete recall tests but may emerge on a single recall test of long duration. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the negative generation effect (a reversal of the typical generation effect produced under certain conditions) is abolished by multiple recall tests. In both experiments, the generate condition produced greater hypemnesia (increased recall over tests) than did the read condition. PMID:12507369

  7. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  8. The Law and Student Activities: Answers to Ten Frequently Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how numerous legal sources (Constitutional, federal, state, local, and common law) affect everyday public school operations. Fields 10 questions regarding written and legally sound rules, common rules for district schools, board approval of club bylaws and activities, "in loco parentis," legal image, employee assignments, "double…

  9. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  10. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  11. Objective assessment of intensity categorization of the previous day physical activity recall questionnaire in 11-13 year old children.

    PubMed

    McBrearty, Donough; McCrorie, Paul; Granat, Malcolm; Duncan, Elaine; Stansfield, Ben

    2014-11-01

    The Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR) self-report questionnaire asks children to categories their time in 30 min blocks under activity codes and activity intensity (ActInt). Text and visual descriptors of ActInt are used which include posture and stepping intensity. This study aimed to objectively examine postures and stepping activity associated with PDPAR ActInt. Forty-three (19M/24F) 11-13 year children completed the PDPAR and wore a physical activity monitor (8 d). Within 30 min blocks the % sitting/lying, standing and stepping, steps, cadence and sit-to-stand transitions (STS) were examined by PDPAR ActInt across and within all activity codes. Data (14 083 30 min blocks) showed from light to moderate ActInt lower sedentary time, higher standing and stepping time, steps, sit-to-stand transitions and cadence (all P < 0.001). Between moderate and hard ActInt, time sedentary was lower and time stepping, steps and STS higher (all P < 0.005). No significant differences between hard and very hard. There was a wide variation of activity levels between activity codes within ActInt. ActInt within the PDPAR was not used consistently between activity codes. However, over all codes children demonstrated that they could distinguish between light and moderate and in some objective measures between moderate and hard, but not between hard and very hard ActInt. PMID:25340303

  12. Time and again: effects of repetition and retention interval on 2 year olds' event recall.

    PubMed

    Fivush, R; Hamond, N R

    1989-04-01

    How and what very young children remember is a central question for understanding the course of memory development. In this research, we examined the effects of two factors on 2-year-old children's ability to recall novel events: repetition of the experience and time since experience. Twenty 24-month-old and twenty 28-month-old children participated in unusual laboratory play events. Half of the children returned after a 2-week delay and again after a 3-month delay (repeated experience condition); the remaining children returned only after 3 months (single experience condition). Memory was assessed by asking children to reenact the events. Recall was generally accurate, and there were no significant effects of age. All children recalled more information about the activities associated with the event than about the objects. Surprisingly, children in the repeated experience condition recalled as much about the events at the 3-month retention interval as at the 2-week retention interval. Further, children in this condition recalled more information at the 3-month retention interval than children in the single experience condition, suggesting that reexperiencing an event may guard against long-term forgetting. PMID:2703807

  13. Quantum bounce and cosmic recall.

    PubMed

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-25

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10(-56) (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall. PMID:18518182

  14. Quantum Bounce and Cosmic Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.

  15. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. PMID:27516599

  16. Effects of Student-Generated Questions as the Source of Online Drill-and-Practice Activities on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Chen, Yi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of online drill-and-practice activities using student-generated questions on academic performance and motivation as compared with online drill-and-practice using teacher-generated questions and no drill-and-practice in a student question-generation (SQG) learning context. A quasi-experimental research method was…

  17. Personality Correlates of Dream Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The study investigated the capacity of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) to discriminate between those who frequently recall dreams and those who do not. The results are interpreted as indicating that the frequent recaller experiences less and the infrequent recaller experiences more intrapsychic conflict. (Author)

  18. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Gillian E.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Banducci, Sarah E.; Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Sutton, Brad P.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment. PMID:26915025

  19. Active Gaming to Promote Physical Activity: Questions to Consider for Your School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyler, Tim; Banks, Sarah; Wilson, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The physical activity potential and physiological and motivational benefits of active gaming have been a hot topic in the past few years. It is easy to see why active games are popular among certain populations, particularly those with prior or current video game experience. Video games are fun to play and challenging, give a player total control,…

  20. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  1. Validation of a previous day recall for measuring the location and purpose of active and sedentary behaviors compared to direct observation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR’s for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO). Methods Fifteen adult (18–75 y) and 15 adolescent (12–17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location (i.e., home, community, work/school), purpose (e.g., leisure, transportation) and whether the behavior was sedentary or active. The day following the observation, participants completed an unannounced PDR. Estimates of time in each context were compared between PDR and DO. Intra-class correlations (ICC), percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. Results For adults, percent agreement was 85% or greater for each location and ICC values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. The PDR-reported purpose of adults’ behaviors were highly correlated with DO for household activities and work (ICCs of 0.84 and 0.88, respectively). Transportation was not significantly correlated with DO (ICC = -0.08). For adolescents, reported classification of activity location was 80.8% or greater. The ICCs for purpose of adolescents’ behaviors ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. Participants were most accurate in classifying the location and purpose of the behaviors in which they spent the most time. Conclusions This study suggests that adults and adolescents can accurately report where and why they spend time in behaviors using a PDR. This information on behavioral context is essential for translating the evidence for specific behavior-disease associations to health interventions and public policy. PMID:24490619

  2. Adaptive memory: Animacy enhances free recall but impairs cued recall.

    PubMed

    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of objects and lists of animals for free-recall tests, and studied sets of animal-animal pairs and object-object pairs for cued-recall tests. In Experiment 2, we compared participants' cued recall for English-English, Swahili-English, and English-Swahili word pairs involving either animal or object English words. In Experiment 3, we compared participants' cued recall for animal-animal, object-object, animal-object, and object-animal pairs. Although we were able to replicate past effects of animacy aiding free recall, animacy typically impaired cued recall in the present experiments. More importantly, given the interactions found in the present experiments, we conclude that some factor associated with animacy (e.g., attention capture or mental arousal) is responsible for the present patterns of results. This factor seems to moderate the relationship between animacy and memory, producing a memory advantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to enhanced target retrievability but a memory disadvantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to impaired association memory. PMID:26375781

  3. Top 10 research questions related to assessing physical activity and its contexts using systematic observation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more popular. Observation tools have the advantages of flexibility, high internal validity, low inference, and low participant burden, while their disadvantages include the need for careful observer training and recalibration, inaccessibility to certain environments, and potential participant reactivity. There is a need for both scientists and practitioners to have additional information on observation techniques and systems relative to making environmental and policy decisions about PA, and in this article, we describe concepts and identify questions related to using SO in researching PA behavior. We present 10 general questions in 3 sections, including those related to: (a) ensuring data accuracy through the selection of the most appropriate methodological protocols; (b) investigating PA in school settings, including physical education, recess, and other programs; and (c) investigating PA in community settings (e.g., parks, recreation centers, youth and adult sport programs) and homes. PMID:25664670

  4. Writing superiority in cued recall.

    PubMed

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather

  5. Questioning the activity of active matter: the case of bird flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    Animal flocking is a natural instance of active matter. What makes flocks active is the rearrangement of neighborhoods, which constantly remodels the network of interactions between individuals in the group, keeping the system out of equilibrium. Despite the predicted importance of this reshuffling, its true impact for natural flocks is not well understood. Here we analyse films of flocks of startlings with a novel statistical inference technique based on dynamical maximum entropy to measure the parameters of flock alignment - alignment strength, interaction range, and noise. We show that birds align their flight orientations must faster than they change neighbors. In the statistical mechanics sense, this means that flocks remain adiabatically in equilibrium, allowing for a rigorous analogy with equilibrium systems of interacting spins, and we show that an inference method based on equilibrium assumptions gives fully consistent results.

  6. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  7. Top 10 research questions related to physical activity and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Pilutti, Lara A; Gappmaier, Eduard; Coote, Susan

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 2.5 million people worldwide are living with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this disease may be increasing in prevalence. MS is a disease of the central nervous system that is associated with heterogeneous symptoms and functional consequences, and the current first-line disease-modifying therapies often become ineffective later in the disease. There is increasing evidence for the benefits of physical activity (PA) in people with MS, but this population is generally physically inactive and sedentary. We proposed 10 research questions to guide future research on PA and MS: (1) Is PA an MS disease-modifying behavior? (2) What are the benefits of PA among people with MS? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with MS? (4) What are the safety issues with PA in people with MS? (5) What characteristics of people with MS modify the benefits of PA? (6) What variables explain participation in PA among people with MS? (7) What are effective behavioral interventions for PA change in people with MS? (8) How do we translate PA research into clinical MS practice? (9) What is the role of sedentary behavior in people with MS? And (10) what is the optimal measurement of PA in people with MS? These questions are critical for informing our understanding of the short- and long-term consequences of PA in MS as well as for identifying approaches for promoting and sustaining PA in MS. Addressing these questions may greatly improve the lives of people with this chronic disease. PMID:25874730

  8. Observed vs. Recalled Exercise Behavior: A Validation of a Seven Day Exercise Recall for Boys 11 to 13 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Janet P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eleven boys at a summer camp were asked to recall the mode, duration, and intensity of their physical activity during the preceding seven days. When compared with their counselor's records, the boys were accurate enough to make seven-day recall applicable as a summary tool of children's total energy expenditure. (Author/MT)

  9. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    In this study, questions in context-based and traditional chemistry textbooks were analysed from two perspectives that are at the heart of chemistry curricula reforms: a content perspective and a learning activities perspective. To analyse these textbook questions, we developed an instrument for each perspective. In total, 971 textbook questions…

  10. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  11. Age Differences in Adults' Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion

    1979-01-01

    Adults in their twenties and sixties were tested for free recall, cued recall, and recognition of words that they had studied in an intentional memory task or generated associations to in an incidental orienting task. Significant age-related declines in performance on intentional items were observed regardless of type of memory test. (Author)

  12. Elders' nonadherence, its assessment, and computer assisted instruction for medication recall training.

    PubMed

    Leirer, V O; Morrow, D G; Pariante, G M; Sheikh, J I

    1988-10-01

    This study investigates three questions related to the problem of medication nonadherence among elders. First, does recall failure play a significant role in nonadherence? Recent research suggests that it may not. Second, can the new portable bar code scanner technology be used to study nonadherence? Other forms of monitoring are obtrusive or inaccurate. Finally, can inexpensive computer assisted instructions (CAI) be used to teach mnemonic techniques specifically designed to improve medication schedule recall? Current research on memory training teaches nonspecific mnemonics and uses the expensive classroom approach. Results of the present study suggest that physically active and cognitively alert elders do have significant nonadherence (control group = 32.0%) problems related to forgetting and that CAI courseware can significantly reduce (medication recall training group = 10.0%) this form of nonadherence. Portable bar code technology proved easy to use by elderly patients and provided detailed information about the type of forgetting underlying nonadherence. Most significant recall failure was in the complete forgetting to take medication rather than delays in medicating or overmedicating. PMID:3049749

  13. Dream recall and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Frauscher, S; Shendi, A

    1995-08-01

    The present study estimated correlations for 50 subjects among frequency of dream recall, length of dream report, and visual memory. Whereas the results confirmed the previously found relationship between frequency of dream recall and visual memory, influence of visual memory on length of dream report was not found. PMID:8532466

  14. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  15. Eighth Grade Science Teachers Use of Instructional Time: Comparing Questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and National Science Foundation Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask eighth grade science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? TIMSS asked teachers to recall a lesson that they had taught, and then group activities into 11 categories. This study examined the TIMSS question "How did the lesson proceed?" by…

  16. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  17. Stimulated Recall: A Method for the Analysis and Improvement of Individualized Instructional Systems. A Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, David

    Stimulated recall methodology in which the student actively recalls thoughts and reactions to a teaching/learning experience provides analytical data which can be used by the researcher in the process of developing and improving an individualized teaching system. This paper describes the application of stimulated recall to the evaluation of a…

  18. A Therapist's Induced Recall of Sinatra Singing "My Way."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how a therapist's induced recall of Frank Sinatra's rendition of the song "My Way" illuminated transference-countertransference dynamics active at that moment in a patient-therapist dyad being discussed at a post-conference workshop. (SR)

  19. Retrieval enhances eyewitness suggestibility to misinformation in free and cued recall.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Miko M; Chan, Jason C K; Tuhn, Sam J

    2014-03-01

    Immediately recalling a witnessed event can increase people's susceptibility to later postevent misinformation. But this retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) effect has been shown only when the initial recall test included specific questions that reappeared on the final test. Moreover, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is affected by the centrality of event details. These limitations make it difficult to generalize RES to criminal investigations, which often begin with free recall prior to more specific queries from legal officials and attorneys. In 3 experiments, we examined the influence of test formats (free recall vs. cued recall) and centrality of event details (central vs. peripheral) on RES. In Experiment 1, both the initial and final tests were cued recall. In Experiment 2, the initial test was free recall and the final test was cued recall. In Experiment 3, both the initial and final tests were free recall. Initial testing increased misinformation reporting on the final test for peripheral details in all experiments, but the effect was significant for central details only after aggregating the data from all 3 experiments. These results show that initial free recall can produce RES, and more broadly, that free recall can potentiate subsequent learning of complex prose materials. PMID:24000960

  20. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and…

  1. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  2. Radiation recall with anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Burris, Howard A; Hurtig, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Radiation recall is an acute inflammatory reaction confined to previously irradiated areas that can be triggered when chemotherapy agents are administered after radiotherapy. It remains a poorly understood phenomenon, but increased awareness may aid early diagnosis and appropriate management. A diverse range of drugs used in the treatment of cancer has been associated with radiation recall. As most data come from case reports, it is not possible to determine the true incidence, but to date the antineoplastic drugs for which radiation recall reactions have been most commonly reported include the anthracycline doxorubicin, the taxanes docetaxel and paclitaxel, and the antimetabolites gemcitabine and capecitabine. Radiation recall is drug-specific for any individual patient; it is not possible to predict which patients will react to which drugs, and rechallenge does not uniformly induce a reaction. There are no identifiable characteristics of drugs that cause radiation recall, and thus, it is a possibility that must be kept in mind with use of any drug after radiotherapy, including those from new drug classes. Although it is not yet possible to design treatment regimens to eliminate the risk of radiation recall, it seems likely that risks can be minimized by prolonging the interval between completion of radiotherapy and initiation of chemotherapy. PMID:21045191

  3. Recall Instructions and the Suffix Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; Crowder, Robert G.

    1976-01-01

    Performance on the last few items of a 12-word list was impaired when a spoken "Recall" was used as the cue for recall, relative to performance with a nonverbal cue. This suffix effect occured with four types of recall instructions after auditory presentation, including instructions for conventional serial and after free recall. (Editor)

  4. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  5. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  9. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  10. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  11. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  12. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  13. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  14. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  15. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  16. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  17. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  18. Free recall behaviour in children with and without spelling impairment: the impact of working memory subcapacities.

    PubMed

    Malstädt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin

    2012-11-01

    This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with spelling deficits. Video analyses revealed that recall behaviour was similar in impaired and unimpaired children, indicating that both groups applied similar learning activities. Group differences in number of recalled items were attributed to differences in working memory subcapacities between children with and without spelling impairment, especially with regard to central executive and phonological loop functioning. PMID:23059749

  19. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children's recall govern children's rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3) 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists. PMID:25870569

  20. Action research through stimulated recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, John

    1993-12-01

    The emphasis in classroom learning research has moved from process-product models to the mediating process paradigm. The stimulated-recall interview and thik aloud techniques are the two main processes that have been used in attempts to find out what goes on inside students' heads while they are learning. For example, this researcher has used the stimulated-recall interview technique to identify the workplace thinking of a marine science researcher, and the in-class thinking of a year eleven biology student. Such studies as these have produced findings with important implications for the classroom teacher in the role of action researcher. This paper describes how to conduct stimulated-recall interviews and discusses some classroom implications from the two studies.

  1. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  2. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  3. Recall in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walen, Susan R.

    1970-01-01

    The learning and retention performances of children and adults were compared on free and serialized reproductions of meaningful words. Although the children took longer than the adults to reach the learning criterion, and short-term retention was equivalent for both groups, the children displayed a superior serial recall at 7-day retention.…

  4. School Board Recall Revives Vista.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In November 1992, Vista (California) residents elected two conservative Christians to four-year terms on the school board. Controversial topics at board meetings divided the community. In a November 1994 recall election two conservatives were replaced by two moderates. An interview with the board president and superintendent describes how school…

  5. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Brown, William H.; McIver, Kerry L.; Howie, Erin K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3-to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the…

  6. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  7. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  8. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity and Bone Health in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janz, Kathleen F.; Thomas, David Q.; Ford, M. Allison; Williams, Skip M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence strongly supports a positive, causal effect of physical activity on bone strength and suggests long-term benefits of childhood physical activity to the prevention of osteoporosis. The contribution of healthy bone development in youth is likely to be as important to fracture prevention as the amount of late adulthood bone loss. Families,…

  10. Generating Effective Facilitation Questions for Team-Building/Personal-Challenge Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbei, Ritchie

    2004-01-01

    Team-building/personal-challenge (TB/PC) activities have become popular ways to address students' interpersonal and intrapersonal skills and abilities associated with the affective domain. The outcomes associated with TB/PC activities are often best experienced and learned through the use of indirect methods of instruction. Typically, many…

  11. Questioning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  12. Critiquing Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  13. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  14. Sequential Recall in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Chapman, Robin S.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to recall correctly ordered information was examined using two auditory tasks (narrative recall and digit span) and a nonverbal, visual task, with 47 individuals with Down's syndrome (ages 5 to 20) and 47 mentally aged-matched children. Although Down's syndrome subjects recalled less information than controls, no differences in the…

  15. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  16. Loss of Retrieval Information in Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehulster, Jerome R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally manipulate input and output orders of information and separate storage and retrieval components of prose free recall. The cued partial recall method, used in word list recall, was adapted to a prose learning task. Four short biographical stories of about 55 words each were systematically combined…

  17. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed for that recall. In general terms, the purpose of a recall communication is to convey: (1) That...

  18. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  19. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  20. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  1. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  2. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS PUBLICLY... Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been...

  4. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  5. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  6. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  7. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  8. Children's Use of Scripts in Story Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Kathleen A.; Nelson, Katherine

    1981-01-01

    Reveals that (1) structural importance and not serial position was the better guide to recall, (2) children were able to sequence properly with few idiosyncratic interferences, and (3) younger children recalled main events, as well as did older children--improved recall with age was primarily for filler events. (FL)

  9. [Open questions in the drug therapy of tumors with new active substances].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Schott, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    At the time of market authorization and/or the expansion of indication of new oncology drugs, it is often not possible to reliably measure the relevant benefit for the patient. The conception of the clinical studies, on which the market authorization and/or expansion of indication is based, orients itself primarily at the regulatory requirements of the regulatory authorities. In addition, their results are frequently published only incompletely or some time after the end of the clinical study. To clarify these outstanding questions regarding the individual treatment of patients, independent,science-initiated clinical studies after the market authorization are required. However, the execution of these studies is obstructed due to insufficient financial means as well as by regulations and the low evaluation of such studies by the academia. Further challenges result from the high costs of innovative oncologic therapies, which burden the resources of the statutory and private health insurance providers(GKV, PKV) who are confronted with an aging population and a rising prevalence of tumor cases. Independent post-market authorization clinical studies need to be completed in order to ensure a need-oriented and efficient treatment with new oncologic substances. New perspectives result by connecting the reimbursement of the costs of innovative therapies by the GKV and PKV to the generation of evidence in the context of clinical studies, thus improving the medical care of tumor patients as well as the efficient handling of limited health resources. PMID:20926907

  10. Recalled Behavior and Ease of Recall as Information in Self-Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    In studies examining the influence of recall on judgments, social psychologists have generally concentrated on the content of recalled material rather than on the process of recall. To investigate the impact of recalled behaviors (content) and the ease with which these behaviors came to mind (process) on assessment of one's own assertiveness, 158…

  11. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  12. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe. PMID:19350835

  13. Active Citizenship Today Implementation Guide: Questions and Answers about Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles; Philips, Susan

    "Active Citizenship Today" (ACT) is a service learning program for the social studies. There are two things that make ACT different from other service learning programs: (1) the "learning" in service -- learning refers to traditional social studies content and skills (it is a civics model); and (2) ACT is built around a problem-solving framework.…

  14. Activity Theory and Technology Mediated Interaction: Cognitive Scaffolding Using Question-Based Consultation on "Facebook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambe, Patient

    2012-01-01

    Studies that employed activity theory as a theoretical lens for exploring computer-mediated interaction have not adopted social media as their object of study. However, social media provides lecturers with personalised learning environments for diagnostic and prognostic assessments of student mastery of content and deep learning. The integration…

  15. Collaborative Syntactic Priming Activities and EFL Learners' Production of Wh-questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Chaikitmongkol, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Syntactic priming is the tendency for a speaker to produce a structure that was encountered in recent discourse and is measured by calculating how frequently speakers use the modelled structures as opposed to alternatives. Recent lab-based studies have shown that carrying out syntactic priming activities with trained interlocutors positively…

  16. Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: Youtube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrenya, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Active-learning exercises appropriate for a course in undergraduate fluid mechanics are presented. The first exercise involves an experiment in gravity-driven tube flow, with small groups of students partaking in a contest to predict the experimental flow rates using the mechanical energy balance. The second exercise takes the form of an…

  17. Effect of Altered Prior Knowledge on Passage Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.; Nicolich, Mark

    A study was conducted to determine: (1) the relationships between prior knowledge and passage recall; (2) the effect of a prereading activity (PReP) on available knowledge; and (3) the effect of the PReP activity on total comprehension scores. The subjects were 161 sixth grade students from a middle class suburban Long Island, New York, public…

  18. Preschool Children's Preferences and Recall for Stereotyped versus Nonstereotyped Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropp, Jerri Jaudon; Halverson, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    Of four stories, preschool girls liked one with a female character and feminine activity best, and one with a male character and masculine activity least. The reverse was true for boys. Measures taken a day later showed that children recalled more about stories they had liked least the day before. (Author/MJL)

  19. Training older adult free recall rehearsal strategies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, F A; Murphy, M D; Sanders, R E

    1981-05-01

    Three groups of older adults (mean age 72.1 years) were compared on a free recall task with categorizable lists. The nine females and two males in each group were instructed to rehearse overtly while studying. A group instructed to rehearse by category showed higher levels of free recall and category organization than either a control group instructed only to remember or a group instructed to rehearse actively at study. Strategy instructed subjects' rehearsal was organized serially early in a list and then categorically organized for the remainder of a list. Activity instructed subjects showed a high number of same-item repetitions but adopted no clear pattern of strategic category rehearsal. Control subjects' rehearsal was essentially inactive and nonstrategic, mainly consisting of single mentions of each list item and an associate. These data show that older adults' memory performance is modifiable and that efficient performance is obtained when instructional training is aimed at the processes that are crucial to task performance. Direct strategy measures, such as those used as here, yield important information about the processes underlying age differences in memory and can aid greatly in the design of training aimed at exploring older adult potential. PMID:7229280

  20. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  1. Parallels between nutrition and physical activity: research questions in development of peak bone mass.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle choices are attributed to 40% to 60% of adult peak bone mass. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) sought to update its 2000 consensus statement on peak bone mass and partnered with the American Society for Nutrition, which, in turn, charged a 9-member writing committee with using a systematic review approach to update the previous NOF guidelines. PubMed searches of the scientific literature from January 2000 through December 2014 were conducted on all relevant lifestyle choice factors and their relation to increasing bone mass during childhood and adolescence. The writing group concluded that there is strong evidence for the benefits of physical activity and calcium intake on bone mass accretion, moderately strong evidence for the benefits of vitamin D and dairy intake on bone mass and for physical activity on bone structure, and weaker evidence for other lifestyle choices. There were parallels and synergies between the benefits of diet and exercise on development of peak bone mass, but the type of evidence and public policy recommendations in the two disciplines differ in several important ways. Nutrition uses a more reductionist approach in contrast to physical activity, which uses a more global approach. This leads to differences in research priorities in the 2 disciplines. The disciplines can advance more quickly through collaboration and adoption of the best approaches from each other. PMID:25965111

  2. POSITIVE EMOTIONS ENHANCE RECALL OF PERIPHERAL DETAILS

    PubMed Central

    Talarico, Jennifer M.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emotional events. Details of each memory were rated as central or peripheral to the event. Significance of the event, vividness, reliving and other aspects of remembering were also rated for each event. Positive affect enhanced recall of peripheral details. Furthermore, the impairment of peripheral recall was greatest in memories of anger, not of fear. Reliving the experience at retrieval was negatively correlated with recall of peripheral details for some emotions (e.g., anger) but not others (e.g., fear), irrespective of similarities in affect and intensity. Within individuals, recall of peripheral details was correlated with less belief in the memory’s accuracy and more likelihood to recall the memory from one’s own eyes (i.e., a field perspective). PMID:21359127

  3. Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find that students produce questions of high quality. More than three-quarters of questions fall into categories beyond simple recall, in contrast to similar studies of student-authored content in different subject domains. Similarly, the quality of student-authored explanations for questions was also high, with approximately 60% of all explanations classified as being of high or outstanding quality. Overall, 75% of questions met combined quality criteria, which we hypothesize is due in part to the in-class scaffolding activities that we provided for students ahead of requiring them to author questions. This work presents the first systematic investigation into the quality of student produced assessment material in an introductory physics context, and thus complements and extends related studies in other disciplines.

  4. The Relationship of Course Attitudes, Instructor Credibility, Attraction, and Homophily to Immediate Recall and Student-Instructor Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeless, Lawrence R.

    This study tested the relationships among attitudes toward a course, instructor credibility, attraction, homophily, immediate recall, and student-teacher interaction. The major question explored how much variance of immediate recall and student-teacher interaction is attributable to course attitudes and instructor valence. Student grade point…

  5. Episodic memory in adults with autistic spectrum disorders: recall for self- versus other-experienced events.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Mellor, Christine; Azmi, Sabiha

    2007-01-01

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in recalling recently experienced events, which is dependent upon intact functioning of several aspects of 'self awareness'. The current study examined impaired episodic recall in ASD and its relationship to specific impairments in aspects of 'self awareness'. Between-group (participants with learning disabilities with and without autistic spectrum disorder) experimental design examining free and cued recall of table-top activities that were either self-experienced by participants or observed being performed by the experimenter. Participants with ASD did not show superiority of free recall for self-experienced events over observed events, nor for recall of other-experienced events over self-experienced events, but did demonstrate a superiority for cued recall of self-experienced events. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:16839739

  6. Current status of patient recall in U.S. predoctoral dental school clinics.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Schelkopf, Stuart; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Marinis, Aristotelis; Syros, George; Campbell, Stephen D; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2014-10-01

    The Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA)'s revised standard 2-23, which went into effect in July 2013, requires U.S. dental graduates to be competent in "evaluation of the outcomes of treatment, recall strategies, and prognosis." To assess the way dental schools are implementing this revised recommendation, a survey was conducted to assess the existence of recall systems in the schools' clinics and factors enhancing or hindering the formation of an effective recall system. Surveys were returned from thirty-five dental schools (54.7 percent response rate). Results showed that most institutions had active recall systems and the respondents believed that program effectiveness can be further improved. Suggested improvements included patient education and tracking patient recall appointments. The results indicate that recall systems exist in predoctoral dental education programs, have high student involvement, and vary among schools. PMID:25281670

  7. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  8. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  9. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  10. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-01-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval. PMID:27300910

  11. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  12. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100K East and 100K West in-basin fuel characterization program activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-12

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation of the 105K East (KE) and 105K West (KW) in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program as described in the characterization shipping plan. The significant activities that are common to both 105 KE and 105 KW basins are the movement of canisters from their main basin storage locations (or potentially from the 105 KE Tech View Pit if a dump table is available) to the south loadout pit transfer channel, hydrogen generation testing in the single element fuel container, loading the single element fuel container into the shipping cask, loading of the shipping cask onto a flat-bed trailer, return of the test fuel elements or element pieces from the 327 facility, placement of the fuel elements back into Mark 2 canisters, and placement of the canisters in the main storage basin. Decapping of canisters in the south loadout pit transfer channel and re-encapsulation of canisters are activities specific to the 105 KW basin. The scope of this safety evaluation includes only those characterization fuel shipment activities performed in the 105 KE and 105 KW fuel storage basin structures up to installation of the overpack. The packaging safety evaluation report governs the shipment of the fuel elements. The K Basins Plant Review Committee has determined that the in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program fuel shipments are bounded by the current safety envelop and do not constitute an unreviewed safety question. This determination is documented on Attachment 1.

  13. Goal-seeking neural net for recall and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidvar, Omid M.

    1990-07-01

    Neural networks have been used to mimic cognitive processes which take place in animal brains. The learning capability inherent in neural networks makes them suitable candidates for adaptive tasks such as recall and recognition. The synaptic reinforcements create a proper condition for adaptation, which results in memorization, formation of perception, and higher order information processing activities. In this research a model of a goal seeking neural network is studied and the operation of the network with regard to recall and recognition is analyzed. In these analyses recall is defined as retrieval of stored information where little or no matching is involved. On the other hand recognition is recall with matching; therefore it involves memorizing a piece of information with complete presentation. This research takes the generalized view of reinforcement in which all the signals are potential reinforcers. The neuronal response is considered to be the source of the reinforcement. This local approach to adaptation leads to the goal seeking nature of the neurons as network components. In the proposed model all the synaptic strengths are reinforced in parallel while the reinforcement among the layers is done in a distributed fashion and pipeline mode from the last layer inward. A model of complex neuron with varying threshold is developed to account for inhibitory and excitatory behavior of real neuron. A goal seeking model of a neural network is presented. This network is utilized to perform recall and recognition tasks. The performance of the model with regard to the assigned tasks is presented.

  14. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  15. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  16. Differential Effects of General Metacognition and Task-Specific Beliefs on Strategy Use and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Keri; And Others

    A self-paced free recall task was employed to assess the effects of motivational and metacognitive influences on active processing and recall. A total of 81 fourth-graders were randomly assigned to one of four instructional conditions: strategy instructions plus process monitoring instructions; strategy instructions only; process monitoring…

  17. Memory for Dialogue: Recalling an Anchor through Talk and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Pam

    This paper reports on a project involving student recall of the dialogue in a movie and retention of the "anchor," which in this case refers to a videotape recording of "To Kill a Mockingbird." The project looked at how students retained knowledge over a few days and what kind of activities resulted from expertise with an anchor. The goal of…

  18. Practice makes perfect in memory recall.

    PubMed

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-04-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists. Moreover, some of them developed a number of consistent input-position-dependent recall strategies, in particular recalling words consecutively ("chaining") or in groups of consecutively presented words ("chunking"). The time course of acquisition and particular choice of positional grouping were variable among participants. Our results show that acquiring positional strategies plays a crucial role in improvement of recall performance. PMID:26980785

  19. Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  20. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  1. The recovery of blocked memories in repeated recall tests.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Kris; Gerkens, David R

    2011-08-01

    There is continued controversy over the possibility of blocked and subsequently recovered accurate memories. Memory blocking produced by a retrieval biasing procedure followed by recovery through repeated testing was demonstrated in two experiments. Predictions derived from the retrieval bias explanation and from the level of cumulative recall (LOCR) concerning hypermnesia for blocked material were tested. Expt 1 disconfirmed the retrieval bias hypothesis that the blocked material would remain blocked. However, there was no accelerated recovery despite the lower rate of recall for the bias group compared to the control group as predicted based on LOCR. Expt 2 replicated the Expt 1 findings and used metamemory tasks to further explore the recovery process. The data led the authors to conclude that accurate recovery of memory with corresponding high confidence is possible through repeated testing provided suggestive questioning and misinformation are not presented. PMID:21751995

  2. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  3. The Formation and Stability of Recognition Memory: What Happens Upon Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sabrina; Renaudineau, Sophie; Poirier, Roseline; Poucet, Bruno; Save, Etienne; Laroche, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The idea that an already consolidated memory can become destabilized after recall and requires a process of reconsolidation to maintain it for subsequent use has gained much credence over the past decade. Experimental studies in rodents have shown pharmacological, genetic, or injurious manipulation at the time of memory reactivation can disrupt the already consolidated memory. Despite the force of experimental data showing this phenomenon, a number of questions have remained unanswered and no consensus has emerged as to the conditions under which a memory can be disrupted following reactivation. To date most rodent studies of reconsolidation are based on negatively reinforced memories, in particular fear-associated memories, while the storage and stability of forms of memory that do not rely on explicit reinforcement have been less often studied. In this review, we focus on recognition memory, a paradigm widely used in humans to probe declarative memory. We briefly outline recent advances in our understanding of the processes and brain circuits involved in recognition memory and review the evidence that recognition memory can undergo reconsolidation upon reactivation. We also review recent findings suggesting that some molecular mechanisms underlying consolidation of recognition memory are similarly recruited after recall to ensure memory stability, while others are more specifically engaged in consolidation or reconsolidation. Finally, we provide novel data on the role of Rsk2, a mental retardation gene, and of the transcription factor zif268/egr1 in reconsolidation of object-location memory, and offer suggestions as to how assessing the activation of certain molecular mechanisms following recall in recognition memory may help understand the relative importance of different aspects of remodeling or updating long-lasting memories. PMID:21120149

  4. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  5. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  6. Does feigning amnesia impair subsequent recall?

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Punjabi, Paawan V; Greenberg, Lucy T; Seamon, John G

    2009-01-01

    Defendants who are accused of serious crimes sometimes feign amnesia to evade criminal responsibility. Previous research has suggested that feigning amnesia might impair subsequent recall. In two experiments, participants read and heard a story about a central character, described as "you," who was responsible for the death of either a puppy (Experiment 1) or a friend (Experiment 2). On free and cued recall tests immediately after the story, participants who had feigned amnesia recalled less than did participants who had recalled accurately. One week later, when all participants recalled accurately, participants who had previously feigned amnesia still performed worse than did participants who had recalled accurately both times. However, the participants who had formerly feigned amnesia did not perform worse than did a control group who had received only the delayed recall tests. Our results suggest that a "feigned amnesia effect" may reflect nothing more than differential practice at recall. Feigning amnesia for a crime need not impair memory for that crime when a person later seeks to remember accurately. PMID:19103978

  7. Development of Strategies for Recall and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tversky, Barbara; Teiffer, Evelyn

    1976-01-01

    A total of 122 kindergartners, third and fifth graders viewed 30 pictures of familiar objects and interested on their free recall of the object names and their recognition of the original pictures. Half received instruction in adult recognition strategies, half in adult recall strategies. (MS)

  8. Aging and the Category-Recall Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Patricia E.; Meggison, David L.

    A sorting-recall procedure was used to investigate how long-term memory in elderly subjects is affected by categorical organization. Sixty-four young adults (average age 20 years) and retirees (average age 67) sorted 48 unrelated words into two, four, six, or eight categories prior to recall. High- and low-frequency lists were tested, a…

  9. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  10. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  11. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  12. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  13. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  14. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  15. Hypermnesia as Determined by Level of Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three experiments which provide evidence for the conclusions that hypermnesia (increased recall with repeated testing) does not depend on the encoding of material in an imaginal format but is related to the level of recall across conditions within an experiment. (EKN)

  16. Recall Readiness in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Annette; Blades, Mark; Boucher, Jill

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the metacognitive ability (recall readiness) in matched groups of children with autism, children with mental retardation, and normally developing children (all with a mental age of 7). Children with autism and children with mental retardation had impaired recall readiness compared to the normally developing children. (Author/DB)

  17. Individual Differences in Eyewitness Recall Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, James D.; Herringer, Lawrence G.

    1991-01-01

    Presents study results comparing college students' self-evaluation of recall accuracy to actual recall of detail after viewing a crime scenario. Reports that self-reported ability to remember detail correlates with accuracy in memory of specifics. Concludes that people may have a good indication early in the eyewitness situation of whether they…

  18. Passage Recall: Schema Change and Cognitive Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The effects of subsequent related information and cognitive flexibility on prose recall were studied. Subjects read a passage; then were given either consistent or contradictory information. Errors in cued recall, reflecting the subsequent information, were more frequently produced after a three-week delay than after two days. (Author/GDC)

  19. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  20. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  1. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  2. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  3. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  4. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  5. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  6. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  7. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  8. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  9. Synergistic activity of rifampicin and ethambutol against slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is currently of questionable clinical significance.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Jakko; Hoefsloot, Wouter; Mouton, Johan W; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-07-01

    A key issue in the treatment of disease caused by slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is the limited association between in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and the in vivo outcome of treatment with these drugs. Combined susceptibility testing to rifampicin and ethambutol could provide a more realistic view of the efficacy of these drugs. In this study, Mycobacterium avium (n = 5), Mycobacterium chimaera (n = 6), Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 4), Mycobacterium xenopi (n = 4), Mycobacterium malmoense (n = 3) and Mycobacterium simiae (n = 2) clinical isolates were selected and the MICs of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and in combination were measured using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar dilution method. Synergy was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤ 0.5. Rifampicin and ethambutol showed synergistic activity against the majority of M. avium (4/5), M. chimaera (5/6) and M. intracellulare (3/4) isolates and 1 of 2 eligible M. malmoense isolates. No synergistic activity was measured against M. xenopi and M. simiae. Synergy was neither universal for all species nor for all isolates of one species; it thus needs to be tested for rather than assumed. Even if this synergy exists in vivo, it is questionable whether the MICs to the combined drugs can be overcome by the drug exposure attained by current regimens at the recommended dosages. New dosing strategies for rifampicin and ethambutol should be studied to increase the exposure to these drugs and thus maximise their impact. PMID:23664674

  10. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  11. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    PubMed Central

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  12. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this…

  13. Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation. PMID:18832599

  14. Oak Ridge callibration recall program

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E.; Pritchard, E.W.

    1996-12-31

    A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

  15. Principles for Constructing Good Clicker Questions: Going beyond Rote Learning and Stimulating Active Engagement with Course Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Clickers are also referred to as classroom response systems. They are small-handheld electronic devices that resemble a television remote control, used by students to respond to questions posed by instructors. Typically, questions are provided to students using electronic on-screen presentations. Results of students' responses can be immediately…

  16. Promoting Pre-Experimental Activities in High-School Chemistry: Focusing on the Role of Students' Epistemic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neber, Heinz; Anton, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In high-school chemistry the pre-experimental phase of inquiry cycles often remains neglected. According to a procedural model, which is described in the text, this phase begins with an observation that stimulates students' prior factual knowledge, the formulation of a research question for further elaboration (epistemic questions), the…

  17. Patterns of hemispheric lateralization in dream recallers and non-dream recallers.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Milana, I; Violani, C

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen right handed females reporting 6 or more dreams per week on a home dream and sleep diary (Dream Recallers: DR), and 11 reporting 1 or 0 dreams per week (Non Dream Recallers: NDR) drawn from a sample of 233 college students, were individually tested on two tasks assessing the hemispheric lateralization of visuo-constructive and verbal-semantic functions. NDR showed a significant degree of hemispheric asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right hemisphere advantage) and semantic (left hemisphere advantage) functions. DR showed no hemispheric advantage on both tasks. The two groups of subjects did not differ in mean daily amount of sleep time. In keeping with previous studies showing that NDR have an imbalance of interhemispheric activation upon REM awakenings, results from the present research suggest that DR and NDR can be characterized by a different pattern of hemispheric lateralization of cognitive skills. This finding may stimulate further research aimed at evaluating both the possible existence of differences in the lateralization of functions not considered in this study and the concomitance of REM sleep dependent differences in balance of hemispheric functioning. PMID:8082996

  18. Category clustering calculator for free recall

    PubMed Central

    Senkova, Olesya; Otani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    The free recall measure is one of the most popular measures in memory research. Using this measure, researchers can assess not only the amount of recall but also the strategy participants used to recall the material. Category clustering is a strategy participants often use when the input list is categorized. Unfortunately, computing category clustering measures is laborious. The present paper introduces a calculator that computes these measures for each participant using a platform that is accessible to most researchers in an attempt to make these measures more user-friendly. PMID:23717345

  19. Ash erupted during normal activity at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) raises questions on how the feeding system works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    2007). This new finding has important implications on how the feeding system of the volcano works and raises two main questions: i) is this an occasional occurrence or is a normal feature of the persistent activity? and ii) how volatile-rich parcels of deep magma rise through a crystal-rich body without significant mixing ?

  20. Questioning Strategies of Elementary Teachers in Relation to Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszak, Frank J.

    Reading lessons were observed, taped, and analyzed to determine how teachers' questioning strategies contribute to students' ability to comprehend materials read. The kinds of thinking elicited by teachers' questions were investigated by means of a classification scheme developed which included recognition, recall, translation, conjecture,…

  1. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  2. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with industry and our state partners to publish press releases and other public notices about recalls ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  3. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  4. Interpersonal Process Recall: An Innovative Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedek, Elissa P.; Bieniek, Christine M.

    1977-01-01

    Three specific skills are described that the novice psychiatric resident must begin to learn: interviewing techniques, self-observation, and empathy. Curriculum effective in accelerating the learning process, i.e., interpersonal process recall, is also discussed. (Author/LBH)

  5. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less

  6. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  7. The influence of disfigurement on conversational recall.

    PubMed

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Furness, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    Two experiments are reported which examine the degree to which conversational recall is affected by facial disfigurement. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a video interview and then immediately recalled the information given by the speaker. Recall fell from 68 per cent to 52 per cent when a fake disfigurement was visible on the speaker's face. In Experiment 2, these results were replicated in a more realistic simulated webcam interaction. Again, immediate conversational recall fell substantially from 85 per cent to 51 per cent when the speaker had a fake disfigurement. In both experiments, however, overt reactions through personality ratings were unaffected by appearance. Reasons for such reactions are discussed, together with the value to the individual in knowing and expecting such reactions. PMID:18987084

  8. Reminiscence and item recovery in free recall.

    PubMed

    Madigan, S

    1976-05-01

    The item recovery or reminiscence component of recall in RTT procedures was investigated in two free recall experiments. In the first, Erdelyi and Becker's (1974) "hypermnesia" effect was found with pictures as the to-be-remembered material: total amount recalled increased over two successive test trials, and included a large reminiscence effect, with some 27% of previously unrecalled items appearing in the second test. The second experiment, with word lists, showed that the frequency of occurrence of new items was greater following a 12-min separation of two test trials than in two relatively massed tests. This kind of item recovery is relevant to models of output interference and retrieval limitations in free recall, and may be also related to spontaneous recovery effects. PMID:21287027

  9. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  10. A Free-Recall Demonstration versus a Lecture-Only Control: Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2012-01-01

    On their first class day, introductory psychology students took a 14-question multiple-choice pretest on several principles of memory including primacy, recency, storage, retrieval, counterbalancing, and the free-recall method. I randomly preassigned students to come at one of two different times to the second class, 2 days later, when they either…

  11. A Developmental Examination of Recall and Recognition in a Levels of Processing Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snart, Fern; Mulcahy, Robert

    Age differences in recognition and recall of common nouns were studied using three groups of fifty students, with mean ages of 6.7, 11.4, and 16.9. Subjects were randomly placed in either an incidental or intentional learning condition. All subjects were questioned about the physical, phonemic, and semantic aspects of the same words, in the same…

  12. More than Recall and Opinion: Using "Clickers" to Promote Complex Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, R.; Calkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors focused on how a personalized response system ("clickers") could be used to promote more complex thinking in two sections of an intermediate college-level Spanish class. Using Bloom's Revised Taxonomy (2001), they designed questions to go beyond Bloom's lower-order thinking levels (recalling, understanding, and applying) to the…

  13. The Effect of Mnemonic Strategy Variations on Students' Recall of Potentially Confusable Prose Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Christine B.

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the value of a mnemonic strategy in remembering information from prose passages and to assess processing differences associated with three variations of the mnemonic strategy. The subjects were 220 eighth grade students who read four short fictional biographies and answered recall questions that were either…

  14. Memory Recall and Participation Levels in the Elderly: A Study of Golden Age Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Pamela R.; Whittemore, Margaret P.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve women (mean age 90) in a nursing home listened to Golden Age radio programs and answered trivia questions. Reactions to musical programs showed they encouraged reminiscence; trivia stimulated recall of historical and life events. In contrast, comedy programs evoked little response. (SK)

  15. Distraction Control Processes in Free Recall: Benefits and Costs to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Hodgetts, Helen M.; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    How is semantic memory influenced by individual differences under conditions of distraction? This question was addressed by observing how participants recalled visual target words-drawn from a single category-while ignoring spoken distractor words that were members of either the same or a different (single) category. Working memory capacity (WMC)…

  16. Word Recall: Cognitive Performance Within Internet Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M; Jim, Heather S

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of online surveys for data collection has increased exponentially, yet it is often unclear whether interview-based cognitive assessments (such as face-to-face or telephonic word recall tasks) can be adapted for use in application-based research settings. Objective The objective of the current study was to compare and characterize the results of online word recall tasks to those of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and determine the feasibility and reliability of incorporating word recall tasks into application-based cognitive assessments. Methods The results of the online immediate and delayed word recall assessment, included within the Women’s Health and Valuation (WHV) study, were compared to the results of the immediate and delayed recall tasks of Waves 5-11 (2000-2012) of the HRS. Results Performance on the WHV immediate and delayed tasks demonstrated strong concordance with performance on the HRS tasks (ρc=.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.91), despite significant differences between study populations (P<.001) and study design. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported memory demonstrated similar relationships with performance on both the HRS and WHV tasks. Conclusions The key finding of this study is that the HRS word recall tasks performed similarly when used as an online cognitive assessment in the WHV. Online administration of cognitive tests, which has the potential to significantly reduce participant and administrative burden, should be considered in future research studies and health assessments. PMID:26543924

  17. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  18. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  19. Memorial consequences of answering SAT II questions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2009-03-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting incorrect alternatives on multiple-choice tests and then believing they were correct (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). In the current experiments, undergraduates and high school students answered multiple-choice questions retired from SAT II tests (that are no longer in the testing pool) on biology, chemistry, U.S. history, and world history, and later answered cued-recall questions about these subjects. In 3 experiments, we observed positive testing effects: More final cued-recall questions were answered correctly if the items had appeared on the initial multiple-choice test. We also sometimes observed negative testing effects: intrusions of multiple-choice distractors as answers on the final cued-recall test. Students who scored well on the initial test benefited from taking the test, but lower achieving students showed either less benefit (undergraduates) or costs from the testing (high school students). PMID:19309212

  20. Validity of 12-Month Falls Recall in Community-Dwelling Older Women Participating in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kerrie M.; Stuart, Amanda L.; Scott, David; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Nicholson, Geoff C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare 12-month falls recall with falls reported prospectively on daily falls calendars in a clinical trial of women aged ≥70 years. Methods. 2,096 community-dwelling women at high risk of falls and/or fracture completed a daily falls calendar and standardised interviews when falls were recorded, for 12 months. Data were compared to a 12-month falls recall question that categorised falls status as “no falls,” “a few times,” “several,” and “regular” falls. Results. 898 (43%) participants reported a fall on daily falls calendars of whom 692 (77%) recalled fall(s) at 12 months. Participants who did not recall a fall were older (median 79.3 years versus 77.8 years, P = 0.028). Smaller proportions of fallers who sustained an injury or accessed health care failed to recall a fall (all P < 0.04). Among participants who recalled “no fall,” 85% reported zero falls on daily calendars. Few women selected falls categories of “several times” or “regular” (4.1% and 0.4%, resp.) and the sensitivity of these categories was low (30% to 33%). Simply categorising participants into fallers or nonfallers had 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusion. For studies where intensive ascertainment of falls is not feasible, 12-month falls recall questions with fewer responses may be an acceptable alternative. PMID:26273292

  1. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  3. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  4. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  5. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  6. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  7. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  8. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  9. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  10. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  11. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  12. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  13. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  14. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content requirements. Except as provided in § 1115.29, every recall notice...

  15. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  16. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  17. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  18. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  19. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content requirements. Except as provided in § 1115.29, every recall notice...

  20. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  1. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  2. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  3. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  4. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  5. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  6. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  7. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  8. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  9. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  10. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  11. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  12. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  13. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  14. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  15. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  16. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  17. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  18. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  19. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content requirements. Except as provided in § 1115.29, every recall notice...

  20. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  1. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  2. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  3. State- or trait-like individual differences in dream recall: preliminary findings from a within-subjects study of multiple nap REM sleep awakenings

    PubMed Central

    Scarpelli, Serena; Marzano, Cristina; D’Atri, Aurora; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the question whether the role of EEG oscillations in predicting presence/absence of dream recall (DR) is explained by “state-” or “trait-like” factors. Six healthy subjects were awakened from REM sleep in a within-subjects design with multiple naps, until a recall and a non-recall condition were obtained. Naps were scheduled in the early afternoon and were separated by 1 week. Topographical EEG data of the 5-min of REM sleep preceding each awakening were analyzed by power spectral analysis [Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)] and by a method to detect oscillatory activity [Better OSCillations (BOSC)]. Both analyses show that REC is associated to higher frontal theta activity (5–7 Hz) and theta oscillations (6.06 Hz) compared to NREC condition, but only the second comparison reached significance. Our pilot study provides support to the notion that sleep and wakefulness share similar EEG correlates of encoding in episodic memories, and supports the “state-like hypothesis”: DR may depend on the physiological state related to the sleep stage from which the subject is awakened rather than on a stable individual EEG pattern. PMID:26217264

  4. The Development of Conceptual and Rote Recall Skills Among School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Garrett

    1973-01-01

    One hundred eighty children from Grades K, 5, and 9 performed a recall task within one of four instructional conditions: serial recall; standard free recall; labeling free recall; labeling cued recall. (Editor)

  5. Knowledge and question asking.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Molinero, Rafael; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts containing different levels of information about a specific topic: biodiversity. We found a positive relationship between the amount of information provided and the number of questions asked about the texts, supporting the idea that more knowledgeable people ask more questions. Some students were warned that there would be an exam after the reading, and this led to a diminishing number of questions asked, and yet this still did not significantly improve their exam scores. In such a case, it seems that reading was more concerned with immediacy, hindering critical thinking and the dialog between their previous ideas and the new information. Thus, question asking seems to be influenced not only by the amount of knowledge, but also by the reader's attitude towards the information. PMID:21266138

  6. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    PubMed

    Hunt, R Reed; Smith, Rebekah E; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2011-11-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone is sufficient to explain extant data. Our research was driven by a framework that distinguishes item-based and event-based distinctive processing to account for the effects of different variables on both correct recall of study list items and false recall. We report the results of three experiments examining the effect of a deep orienting task and the effect of visual presentation of study items, both of which have been shown to reduce false recall. The experiments replicate those previous findings and add important new information about the effect of the variables on a recall test that eliminates the need for monitoring. The results clearly indicate that both post-access monitoring and constraints on access contribute to reductions in false memories. The results also showed that the manipulations of study modality and orienting task had different effects on correct and false recall, a pattern that was predicted by the item-based/event-based distinctive processing framework. PMID:22003267

  7. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  8. Negative priming in free recall reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C Philip; Jones, Dylan M

    2016-05-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595066

  9. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Saito, Satoru; Morita, Aiko; Varma, Samarth; Norris, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers of English recalled visually presented words. In all experiments, items varied in visual similarity and were controlled for phonological similarity. For Kanji and for English, performance on lists comprising visually similar items was overall poorer than for lists of visually distinct items across all serial positions. For mixed lists in which visually similar and visually distinct items alternated through the list, a clear "zig-zag" pattern appeared with better recall of the visually distinct items than for visually similar items. This is the first time that this zig-zag pattern has been shown for manipulations of visual similarity in serial-ordered recall. These data provide new evidence that retaining a sequence of visual codes relies on similar principles to those that govern the retention of a sequence of phonological codes. We further illustrate this by demonstrating that the data patterns can be readily simulated by at least one computational model of serial-ordered recall, the Primacy model (Page and Norris, Psychological Review, 105(4), 761-81, 1998). Together with previous evidence from neuropsychological studies and experimental studies with healthy adults, these results are interpreted as consistent with two domain-specific, limited-capacity, temporary memory systems for phonological material and for visual material, respectively, each of which uses similar processes that have evolved to be optimal for retention of serial order. PMID:26704711

  10. Diagrams increase the recall of nondepicted text when understanding is also increased.

    PubMed

    Serra, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Multimedia presentations typically produce better memory and understanding than do single-medium presentations. Little research, however, has considered the effect of multimedia on memory for nonmultimedia information within a large multimedia presentation (e.g., nondepicted text in a large text with diagrams). To this end, the present two experiments compared memory for target text information that was either depicted in diagrams or not. Participants (n = 180) studied either a text-only version of a text about lightning or a text-with-diagrams version in which half the target information was depicted in diagrams. Memory was tested with both free recall and cued recall questions. Overall, diagrams did not affect memory for the entire text; diagrams increased memory only for the information they depicted. Diagrams exerted a generalized effect on free recall only when diagrams increased the overall understanding of the text (i.e., when the participants studied the materials twice before the test). PMID:20081170

  11. Differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in recalled childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G; Over, R

    1995-02-01

    Heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women recalled the extent to which they had engaged in gender conforming (female-stereotypic) behaviors and gender nonconforming (male-stereotypic) behaviors in childhood. Heterosexual women were more likely to recall having had female-stereotypic experiences as children, whereas lesbian women often recalled a childhood characterized by male-stereotypic experiences. Multiple discriminant function allowed the heterosexual women in the sample to be distinguished from the lesbian women with 80% accuracy in classification of individual cases on the basis of four recollected attributes (imagined self as a male character, wished to become a mother, preference for boys' games, and considered a tomboy as a child). However, some heterosexual women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of lesbian women, and some lesbian women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of heterosexual women. Such diversity raises questions about the nature of the relationship between experiences in childhood and adult sexual orientation. PMID:7733801

  12. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category. PMID:27592833

  13. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  14. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  15. Protoplasmic Computing to Memorize and Recall Periodic Environmental Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tero, Atsushi; Saigusa, Tetsu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    Single-celled organisms might be more intelligent than previously envisaged [1]-[5]. The acts of anticipating and recalling events are higher functions performed by the brains of higher animals; their evolutionary origins and the way they self-organize, however, remain open questions. Here we show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favorable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favorable conditions. For example, plasmodia exposed to low temperature and low humidity, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When favorable conditions were subsequently reintroduced, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the point in time when the next unfavorable episode would have occurred. This implies that the plasmodia are able to anticipate impending environmental change. After this anticipatory response had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal speed; however, the slowing down could subsequently be induced by a single unfavorable pulse, implying recall of the periodicity that had been memorized. We have explored the mechanisms underlying this behavior from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results suggest that this primitive intelligence is of cellular origin and that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence. abstract environment.

  16. Does response mode affect amount recalled or the magnitude of the testing effect?

    PubMed

    Putnam, Adam L; Roediger, Henry L

    2013-01-01

    The testing effect is the finding that retrieval practice can enhance recall on future tests. One unanswered question is whether first-test response mode (writing or speaking the answer) affects final-test performance (and whether final-test response mode itself matters). An additional unsettled issue is whether written and oral recall lead to differences in the amount recalled. In three experiments, we examined these issues: whether subjects can recall more via typing or speaking; whether typing or speaking answers on a first test can lead to better final-test performance (and whether an interaction occurs with final-test response mode) and whether any form of overt response leads to better final-test performance as compared to covert retrieval (thinking of the answer but not producing it). Subjects studied paired associates; took a first test by typing, speaking, or thinking about responses; and then took a second test in which the answers were either spoken or typed. The results revealed few differences between typing and speaking during recall, and no difference in the size of the testing effect on the second test. Furthermore, an initial covert retrieval yielded roughly the same benefit to future test performance as did overt retrieval. Thus, the testing effect was quite robust across these manipulations. The practical implication for learning is that covert retrieval provides as much benefit to later retention as does overt retrieval and that both can be effective study strategies. PMID:22898928

  17. The Spacing of Lists in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; Crowder, Robert G.

    1975-01-01

    Spaced presentations of 12- and 15-word lists were better recalled when no task or an easy task intervened between presentations. Results indicate a lack of generality in Bjork and Allen's 1970 findings and a need for a two-factor theory of the spacing effect, and are evidence for a spacing effect. (CHK)

  18. Enhancing the Recall of Presented Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Many educators distribute either complete or incomplete handouts so students can follow along with their lectures. This research examines a teaching system that combines computer-generated graphics presentations and detailed outline handouts with blanks added. An experiment found that this system produced significantly higher short-term recall of…

  19. Recalling data in a distributed processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionka, H.E.

    1983-07-01

    A multihost system includes programming controls that migrate aged data from the primary external data storage DASD (direct-access storage device) to magnetic recording tape for long-term storage. The author describes an independent recall operation which retrieves tape stored data for a particular host.

  20. Story Structure versus Content in Children's Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezworski, Teresa; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Study examines possibility that certain story constituents are better recalled than others, suggesting a universal, underlying representation for a story by controlling for semantic content of settings, initiating events, internal responses, consequences, and reactions across versions of same story. Results show subjects transformed syntactic form…

  1. Adults' Event Recall: Is Context Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Hilary Horn; Padgett, Robert J.

    In studies of retention of verbal material adults have repeatedly remembered less than younger adults have. A study was conducted which asked older adults to remember an experienced event, retention of experiences being considered a better indicator of functioning ability than retention of word lists. In an initial study, older adults' recall was…

  2. The Structure and Recall of Narrative Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    This study examines recall of narrative prose for evidence of underlying structures such as the grammar used in the story's sentence structure. Subjects listened to repeated presentations of a tape recording of two pages from a history book, with verbals collected after each presentation. The subjects used in this experiment were 13 undergraduate…

  3. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  4. Task Context and Organization in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

  5. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their Library of…

  6. A Composite Holographic Associative Recall Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe Eich, Janet

    1982-01-01

    A model of association formation, storage, and retrieval is described. Experiments which test new predictions derived from the model against human recall are reported. The model is applied to previous findings: prototype abstraction, the A-B A-D paradigm and the Osgood transfer surface. Previous models of memory are discussed. (Author/RD)

  7. Genetic Counselling: Information Given, Recall and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Susan; McDonald, Valerie; Marteau, Theresa M.

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to counselors (N=32) to categorize the key points given in genetic counseling; to assess the amount and type of information recalled; and to examine the relationships between counselees' knowledge, satisfaction with information received, the meeting of expectations, concern, and anxiety. Results emphasize the importance of…

  8. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  9. Working Memory and Binding in Sentence Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, A. D.; Hitch, G. J.; Allen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To…

  10. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  11. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults' Story Recall.

    PubMed

    Davis, Danielle K; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education. PMID:26404344

  12. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults’ Story Recall

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Danielle K.; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education. PMID:26404344

  13. [Effects of specificity of schema on false recall: an analysis from the viewpoint of eyewitness testimony].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hirose, Takehiko; Takaoka, Masako

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two levels of specificity of schema on generation of false recall. One level is widely applied to things and is shared by the general public (less specific schema) and the other is specifically applied to individual things (more specific schema). Sixty female undergraduates watched a video. After two days, they were required to recall the contents of the story. Students were divided into two groups according to whether they have the more specific schema or not. In each group, they were assigned to either free recall task or reality monitoring task. The results showed that (1) the amounts of false recall by the group having the less specific schema only decreased by reality monitoring. (2) The group having the more specific schema had no differential effects on false recall for both tasks. (3) The effect of specificity of schema on false recall was not observed for the scene which did not activate the more specific schema. These results were discussed in terms of the levels of specificity of schema and effectiveness of reality monitoring for eyewitness memory. PMID:15782583

  14. Neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent cued recall and source memory.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lucie; Isingrini, Michel; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Fay, Séverine

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, event-related potentials were used to examine whether the neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent successful recall differed from those predicting successful source memory retrieval. During encoding, participants studied lists of words and were instructed to memorize each word and the list in which it occurred. At test, they had to complete stems (the first four letters) with a studied word and then make a judgment of the initial temporal context (i.e. list). Event-related potentials recorded during encoding were segregated according to subsequent memory performance to examine subsequent memory effects (SMEs) reflecting successful cued recall (cued recall SME) and successful source retrieval (source memory SME). Data showed a cued recall SME on parietal electrode sites from 400 to 1200 ms and a late inversed cued recall SME on frontal sites in the 1200-1400 ms period. Moreover, a source memory SME was reported from 400 to 1400 ms on frontal areas. These findings indicate that patterns of encoding-related activity predicting successful recall and source memory are clearly dissociated. PMID:23381350

  15. [Macroscopic Functional Networks of the Human Brain when Viewing and Recalling Short Videos].

    PubMed

    Verkhlyutov, V M; Sokolov, P A; Ushakov, V L; Velichkovsky, B M

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic functional network of the human brain were identified by use of the independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI while viewing and imaging/recalling stories. The networks were relatively stable in structure, but had a specific dynamics in different experimental conditions. When comparing detected networks with previously detected resting state networks it was found that they coincide on localization. We. discovered also the specificity of activating the peripheral and central parts of retinotopic projections in the visual cortex. The peripheral areas were activated during subject viewing and imaging/recalling. On the contrary, the central departments strengthened their activation when viewing and reduced activity during the imaging/recalling. PMID:26281231

  16. Impact of Question-Answering Tasks on Search Processes and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdan, Raquel; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martinez, Tomas; Gilabert, Ramiro; Gil, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of (a) high- and low-level questions and (b) reading the text before the questions asked on performance, delayed text recall, and deep text comprehension, as well as on specific text-inspection patterns. Participants were 37 undergraduate students who answered either high- or low-level questions using the software…

  17. Interviewing children about past events: the influence of peer support and misleading questions.

    PubMed

    Greenstock, J; Pipe, M E

    1996-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the influence of peer support and leading and misleading questions on children's reports of a neutral event. Twenty-four children aged between 5 and 7 years and 24 children aged between 8 and 10 years took part in an event which focused on the parts and functions of the human body. Three days later they were interviewed about the event either alone or with a same-sex peer. The younger children recalled less information than the older children during prompted recall, and both age groups made very few errors. For questions, younger children made significantly more errors in response to directly misleading questions that to indirectly misleading questions. Both age groups were very accurate in response to directly and indirectly leading questions. Peer support did not influence children's prompted recall reports about the event or their responses to questions. These results are discussed in the context of their implications for interviewing children about past events. PMID:8640428

  18. Engaging medical undergraduates in question making: a novel way to reinforcing learning in physiology.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bharati; Bhandari, Bharti

    2016-09-01

    The monotony of conventional didactic lectures makes students less attentive toward learning, and they tend to memorize isolated facts without understanding, just for the sake of passing exams. Therefore, to promote a habit of gaining indepth knowledge of basic sciences in medical undergraduates along with honing of their communication and analytical skills, we introduced this more interactive way of learning. The present study was performed on 99 first-semester medical students. After conventional didactic lectures, students were asked to prepare small conceptual questions on the topic. They were divided into two teams, which were made to ask questions to each other. If a team failed to answer, the student who questioned was supposed to answer to the satisfaction of the other team's student. Data were then obtained by getting feedback from the students on a 10-item questionnaire, and statistical evaluation was done using MS Excel and SPSS. To draft questions, students went through the whole system comprehensively and made questions from every possible aspect of the topic. Some of the questions (30%) were of recall type, but most judged higher cognitive domains. Student feedback revealed that they were satisfied, motivated to read more, and were confident of applying this learning and communication skills in future clinical practice. Students also expressed their desire to implement this activity as a regular feature of the curriculum. The activity resulted in an increase in student perceptions of their knowledge on the topic as well as communicative and analytical skills. This may eventually lead to better learning. PMID:27503900

  19. Capacity Differences Reflected in the Recall Performance of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attig, Mary S.

    Recent theories in cognitive psychology have emphasized the role of capacity requirements in encoding tasks. To examine the notion that age-related differences in the recall performance reflect differences in cognitive capacity, 80 adults (40 undergraduates, and 40 senior citizens) recalled newspaper advertisements under free recall and cued…

  20. Human Figure Drawings and Children's Recall of Touching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Maggie

    2009-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were…

  1. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27 Section 1115.27 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.27 Recall notice content...

  2. Source Recall Enhances Children's Discrimination of Seen and Heard Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Karen L.; Goh, Chee Leong; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Murray, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rehearsing actions by source (slideshow vs. story) and of test modality (picture vs. verbal) on source monitoring were examined. Seven- to 8-year-old children (N = 30) saw a slideshow event and heard a story about a similar event. One to 2 days later, they recalled the events by source (source recall), recalled the events without…

  3. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  4. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  5. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  6. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205.59... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall of... manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not in compliance with...

  7. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  8. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  9. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  10. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  11. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  12. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  13. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  14. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  15. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  16. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  17. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  18. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  19. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  20. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59 Recall... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  1. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  2. Reconstructive Recall of Linguistic Style. Technical Report No. 286.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, William F.; Hay, Anne E.

    A study investigated reconstructive recall for linguistic style. It was hypothesized that (1) features of linguistic style would be more difficult to recall than underlying content, (2) reconstructive errors would include stylistic forms recalled as standard forms when subjects lacked productive control of a particular feature of a style, and (3)…

  3. Exploring a novel environment improves motivation and promotes recall of words

    PubMed Central

    Schomaker, Judith; van Bronkhorst, Marthe L. V.; Meeter, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Active exploration of novel environments is known to increase plasticity in animals, promoting long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and enhancing memory formation. These effects can occur during as well as after exploration. In humans novelty’s effects on memory have been investigated with other methods, but never in an active exploration paradigm. We therefore investigated whether active spatial exploration of a novel compared to a previously familiarized virtual environment promotes performance on an unrelated word learning task. Exploration of the novel environment enhanced recall, generally thought to be hippocampus-dependent, but not recognition, believed to rely less on the hippocampus. Recall was better for participants that gave higher presence ratings for their experience in the virtual environment. These ratings were higher for the novel compared to the familiar virtual environment, suggesting that novelty increased attention for the virtual rather than real environment; however, this did not explain the effect of novelty on recall. PMID:25191297

  4. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    PubMed

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme. PMID:1861610

  5. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported. PMID:23543400

  6. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  7. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Growth and Maturation of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can…

  8. Patient perceptions and recall of consent for regional anaesthesia compared with consent for surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew RD; Henley, Matthew; Tidman, Victoria; Pathmanathan, Ahilan

    2015-01-01

    Objective In Britain, consent for surgery is documented using a Department of Health form signed by the surgeon and the patient. In contrast, anaesthetic procedures have no formalised consent process. Evidence on the process of consent for regional anaesthesia, and patient perceptions of this, is scarce outside obstetric practice. We aimed to determine patient recall and perceptions of consent for interscalene brachial plexus block and compared this to surgical consent for shoulder arthroplasty. Design Prospective observational survey. Setting A specialist musculoskeletal centre, UK. Participants Forty-six patients (female:male 30:16, mean age 61 years) undergoing shoulder arthroplasty with interscalene brachial plexus block. Main outcome measures Recall and understanding of consent for regional anaesthesia and surgery was examined using a semi-structured questionnaire 1–2 days after arthroplasty. Surgical consent forms and discussions recorded by the anaesthetist were examined in participants’ medical notes to compare against the level of recall. Analysis to determine statistical significance was conducted using McNemar’s test. Results Recall of surgical risks was overall significantly better than recall of brachial plexus block risks. Compared to their recollections of surgical risk, patients remembered fewer specific risks for brachial plexus block (p < 0.001). There were more patients unable to recall any risks when questioned about brachial plexus block than about their surgery (p < 0.05). One-third of patients did not regard the consent discussion about regional anaesthesia as important as consent for surgery and over one-quarter had not recognised the preoperative discussion about the brachial plexus block as a consent process similar to that conducted for surgery. Conclusions Fundamental misunderstandings about the consent process are prevalent. Future work in this area should seek to investigate how documentation of the consent process and

  9. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  10. Accuracy of task recall for epidemiological exposure assessment to construction noise

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Whitaker, C; Seixas, N; Sheppard, L; Neitzel, R

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To validate the accuracy of construction worker recall of task and environment based information; and to evaluate the effect of task recall on estimates of noise exposure. Methods: A cohort of 25 construction workers recorded tasks daily and had dosimetry measurements weekly for six weeks. Worker recall of tasks reported on the daily activity cards was validated with research observations and compared directly to task recall at a six month interview. Results: The mean LEQ noise exposure level (dBA) from dosimeter measurements was 89.9 (n = 61) and 83.3 (n = 47) for carpenters and electricians, respectively. The percentage time at tasks reported during the interview was compared to that calculated from daily activity cards; only 2/22 tasks were different at the nominal 5% significance level. The accuracy, based on bias and precision, of percentage time reported for tasks from the interview was 53–100% (median 91%). For carpenters, the difference in noise estimates derived from activity cards (mean 91.9 dBA) was not different from those derived from the questionnaire (mean 91.7 dBA). This trend held for electricians as well. For all subjects, noise estimates derived from the activity card and the questionnaire were strongly correlated with dosimetry measurements. The average difference between the noise estimate derived from the questionnaire and dosimetry measurements was 2.0 dBA, and was independent of the actual exposure level. Conclusions: Six months after tasks were performed, construction workers were able to accurately recall the percentage time they spent at various tasks. Estimates of noise exposure based on long term recall (questionnaire) were no different from estimates derived from daily activity cards and were strongly correlated with dosimetry measurements, overestimating the level on average by 2.0 dBA. PMID:14739379

  11. Changes in frequency of recall recommendations of examinations depicting cancer with the availability of either priors or digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, Christiane M.; Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Catullo, Victor J.; Chough, Denise M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Shinde, Dilip D.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Wallace, Luisa P.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Gur, David

    2016-03-01

    Performance changes in a binary environment when using additional information is affected only when changes in recommendations are made due to the additional information in question. In a recent study, we have shown that, contrary to general expectation, introducing prior examinations improved recall rates, but not sensitivity. In this study, we assessed cancer detection differences when prior examinations and/or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) were made available to the radiologist. We identified a subset of 21 cancer cases with differences in the number of radiologists who recalled these cases after reviewing either a prior examination or DBT. For the cases with differences in recommendations after viewing either priors or DBT, separately, we evaluated the total number of readers that changed their recommendations, regardless of the specific radiologist in question. Confidence intervals for the number of readers and a test for the hypothesis of no difference was performed using the non-parameteric bootstrap approach addressing both case and reader-related sources of variability by resampling cases and readers. With the addition of priors, there were 14 cancer cases (out of 15) where the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased. With the addition of DBT, the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased in only five cases (out of 15) while increasing in the remaining 9 cases. Unlike most new approaches to breast imaging DBT seems to improve both recall rates and cancer detection rates. Changes in recommendations were noted by all radiologists for all cancers by type, size, and breast density.

  12. Effectiveness of a specific cueing method for improving autobiographical memory recall in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Potheegadoo, Jevita; Cordier, Adrian; Berna, Fabrice; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory deficits in schizophrenia have a significant impact on patients' daily life. Our study was aimed at testing the effectiveness of a specific cueing (SC) method for improving autobiographical memory recall in patients with schizophrenia, particularly the phenomenological details of their memories. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 comparison participants took part in the study. They recalled 6 specific autobiographical events which occurred during 3 different life periods. After each memory recall, participants were given a general cue which allowed them to add further information to their narration. The SC was then applied by means of a series of specific questions to elicit more precise memory detail. The overall memory specificity as well as the number and richness of 5 categories of memory detail (perceptual/sensory, temporal, contextual, emotional, and cognitive) were assessed before and after the SC phase. Before SC, patients' memories were less specific and less detailed. SC had a beneficial effect on patients' memory recall. The overall memory specificity of patients improved. The gain in the number and richness of memory details was comparable between patients and comparison participants. The difference between groups in terms of the number of memory details was not significant. Richness of details was still lower in patients, except for emotional and cognitive details, which were similarly rich in both groups. The cueing method reduces the autobiographical memory impairment of patients with schizophrenia and paves the way for developing specific cognitive remediation therapies to help patients in their daily life. PMID:24268933

  13. [Effect of emotional content and self reference of learning materials on recall performance].

    PubMed

    Spies, K

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that high affective value and high self-reference of learning material help to improve memory performance as these factors allow better memory consolidation (activation hypothesis) or better integration of the new material into existing knowledge structures (extent-of-processing hypothesis). To test this assumption, 60 subjects were shown 16 short advertising films characterized by low vs. high affective value and low vs. high self-reference. Both factors were varied within subjects. After the films had each been presented twice, subjects had to recall the product names and answer two questions to each film. Results showed for both dependent variables that films with high affective values were better remembered than films with low affective values. The same held true--though to a lower extent--with respect to self-reference. According to the expected linear trend, performance was best for material scoring high on affective value as well as on self-reference, while it was worst for material scoring low on both factors. PMID:7754642

  14. Transcriptional profiling of recall responses to Francisella live vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Paranavitana, Chrysanthi; DaSilva, Luis; Vladimirova, Antoaneta; Pittman, Phillip R; Velauthapillai, Mahendran; Nikolich, Mikeljon

    2014-03-01

    Global gene expression profile changes were monitored in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after challenge with the live vaccine strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis. Because these PBMCs were from individuals previously immunized with LVS, stimulating these cells with LVS should activate memory responses. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool identified pathways, functions, and networks associated with this in vitro recall response, including novel pathways triggered by the memory response. Dendritic cell (DC) maturation was the most significant among the more than 25 relevant pathways discovered. Interleukin 15, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 signaling pathways were also significant. Pathway analysis indicated that Class 1 antigen presentation may not be optimal with LVS vaccination. The top three biological functions were antigen presentation, cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Network analysis revealed that the top network associated with these functions had IFNγ and TNFα in central interactive positions. Our results suggest that DC maturation is a key factor in the recall responses and that more effective antigen processing and presentation is needed for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Taken together, these considerations are critical for future tularemia vaccine development studies. PMID:24453125

  15. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; Abelson, James L.; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 hours prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 hours after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. PMID:22796109

  16. Serial recall, word frequency, and mixed lists: the influence of item arrangement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists of pure frequency. This pattern has been argued to arise from the development of a network of activated long-term representations of list items that support the redintegration of all list items in a nondirectional and nonspecific way. More recently, it has been proposed that the frequency effect might be a product of the coarticulation of items at word boundaries and their influence on rehearsal rather than a consequence of memory representations. The current work examines recall performance in mixed lists of an equal number of high- and low-frequency items arranged in contiguous segments (i.e., HHHLLL and LLLHHH), under quiet and articulatory suppression conditions, to test whether the effect is (a) nondirectional and (b) dependent on articulatory processes. These experiments demonstrate that neither explanation is satisfactory, although the results suggest that the effect is mnemonic. A language-based approach to short-term memory is favored with emphasis on the role of speech production processes at output. PMID:22582964

  17. Memory disorders as a function of traumatic brain injury. Word completion, recall of words and actions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C; Rönnberg, J

    1987-01-01

    The memory performance of a group with traumatic brain injury and a matched control group was assessed using the following methods (a) word completion, (b) immediate free, final free and final cued recall of words and (c) immediate free and final free recall of subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and SPTs without motor action (SPTs-WA). The brain-injured (BI) group was significantly inferior relative to the control group in all recall tests except immediate free recall of words. No difference was revealed in the word completion test. The BI-group benefitted less by cues presented either at retrieval (final cued recall of words) or at the time of encoding already built-in in the stimulus (SPTs and SPTs-WA). The results were discussed in terms of the neuropathological background of the patients in the BI-group suggesting that frontal dysfunction could play a critical role. When comparing the tests within the BI-group, however, the performance was better when cues were present and especially so for long-term memory. Motor activity also facilitated long-term memory. Finally, an attempt was made to specify conditions for guidance in the construction of training programmes. PMID:3441777

  18. Hypermnesia occurs in recall but not in recognition.

    PubMed

    Payne, D G; Roediger, H L

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effect of encoding conditions and type of test (recall vs. recognition) on the phenomenon of hypermnesia (improved performance across repeated tests). Subjects in Experiment 1 studied a list of words using either imaginal or semantic elaboration strategies and then received three successive tests. Different groups of subjects received either free recall, four-alternative forced-choice recognition, or yes/no recognition tests. Reliable hypermnesia was found only in the recall conditions, with the recognition conditions showing either no change in performance levels across tests (forced-choice tests) or significant forgetting (yes/no tests). In Experiment 2, subjects studied a list of words, and encoding was manipulated using three orienting tasks. Once again, hypermnesia was found with the recall tests but not with the forced choice recognition tests. Finding hypermnesia in recall but not in recognition indicates that retrieval processes in recall play a major role in producing hypermnesia. Also, the finding that the magnitude of the recall hypermnesias increased with an increase in total cumulative recall levels across study conditions suggests that cumulative recall levels are an important factor in determining the presence or absence of recall hypermnesia. PMID:3618837

  19. Different propagation speeds of recalled sequences in plastic spiking neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuhui; Zheng, Zhigang; Hu, Gang; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.

    2015-03-01

    Neural networks can generate spatiotemporal patterns of spike activity. Sequential activity learning and retrieval have been observed in many brain areas, and e.g. is crucial for coding of episodic memory in the hippocampus or generating temporal patterns during song production in birds. In a recent study, a sequential activity pattern was directly entrained onto the neural activity of the primary visual cortex (V1) of rats and subsequently successfully recalled by a local and transient trigger. It was observed that the speed of activity propagation in coordinates of the retinotopically organized neural tissue was constant during retrieval regardless how the speed of light stimulation sweeping across the visual field during training was varied. It is well known that spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a potential mechanism for embedding temporal sequences into neural network activity. How training and retrieval speeds relate to each other and how network and learning parameters influence retrieval speeds, however, is not well described. We here theoretically analyze sequential activity learning and retrieval in a recurrent neural network with realistic synaptic short-term dynamics and STDP. Testing multiple STDP rules, we confirm that sequence learning can be achieved by STDP. However, we found that a multiplicative nearest-neighbor (NN) weight update rule generated weight distributions and recall activities that best matched the experiments in V1. Using network simulations and mean-field analysis, we further investigated the learning mechanisms and the influence of network parameters on recall speeds. Our analysis suggests that a multiplicative STDP rule with dominant NN spike interaction might be implemented in V1 since recall speed was almost constant in an NMDA-dominant regime. Interestingly, in an AMPA-dominant regime, neural circuits might exhibit recall speeds that instead follow the change in stimulus speeds. This prediction could be tested in

  20. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  1. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xing; Mao, Qunying; Chen, Pan; Zhu, Fengcai; Xu, Miao; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99). In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response. PMID:26465882

  2. Televised Self-Confrontation and Recalled Affect: A New Look at Videotape Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David; Resnikoff, Arthur

    1977-01-01

    The extent to which individuals can recall feelings they experienced during a dyadic interaction, when shown a televised replay of that interaction, was investigated. Pairs of subjects (N=10) were trained rate their degree of comfort or discomfort during the actual ("live") interaction and, subsequently, as they watched a video-taped replay of…

  3. A Consequence of School Grade Labels: Preservice Teachers' Interpretations and Recall of Children's Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Judith A.; Linderholm, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether preservice teachers' attitudes surrounding school grade labels influenced interpretations and recall of children's classroom behavior using the automatic attitude activation model (Fazio, In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), "Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior," 1986) as a…

  4. Modality of Communication and Recall of Health-related Information.

    PubMed

    Corston, R; Colman, A M

    1997-04-01

    A health warning was presented to 89 female and 19 male students aged 17-36 years via three modalities or channels of communication: a 'talking head' (video), an audiotape recording (audio) or a printed transcript (print). The verbal content of the message was identical in all three conditions. Participants' free recall, cued recall (recognition) and global recall of the message were then measured. On two separate dependent measures and a combined measure, recall was significantly (p < .005) better in both the audio and print conditions than in the video condition. No significant differences in recall were found between the audio and print conditions. These results, and those of earlier studies of modality effects on recall of information, are discussed in terms of self-pacing and distraction theories. PMID:22013002

  5. Age effects in earwitness recall of a novel conversation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Coombe, Allison

    2005-06-01

    Recall of conversation is an important part of memory for events. Previous studies have focused predominantly on adults. In the present study, 195 participants ages 11 to 63 years listened to a novel audiotaped conversation. They were not informed they would later have to recall elements of this conversation. Recall was a week later. There were no age-related differences in the recall of children ages 11, 13, and 15; however, there was a difference between retention over 7 days of children and adults, with adults recalling more information correctly. No sex differences were observed. These results are evaluated in the context of research on eye- and ear-witness recall and suggestions for research are given. PMID:16060441

  6. Story asides as a useful construct in examining adults' story recall.

    PubMed

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline M; Davis, Danielle K

    2016-02-01

    Older adults sometimes exhibit higher levels of off-target verbosity during story recall than do young adults. This appears as the inclusion of extraneous information not directly relevant to the topic. Some production of such material has been clearly related to cognitive decline, particularly older adults' inability to inhibit production of irrelevant information. In tandem, however, research also suggests that some extraneous information is indirectly related to the topic and may reflect age differences in communicative styles. To further elucidate the social-cognitive aspect of this issue, the question of import is: What is the content of the additional information provided by participants during story recall? The present study answers this question. Grounded in the autobiographical memory and life story literatures, we introduce the construct, story asides, and a reliable content-analytic scheme for its assessment. Young and older adults (N = 129) recalled 1 of 2 types of stories: a personal autobiographical memory or an experimenter-generated fictional story. Narratives were reliably coded for story asides. As expected, older adults produced more story asides than young adults only for autobiographical stories. The discussion focuses on the role of story asides in everyday communication including the possibility that they may be a sign of communicative expertise. PMID:26751005

  7. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  8. Neurobiological Basis of Failure to Recall Extinction Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Milad, Mohammed R.; Pitman, Roger K.; Ellis, Cameron B.; Gold, Andrea L.; Shin, Lisa M; Lasko, Natasha B.; Zeidan, Mohamed A.; Handwerger, Kathryn; Orr, Scott P.; Rauch, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A clinical characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is persistently elevated fear responses to stimuli associated with the traumatic event. The objective herein is to determine whether extinction of fear responses is impaired in PTSD and whether such impairment is related to dysfunctional activation of brain regions known to be involved in fear extinction, viz., amygdala, hippocampus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Methods: Sixteen individuals diagnosed with PTSD and 15 trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls (TENCs) underwent a two-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T fMRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction training were conducted on day 1. Extinction recall (or extinction memory) test was conducted on day 2 (extinguished conditioned stimuli presented in the absence of shock). Skin conductance response (SCR) was scored throughout the experiment as an index of the conditioned response. Results: SCR data revealed no significant differences between groups during acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear on day 1. On day 2, however, PTSD subjects showed impaired recall of extinction memory. Analysis of fMRI data showed greater amygdala activation in the PTSD group during day 1 extinction learning. During extinction recall, lesser activation in hippocampus and vmPFC, and greater activation in dACC, was observed in the PTSD group. The magnitude of extinction memory across all subjects was correlated with activation of hippocampus and vmPFC during extinction recall testing. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that fear extinction is impaired in PTSD. They further suggest that dysfunctional activation in brain structures that mediate fear extinction learning, and especially its recall, underlie this impairment. PMID:19748076

  9. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  10. Recall compliance and incidence of dental caries among underserved children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ulysses; Hui, Brian K; Pourat, Nadereh

    2015-02-01

    Regular dental recall intervals are widely recommended by dentists in the U.S. to prevent caries and improve periodontal health. However, there is some debate on whether or not compliance with six-month or more frequent recall intervals results in reduced incidence of dental caries. This study examines whether compliance with regular recall and receipt of cleanings, exams and patient education reduces rates of new decay in underserved children and finds a positive impact. PMID:25868221

  11. Product recall: a Croatian experience (2000–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Vuk, Tomislav; Barišić, Marijan; Ljubičić, Julijana; Hećimović, Ana; Juraković-Lončar, Nina; Šarlija, Dorotea; Jukić, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Background Timely and efficient recall of products known or suspected to be non-conforming is an important measure in the prevention of adverse events and in patients' safety. Product recall in the transfusion service is regulated by professional standards and legal acts, but publications presenting results related to the implementation of these procedures are quite rare. Materials and methods Data from the Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine (CITM) on the procedures of product recall during an 11-year period (2000–2010) were retrospectively analyzed. Reasons for product recall, their frequency, level of severity and efficiency of the procedures are presented and discussed. Results During the study period, there were 245 procedures of product recall, for an average of 22 (18–29) procedures/year, all of low extent (1–25 products). Recall was required for 1/3,571 blood products issued, while the frequency of laboratory test report recalls was 1/5,447 patients. The leading reasons for product recall were suspected bacterial contamination of blood products (30.2%) and suspected or demonstrated non-conformity of laboratory test reports (28.6%). In total, 99 (40.4%) product recalls were categorized as class I, 30 (12.2%) as class II and 116 (47.3%) as class III. Discussion According to the available literature data, the product recall procedures were performed quite infrequently by the CITM and were of low extent. There was a remarkable decreasing trend in the rate of product recall due to non-conformities or errors made at the CITM, along with a constant or increasing rate of recalls because of biological variability of blood products. PMID:23114522

  12. Software-related recalls: an analysis of records.

    PubMed

    Simone, Lisa K

    2013-01-01

    Public and internal databases were examined to evaluate software-related recalls in the medical device industry sector. In the analysis of recalls reported from 2005 through 2011, 19.4% of medical device recalls are related to software. This paper includes analysis results, challenges faced in determining the causes, and examples and trends in software-related recalls. This information can be useful in enhancing our understanding of why medical devices fail, and it can help to improve medical device safety, and patient and public health. PMID:24328977

  13. Any Questions, Please?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

  14. Recall of random and distorted chess positions: implications for the theory of expertise.

    PubMed

    Gobet, F; Simon, H A

    1996-07-01

    This paper explores the question, important to the theory of expert performance, of the nature and number of chunks that chess experts hold in memory. It examines how memory contents determine players' abilities to reconstruct (1) positions from games, (2) positions distorted in various ways, and (3) random positions. Comparison of a computer simulation with a human experiment supports the usual estimate that chess Masters store some 50,000 chunks in memory. The observed impairment of recall when positions are modified by mirror image reflection implies that each chunk represents a specific pattern of pieces in specific location. A good account of the results of the experiments is given by the template theory proposed by Gobet and Simon (in press) as an extension of Chase and Simon's (1973b) initial chunking proposal, and in agreement with other recent proposals for modification of the chunking theory (Richman, Staszewski, & Simon, 1995) as applied to various recall tasks. PMID:8757497

  15. Does pointing facilitate the recall of serial positions in visuospatial working memory?

    PubMed

    Spataro, Pietro; Marques, Valeria R S; Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the question of whether pointing enhances the serial recall of visuospatial positions. Thirty-six participants were presented with 40 target arrays varying in length from five to eight items, with each position appearing sequentially in red for 1 s. The task was to reproduce the order of presentation of the positions on a blank matrix. Results showed that, for five-, six-, and seven-item arrays, order memory was significantly better in the passive view than in the pointing condition, and the serial position curves displayed both recency and priority effects. Interestingly, the advantage of the passive-view condition was more pronounced in the early than in the late positions. For eight-item arrays, no significant differences were found between the passive view and the pointing conditions. Overall, the present data provide no evidence in support of the view that pointing facilitates the recall of serial positions. PMID:26224261

  16. Reactivation in working memory: an attractor network model of free recall.

    PubMed

    Lansner, Anders; Marklund, Petter; Sikström, Sverker; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic nature of human working memory, the general-purpose system for processing continuous input, while keeping no longer externally available information active in the background, is well captured in immediate free recall of supraspan word-lists. Free recall tasks produce several benchmark memory phenomena, like the U-shaped serial position curve, reflecting enhanced memory for early and late list items. To account for empirical data, including primacy and recency as well as contiguity effects, we propose here a neurobiologically based neural network model that unifies short- and long-term forms of memory and challenges both the standard view of working memory as persistent activity and dual-store accounts of free recall. Rapidly expressed and volatile synaptic plasticity, modulated intrinsic excitability, and spike-frequency adaptation are suggested as key cellular mechanisms underlying working memory encoding, reactivation and recall. Recent findings on the synaptic and molecular mechanisms behind early LTP and on spiking activity during delayed-match-to-sample tasks support this view. PMID:24023690

  17. Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Huey Ling

    2010-01-01

    Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.…

  18. Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual memory recall and EEG.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Gi-Eun; An, Ji-Hyang; Yoon, Se-Won; Heo, Myoung; Kim, Hwang-Yong

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on visual memory recall and EEG. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 42 adults were selected and divided equally into two groups of 21 adults, the GVS group and the Sham group. The error rate was calculated as a percentage based on the total number of errors in the answers to 24 questions after stimulation, while the reaction time was measured in intervals between the time the questions were asked and the time it took the subjects to answer the questions. EEG data were obtained by attaching electrodes to the Fz, Cz, and Pz points during the question and answer phase. [Results] The error rate showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. The reaction time showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. When relative band power parameters were analyzed, alpha waves showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group, but only the Fz area of beta waves showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. [Conclusion] GVS may improve visual memory recall in relation to a flower, a person, an animal, or a building. PMID:25276011

  19. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  20. Cerebellar Contribution to Context Processing in Extinction Learning and Recall.

    PubMed

    Chang, D-I; Lissek, S; Ernst, T M; Thürling, M; Uengoer, M; Tegenthoff, M; Ladd, M E; Timmann, D

    2015-12-01

    Whereas acquisition of new associations is considered largely independent of the context, context dependency is a hallmark of extinction of the learned associations. The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are known to be involved in context processing during extinction learning and recall. Although the cerebellum has known functional and anatomic connections to the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, cerebellar contributions to context processing of extinction have rarely been studied. In the present study, we reanalyzed functional brain imaging data (fMRI) of previous work investigating context effects during extinction in a cognitive associative learning paradigm in 28 young and healthy subjects (Lissek et al. Neuroimage. 81:131-3, 2013). In that study, event-related fMRI analysis did not include the cerebellum. The 3 T fMRI dataset was reanalyzed using a spatial normalization method optimized for the cerebellum. Data of seven participants had to be excluded because the cerebellum had not been scanned in full. Cerebellar activation related to context change during extinction learning was most prominent in lobule Crus II bilaterally (p < 0.01, t > 2.53; partially corrected by predetermined cluster size). No significant cerebellar activations were observed related to context change during extinction retrieval. The posterolateral cerebellum appears to contribute to context-related processes during extinction learning, but not (or less) during extinction retrieval. The cerebellum may support context learning during extinction via its connections to the hippocampus. Alternatively, the cerebellum may support the shifting of attention to the context via its known connections to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Because the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is critically involved in context-related processes during extinction retrieval, and there are no known connections between the cerebellum and the vmPFC, the cerebellum may be less important

  1. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042

  2. Parapraxes in song recall: a neglected variable.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1993-09-01

    In addition to expressing themselves with verbal and nonverbal communications, and by the countertransference reactions perceived by analysts, patients also reveal their inner world of images and feelings specifically with music evocations. This paper presents an initial attempt to identify and classify some of the parapraxes produced in the evocation of lyrics and music by polyglot members of treatment dyads in two empirical studies and in private practice. There may be many others, particularly related to the music per se. This paper has focused mainly on the lyrics, the equivalent of the manifest content of dreams, which nonmusician therapists can learn to handle well. Instead, in the case of the musical latent content, some knowledge of music is necessary. Supervisors' songs were considered beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed separately. Parapraxes in song recall signal unconscious transference-countertransference states in process at the moment of evocation. PMID:8214208

  3. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  4. The accuracy of symptom recall in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carol B; Miller, Kathryn B; Johnson-Lind, Joy; Crow, Scott J; Thuras, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how accurately patients with eating disorders recall their symptoms after 6 to 12 months, to evaluate whether more recent symptoms are remembered more accurately, and to determine the extent to which the accuracy of recall impacts diagnostic classification. Seventy women who were enrolled in a longitudinal study of eating disorder symptoms were asked to recall their eating patterns, behaviors, and attitudes from 6 or 12 months earlier using semistructured interviews (Eating Disorders Examination and McKnight Longitudinal Follow-up Interview for Eating Disorders). Results indicated that correlations between the original and recalled data for frequency of objective binge eating episodes and vomiting ranged from r = .534 to .898 (average, r = .772), with lower correlations for subjective binge eating episodes (average, r = .335). Attitudes toward shape and weight were recalled more accurately at 6 months (average, r = .907) than 12 months (average, r = .620). kappa Coefficients were higher for eating disorder diagnoses using broad than narrow definitions, with no differences between 6- and 12-month recall. Overall, agreement for depression recall was low but better at 6 months (kappa = .423) than 12 months (kappa = .296). These findings suggest that patients with eating disorders are at least moderately accurate when recalling most symptoms from 6 to 12 months earlier. Although broadly defined eating disorder diagnoses remained consistent, depression and narrower eating disorder diagnostic classifications showed more variability. PMID:17145282

  5. Semantic Processing and Recall Improvement of EMR Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Warner, Darcey A.

    1983-01-01

    Semantic processing, the form of stories linking to-be-remembered words, was compared with cumulative rehearsal in a free-recall task for 60 educable mentally retarded adolescents. Semantic-processing Ss showed better recall at original learning and, to a lesser extent, at a 2-week retention test. (Author/CL)

  6. Exclusion of Learned Material from Recall as a Postretrieval Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III; Tulving, Endel

    1979-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which, following presentation of a categorized list, subjects either recalled the whole list or a part of the list. Results indicate that it is difficult to retrieve selectively parts of a studied list when instructions specify only what not to recall. (Author/AM)

  7. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  8. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  9. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  10. Speech and Language Processing Mechanisms in Verbal Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Hulme, Charles

    2006-01-01

    We report two experiments examining the role of concreteness and word phonological neighborhood characteristics on immediate serial recall. In line with previous findings concreteness, word frequency, and larger neighborhood size are associated with better serial recall. Both concreteness and word neighborhood size were also positively associated…

  11. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  12. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  13. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  14. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  15. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  16. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  17. Enhancing Free-Recall Rates of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Chechile, Nicholas A.; Loiselle, Raquel C.

    2001-01-01

    This study with 16 adolescents with mental retardation compared free-recall rates under two encoding conditions: (1) fade-in, initially presenting pictures out of focus then slowly fading them into focus; and (2) fade-out, slowly blurring originally clear pictures. Results indicated that free-recall rates were greater for the fade-in items for…

  18. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  19. Information Recall of 4 Elements among Young Newspaper Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanta, Wayne; Remy, Jay

    1995-01-01

    Examines the ability of high school students to process and recall information contained in story texts, graphics, index boxes, and pull-out quotes. Finds that most efficient recall comes from information pull-out quotes and least efficient comes from information in graphics. (TB)

  20. Children's collaborative recall of shared and unshared information.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J; Hollins, Tara S

    2013-09-01

    This study examined age differences in collaborative inhibition and the role of inter-subjectivity, collective information sampling (CIS) and collaborative inhibition for the collaborative recall of shared and unshared information in groups of 7- and 9-year-old children. Three-hundred and thirteen 7- and 9-year-old children recalled memorized wordlists either in real or nominal groups of three. All group members either recalled the same items, or each group member was given some unique items. Nine-year-olds, but not 7-year-olds, recalled significantly more items in nominal than real groups, a phenomenon called collaborative inhibition. Groups whose interactions were characterized by higher numbers of inter-subjective exchanges recalled fewer words than groups low in inter-subjectivity. In both age groups, a higher proportion of shared compared with unshared information was recalled consistent with processes of CIS. However, 7-year-olds recalled more unshared items than predicted, suggesting that collaborative inhibition additionally contributes to the recall of shared and unshared items. PMID:23901844

  1. How Similar are Context Effects in Recognition and Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed

    1975-01-01

    The context effect in recognition memory has been attributed to retrieval failure following a context change. Since this inference is based in part upon the similarity of context effects in recognition and recall, two experiments were conducted to examine further the similarity of context effects upon recognition and recall. (Editor)

  2. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Children's Episodic Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Howieson, Noel D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ability of five- to six-year-old children to remember past experiences. A set of stimuli cards modelled on adaptations of the Separation Anxiety Test was generated. Interview transcripts are scored for the child's ability to recall past experience in episodic form. The quality of episodic recall is compared with attachment…

  3. Note-Taking and Information Recall: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jerry R.; Miller, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of recorded information from a medical interview by note-taking was compared with that received with no note-taking. The study with 46 medical students suggests that note-taking facilitates recall and that there is a progressive decay of memory recall with the passage of time between the physician-patient interview and the recording of…

  4. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  5. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  6. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  7. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  8. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  9. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  10. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  11. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  12. Parent Implementation of RECALL: A Systematic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Hanline, Mary Frances; Davis, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    This systematic case study utilized a repeated acquisition design to investigate the impact of a caregiver-implemented RECALL (Reading to Engage Children with Autism in Language and Learning) on the correct, unprompted responses of a young child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECALL is an adapted shared reading intervention that includes a…

  13. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  14. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  15. The Interaction of Color Realism and Pictorial Recall Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Louis H.

    This study investigated the interaction of variations in color realism on pictorial recall memory in order to better understand the effects of variations in color realism, and to draw comparisons between visual recall memory and visual recognition memory in terms of color information processing. Stimulus materials used were three sets of slides,…

  16. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…

  17. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  18. Effects of Delayed Performance on a Word Association Task Upon Ongoing Short Term Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurner, Ronald D.; Mauldin, Michael A.

    1974-01-01

    In a short-term free-recall paradigm, Ss presented a list of numbers followed by a list of words were cued after presentation to (a) recall numbers only, (b) recall numbers then words, (c) recall words then numbers, or (d) recall numbers, then perform a word association task. (Editor)

  19. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  20. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  1. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  2. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  3. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  4. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  5. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  6. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  7. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  8. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  9. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  10. 40 CFR 91.905 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.905 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) The defect report, voluntary recall plan, and the voluntary recall...

  11. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  12. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  13. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  14. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  15. When asking the question changes the ultimate answer: Metamemory judgments change memory.

    PubMed

    Mitchum, Ainsley L; Kelley, Colleen M; Fox, Mark C

    2016-02-01

    Self-report measurements are ubiquitous in psychology, but they carry the potential of altering processes they are meant to measure. We assessed whether a common metamemory measure, judgments of learning, can change the ongoing process of memorizing and subsequent memory performance. Judgments of learning are a form of metamemory monitoring described as conscious reflection on one's own memory performance or encoding activities for the purpose of exerting strategic control over one's study and retrieval activities (T. O. Nelson & Narens, 1990). Much of the work examining the conscious monitoring of encoding relies heavily on a paradigm in which participants are asked to estimate the probability that they will recall a given item in a judgment of learning. In 5 experiments, we find effects of measuring judgments of learning on how people allocate their study time to difficult versus easy items, and on what they will recall. These results suggest that judgments of learning are partially constructed in response to the measurement question. The tendency of judgments of learning to alter performance places them in the company of other reactive verbal reporting methods, counseling researchers to consider incorporating control groups, creating alternative scales, and exploring other verbal reporting methods. Less directive methods of accessing participants' metacognition and other judgments should be considered as an alternative to response scales. PMID:27045282

  16. Aha! experiences leave a mark: facilitated recall of insight solutions.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates a possible memory advantage for solutions that were reached through insightful problem solving. We hypothesized that insight solutions (with Aha! experience) would be remembered better than noninsight solutions (without Aha! experience). 34 video clips of magic tricks were presented to 50 participants as a novel problem-solving task, asking them to find out how the trick was achieved. Upon discovering the solution, participants had to indicate whether they had experienced insight during the solving process. After a delay of 14 days, a recall of solutions was conducted. Overall, 55 % of previously solved tricks were recalled correctly. Comparing insight and noninsight solutions, 64.4 % of all insight solutions were recalled correctly, whereas only 52.4 % of all noninsight solutions were recalled correctly. We interpret this finding as a facilitating effect of previous insight experiences on the recall of solutions. PMID:23007629

  17. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2013-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 h prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 h after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22796109

  18. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  19. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  20. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  1. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  2. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  3. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  4. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  5. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  6. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  7. Teachers' Classroom Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan

    2007-01-01

    There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

  8. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  9. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  10. Internally Generated Reactivation of Single Neurons in Human Hippocampus During Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Gelbard-Sagiv, Hagar; Mukamel, Roy; Harel, Michal; Malach, Rafael; Fried, Itzhak

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of memory, a trace of things past, into human consciousness is one of the greatest mysteries of the human mind. Whereas the neuronal basis of recognition memory can be probed experimentally in human and nonhuman primates, the study of free recall requires that the mind declare the occurrence of a recalled memory (an event intrinsic to the organism and invisible to an observer). Here, we report the activity of single neurons in the human hippocampus and surrounding areas when subjects first view cinematic episodes consisting of audiovisual sequences and again later when they freely recall these episodes. A subset of these neurons exhibited selective firing, which often persisted throughout and following specific episodes for as long as 12 seconds. Verbal reports of memories of these specific episodes at the time of free recall were preceded by selective reactivation of the same hippocampal and entorhinal cortex neurons. We suggest that this reactivation is an internally generated neuronal correlate for the subjective experience of spontaneous emergence of human recollection. PMID:18772395

  11. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000–1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high

  12. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high and

  13. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  14. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  15. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  16. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product... Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements.'' This draft guidance intends to clarify for industry when a potential change to a device is a medical device recall, distinguish...

  17. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures. PMID:25523628

  18. Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (χ2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

  19. How should we question young children's understanding of aspectuality?

    PubMed

    Waters, Gillian M; Beck, Sarah R

    2012-09-01

    In two experiments, we investigated whether 4- to 5-year-old children's ability to demonstrate their understanding of aspectuality was influenced by how the test question was phrased. In Experiment 1, 60 children chose whether to look or feel to gain information about a hidden object (identifiable by sight or touch). Test questions referred either to the perceptual aspect of the hidden object (e.g., whether it was red or blue), the modality dimension (e.g., what colour it was), or the object's identity (e.g., which one it was). Children who heard the identity question performed worse than those who heard the aspect or dimension question. Further investigation in Experiment 2 (N= 23) established that children's difficulty with the identity question was not due to a problem recalling the objects. We discuss how the results of these methodological investigations impact on researchers' assessment of the development of aspectuality understanding. PMID:22882369

  20. Conscious recall of different aspects of skill memory.

    PubMed

    Song, Sunbin; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-01-01

    Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of memories necessary for daily living. For example, different memory representations are formed for the practiced transitions between key-presses (i.e., pressing key "2" after "3" in "4-3-2-1") and for the ordinal position of each key-press (i.e., pressing key "2" in the third ordinal position in "4-3-2-1") in a motor sequence. Whether the resulting transition-based and ordinal-based memories (Song and Cohen, 2014) can be consciously recalled is unknown. Here, we studied subjects who over a week of training and testing formed transition and ordinal-based memory representations of skill for a 12-item sequence of key-presses. Afterwards, subjects were first asked to recall and type the trained sequence and then to perform random key-presses avoiding the trained sequence. The difference in the ability to purposefully recall and avoid a trained sequence represents conscious recall (Destrebecqz and Cleeremans, 2001). We report that (a) the difference in the ability to purposefully recall and to avoid the trained sequence correlated with ordinal-based but not with transition-based memory; (b) subjects with no ability to recall or avoid the trained sequence formed transition-based but not ordinal-based memories; and (c) subjects with full ability to recall and avoid the trained sequence formed both transition-based and ordinal-based memories. We conclude that ordinal-based memory can be voluntarily recalled when transition-based memory cannot, documenting a differential capacity to recall memories forming a motor skill. Understanding that different memories form a motor skill, with different neural substrates (Cohen and Squire, 1980), may help develop novel training strategies in neurorehabilitation of patients with brain lesions. PMID:25071489

  1. Emergency health risk communication during the 2007 San Diego wildfires: comprehension, compliance, and recall.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, David E; Keir, Jane M; Dee, Deborah L; Lipman, Harvey; Waterman, Stephen H; Ginsberg, Michele; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    In October 2007, wildfires burned nearly 300,000 acres in San Diego County, California. Emergency risk communication messages were broadcast to reduce community exposure to air pollution caused by the fires. The objective of this investigation was to determine residents' exposure to, understanding of, and compliance with these messages. From March to June 2008, the authors surveyed San Diego County residents using a 40-question instrument and random digit dialing. The 1,802 respondents sampled were predominantly 35-64 years old (65.9%), White (65.5%), and educated past high school (79.0%). Most (82.5%) lived more than 1 mile away from the fires, although many were exposed to smoky air for 5-7 days (60.7%) inside and outside their homes. Most persons surveyed reported hearing fire-related health messages (87.9%) and nearly all (97.9%) understood the messages they heard. Respondents complied with most to all of the nontechnical health messages, including staying inside the home (58.7%), avoiding outdoor exercise (88.4%), keeping windows and doors closed (75.8%), and wetting ash before cleanup (75.6%). In contrast, few (<5%) recalled hearing technical messages to place air conditioners on recirculate, use High-Efficiency Particulate Air filters, or use N-95 respirators during ash cleanup, and less than 10% of all respondents followed these specific recommendations. The authors found that nontechnical message recall, understanding, and compliance were high during the wildfires, and reported recall and compliance with technical messages were much lower. Future disaster health communication should further explore barriers to recall and compliance with technical recommendations. PMID:22494384

  2. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A Self-Completed 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Douglass, Deirdre; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4(FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24 hour dietary recall (24hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSST4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in U.S. national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (for example questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and FIRSSt4 incorporate 10,000+ food images with up to eight images per food to assist in portion size estimation. This paper reviews the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4. When completed, FIRSSt4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 website. PMID:22616645

  3. Dream recall frequency by socioeconomic status of Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Whereas the effect of sex and age on dream recall have been studied widely, socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated. However, two studies reported that higher socioeconomic status was related to greater frequency of dream recall. In the present sample of 612 Chinese students from three different schools, one elite (high socioeconomic status), one rural (low socioeconomic status) and one intermediate, analysis of variance indicated no significant association between frequency of dream recall and socioeconomic status. Researchers could investigate whether "dream socialization," e.g., encouragement of a child to remember his dreams, depends on socioeconomic background, whether these processes are mediated by culture. PMID:18065085

  4. Effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on fear extinction recall and prediction error signaling.

    PubMed

    Spoormaker, Victor I; Schröter, Manuel S; Andrade, Kátia C; Dresler, Martin; Kiem, Sara A; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Wetter, Thomas C; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G; Czisch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    In a temporal difference learning approach of classical conditioning, a theoretical error signal shifts from outcome deliverance to the onset of the conditioned stimulus. Omission of an expected outcome results in a negative prediction error signal, which is the initial step towards successful extinction and may therefore be relevant for fear extinction recall. As studies in rodents have observed a bidirectional relationship between fear extinction and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we aimed to test the hypothesis that REM sleep deprivation impairs recall of fear extinction through prediction error signaling in humans. In a three-day design with polysomnographically controlled REM sleep deprivation, 18 young, healthy subjects performed a fear conditioning, extinction and recall of extinction task with visual stimuli, and mild electrical shocks during combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance response (SCR) measurements. Compared to the control group, the REM sleep deprivation group had increased SCR scores to a previously extinguished stimulus at early recall of extinction trials, which was associated with an altered fMRI time-course in the left middle temporal gyrus. Post-hoc contrasts corrected for measures of NREM sleep variability also revealed between-group differences primarily in the temporal lobe. Our results demonstrate altered prediction error signaling during recall of fear extinction after REM sleep deprivation, which may further our understanding of anxiety disorders in which disturbed sleep and impaired fear extinction learning coincide. Moreover, our findings are indicative of REM sleep related plasticity in regions that also show an increase in activity during REM sleep. PMID:21826762

  5. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  6. Teacher Stimulated Recall of Interactive Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher M.; Peterson, Penelope L.

    Much of the important thinking that teachers do occurs during the act of teaching as well as in planning and evaluating. What teachers think about while they are teaching was the basic question addressed in this study. A model was drawn to describe the researchers' concepts of the way a teacher thinks while teaching: the teacher begins with a…

  7. What Children Learn from Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  8. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  9. Improving Recall Using Database Management Systems: A Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  10. Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only pe...

  11. Cued recall hypermnesia is not an artifact of response bias.

    PubMed

    Otani, H; Whiteman, H L

    1994-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether hypermnesia occurs in cued recall when response bias is controlled by instructing subjects to generate more responses than they normally produce under standard cued recall instructions. Subjects processed 36 pairs of words using a relational processing, item-specific processing, or intentional learning strategy. A well-categorized list was presented in Experiment 1, whereas a loosely categorized list was used in Experiment 2. Three standard or forced cued recall tests were then administered. Hypermnesia was observed even when subjects were forced to guess. Furthermore, as in previous studies, relational processing resulted in greater net improvement than item-specific processing or intentional learning. We conclude that cued recall hypermnesia is a genuine phenomenon. PMID:7977903

  12. Radiation Recall Pneumonitis During Systemic Treatment With Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Douglas; Gauchan, Dron; Ramaekers, Ryan; Norvell, Max; Copur, Mehmet Sitki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall syndrome is an acute inflammatory reaction developing at anatomical sites of previously irradiated tissue, weeks to months after the completion of radiation therapy. The distribution pattern of inflammation typically involves, and remains limited to, the boundaries of prior radiation treatment fields. Several classical chemotherapy drugs have been reported to have the potential for causing radiation recall syndrome. With the increasing availability and expanding use of novel biologic and targeted therapy anticancer drugs, isolated reports of radiation recall syndrome secondary to this class of agents are starting to appear in the literature. We describe a case of everolimus-induced radiation recall pneumonitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer. PMID:26629944

  13. Environmental context effects of background color in free recall.

    PubMed

    Isarida, Taeo; Isarin, Tosmko K

    2007-10-01

    In four experiments, we investigated background-color context effects in free recall. A total of 194 undergraduates studied words presented one by one against a background color, and oral free recall was tested after a 30-sec filled retention interval. A signal for recall was presented against a background color throughout the test. Recalled items were classified as same- and different-context items according to whether the background colors at study and test were the same or different. Significant context effects were found in Experiments I and 2, in which two background colors were randomly alternated word by word. No context effects were found in Experiments 3 and 4, in which a common background color was presented for all items (Experiment 3) or for a number of successive items (Experiment 4). The results indicate that a change in background colors is necessary and sufficient to produce context effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:18062540

  14. Recall of expressed affect during naturalistically observed interpersonal events in those with borderline personality disorder or depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Whitney C; Tragesser, Sarah L; Tomko, Rachel L; Mehl, Matthias R; Trull, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    We used the Electronically Activated Recorder to observe 31 individuals with either borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 20) or a history of a depressive disorder (n = 11). The Electronically Activated Recorder yielded approximately forty-seven 50-second sound clips per day for 3 consecutive days. Recordings were coded for expressed positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), and coder ratings were compared to participants' reports about their PA and NA during interpersonal events. BPD participants did not differ from participants with depressive disorder in terms of their recalled levels of NA or PA across different types of interpersonal events. However, significant discrepancies between recalled and observed levels of NA and PA were found for BPD participants for all types of interpersonal events. These findings may reflect limitations in the ability of those with BPD to recall their emotional intensity during interpersonal events and may also provide some evidence for emotional invalidation experienced by those with BPD. PMID:24056953

  15. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  16. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  17. Are There Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauterman, Philip

    1970-01-01

    The crucial variable in good classroom teaching is the verbal behavior of the teacher. Through his questioning techniques--what questions he asks, how and when he asks them, how he replies to students, and how he stimulates students to reply to each other--the teacher can evoke a high level of class discussion and force students to go beyond the…

  18. Asking the Right Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens

    1990-01-01

    Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six questions, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more questions should be asked. (MSE)

  19. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  20. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  1. Questioning the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    One way teachers can improve students' reading comprehension is to teach them to think while reading, questioning the text and carrying on an inner conversation. This involves: choosing the text for questioning; introducing the strategy to the class; modeling thinking aloud and marking the text with stick-on notes; and allowing time for guided…

  2. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  3. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  4. Semantic memory is key to binding phonology: Converging evidence from immediate serial recall in semantic dementia and healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Jones, Roy W.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) make numerous phoneme migration errors when recalling lists of words they no longer fully understand, suggesting that word meaning makes a critical contribution to phoneme binding in verbal short-term memory. Healthy individuals make errors that appear similar when recalling lists of nonwords, which also lack semantic support. Although previous studies have assumed that the errors in these two groups stem from the same underlying cause, they have never been directly compared. We tackled this issue by examining immediate serial recall for SD patients and controls on “pure” word lists and “mixed” lists that contained a mixture of words and nonwords. SD patients were equally poor at pure and mixed lists and made numerous phoneme migration errors in both conditions. In contrast, controls recalled pure lists better than mixed lists and only produced phoneme migrations in mixed lists. We also examined the claim that semantic activation is critical for words in the primacy portion of the list. In fact, the effect of mixed lists was greatest for later serial positions in the control group and in the SD group recall was poorest towards the ends of lists. These results suggest that mixing nonwords with words in healthy participants closely mimics the impact of semantic degradation in SD on word list recall. The study provides converging evidence for the idea that lexical/semantic knowledge is an important source of constraint on phonological coherence, ensuring that phonemes in familiar words are bound to each other and emerge together in recall. PMID:19114052

  5. Combined Expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-4 mRNA by Recall PBMCs Moderately Discriminates Active Tuberculosis from Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Patients with Miscellaneous Inflammatory Underlying Conditions.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Laura E; Kantele, Anu; Knuuttila, Aija; Pusa, Liana; Karttunen, Riitta; Valleala, Heikki; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    New biomarkers are needed for discriminating active tuberculosis (TB) from latent TB infection (LTBI), especially in vulnerable groups representing the major diagnostic challenge. This pilot study was carried out to explore the diagnostic potential of selected genes, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4, and FoxP3, associated with TB immunity and immunopathology. IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4, and FoxP3 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) from antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active TB (n = 25); patients with miscellaneous inflammatory disorders and concomitant LTBI (n = 20), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) being the most predominant in the group (n = 11); and in healthy Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinees (n = 8). While the levels of FoxP3 mRNA did not differ between the tested groups, the cumulative expression levels of purified protein derivative-stimulated IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-4 mRNAs were found to distinguish active TB from the whole group of LTBI with 48% sensitivity and 85% specificity. When restricting the LTBI group to RA cases only, the sensitivity was 56% and specificity 100%. When interpreting the result as positive in at least one of the mRNAs IFN-γ, IL-17, or IL-4, sensitivity of 64% and specificities of 75% (heterogeneous group of LTBI) or 100% (LTBI with RA) were achieved. Moderate discrimination of active TB from LTBI with miscellaneous inflammatory underlying conditions by using combined quantitative expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-4 mRNA seems not to be of high diagnostic potential. PMID:27379100

  6. Combined Expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-4 mRNA by Recall PBMCs Moderately Discriminates Active Tuberculosis from Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Patients with Miscellaneous Inflammatory Underlying Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Laura E.; Kantele, Anu; Knuuttila, Aija; Pusa, Liana; Karttunen, Riitta; Valleala, Heikki; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    New biomarkers are needed for discriminating active tuberculosis (TB) from latent TB infection (LTBI), especially in vulnerable groups representing the major diagnostic challenge. This pilot study was carried out to explore the diagnostic potential of selected genes, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4, and FoxP3, associated with TB immunity and immunopathology. IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4, and FoxP3 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) from antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active TB (n = 25); patients with miscellaneous inflammatory disorders and concomitant LTBI (n = 20), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) being the most predominant in the group (n = 11); and in healthy Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccinees (n = 8). While the levels of FoxP3 mRNA did not differ between the tested groups, the cumulative expression levels of purified protein derivative-stimulated IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-4 mRNAs were found to distinguish active TB from the whole group of LTBI with 48% sensitivity and 85% specificity. When restricting the LTBI group to RA cases only, the sensitivity was 56% and specificity 100%. When interpreting the result as positive in at least one of the mRNAs IFN-γ, IL-17, or IL-4, sensitivity of 64% and specificities of 75% (heterogeneous group of LTBI) or 100% (LTBI with RA) were achieved. Moderate discrimination of active TB from LTBI with miscellaneous inflammatory underlying conditions by using combined quantitative expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-4 mRNA seems not to be of high diagnostic potential. PMID:27379100

  7. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  8. [Recall of the prime minister for the assessment of mental status].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F

    2003-08-01

    A number of cognitive screening tests assess knowledge of the head of state or current prime minister. It is supposed that correct recall is a valid indicator of cognitive functioning. A consecutive sample of 259 visitors of a psychogeriatric day care center were rated for knowledge of the prime minister's name. Recall of his name was not dependent on level of education. The mean score on an independent screening test was significantly higher for those who knew the prime minister's name than for those who failed to answer the question. More men than women correctly answered the question, regardless of education level, living arrangements (living with someone versus being single and living alone), age and cognitive score. Using item response theory and Mokken scale analysis it was found that a short screening test containing the prime minister item constituted a scale of medium scalability (Loevinger's scalability coefficient H:0.50). Scores on the screening test correlated significantly with two independent measures of episodic and semantic memory. Deletion or addition of the prime minister item did not influence the degree of association between screening test and memory test scores. It is advisable to ask for the name of the prime minister in screening for cognitive impairment. Passing or failing the prime minister item correlates with intact or impaired retrieval of current information. PMID:14524143

  9. What is a Question?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-03-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2N, whereas the lattice of assuredly real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 22N. Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance, and entropy.

  10. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  11. Inter- and intra-individual variation in immediate free recall: an examination of serial position functions and recall initiation strategies.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Serial position functions in immediate free recall have been historically noted for their bowed shape, where items presented at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a list are better remembered than those presented in the middle. While extensive work has examined these effects, researchers typically ignore the systematic differences among individuals that likely contribute, but are lost when using an aggregate function. In the current study, inter- and intra-individual differences in serial position functions and differences in recall strategies were examined. Participants performed a free recall task on multiple lists. Three groups of participants were derived based on the relative profiles in their serial position functions. These groups differed in the extent that they output mainly primacy items, recency items, or both primacy and recency items. Performance on immediate free recall and on cognitive ability tasks was compared between these three groups. Systematic inter- and intra-individual variation in recall strategies led to differential profiles of performance in immediate free recall, which was also related to the additional cognitive ability measures. Performance on a task can be due to the utilisation of a variety of control processes that emphasise various components of that task over other components. PMID:21240749

  12. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall. PMID:18387559

  13. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  14. Newest generic OC manufacturer issues recall after packaging snafu.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    Due to a packaging error that left white placebo pills in place of active pills, Gynex Inc. has had to recall 325,000 packages of generic oral contraceptives (OC), a mistake that the company insists has not affected consumers. Company vice president Stephen M. Simes says that although the majority of the defective packages remain in the possession of wholesalers and chain store warehouses, some had been shipped to pharmacies. But presently, it seems that none have reached consumers. Recently entering the generic OC market, the company's packaging error involved its first shipment of Gynex 1/35E and Gynex 0.5/35 in 28-day packs. These two generics are copy products on ON 1/35, made by Ortho Pharmaceutical, Modicon/Brevicon, made by Ortho Pharmaceutical and Syntex Laboratories--two widely used OCs. While the company is still investigating the incident, Simes explains that the company is enacting changes in the packaging procedures and is considering alterations in machinery and in quality control. The error will probably represent a financial loss for the company, and it will delay Gynex's entry into the contraceptive market. But the California-based company plans to press ahead, having already filed marketing applications for 5 additional low-dose OC formulations. PMID:12342893

  15. Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults' recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Opitz, Philipp C; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-08-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the "positivity effect," and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants' recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults' recall is typically more positive than younger adults' recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age. PMID:27112461

  16. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  17. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

  18. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a) An evaluation of the health hazard presented by a product being recalled or considered for recall will...

  19. 40 CFR 90.805 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... KILOWATTS Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.805 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) Send the defect report,...

  20. 40 CFR 90.805 - Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports, voluntary recall plan filing... KILOWATTS Emission-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.805 Reports, voluntary recall plan filing, record retention. (a) Send the defect report,...