Science.gov

Sample records for activity remain controversial

  1. Intertextual Evaluation, Conflicting Evaluative Criteria, and the Controversy over Native American Burial Remains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Emery M.

    1992-01-01

    The intertextual model of evaluation proposed by M. Riffaterre is explored and applied to two problems, the general problem of what to do when there are multiple but conflicting criteria for evaluating a policy, and the specific issues of disposition of native American burial remains. (SLD)

  2. Elevated blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke remains controversial: could this issue be resolved?

    PubMed

    Hadjiev, Dimiter I; Mineva, Petya P

    2013-01-01

    A transient elevated arterial blood pressure is common in acute ischemic stroke and is often associated with a poor prognosis. The underlying mechanisms of blood pressure elevation are not well understood and its management is still unresolved. This article focuses on pathophysiology and management of elevated blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke. There is evidence that the main causes of a transient blood pressure elevation in acute ischemic stroke are the focal cerebral hypoperfusion and the stress responses with neuroendocrine systems activation. Clinical trials have reported that blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke may have detrimental effect, probably because of impaired cerebral autoregulation. However, quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion has not been performed during emergency blood pressure reduction in acute ischemic stroke. We suggest that ultrasound carotid artery disease evaluation and cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using bilateral transcranial ultrasonography, during blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke might contribute to maintaining of an adequate penumbral perfusion and prevent infarct enlargement. Such an approach could individualize the antihypertensive treatment in acute ischemic stroke and improve functional outcome. Prospective studies are needed to confirm such a treatment strategy.

  3. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    PubMed

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  4. Design Piracy: Student Perceptions of a Constructive Controversy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal learning occurs when students are interested in the subject matter, are motivated with challenging and quality learning opportunities, and when immersed in atmospheres that make learning enjoyable. One technique to promote optimal learning is through the use of constructive controversies. The purpose of this study was to provide an example…

  5. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  6. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.

  7. Remaining activity determination of the resid desulfurization catalyst in a commerical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yung-Ji Tarng; Sheng-Yang Ju

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to present a method to determine the remaining catalyst activity of the resid desulfurization plant. Using the daily available operating data, we can establish a performance curve which is a temperature versus days on stream curve. By the use of the performance curve, we can in situ predict how much the catalyst life remains. With the knowledge of the catalyst life remaining, plant engineers are able to control the operating conditions to meet the specified run length of the catalyst suggested by the catalyst venders and refinery planning department. There are five heavy oil desulfurization (RDS) plants in Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) to produce the low sulfur fuel oil and low metal content feed stocks for the downstream processes. In general four or five reactors are connected in series for the reacting system and catalysts of various types are loaded in each reactor. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  9. Using Controversial Issues to Encourage Active Participation and Critical Thinking in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a teaching/learning technique that emphasizes a dialogue approach to critical thinking and learning in the classroom, by using a point-counterpoint procedures to examine open-ended, controversial psychological issues from at least two opposing perspectives. The course teaches students to examine and evaluate information from opposing…

  10. Academic Controversy in Macroeconomics: An Active and Collaborative Method to Increase Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santicola, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that there is a lack of learning outcomes in economics that can be attributed to the reliance on traditional lecture and the failure to adopt innovative instructional techniques. This study sought to investigate the student learning effects of academic controversy, a cooperative learning technique that shows promise in the…

  11. The VSOP 5 GHz Active Galactic Nucleus Survey. V. Imaging Results for the Remaining 140 Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, R.; Fomalont, E. B.; Wiik, K.; Horiuchi, S.; Hirabayashi, H.; Edwards, P. G.; Murata, Y.; Asaki, Y.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Scott, W. K.; Taylor, A. R.; Gurvits, L. I.; Paragi, Z.; Frey, S.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Rioja, M. J.; Fodor, S.; Lister, M. L.; Mosoni, L.; Coldwell, G.; Piner, B. G.; Yang, J.

    2008-04-01

    In 1997 February, the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-bourne element for the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP) mission. Approximately 25% of the mission time was dedicated to the VSOP survey of bright compact active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 5 GHz. This paper, the fifth in the series, presents images and models for the remaining 140 sources not included in the third paper in the series, which contained 102 sources. For most sources, the plots of the (u,v) coverage, the visibility amplitude versus (u,v) distance, and the high-resolution image are presented. Model fit parameters to the major radio components are determined, and the brightness temperature of the core component for each source is calculated. The brightness temperature distributions for all of the sources in the VSOP AGN survey are discussed.

  12. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    PubMed

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive.

  13. [Cloning - controversies].

    PubMed

    Twardowski, T; Michalska, A

    2001-01-01

    Cloning of the human being is not only highly controversial; in the opinion of the authors it is impossible - we are not able to reproduce human behaviour and character traits. Reproduction through cloning is limited to personal genome resources. The more important is protection of genomic characteristics as private property and taking advantage of cloning for production of the human organs directly or through xenotransplants. In this paper we present the legislation related to cloning in Poland, in the European Union and other countries. We also indicate who and why is interested in cloning.

  14. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  15. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  16. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  17. Scavenging activity can produce predictable patterns in surface skeletal remains scattering: observations and comments from two experiments.

    PubMed

    Kjorlien, Yvonne P; Beattie, Owen B; Peterson, Arthur E

    2009-07-01

    In forensic contexts, surface deposited remains are frequently found that have been scattered by various taphonomic processes. In an effort to develop strategies to improve recovery rates, this study evaluates whether patterns can be detected in the scattering of remains due to scavenger activity. In two experiments, 24 human analogues (pig carcasses) were placed in two adjacent but differing environmental contexts: 12 in wooded and 12 in open grassland. Six carcasses in each of these contexts were dressed in human clothing. Elapsed time and direction of movement information for each carcass and its parts were collected and analyzed. Unclothed carcasses and carcasses in open contexts exhibited scavenger activity sooner than the others. Scattering of remains occurred along game trails and was directed away from human population and activity. Due to the highly variable nature of scavenger activity, daily observations during a research project are the key leading to a better understanding of the development of these patterns.

  18. The controversial sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    1993-01-01

    The sun serves as an important test case for a variety of problems related to stellar structure and evolution as well as fundamental physics. The sun also influences the terrestrial environment through its varied outputs. These two aspects of the solar interior combine to generate a surprising level of controversy for such an inherently simple star. I review three topics each of which is the subject of some degree of controversy: 1) the solar neutrino problem, 2) the status of modeling and observational efforts to understand the solar cycle of activity, and 3) observational efforts to detect and identify solar g-modes.

  19. Controversies on the role of Th17 in cancer: a TGF-β-dependent immunosuppressive activity?

    PubMed

    Martin, François; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François

    2012-12-01

    The immune system has important roles in limiting the spread of cancer and shaping the tumor microenvironment. Although the contributions of T helper 17 (Th17) cells (a subtype of CD4(+) T lymphocytes) to autoimmunity and allergy response are well known, their roles in cancer remain ambiguous. Despite adoptive transfer studies indicating that mouse Th17 cells support anticancer immunity, the Th17 cells that naturally infiltrate experimental tumors appear to have a tumor-promoting effect. These contradictory properties can be related to the high degree of plasticity inherent in Th17 cells and their capacity to differentiate into tumoricidal Th1-like cells. Mouse Th17 cells induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) express CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases on their surfaces, which leads to adenosine release and suppression of T cell immunity. Here, we discuss how TGF-β acts as a molecular switch controlling the immunoregulatory properties of Th17 cells.

  20. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  1. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  2. Political Activity at Harvard College Observatory in the Shapley ERA (1921-1952): Controversy and Consequences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, Barbara L.

    1993-12-01

    Soon after Harlow Shapley became director of HCO in 1921, he established himself as a scientist who would speak out and take action on national and international issues. Recognizing the importance of international cooperation in astronomy, he frequently traveled abroad and in turn invited foreign scientists to visit and work at HCO. By the mid-1930s, Shapley was actively rescuing refugee scientists in war-torn Europe and placing them in American universities. Both Harvard and the FBI took note of his activities. Shapley feared intervention of any kind from either academia or the government. Desperate for funding, however, he finally went to Washington and lobbied Congress to set up the NSF. Through 1945, when Truman succeeded Roosevelt, Shapley pursued his political activities freely. That year he travelled to Moscow to represent Harvard at the 220th anniversary celebration of the Academy of Sciences. In Moscow he advocated international cooperation between Soviet and American scientists. Consequently, Shapley was subpoenaed for interrogation in 1946 by John Rankin, who served during the Truman administration as a one-man committee to investigate un-American activities. The ordeal infuriated Shapley. Headlines about it infuriated some Harvard alumni who urged the university to fire him. Although Shapley was nearing retirement, President Conant stood by his right to keep his job. By 1950, when Senator Joseph McCarthy was compiling a list of Communist sympathizers in the State Department, the FBI had a dossier on Shapley. McCarthy subpoenaed Shapley, but could not intimidate him. The Senator continued the witch hunt with Shapley's associates. First he harassed Martha Betz Shapley, then Donald Menzel. Both cleared themselves. Other associates, such as Bart Bok, were spared. Ultimately, the interrogation worked in Menzel's favor. It disassociated him from Shapley's ideology and political activities. When the Harvard Corporation sought the next director of HCO, Menzel

  3. Controversial alkoxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of the tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid.

    PubMed

    Dorta, E; Aspée, A; Pino, E; González, L; Lissi, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2017-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-anthranilic acid (3-OHAA), a tryptophan metabolite produced in the kynurenine pathway, is an efficient antioxidant towards peroxyl radicals (ROO) derived from the AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride) thermolysis. However, self-reactions of ROO can give rise to alkoxyl radicals (RO), which could strongly affect the fate of scavenging reactions. In the present work, we studied the influence of RO in the scavenging activity of 3-OHAA in three different systems: i) Monitoring of the direct reaction between 3-OHAA and AAPH-derived free radicals (kinetic studies); ii) Evaluation of the protective effect of 3-OHAA on the AAPH-induced consumption of fluorescein; and, iii) Inhibition, given by 3-OHAA, of the AAPH-initiated lipid peroxidation of both, rat brain synaptosomes and homogenate preparations (assessed by chemiluminescence). For such purposes, the fraction of free radicals (f) trapped per 3-OHAA molecule was determined in each system. Kinetic results show that the oxidation of 3-OHAA follows a process dominated by ROO with a zero order kinetic limit in 3-OHAA, and a fraction (fri) equal to 0.88. From the induction times, elicited by 3-OHAA in the kinetic profiles of fluorescein consumption, a fraction (fT) of 0.28 was determined. 3-OHAA also generated induction times in the kinetic profiles of light emission during the AAPH-initiated lipid peroxidation of rat brain synaptosomes and homogenates. From such induction times, fractions of 0.61 and 0.63 were determined for rat brain synaptosomes (fsyn) and homogenates (fhom), respectively. These results show that during the incubation of 3-OHAA and AAPH, a low fraction of ROO self-reacts to generate RO. Nevertheless, when 3-OHAA is employed to protect particular targets, such as fluorescein, rat brain synaptosomes and homogenates, reactions of ROO and/or RO should be considered.

  4. Controversies in Gender Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the author's thoughts on gender diagnosis controversies during his tenure at the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and the ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. The work summarizes some of the published conclusions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 revision processes regarding three particular controversies: (1) stigma versus access to care; (2) the retention of a child gender diagnosis; and (3) the treatment of prepubescent transgender children. Both the DSM and ICD work groups decided that despite the stigma associated with a diagnosis, retaining an adolescent and adult gender diagnosis is necessary to maintain access to care. As for the child gender diagnosis, given the heterogeneity of this clinical population and that gender dysphoria does not persist in most children, a child diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (DSM) and Gender Incongruence (ICD) should be retained to facilitate ongoing evaluation and management in childhood while acknowledging the uncertainty of the outcome. The treatment of extremely gender variant prepubescent children remains a controversial subject since some underlying assumptions of the treating clinicians are a matter of opinion rather than of empirical data.

  5. Controversies in Cardioembolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Kent, David M

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Cardioembolic (CE) stroke mechanisms account for a significant number of ischemic strokes however the true burden is likely underestimated. It is critically important to identify patients with CE strokes since these individuals have high recurrence rates and represent a subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy in the form of anticoagulation or device based treatments. Current guidelines offer recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of these patients however important questions remain. Appropriate cardiac testing in the setting of CE must be individualized and the optimal duration of electrocardiographic monitoring to rule out atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear. So too, risk stratification tools for AF remain understudied and there is controversy about which anticoagulant agents are most appropriate. Lastly, important potential CE sources of stroke such as PFO have garnered significant attention recently and debate regarding how to treat these patients remains. In this review we discuss some of the important controversies in diagnosing and treating patients with possible CE stroke, pointing to areas where future research might be particularly valuable. PMID:25398426

  6. Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: still remains a controversy.

    PubMed

    Vidimliski, Pavlina Dzekova; Nikolov, Igor; Geshkovska, Nadica Matevska; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Rostaing, Lionel; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C. The viral replication in the liver cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells was present in all clinical presentations of occult hepatitis C. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells represent an extra-hepatic site of HCV replication. The reason why HCV RNA was not detectable in the serum of patients with occult hepatitis C, could be the low number of circulating viral particles not detectable by the diagnostic tests with low sensitivity. It is uncertain whether occult hepatitis C is a different clinical entity or just a form of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system.

  7. Identification and measurement of acid (specific) histidine decarboxylase activity in rabbit gastric mucosa: ending an old controversy?

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, E; Lorenz, W

    1985-04-01

    One of the main obstacles in assigning any distinct function to histamine in health and disease was the longlasting controversy on the existence of any physiological, endogenous histamine formation in man and most of the other mammals except the rat. Using a modification of Schayer's isotope dilution method, a renewed attempt was made to identify the very low activities of an acid (specific) histidine decarboxylase in rabbit gastric mucosa capable of producing endogenous histamine in physiological conditions, to develop tests for its identification in crude enzyme extracts and to demonstrate the specificity of the enzymatic assay by excluding any relevant Dopa decarboxylase activity and also nonenzymatic decarboxylation interfering with the determination of acid (specific) histidine decarboxylase. To achieve this aim five tests were developed: In the pH profile (test 1), a pH optimum was found at 7.0 in the presence of a low substrate concentration (1.6 X 10(-6)M L-[ring-2-14C]-histidine). The apparent Michaelis concentration at the pH optimum (test 2) was 1.8 X 10(-4)M, the maximum rate 12.5pmol [14C]histamine formed X min-1. To increase the specificity of inhibition experiments with alpha-methylhistidine and alpha-methyl-L-Dopa a pH profile was determined in the presence of these two enzymatic inhibitors (test 3 and 4). alpha-Methylhistidine was used for a reliable diagnostic confirmation test, alpha-methyl-L-Dopa for a reliable exclusion test. Benzene showed no influence on either blanks or recovery rates, but inhibited the enzymic activity at pH 7.0, not however that of unspecific histidine decarboxylase and hence was very valuable as an additional diagnostic exclusion test (test 5). Although these new tests identifying acid (specific) histidine decarboxylase and demonstrating the specificity of its determination were tedious, despite the use of the modified isotope dilution method, they excluded the presence of any Dopa decarboxylase activity in mixtures with

  8. The breast implant controversy.

    PubMed

    Cook, R R; Harrison, M C; LeVier, R R

    1994-02-01

    The breast implant issue is a "bad news/good news" story. For many women with implants, the controversy has caused a fair degree of anxiety which may or may not be resolved as further information becomes available. It has also taken its toll on Dow Corning. Whole lines of medical products have been eliminated or are being phase out. The development of new medical applications has been terminated. As a consequence, employees have lost their jobs. What the effect will be on the biomedical industry as a whole remains to be seen (11). While silicones have been an important component in various medical devices, it is likely that other materials can be used as replacements. However, suppliers of non-silicone materials are also reevaluating their role in this market. For example, Du Pont, the nation's largest chemical company, has determined that the unpredictable and excessive costs of doing business with manufacturers of implantable medical devices no longer justifies the unrestricted sale of standard raw materials into this industry. Other companies are quietly following suit. On the up side, it is possible that the research being driven by this controversy will result in a greater understanding of the immunologic implications of xenobiotics, of the importance of nonbiased observations, of the need for ready access to valid data sets, and of the opportunity for valid scientific information to guide legal decisions. Only time will tell.

  9. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies.

  10. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  11. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity remains detectable during severe aplasia following bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Morton, C T; Solovey, A; Dandelet, L; Bach, R R; Hebbel, R P; Slungaard, A; Key, N S

    2001-02-01

    Using a novel whole blood assay, we recently demonstrated that tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) is present in normal individuals. Preliminary experiments suggested that this activity is localized in the mononuclear cell fraction. Postulating that whole blood TF PCA would therefore be undetectable when monocytes and neutrophils are absent from peripheral blood, we assayed TF PCA during the peri-transplant period in 15 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic (n = 12) or autologous (n = 3) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Baseline (pre-transplant) mean TF PCA was higher in patients compared to normal controls (P <0.005). Unexpectedly, although TF PCA during the period of profound aplasia was significantly reduced compared to baseline (p <0.05), fully 55% of the initial activity remained detectable. During the engraftment phase, TF PCA returned to pre-transplant levels, with a linear correlation between monocyte counts and TF PCA (r = 0.63). In contrast to normal whole blood, incubation of aplastic samples with E. Coli lipopolysaccharide ex vivo failed to induce TF PCA. Throughout the period of study--but especially during the aplastic phase--the absolute number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) that were TF antigen-positive was increased compared to normals (P <0.001). However, removal of these cells from whole blood samples failed to significantly diminish total TF PCA indicating that CECs alone could not account for the detectable TF PCA during aplasia. We conclude that neither circulating mature myelo-monocytic cells nor endothelial cells can account for all the functionally intact TF in peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to identify the other source(s) of TF PCA.

  12. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however.

  13. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  14. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  15. Critical Rhetorics of Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Kent A.; Sloop, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Responds to two articles in the same issue of this journal regarding a controversy over the African Burial Ground in New York City. Raises a third set of questions, arguing that investigations of rhetorics of controversy can also include investigations of the rhetorics of incommensurability, investigating the development of logics and…

  16. Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 300 000 new cases of Lyme disease occur each year in the United States and that 10% to 20% of these patients will remain symptomatic despite receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. Many elements of the disease are poorly understood and have generated considerable controversy. This paper discusses the medical controversies related to posttreatment manifestations and their potential impact on infusion nurses. PMID:27755213

  17. News and controversies regarding essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Boutin, E; Vaugoyeau, M; Eusebio, A; Azulay, J-P; Witjas, T

    2015-05-01

    Essential tremor is the most common movement disorder in adults. It is characterized by a postural and kinetic tremor affecting the arms, but it can also affect other body parts. It evolves gradually and can be responsible for a functional impairment in activities of daily living. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood and effective therapeutic options are limited. There are significant semiological variations between patients, and the term "essential tremor" seems to encompass a wide range of heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. The diagnostic criteria presented in 1998 are now challenged. Furthermore, there is a current debate concerning the etiology of this affection, as to whether essential tremor is a complex degenerative disorder or a functional reversible disorder of neuronal oscillation. In this review, we summarize some aspects of clinical, etiologic and therapeutic news, to better address the questioning on unravelling the clinical presentation and examine the current pathophysiological controversy in this disorder.

  18. Perspective: Competencies, outcomes, and controversy--linking professional activities to competencies to improve resident education and practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, M Douglas; Rosenberg, Adam A; Gilhooly, Joseph T; Carraccio, Carol L

    2011-02-01

    Regulatory organizations have recently emphasized the importance of structuring graduate medical education around mastery of core competencies. The difficulty is that core competencies attempt to distill a range of professional behaviors into arguable abstractions. As such, competencies can be difficult to grasp for trainees and faculty, who see them as unrelated to the intricacies of daily patient care. In this article, the authors describe how two initiatives are converging in a way that should make competencies tangible and relevant. One initiative is based on the idea that competencies will be more meaningful if trainees understand specifically how they relate to important professional activities in their own specialty. The authors suggest that there is a dyadic relationship between competencies and major professional activities in pediatric medicine. They also suggest that these relationships should be discussed as part of the process by which trainees are entrusted to perform clinical activities without direct supervision. The other initiative proposes to construct narrative milestones that provide a picture of what progression toward mastery of core competencies might look like. Together, the authors argue, these two initiatives should illuminate the core competencies by providing relevant clinical context and valuable educational substance.

  19. The vibrating string controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Gerald F.; Crummett, William P.

    1987-01-01

    In the mid-1700s a debate raged between Jean d'Alembert, Leonhard Euler, and Daniel Bernoulli concerning the proper solution to the classical wave equation. This controversy was partially solved by Lagrange and, more conclusively, by Fourier (50 years later) and it provides an interesting case study for the role of mathematics in the modeling of physical phenomena. Of particular note in this debate, was the meaning of boundary conditions. The controversy is summarized from the point of view of this mathematical physics perspective.

  20. Students' Conceptions of Controversial Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Nelson, J. Ron

    1992-01-01

    Five boys and five girls each in grades one through six (n=60 students) asked controversial questions in interviews, recognized the lack of social consensus on the controversial topics and made subtle distinctions between controversial and noncontroversial topics. Implications for discussion of controversial issues in the classroom are discussed.…

  1. A Rhetoric of Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kendall R.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by exploring the concept of controversy within a theoretical framework which does not presume the existence of a public sphere. Suggests an alternative perspective based on the intersection of moments of opportunity and specific sites of discourse. Applies this…

  2. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  3. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  4. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.

  5. Chemoradiation for rectal cancer: rationale, approaches, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2010-10-01

    The standard adjuvant treatment of cT3 and/or N+ rectal cancer is preoperative chemoradiation. However, there are many controversies regarding this approach. These controversies include the role of short course radiation, whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for all patients, and if the type of surgery following chemoradiation should be based on the response rate. More accurate imaging techniques and/or molecular markers may help identify patients with positive pelvic nodes to reduce the chance of overtreatment with preoperative therapy. Will more effective systemic agents both improve the results of radiation, as well as modify the need for pelvic radiation? These questions and others remain active areas of clinical investigation.

  6. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Steven B.; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26351335

  7. Endoscope Reprocessing: Update on Controversial Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing. PMID:26473115

  8. Controversy at Love Canal.

    PubMed

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  9. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety.

  10. The bellerophont controversy revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, J.A.; Rollins, H.B.

    2000-01-01

    An old controversy reestablished itself in the late 1970s and early 1980s that focused on the systematic placement of the enigmatic Bellerophontoidea (informally, "bellerophonts"), a group of planispirally coiled, wholly fossil molluscs. The controversy embraced three fundamental concepts that are based on different philosophical interpretations of shell form, muscle scar patterns, and other preserved shell features: 1) all bellerophonts were monoplacophorans; 2) all bellerophonts were gastropods; and 3) some bellerophonts were monoplacophorans and some were gastropods. A review of the main issues appearing in the literature since the early 1980s indicates that these three philosophical divisions still exist and, indeed, have become entrenched. An examination of the relevant anatomical and shell features of recent gastropods and monoplacophorans, and comparison with preserved features in enigmatic fossil forms, convinces us that the bellerophontoideans and the coiled and high-domed "monoplacophorans" (Cyclomya) were gastropods. Only the flattened, spoon-and cap-shaped monoplacophorans (Tergomya) were true monoplacophorans. We present a hypothetical scheme for the morphological diversification of gastropods from early monoplacophorans that could account for Cyclomya, Bellerophontoidea, Patellogastropoda, and Prosobranchia.

  11. Contrasting Controversies: Fracking and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Zabel, I. H. H.; Ross, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (commonly known as "fracking") is highly controversial. So is global warming, and the two issues are closely related, but the natures of these two controversies have substantial and important differences. Building upon years of experience in teaching and developing resources and strategies for teaching about evolution and climate change, staff at the Paleontological Research Institution have engaged in public outreach and educator professional development to help nurture understanding of fracking and the broader energy system. How are these controversies similar to and different from one another, and how should understanding these similarities and differences inform educational programming (and about how you talk about these issues with your Uncle Fred at the family holiday dinner?). It is nearly universally agreed amongst scientists who study climate that changes now underway are real and human caused, and are posing or likely to pose very serious problems for humanity. Scientists who study slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing agree that it causes environmental damage, but there is no consensus as to whether fracking causes more or less harm (e.g., among different kinds of environment harm, across different temporal and spatial scales, and among different social contexts) than other ways of producing energy on a large scale. In other words, the basic tenets of climate change are not a matter of scientific controversy, though the implications for policy making obviously remain politically controversial, while fracking is an issue of both scientific and political controversy. Without advocating for or against fracking, we help audiences disentangle scientific and political issues, better understand the energy resources used in their own communities, and consider issues of scale, systems, and complexity. We will compare and contrast the overlapping controversies surrounding climate change and fracking and highlight

  12. Preparing Students for Science in the Face of Social Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramschreiber, Terry; Westmoreland, David

    2015-01-01

    Science educators often teach topics that are largely resolved in the scientific community yet remain controversial in broader society. In such cases, students may perceive the teacher as biased. We present two exercises that foster more objective learning about the scientific underpinnings of socially controversial topics. The first exercise…

  13. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  14. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  15. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  16. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology.

  17. Child injury control: trends, themes, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among US children, and an important driver of health status globally. Despite its enormous burden, injury is preventable. Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in the reduction of unintentional injury among US children. However, aggregate trends mask important disparities by age group, region, and injury mechanism. Basic and translation research is needed to develop and test prevention strategies to address these new or recalcitrant problems. Motor vehicle occupant injury has fallen to historic lows, but challenges remain in protecting novice drivers and managing the distraction of new technologies. Injury to pedestrians has also declined, but likely as a result of decreased exposure as fewer children walk. This calls for a broader public health perspective to promote activity while enhancing safety. Deaths due to drowning are common and illustrate the difficulty in measuring and promoting appropriate supervision. Environmental modification and use of protective products may be a more appropriate response. Concussion in sport is another challenging issue: public health laws promote identification and appropriate management of concussed athletes, but less progress has been made on primary prevention of these injuries. Unintentional poisoning is on the rise, attributable to misuse of, and overdose with, prescription opioids. Injury deaths to infants are also increasing. This trend is driven in part by better death investigation that classifies more sleep-related deaths as suffocation events. Finally, we examine a sample of cross-cutting themes and controversies in injury control that might be amenable to empiric evaluation.

  18. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  19. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  20. Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-04-15

    This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

  1. [What remains of arthrography?].

    PubMed

    Morvan, G

    1994-06-15

    At the time of RMI, arthrography appears sometimes old-fashioned. However this exam, which knows a second youth in relation with the supply of CT-scan (arthro-CT) remains the gold-standard in the exploration of many pathologic situations: intra-articular foreign bodies, tears of glenoid or acetabular labrum, precise assessment of chondral or ligamentous lesions (especially of the ankle), sub-scapularis tendon tears, adhesive capsulitis, complications of prosthesis, appreciation of intra-articular position of the needle's tip before injection of a therapeutic drug. Arthrography, completed or not by CT-slices gives, in this indications, excellent spatial resolution images, easy to perform, to read, to understand and to transmit at the clinicians, with a reasonable cost and a minor risk. RMI is a more and more used alternative, especially for the study of meniscus and ligaments of the knee, and rotator's cuff of the shoulder. It's sure that, with the increase of the RMI image's quality, other common indications will slip towards this technique, but nevertheless at this time (and it seams to me, for a long time) arthrography and arthro-CT will remain an excellent diagnostic tool with a very competitive advantages/inconvenience ratio.

  2. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  3. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  4. Youth Violence. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Michael D., Ed.; Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores many social, political, and economic controversies, presenting the discussions in debate format. This volume focuses on youth violence. As youth violence escalates, concern grows over the safety of the neighborhoods, the victims of violence, and the future of violent youths themselves. The 35 selections in…

  5. A Controversy Is Born

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisque, Ramon E.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the development of a new concept about the nature and origin of earthquakes. The concept is based on the observation that the average dip of deep earthquake foci is 60 degrees. The location of the so-called "Rouse belts" of intense seismic activity is suggested as a student activity. Bibliography. (LC)

  6. Visualizing Social Justice: Using Controversial Images in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Todd S.; Crowe, Alicia R.; Mooney, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we promote the use of controversial images to enhance the discussion of social justice issues in schools. Controversial images provide rich opportunities for students to question what is occurring currently in society as well as what has occurred in the past. We provide an example set of activities to be used in teacher education…

  7. [Controversies over heel pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, J

    2013-02-01

    Article whose content was exposed in the workshops of the GNEAUPP Congress, held in Seville in November2012, and which refers to ulcers by pressure on the heels as a location exposed to the analysis. A pressure ulcer is a lesion located in skin I underlying tissue usually over a bone prominence, as a result of the pressure, or pressure in combination with the shears. A number of contributing factors or confounding factors are also associated with ulcers by pressure; the importance of these factors still not been elucidated. The heels are next to the sacred area, parts of the body that most frequently presents ulcers by pressure, The importance of the predisposing factors for ulcers in the sacral area as humidity has been studied in recent years, but in heels, remains one of the most important locations in the extremities, which entails adverse outcomes such as amputation in persons with comorbid diseases like Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The incidence of ulcers on heels in patients with DM and without it, is approximately 19-32%. Everything and be a problem associated with elderly people and chronic pathologies, in acute patients are a problem that this underrated, but not devoid of controversy. In hospitals of treble in 2006, the NPUAP encrypted the incidence of UPPin heels in a 43%; in one systematic review conducted by Reddy et al. (2006) puts revealed that 60% of pressure ulcers is produced. The problem of the UPP in heels is present in all the areas of intervention and particularly in paediatric units intensive care, where the first localization it is the occipital area followed by the heels.

  8. Controversies in Parotid Defect Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew; Knott, P Daniel; Fritz, Michael A; Seth, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the parotid defect is a complex topic that encompasses restoration of both facial form and function. The reconstructive surgeon must consider facial contour, avoidance of Frey syndrome, skin coverage, tumor surveillance, potential adjuvant therapy, and facial reanimation when addressing parotid defects. With each defect there are several options within the reconstructive ladder, creating controversies regarding optimal management. This article describes surgical approaches to reconstruction of parotid defects, highlighting areas of controversy.

  9. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2007-12-01

    In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

  10. The Great Balloon Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of balloon launches and the dumping of plastic debris into oceans. Cites several examples of plastic materials being discovered inside the bodies of sick and/or dead marine animals. Offers alternative activities to releasing balloons into the atmosphere. (RT)

  11. Negotiating Gene Therapy: Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    According to research, students often perceive the ethical implications of issues such as genetic engineering, but sometimes they are not equipped to handle multiple perspectives and articulate well-reasoned positions. A modified jigsaw activity, appropriate for secondary and introductory college biology classes, that introduces students to human…

  12. Vitamin a: history, current uses, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M Shane

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin A is required for the proper functioning of many important metabolic and physiologic activities, including vision, gene transcription, the immune system and skin cell differentiation. Both excessive and deficient levels of vitamin A lead to poor functioning of many human systems. The biologically active form, retinoic acid, binds to nuclear receptors that facilitate transcription that ultimately leads to it's physiological effects. Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A that are medications used to treat acne vulgaris, psoriasis, ichthyosis (and other disorders of keratinization), skin cancer prevention as well as several bone marrow derived neoplasias. Systemic retinoids are teratogenic and have to be prescribed with caution and close oversight. Other potential adverse events are controversial. These include the relationship of retinoid derivatives in sunscreens, their effects on bone mineral density, depression and suicidal ideation and inflammatory bowel disease. These controversies will be discussed in detail.

  13. [The food cholesterol controversy].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2012-07-01

    Arteriosclerosis of blood vessels, the main cause of heart attack and stroke, is a disease of multifactor pathogenesis. Multiple experimental, clinical and epidemiologic studies indicate that free radicals and lipid oxidation products take part in aterogenesis process. Homocysteine possess also cytotoxic activity leading to degradation of elastine of internal membrane of blood vessels. Deficiency of vitamin folic acid, B12 and B6 cause homocysteine accumulation in human organism. Identifying the arteriosclerosis with oxidation of LDL-cholesterol results with faulty conclusions. Metabolism of cholesterol in human organism depends on content of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, fitosterols, food fiber, Lactobacillus and antioxidants in the diet. In aterogenesis antioxidant defficiency, especially long-lasting ones, are more important then amount of fat itself. Considering cholesterol intake with average food and its absorption amounting 25-30%, one can conclude that amount of cholesterol in intestine originates in 90% from liver synthesis, which is excreted with bile, and in more than ten percent--from food. This is why reduction of cholesterol intake with food only little improves blood lipid indexes.

  14. Questions and controversies: the role of necroptosis in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Liu, Zhang-Xu; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic liver injury results in hepatocyte death and turnover. If injury becomes chronic, the continuous cell death and turnover leads to chronic inflammation, fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Controlling liver cell death both in acute injury, to rescue the liver from acute liver failure, and in chronic injury, to curb secondary inflammation and fibrosis, is of paramount importance as a therapeutic strategy. Both apoptosis and necrosis occur in the liver, but the occurrence of necroptosis in the liver and its contribution to liver disease is controversial. Necroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis which occurs in certain cell types when caspases (+/−cIAPs) are inhibited through the RIPK1-RIPK3 activation of MLKL. The occurrence of necroptosis in the liver has recently been examined in multiple liver injury models with conflicting results. The aim of this review is to summarize the published data with an emphasis on the controversies and remaining questions in the field. PMID:27924226

  15. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  16. State of the art: therapeutic controversies in severe acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, M A; Camargo, C A; Rowe, B H; Silverman, R A

    2000-07-01

    This is a transcript of the 1999 SAEM State-of-the-Art session on "Therapeutic Controversies in Severe Acute Asthma," presented at the 1999 SAEM annual meeting in Boston. The aim of this session was to address some of the current controversies in the management of acute asthma exacerbations, a major issue in emergency medicine. Despite many recent advances in asthma management, morbidity and mortality remain high. While many of us have strong feelings on how asthma patients should be treated, many of our assertions are not based on good science, and there are numerous areas of controversy. This discussion focuses on the controversy over beta agonist treatment for acute asthma, the physiology of corticosteroids in asthma, and the emergency use of leukotriene-modifying agents.

  17. The Academic Controversy Technique: Towards Cooperative Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explain a cooperative learning technique, Academic Controversy (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1996), also known as Cooperative Controversy, Structured Controversy and Structured Academic Controversy, that has potential for use in education and other areas, and has support in both research and theory.…

  18. Surveying Students about Controversial Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of school districts' interest in best serving the health needs of students, many choose to administer surveys addressing controversial topics. Administering such surveys in a voluntary and anonymous manner may help reduce conflict. Methods: This is a review of 2 recent federal court of appeals decisions regarding surveying…

  19. Controversial Curriculum? Ask the Community!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Involving communities in the process of curriculum development may not be novel, but it seems lacking with regard to controversial issues such as lessons on diverse family structures, homosexuality, and other special situations. Disparity in values and convictions can lead one person to support a decision, while another person might hold an…

  20. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  1. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  2. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  3. Teacher Quality, Controversy, and NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Magee, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)--the sweeping federal law that requires all schools that receive federal Title I dollars to be held strictly accountable for student outcomes--is the most discussed education reform effort in the past half century. One of the many controversial and vexing elements of the law, especially among teachers, teacher unions,…

  4. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  5. Teaching Controversial Issues of Bioethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    Many teachers avoid controversial topics because they do not want to upset students or parents, do not know appropriate instructional strategies, and fail to recognize the importance of motivating students through placing science in its relevant context. An example is provided for use in a methods course for helping future high school teachers to…

  6. Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A., Ed.; Taylor, Dalmas A., Ed.

    Dialogue and research on racism since the mid-1970s have yielded increased controversy over the theories, foundation, and continued existence of racism. The chapters presented in this book provide various divergent views of what constitutes racism and frameworks for reducing it. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1)…

  7. Embracing Controversy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannard, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Discussing controversial topics such as stem cell research is a great way for students to build scientific understanding, enhance communication skills, and develop an appreciation for civic decision making. Tackling a topic such as stem cells at the middle level, however, can be a challenge because most young adolescents see the world in black and…

  8. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P < 0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  9. Controversies in faith and health care.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care.

  10. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  11. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  12. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-02-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  13. The controversial world of sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Dang, Weiwei

    2014-06-01

    The controversy around sirtuins and their functions in aging has drawn in the past few years as much attention, if not more, from the scientific community and the public as they did when first proposed as the key conserved aging regulators in eukaryotes. With some of the basic observations on sirtuin longevity promoting functions being questioned in popular model systems, researchers are wondering if this family of conserved enzymes still holds strong potential as therapeutic targets. This review examines the several controversial issues around sirtuins and their functions in aging, calorie restriction, as well as age-related diseases in light of recent studies in mammalian systems and discusses whether modulators of sirtuins still hold the secret of life.:

  14. New Swift/XRT observation shows faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 remains active 1 year after outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, R.; Wijnands, R.; Heinke, C.; Degenaar, N.

    2012-02-01

    The faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 was discovered through the detection of two type-I bursts by BeppoSAX's WFC in 1996-1997 (in't Zand et al. 1999, NuPhS, 69, 228). Around the times of both bursts, no persistent emission was detected from the source with BeppoSAX. RXTE/ASM observations suggested that the source was active from early 1996 till late 1997 with an X-ray luminosity of ~ 1E+36 erg/s (for d=8 kpc; Cornelisse et al.

  15. Controversies in neurosciences critical care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tiffany R; Naval, Neeraj S; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Neurocritical care is an evolving subspecialty with many controversial topics. The focus of this review is (1) transfusion thresholds in patients with acute intracranial bleeding, including packed red blood cell transfusion, platelet transfusion, and reversal of coagulopathy; (2) indications for seizure prophylaxis and choice of antiepileptic agent; and (3) the role of specialized neurocritical care units and specialists in the care of critically ill neurology and neurosurgery patients.

  16. Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    D’Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  17. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies: Consensus and Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Dauerman, Harold L.; Rao, Sunil V.; Resnic, Frederic S.; Applegate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity and one year mortality. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies represent a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggests that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacologic (multiple agents) and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this article, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area. PMID:21700085

  18. Bleeding avoidance strategies. Consensus and controversy.

    PubMed

    Dauerman, Harold L; Rao, Sunil V; Resnic, Frederic S; Applegate, Robert J

    2011-06-28

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity, and 1-year mortality. Bleeding avoidance strategies is a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggest that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety, and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacological (multiple agents), and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this paper, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area.

  19. Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology.

  20. [Cancer initiating cell theory: popularity and controversies].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Huang, Qiang; Dong, Jun; Lan, Qing

    2006-06-01

    The cancer stem cell model proposes that most tumors are derived from a single cell that is transformed into a cancer-initiating cell (cancer stem cell). Cancer stem cells have the capacity to proliferate, differentiate, and form tumors in vivo. However, the origin of cancer stem cells remains controversial. Normal stem cells are regarded as an ideal candidate for the origin of cancer stem cells when take similar characters and signaling pathways between them into consideration. In addition,cell fusion is an important physiologic process during development and tissue repair,and is closely related to several fundamental features of tumors,and thus could be involved in the development of cancer stem cells.

  1. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  2. Active surface faulting or landsliding in the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal)? A solved controversy concerning the Vila Chã de Ourique site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João Manuel; Marques, Fernando; Figueiredo, Paula; Matias, Luís

    2011-04-01

    The Lower Tagus Valley has experienced significant (M 6-7) historical seismicity, evidencing the presence of seismogenic faults. These are still deficiently known due to the low strain rates and the recent alluvial sedimentation of the Tagus River that buries most of the structures, though Paleoseismic evidence was allegedly found by a research team in the Tagus valley, at a site 60 km N of Lisbon, near Vila Chã de Ourique (VCO). According to this team, trenching at the VCO site exposed an active thrust fault, evidencing the surface rupture of a large earthquake that occurred in 1531. Our studies performed at this site, comprising field observations with a reappraisal of the trench outcrops previously excavated, borehole drilling, soil mechanics laboratory testing, and seismic reflection acquisition, pointed to the alternative interpretation that the outcropping structures are gravitational and not of tectonic origin. The interpretation of new outcrops crosscutting the structures exposed at the trenches, as well as newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data, definitely exclude the active thrust fault explanation and support a gravitational slip model for all the observed structures. Gravitational slip in the river bank slope was promoted by low shear strength clays and high pore water pressure coupled with slope toe river erosion. Gravitational slides must have occurred prior to development of the present sedimentation level of the Tagus alluvial plain, which was attained in the last few thousand years as indicated by borehole data and estimations of sedimentation rates.

  3. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed.

  4. The evolution of controversial issues.

    PubMed

    King, P

    1994-04-01

    The controversial issues concerning the differences of opinion about the validity of Melanie Klein's theory and technique did not arise suddenly when members of the Viennese Society joined the British Psycho-Analytical Society, before the outbreak of the Second World War. In this paper, I describe briefly the socio-historical, administrative and institutional background out of which these scientific divergences evolved alongside other issues concerned with how long members should hold office in the British Psycho-Analytical Society and therefore be in a position to influence the scientific disagreements and training policy in the Society. These causes for concern among members, which were discussed at five business meetings, are then summarised: they relate to differences of opinion with regard to Melanie Klein's contributions to psychoanalysis, the need for revision of the rules of the Society and the type of training in psychoanalysis that should be offered to candidates. Finally, proposals for different ways of exploring and perhaps dealing with these issues are discussed, including the decision to hold formal scientific discussions of Klein's point of view, once a month. These meetings are now referred to as the 'Controversial Discussions'.

  5. Controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, Jeremy S; Pereira, Stephen P; Devlin, John; Harrison, Phillip M; Joshi, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but significant disease, which affects mainly young males in association with inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition and no therapeutics with proven mortality benefit aside from liver transplantation. There remain areas of controversy in the management of PSC which include the differentiation from other cholangiopathies, in particular immunoglobulin G4 related sclerosing cholangitis, the management of dominant biliary strictures, and the role of ursodeoxycholic acid. In addition, the timing of liver transplantation in PSC remains difficult to predict with standard liver severity scores. In this review, we address these controversies and highlight the latest evidence base in the management of PSC. PMID:26925200

  6. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.

  7. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  8. Gastroparesis: Concepts, Controversies, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Patients with gastroparesis often present a challenge to the treating physician. Postprandial symptoms with nausea and vomiting may not only lead to nutritional and metabolic consequences, but also cause significant disruptions to social activities that often center around food. While the definition of gastroparesis focuses on impaired gastric emptying, treatment options that affect gastric function are limited and often disappointing. The female predominance, the mostly idiopathic nature of the illness with a common history of abuse, and coexisting anxiety or depression show parallels with other functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. These parallels provided the rationale for some initial studies investigating alternative therapies that target the brain rather than the stomach. This emerging shift in medical therapy comes at a time when clinical studies suggest that gastric electrical stimulation may exert its effects by modulating visceral sensory processing rather than altering gastric motility. Physiologic and detailed anatomic investigations also support a more complex picture with different disease mechanisms, ranging from impaired accommodation to apparent visceral hypersensitivity or decreased interstitial cells of Cajal to inflammatory infiltration of myenteric ganglia. Delayed gastric emptying remains the endophenotype defining gastroparesis. However, our treatment options go beyond prokinetics and may allow us to improve the quality of life of affected individuals. PMID:24278691

  9. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  10. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2016-07-12

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  11. Controversies in the management of pancreatic IPMN.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas, some issues still remain to be resolved. Uncertainty exists regarding the classification of IPMNs. The necessity of the mixed-type category of IPMN and whether such lesions should be defined radiographically or histologically needs to be determined. The preoperative distinction of branch duct IPMNs from nonmucinous cysts should be further investigated so that potentially malignant lesions can be identified and management strategies guided effectively. The role and safety of cystic fluid analysis remains to be clarified in this context. With regard to the diagnosis of malignancy in branch duct IPMNs, criteria for identifying malignancy need to be re-evaluated. The presence of mural nodules is a very reliable predictor; however, controversy exists over the value of size as a reliable indicator. Criteria with increased specificity are needed, perhaps including histological subtype of lesion, to reduce the false-positive rate of the present criteria. Finally, the best modality and interval for surveillance of branch duct IPMNs requires determination because of its significance in terms of malignant transformation, development of distinct ductal adenocarcinoma and disease recurrence after resection.

  12. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  13. Hypericin--the facts about a controversial agent.

    PubMed

    Kubin, A; Wierrani, F; Burner, U; Alth, G; Grünberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Hypericin is a naturally occurring substance found in the common St. John's Wort (Hypericum species) and can also be synthesized from the anthraquinone derivative emodin. As the main component of Hypericum perforatum, it has traditionally been used throughout the history of folk medicine. In the last three decades, hypericin has also become the subject of intensive biochemical research and is proving to be a multifunctional agent in drug and medicinal applications. Recent studies report antidepressive, antineoplastic, antitumor and antiviral (human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus) activities of hypericin; intriguing information even if confirmation of data is incomplete and mechanisms of these activities still remain largely unexplained. In other contemporary studies, screening hypericin for inhibitory effects on various pharmaceutically important enzymes such as MAO (monoaminoxidase), PKC (protein kinase C), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase and CYP (cytochrome P450), has yielded results supporting therapeutic potential. Research of hypericin and its effect on GABA-activated (gamma amino butyric acid) currents and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartat) receptors also indicate the therapeutic potential of this substance whereby new insights in stroke research (apoplexy) are expected. Also in the relatively newly established fields of medical photochemistry and photobiology, intensive research reveals hypericin to be a promising novel therapeutic and diagnostic agent in treatment and detection of cancer (photodynamic activation of free radical production). Hypericin is not new to the research community, but it is achieving a new and promising status as an effective agent in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. New, although controversial data, over the recent years dictate further research, re-evaluation and discussion of this substance. Our up-to-date summary of hypericin, its activities and potentials, is aimed to contribute to

  14. The Parkfield Stress Drop Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nadeau et al. (1995) found that the seismicity on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield is highly clustered. Individual clusters consist of a sequence of near periodically repeating small earthquakes of similar seismic moment. Nadeau and Johnston (1998) compared the moments and timing of these repeating earthquakes (Mw < 2), and some larger events, with the surface creep rate on the fault to estimate the slip and stress drop (Δ σ ). They obtained conventional values (0.1 to 10 MPa) for the larger earthquakes, but Δ σ increased with decreasing Mw to extremely high values (> 1000 MPa) for the small earthquakes (Mw < 2). Such values are just about physically possible, but they are much higher than those estimated by seismic methods for small earthquakes elsewhere (e. g. Abercrombie 1995). These controversial high Δ σ estimates have sparked a number of theoretical and laboratory studies (e. g. Sammis & Rice 2000, Anooshepoor & Brune 2001, Beeler 2001) aimed at investigating whether the observations could result from earthquakes with more normal Δ σ occurring within the unusual tectonic setting at Parkfield. Lane & Nadeau (2000, 2002) considered whether localized patches of high Δ σ would be resolvable by standard seismic methods. However, to date nobody has used seismic methods to determine source parameters for these controversial small earthquakes at Parkfield. We use closely located earthquakes of different sizes (for example, the sub-clusters of cluster CL14, Nadeau et al., 1995, Mw-0.2 to 1), recorded on the HRSN borehole network to analyse the source parameters. The smaller earthquakes are used as empirical Green's functions to resolve source processes of the larger events. Preliminary results from the earthquakes in cluster CL14 result in a source dimension of about 25 m and Δ σ of about 1 MPa for the Mw1 earthquakes, assuming that rupture velocity is the same as that for large earthquakes. We also resolve source-time functions for these earthquakes at

  15. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  16. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities.

  17. [Controversy on treatments for gliomas].

    PubMed

    Nomura, K

    1998-09-01

    Gliomas are representative primary malignant brain tumors, and with such tumors it is difficult to define the advanced stage. If the advanced stage indicates no curability by surgery alone, most gliomas would belong to this criterion because of their poor prognosis without any completely effective treatment. In this sense, no one could show a standard therapy to treat these unfortunate patients, for example, patients with glioblastoma, they could permit only 1 year survived even they had any applicable treatments to the lesions, these days. Treatment for low-grade gliomas has been most controversial for a long time, and no standard treatments have been determined so far. In this paper, as the treatment of low-grade gliomas it was intended to report what must be done for this patient and the present results of opinion survey for the treatment of gliomas which was done to professors of 80 institutes, from schools of medicine at all universities and medical colleges in Japan. For high-grade gliomas, some effectiveness of radiation therapy was disclosed as well as chemotherapy from recent papers. Gene therapy was also discussed briefly, its present status and future.

  18. Lyme disease: why the controversy?

    PubMed

    Beaman, M H

    2016-12-01

    Some Australians have become convinced of the existence of locally acquired Lyme disease (LD). The history of LD, since its recognition in the early 1970s, is reviewed as a model for investigative approaches to unknown syndromes. Australian Management Guidelines for LD include the requirement for diagnostic testing by National Association of Testing Authorities-accredited laboratories using Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed tests, which result in the efficient diagnosis of LD in overseas travellers. Despite this, patients who have not left Australia pay many thousands of dollars for non-specialist consultations and testing at overseas laboratories. Unproven long-term therapy with multiple antibiotics has resulted in serious complications, including allergies, line sepsis, pancreatitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Studies have shown that LD vectors are not found in Australia, and Lyme Borrelia has not been found in Australian vectors, animals or patients with autochthonous illnesses. I propose that (i) A non-controversial name for the chronic syndrome should be adopted, 'Australian Multisystem Disorder'. (ii) Research funding should enable the development of a consensus case definition and studies of the epidemiology of this syndrome with laboratory investigations to identify an aetiology and surrogate markers of disease. Prospective, randomised treatment studies could then be undertaken using ethical protocols.

  19. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  20. Women, Webquests, and Controversial Issues in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret Smith; Cramer, Judith

    2005-01-01

    America has been called "the argument culture," but you would not know it from many social studies classrooms. Despite a longstanding tradition in social studies of teaching controversial issues, all too few of today's classrooms accommodate this kind of intellectual activity. Perhaps it is the pressure of high stakes testing, or the emphasis on…

  1. Hot spots remain the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the drilling activity and petroleum activity in Africa. The areas which seem to hold the highest promise for new discoveries or increased exports are Egypt's Western Desert which seems to offer the possibility of significant oil discoveries. In addition, Nigeria has dramatically increased its exploration activity which is counter to the global trend in 1986. Areas where activity is decreasing are Cameroon, South Africa. It is pointed out that the Gabon crude oil reserves may have been raised 60% by a single on-shore discovery.

  2. Controversies in Spinal Trauma and Evolution of Care.

    PubMed

    Harrop, James S; Rymarczuk, George N; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Steinmetz, Michael P; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    Management of spinal trauma is a complex and rapidly evolving field. To optimize patient treatment algorithms, an understanding of and appreciation for current controversies and advancing technologies in the field of spinal trauma is necessary. Therefore, members of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Trauma initiative used a modified Delphi method to compile a list of controversial issues and emerging technologies in the field of spinal trauma, and a list of the 14 most relevant topics was generated. A total of 45 440 manuscripts covering the breadth of spine and spinal trauma were initially identified. This broad search was then refined using the 14 categories felt to be most relevant to the current field of spinal trauma. The results were further pared down using inclusion criteria to select for the most relevant topics. The 8 remaining topics were classification schemes, treatment of vertebral compression fractures, treatment of burst fractures, timing of surgery in spinal trauma, hypothermia, the importance of global sagittal balance, lumbar subarachnoid drainage, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. These 8 topics were felt to be the most relevant, controversial, rapidly evolving, and most deserving of inclusion in this summary. In summary, despite recent advances, the field of spinal trauma has many ongoing points of controversy. We must continue to refine our ability to care for this patient population through education, research, and development. It is anticipated that the new AOSpine fracture classification system will assist with prospective research efforts.

  3. Discoveries and controversies in cutaneous mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Tadini, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    Genetic mosaicism is thought to be a common phenomenon in inherited skin disorders. It is the leading molecular mechanism explaining cutaneous hamartomas and nevoid disorders, skin manifestations of most X-linked genodermatoses and specific forms of clinical variability and topographic distribution in autosomal skin disorders. The developmental (in utero) origin and timing dependence are two major attributes for the current definition of cutaneous mosaicism. Chromosomal mosaicism, lyonization in X-linked genodermatoses, and various types of mosaicism (i.e. type 1, type 2 and revertant mosaicism) in autosomal skin disorders are mechanisms well defined at the molecular level. All these concepts have been fully included in the current medical terminology in dermatology and genetics. Mitotic crossing-over, paradominant inheritance, monoallelic expression of autosomal traits and mosaicism in acquired skin disorders remain without a formal molecular proof and still represent sources of debate in the scientific community. This review summarizes current concepts, discoveries and controversies in the field of cutaneous mosaicism for practitioners and clinical researchers to enhance their understanding of such a underestimated clinical phenomenon and its biological basis.

  4. If It's Controversial, Why Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Reveals that teaching about controversial issues increases students' self-confidence and interest in civic participation. Asserts that the current proliferation of social problems combined with exploitative media coverage necessitates civil and objective study of controversial issues. Includes several examples of, and approaches to, teaching about…

  5. Teaching about NAFTA Using Academic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a teaching strategy called "constructive controversy" where students are required to argue both the pro and con positions concerning a controversial current topic. Describes students' response to a class using this method to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Student response was generally favorable. (MJP)

  6. Get Controversial! Edgy Novels for Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Clark, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This article is a discussion of authors and controversial novels that should be on the top of library media specialists' reading list if they work with high-school-age teens. "Controversial" is not a dirty word, it is an enticement! The goal of library media specialists is to get teens who may be burned out with reading due to incentive programs…

  7. Teachers, Classroom Controversy, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulconer, Tracy; Freeman, Ayesha Coning

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between teachers, classroom controversy and the media. It also features the story of Ayesha, who coincidentally is one of the authors of this article. Ayesha's story is a social studies teacher's bad dream featuring one of her worst fears: (1) public criticism; and (2) controversy over something that has…

  8. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  9. "Mysticism" in Quantum Mechanics: The Forgotten Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a "mystical" hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s--birth of quantum theory--and concluding…

  10. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  11. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  12. Deciding What Is a Controversial Issue: A Case Study of Social Studies Curriculum Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camicia, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    Frame analysis was used to examine how competing stakeholders framed a sixth grade curriculum controversy over whether the WWII internment of Japanese Americans should be categorized as a controversial issue. Teachers and administrators in a northwestern U.S. school claimed that the internment was clearly wrong and not controversial, but these…

  13. IL-1: discoveries, controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dinarello, Charles A

    2010-03-01

    Although there has been a great amount of progress in the 25 years since the first reporting of the cDNA for IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, the history of IL-1 goes back to the early 1940s. In fact, the entire field of inflammatory cytokines, TLR and the innate immune response can be found in the story of IL-1. This Viewpoint follows the steps from the identification of the fever-inducing activities of "soluble factors" produced by endotoxin-stimulated leukocytes through to the discovery of cryopyrin and the caspase-1 inflammasome and on to the clinical benefits of anti-IL-1beta-based therapeutics. It also discusses some of the current controversies regarding the activation of the inflammasome. The future of novel anti-inflammatory agents to combat chronic inflammation is based, in part, on the diseases that are uniquely responsive to anti-IL-1beta, which is surely a reason to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the cloning of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta.

  14. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  15. Distinguishing heat from light in debate over controversial fossils.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Philip C J; Purnell, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    Fossil organisms offer our only direct insight into how the distinctive body plans of extant organisms were assembled. However, realizing the potential evolutionary significance of fossils can be hampered by controversy over their interpretation. Here, as a guide to evaluating palaeontological debates, we outline the process and pitfalls of fossil interpretation. The physical remains of controversial fossils should be reconstructed before interpreting homologies, and choice of interpretative model should be explicit and justified. Extinct taxa lack characters diagnostic of extant clades because the characters had not yet evolved, because of secondary loss, or because they have rotted away. The latter, if not taken into account, will lead to the spurious assignment of fossils to basally branching clades. Conflicting interpretations of fossils can often be resolved by considering all the steps in the process of anatomical analysis and phylogenetic placement, although we must accept that some fossil organisms are simply too incompletely preserved for their evolutionary significance to be realized.

  16. Alveolar Osteitis: A Comprehensive Review of Concepts and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Olech, Eliza; Miloro, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar osteitis, “dry socket”, remains amongst the most commonly encountered complications following extraction of teeth by general dentists and specialists. A great body of literature is devoted to alveolar osteitis addressing the etiology and pathophysiology of this condition. In addition numerous studies are available discussing methods and techniques to prevent this condition. To this date though great controversy still exists regarding the appropriate terminology used for this condition as well as the actual etiology, pathophysiology, and best methods of prevention and treatment. This article is a comprehensive critical review of the available literature addressing the concepts and controversies surrounding alveolar osteitis. We aim to assist the dental health care professional with patient preparation and management of this commonly encountered postoperative condition should be encountered. PMID:20652078

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current controversies in diagnosis and outcome.

    PubMed

    Koelman, Diederik L H; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-09-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Only in the past 15 years have larger groups of patients from several geographical areas been reported for comparisons across studies. In spite of the increased recognition of ADEM, the diagnosis of ADEM remains clinical, aided by neuroimaging confirmation, because of the lack of a biological marker. The diagnosis may be difficult, given that several diseases may present similar to ADEM. The controversial existence of multiphasic forms necessitates a continuous evaluation of the diagnosis by tracking subsequent events. Despite proposed consensus criteria, the diagnostic criteria employed to characterize ADEM range widely among the largest reported cohorts to date. This review comprehensively evaluates the current knowledge and controversies that surround ADEM, with special consideration of the distinction between ADEM and other demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, we present implications of the current knowledge of ADEM for both research and clinical practice.

  18. Controversial Issues--Teachers' Attitudes and Practices in the Context of Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulton, Christopher; Day, Vanessa; Dillon, Justin; Grace, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Current conceptions of citizenship favour public involvement in dialogue on controversial issues such as GM food. 'Students with higher levels of civic knowledge are more likely to expect to participate in political and civic activities as adults' (Kerr et al., 2003, p. 4). Young people need to be aware of the nature of controversy and be able to…

  19. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  20. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  1. Anti-aging cosmetics: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Celem, Livia Ribeiro; Ramos-e-Silva, Stella; Fucci-da-Costa, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    The authors review ageing in its extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, as well as the therapies available for improving its effects, and present some of the facts and controversies related to anti-aging cosmetics.

  2. Antidote to Controversy? Responses to Carolyn Henly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Mary Ella; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides four practicing teachers' written responses to Carolyn Henly's article entitled "Reader Response Theory as Antidote to Controversy: Teaching "The Bluest Eye," which appears in the same issue. (HB)

  3. Carotid endarterectomy: current consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hermus, Linda; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-10-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality, and carotid artery stenosis causes 8% to 29% of all ischemic strokes. Best medical treatment forms the basis of carotid stenosis treatment, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has an additional beneficial effect in high-grade stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA as a primary carotid intervention. At present, CEA remains the gold standard, but in the future, CAS techniques will evolve and might become beneficial for subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. This chapter briefly describes the history of carotid interventions and current consensus and controversies in CEA. In the last two years, several meta-analyses were published on a variety of aspects of best medical treatment, CEA, and CAS. It is still a matter of debate as to whether asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis should undergo a carotid intervention. Especially because medical treatment has dramatically evolved since the early carotid trials. On the other hand, it is clear that carotid interventions in symptomatic patients with a high-grade stenosis should be performed as early as possible after the initial neurological event in order to achieve optimal stroke risk reduction. In CEA, the use of patching is advocated above primary closure, while the role of selective patching is still unclear. No differences in stroke and mortality rates are observed for routine versus selective shunting, for conventional versus eversion CEA, or for local versus general anesthesia. It is anticipated that in the future, there will be several interesting developments in carotid interventions such as plaque morphology analysis, acute interventions during stroke in progress, and further evolvement of CAS techniques.

  4. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  5. Controversies in clinical cancer dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Uhr, Jonathan W.; Pantel, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer dormancy is defined as an unusually long time between removal of the primary tumor and subsequent relapse in a patient who has been clinically disease-free. The condition is frequently observed in certain carcinomas (e.g., breast cancer), B-cell lymphoma, and melanoma, with relapse occurring 5–25 y later. Clinical data suggest that a majority of breast cancer survivors have cancer cells for decades but can remain clinically cancer-free for their lifetime. Thus, there is a major effort to characterize the molecular mechanisms responsible for inducing tumor cell dormancy using experimental models or studying the early phases of cancer growth in humans. Many molecules and signaling pathways have been characterized and have led to concepts that dominate the field, such as the possible role of innate and adaptive immunity in immune surveillance and initiation and maintenance of dormancy. However, recent clinical data do not support many of these concepts. Several areas need further study to determine their relevance to clinical cancer dormancy. We suggest hypotheses that may contribute to elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the dormant state. PMID:21746894

  6. Another Look at Controversial Issues and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Controversial issues should be taught in school. Charles Bailey's and R.F. Dearden's opinions of what makes an issue controversial are critiqued. Bailey accounts for controversial issues in behavioral terms; Dearden advances an epistemic account. (RM)

  7. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: past, present and future controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    It is fitting that the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) be included in the Lester Dragstedt Symposium because Dr. Dragstedt had a long-time interest in this disease, having been one of the five discussants of the original article and subsequently reporting with Dr. Oberhelman on nine cases. The approach to therapy of ZES has been controversial from the beginning, and a number of controversies remain. In this article, four different controversies are analyzed from the prospective of the past (Zollinger-Dragstedt era, 1955-1980), present and what may happen in the future in light of recent results. Specifically analyzed are: 1) the role of gastric surgery in the management; 2) whether gastrinoma removal without aggressive resection in patients with ZES without MEN-I is the preferred surgical therapy; 3) whether patients with MEN-I should undergo routine surgical exploration; and 4) whether most gastrinomas will be localized preoperatively. An analysis of recent advances suggests there may be marked changes in the future from our current and our past approaches. Images Figure 2 PMID:7502529

  8. Expanding the microalgal industry--continuing controversy or compelling case?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Evan; Ross, Ian L; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Herein we examine the potential role that microalgae might play in the approaching challenges of energy and fuel security, and food and water supply. Microalgal production systems remain the subject of controversy however, generally consisting of arguments about the economic and environment sustainability of these systems. We discuss these aspects and draw some parallels with other systems to highlight real advantages and obstacles to expanding the modern microalgal industry. Emerging alternative production models and the relatively early developmental state of the microalgal biofuels industry provide room for extensive innovation that has the potential to bring the technology to a highly productive maturity.

  9. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  10. P2X7 Receptor-mediated Scavenger Activity of Mononuclear Phagocytes toward Non-opsonized Particles and Apoptotic Cells Is Inhibited by Serum Glycoproteins but Remains Active in Cerebrospinal Fluid*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ben J.; Duce, James A.; Valova, Valentina A.; Wong, Bruce; Bush, Ashley I.; Petrou, Steven; Wiley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid phagocytosis of non-opsonized particles including apoptotic cells is an important process that involves direct recognition of the target by multiple scavenger receptors including P2X7 on the phagocyte surface. Using a real-time phagocytosis assay, we studied the effect of serum proteins on this phagocytic process. Inclusion of 1–5% serum completely abolished phagocytosis of non-opsonized YG beads by human monocytes. Inhibition was reversed by pretreatment of serum with 1–10 mm tetraethylenepentamine, a copper/zinc chelator. Inhibitory proteins from the serum were determined as negatively charged glycoproteins (pI < 6) with molecular masses between 100 and 300 kDa. A glycoprotein-rich inhibitory fraction of serum not only abolished YG bead uptake but also inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes or neuronal cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Three copper- and/or zinc-containing serum glycoproteins, ceruloplasmin, serum amyloid P-component, and amyloid precursor protein, were identified, and the purified proteins were shown to inhibit the phagocytosis of beads by monocytes as well as phagocytosis of apoptotic neuronal cells by macrophages. Human adult cerebrospinal fluid, which contains very little glycoprotein, had no inhibitory effect on phagocytosis of either beads or apoptotic cells. These data suggest for the first time that metal-interacting glycoproteins present within serum are able to inhibit the scavenger activity of mononuclear phagocytes toward insoluble debris and apoptotic cells. PMID:22461619

  11. Stress shadows - a controversial topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Karakostas, Vassilis G.; Papadimitriou, Eletheria E.; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The spatial correlation between the positive Coulomb stress changes and the subsequent seismic activity has been firmly confirmed in many recent studies. If, however, the static stress transfer is a consistent expression of interaction between earthquakes one should also observe a decrease of the activity in the zones of negative stress changes. Instead, the existence of stress shadows is poorly evidenced and may be questioned. We tested the influence of the static stress changes associated with the coseismic slip of the 1995 Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake on locations of its aftershocks. The study was based on a detailed slip model for the main shock and accurate locations and reliable fault plane solutions of an adequate number of the aftershocks. We developed a statistical testing method, which tested whether the proportions of aftershocks located inside areas determined by a selected criterion on the static stress change could be attained if there were no effect of the stress change due to the main shock on aftershock locations. The areas of stress change were determined at the focus of every aftershock. The distribution of test statistic was constructed with the use of a two-dimensional nonparametric, kernel density estimator of the reference epicenter distribution. The tests highly confidently indicated a rise in probability to locate aftershocks inside areas of positive static stress change, which supported the hypothesis on the triggering effect in these areas. Furthermore, it was evidenced that a larger stress increase caused a stronger triggering effect. The analysis, however, did not evidence the existence of stress shadows inside areas of negative stress change. Contrary to expectations, the tests indicated a significant increase of the probability of event location in the areas of a stress decrease of more than or equal to 5.0 and 10.0 bar. It turned out that for areas of larger absolute stress change this probability increased regardless of

  12. The controversy of cranial bone motion.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L

    1997-08-01

    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment.

  13. Calling controversy: assessing synthetic biology's conflict potential.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Helge; Hampel, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Will synthetic biology elicit controversies similar to those of genetically modified crops before? Maybe, but where exactly are the analogies, and how can we gain substantial insights rather than mere guesses? We argue that as well as the intrinsic properties of the technologies at stake, the context of their implementation is decisive. To assess mechanisms of past and potential controversies, an investigative tool is presented. The Gate Resonance model, derived from older models of societal conflict, allows the identification of key elements of conflict generating processes. In monitoring the developing debate on synthetic biology using this model, analogies to the case of genetically modified crops appear less convincing. So far, there are only few indications that a controversy is imminent.

  14. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-07-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s—birth of quantum theory—and concluding with Erwin Schrödinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged.

  15. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century-old controversy.

    PubMed

    Nougué, O; Rode, N O; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Ségard, A; Chevin, L-M; Haag, C R; Lenormand, T

    2015-12-01

    Parthenogenesis (reproduction through unfertilized eggs) encompasses a variety of reproduction modes with (automixis) or without (apomixis) meiosis. Different modes of automixis have very different genetic and evolutionary consequences but can be particularly difficult to tease apart. In this study, we propose a new method to discriminate different types of automixis from population-level genetic data. We apply this method to diploid Artemia parthenogenetica, a crustacean whose reproductive mode remains controversial despite a century of intensive cytogenetic observations. We focus on A. parthenogenetica from two western Mediterranean populations. We show that they are diploid and that markers remain heterozygous in cultures maintained up to ~36 generations in the laboratory. Moreover, parallel patterns of population-wide heterozygosity levels between the two natural populations strongly support the conclusion that diploid A. parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low, but nonzero recombination. This settles a century-old controversy on Artemia, and, more generally, suggests that many automictic organisms harbour steep within-chromosome gradients of heterozygosity due to a transition from clonal transmission in centromere-proximal regions to a form of inbreeding similar to self-fertilization in centromere-distal regions. Such systems therefore offer a new avenue for contrasting the genomic consequences of asexuality and inbreeding.

  16. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  17. Controversial Novels and Censorship in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, John Stuart

    The legal history of censorship in general in the United States as well as the legal context in particular of the censorship of novels from schools is discussed. This thesis deals with four novels which have aroused substantial controversy when taught in the schools. The novels are: "The Catcher in the Rye," by J. D. Salinger, "The Adventures of…

  18. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  19. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  20. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  1. Controversies in Pediatric Sports Medicine (Commentary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)

  2. Controversial Art in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Bobby

    This document examines the events surrounding a controversial art exhibit that was held at Santa Fe Community College (SFCC), Gainesville, Florida, in 2002. The author asks the following questions: (1) What is the role of the arts on a community college campus? (2) What are a community college arts program's responsibilities to the Fine Arts and…

  3. Bones of Contention: Teaching Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Dealing with contentious issues is a part of living in a democracy. Controversies in the classroom range from discussions of fairness regarding playground rules to the rules of "just war." Understanding that there are multiple and often competing viewpoints is a prerequisite to being an informed and effective citizen. Teaching students to define…

  4. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  5. Teaching Controversial Issues in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith M.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    The design of a methods course offered at Georgia State University to prepare social studies teachers for dealing with controversial issues in the middle school or secondary social studies classroom is presented. The course focuses on identification, selection, an analysis of an issue as well as the requirement that the student develop some method…

  6. A Constructive Controversy Approach to "Case Studies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Sharon R.; Erickson, Karla A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of student responses to a case study titled "Drinks and Dinner," the authors evaluate the pedagogical potential of using constructive controversy case studies to teach about inequality. "Drinks and Dinner" is designed to capture the complexity of social interactions that defy simple solutions to engage students in…

  7. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  8. Controversial Therapies: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The article offers guidelines to educators evaluating controversial therapies and applies them to four such therapies: tinted lenses as a cure for dyslexia; orthomolecular treatments for learning disabilities; pharmaceutical intervention for dyslexia; and visual training for children with learning disabilities. (DB)

  9. 30 CFR 282.7 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 282.7 Section 282.7 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR General §...

  10. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER...

  11. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.9...

  12. Science, Politics, and the IQ Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyderman, Mark; Rothman, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The controversy over intelligence testing is more often influenced by political considerations than empirical research. A survey of 1,020 experts found that a majority agree that (1) intelligence can be defined; (2) heredity plays a role in individual and group IQ differences; and (3) intelligence testing in schools should continue at its present…

  13. Locally advanced prostate cancer: current controversies and optimisation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, S; Dal Pra, A; Catton, C; Bristow, R G; Warde, P

    2013-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men worldwide. The rate of patients presenting with locally advanced prostate cancer has declined in recent decades, mainly due to prostate-specific antigen screening, but the management of these patients still remains controversial. Current literature suggests that the standard of care for these patients is a combination approach with radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy. However, there remain many unresolved issues, including the role of dose-escalated radiation therapy, the additional benefit of surgery and the role of systemic therapy, both standard chemotherapeutic agents and novel agents. Furthermore, in the era of personalised medicine, additional research is needed to evaluate the role of biomarkers to better predict the risk of local and systemic relapse in this population.

  14. Erythropoietin in bone - Controversies and consensus.

    PubMed

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Neumann, Drorit; Gabet, Yankel

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the main hormone that regulates the production of red blood cells (hematopoiesis), by stimulating their progenitors. Beyond this vital function, several emerging roles have been noted for Epo in other tissues, including neurons, heart and retina. The skeletal system is also affected by Epo, however, its actions on bone are, as yet, controversial. Here, we review the seemingly contradicting evidence regarding Epo effects on bone remodeling. We also discuss the evidence pointing to a direct versus indirect effect of Epo on the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages. The current controversy may derive from a context-dependent mode of action of Epo, namely opposite skeletal actions during bone regeneration and steady-state bone remodeling. Differences in conclusions from the published in-vitro studies may thus relate to the different experimental conditions. Taken together, these studies indicate a complexity of Epo functions in bone cells.

  15. Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam James

    2017-02-03

    In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked. He or others must instead look to establish that the reasons against stance-taking on genuine ethical controversies are more compelling than those for it: plausibly a more challenging task.

  16. All-inside ACL: retroconstruction controversies.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2010-03-01

    All-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is controversial because the technique is new; as a result, evidence-based clinical outcome studies have yet to be published. The purpose of this article is to consider the following controversies (considered alphabetically): anatomy, biomechanics, biology, bioabsorbables, divergence of the femoral interference screw, expansion or widening of tunnels, fixation, future considerations, graft choice, the learning curve, technique, tensioning, and tibia blow-out fracture. The technique should be learned in stages. In the opinion of the author, the history of sports medicine and arthroscopy has been a progression toward less invasive techniques. In the future, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques should become more simple and reproducible, and clinical outcomes must be analyzed with long-term follow-up.

  17. Cancer stem cells: controversies in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah K; Matsui, William

    2009-11-01

    Increasing data suggest that the initiation, relapse, and progression of human cancers are driven by specific cell populations within an individual tumor. However, inconsistencies have emerged in precisely defining phenotypic markers that can reliably identify these "cancer stem cells" in nearly every human malignancy studied to date. Multiple myeloma, one of the first tumors postulated to be driven by a rare population of cancer stem cells, is no exception. Similar to other diseases, controversy surrounds the exact phenotype and biology of multiple myeloma cells with the capacity for clonogenic growth. Here, we review the studies that have led to these controversies and discuss potential reasons for these disparate findings. Moreover, we speculate how these inconsistencies may be resolved through studies by integrating advancements in both myeloma and stem cell biology.

  18. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  19. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  20. PrEP: controversy, agency and ownership

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Gus P; Race, Kane; Goicochea, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been and continues to be an intervention that causes controversy and debate between stakeholders involved in providing or advocating for it, and within communities in need of it. These controversies extend beyond the intrinsically complex issues of making it available. In this commentary, some of the possible roots of the air of dissent and drama that accompanies PrEP are explored. The similarities between the controversies that dogged the earliest human trials of PrEP and the ones we see today in the era of licensing and implementation are explored. We outline five mediating principles or cultural norms that may influence arguments about PrEP differently. Three areas of specific concern are identified: medical risk versus benefit, distrust and fear of healthcare interventions, and fears for individual responsibility and community cohesion. The fear that PrEP may somehow represent a loss of control over one or more of these domains is suggested as an underlying factor. The development of countervailing measures, to institute greater community “ownership” of PrEP, and concomitant improvements in the sense of individual agency over sexual risk are outlined and recommended. PMID:27760689

  1. Common controversies in management of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2017-01-01

    Biliary strictures are caused by a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant conditions, each requiring a specific treatment approach. Management of biliary strictures often involves endoscopy either for definite treatment, as a bridge to surgery or for palliative purposes. Endoscopic treatment of various types of biliary strictures is not standardized and there are multiple areas of controversy regarding the best treatment options. These controversies are mainly due to lack of well-designed comparative studies to support a specific therapy. This paper reviews three common areas of controversy in the endoscopic management of biliary strictures. The areas discussed in this editorial include the role of biliary drainage in resectable malignant strictures and whether such drainage should be performed routinely prior to surgery, the best endoscopic palliation for unresectable hilar strictures and whether unilateral or bilateral stenting should be attempted, and the optimal endoscopic management for dominant strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The goal of this editorial is twofold. The first is to review the current literature on management of the aforementioned strictures and offer recommendations based on available evidence. The second goal is to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which in turn can encourage future research on these topics. PMID:28275292

  2. The 2013 cholesterol guideline controversy: Would better evidence prevent pharmaceuticalization?

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt; Barnes, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. A class of medications, known as statins, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which are associated with CVD. The newest 2013 U.S. cholesterol guideline contains an assessment of risk that greatly expands the number of individuals without CVD for whom statins are recommended. Other countries are also moving in this direction. This article examines the controversy surrounding these guidelines using the 2013 cholesterol guidelines as a case study of broader trends in clinical guidelines to use a narrow evidence base, expand the boundaries of disease and overemphasize pharmaceutical treatment. We find that the recommendation in the 2013 cholesterol guidelines to initiate statins in individuals with a lower risk of CVD is controversial and there is much disagreement on whether there is evidence for the guideline change. We note that, in general, clinical guidelines may use evidence that has a number of biases, are subject to conflicts of interest at multiple levels, and often do not include unpublished research. Further, guidelines may contribute to the "medicalization" or "pharmaceuticalization" of healthcare. Specific policy recommendations to improve clinical guidelines are indicated: these include improving the evidence base, establishing a public registry of all results, including unpublished ones, and freeing the research process from pharmaceutical sector control.

  3. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: recent advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Jin

    2015-09-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory clinical syndrome of uncontrolled immune response which results in hypercytokinemia due to underlying primary or secondary immune defect. A number of genetic defects in transport, processing and function of cytotoxic granules which result in defective granule exocytosis and cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells have been well identified at the cellular and molecular level. Important advances have been made during the last 20 years in the diagnosis and treatment of HLH. The Histiocyte Society has proposed diagnostic guideline using both clinical and laboratory findings in HLH-2004 protocol, and this has been modified partly in 2009. HLH used to be a fatal disease, but the survival of HLH patients has improved to more than 60% with the use of chemoimmunotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) over the past 2 decades. However, HCT is still the only curative option of treatment for primary HLH and refractory/relapsed HLH after proper chemoimmunotherapy. The outcome of HCT for HLH patients was also improved steadily during last decades, but HCT for HLH still carries significant mortality and morbidity. Moreover, there remain ongoing controversies in various aspects of HCT including indication of HCT, donor selection, timing of HCT, conditioning regimen, and mixed chimerism after HCT. This review summarized the important practical issues which were proven by previous studies on HCT for HLH, and tried to delineate the controversies among them.

  4. Seborrheic dermatitis: etiology, risk factors, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, based on the observation of their presence in affected skin and the therapeutic response to antifungal agents. Others have proposed that Malassezia is incidental to a primary inflammatory dermatosis that resulted in increased cell turnover, scaling, and inflammation in the epidermis, similar to psoriasis. The presence of host susceptibility factors, permitting the transition of M furfur to its pathogenic form, may be associated with immune response and inflammation. Metabolites produced by Malassezia species, including oleic acid, malssezin, and indole-3-carbaldehyde, have been implicated. SD also has been traditionally considered to be a form of dermatitis based on the presence of Malassezia in healthy skin, the absence the pathogenic mycelial form of Malassezia yeasts in SD, and its chronic course. As a result, proposed treatments vary, ranging from topical corticosteroids to topical antifungals and antimicrobial peptides.

  5. The Busing Controversy. [NAESP] School Leadership Digest [Second Series, Number 6. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Dee

    To understand the controversy over busing, it is necessary to understand the relationship between busing and the issues that are actually at the root of the controversy: desegregation and freedom of choice. Much of the political activity surrounding busing is a subtle transfer of attention away from the basic issue of desegregation. Other…

  6. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    PubMed Central

    Katira, Arnav; Tan, Peng H.

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done. PMID:27144066

  7. Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Copp, Andrew J; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-08-01

    Neural tube defects are severe congenital malformations affecting around one in every 1000 pregnancies. An innovation in clinical management has come from the finding that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention with folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in the UK. Genetic predisposition accounts for most of the risk of neural tube defects, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but studies of mouse models of neural tube defects show that anencephaly, open spina bifida, and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, whereas skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be postneurulation disorders.

  8. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation.

  9. Early Controversies Over Athetosis: II. Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lanska, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Athetosis has been controversial since it was first described by William Hammond in 1871; many aspects of Hammond’s career were equally controversial. Methods Primary sources have been used to review treatment controversies in the 50-year period following the initial description of athetosis. Results The treatments used most commonly employed available pharmaceutical agents and modalities (e.g., galvanism). Initial anecdotal reports of success were seldom confirmed with subsequent experience. Several novel invasive therapies were also developed and promoted, all of which damaged or destroyed either upper or lower motor neuron pathways, and were also often associated with high mortality rates. In general, these therapies substituted paresis for abnormal spontaneous movements. These included peripheral nerve stretching, excision of a portion of the precentral gyrus, rhizotomy, nerve “transplantation” (i.e., neurotomy and nerve-to-nerve anastomoses), and “muscle group isolation” (i.e., alcohol neurolysis). There was no agreement on the appropriateness of such high-risk procedures, particularly given the intentional generation of further neurological morbidity. Discussion Pharmaceutical agents and modalities initially employed for athetosis had little a priori evidence-based justification and no biologically plausible theoretical framework to guide empiric treatment selection. Subsequently, all the invasive procedures employed were directed at lessening or removing the manifestations, rather than the underlying cause, of the abnormal central nervous system “irritation,” usually by imposing paresis or paralysis. Factors contributing to the disparity in outcomes between favorable initial reports and the often-disappointing results of later studies included reliance on anecdotal reports or small uncontrolled case series, placebo effects, biased observation, misdiagnosis, and biased reporting. PMID:23450199

  10. Controversies in ureteroscopy: Wire, basket, and sheath

    PubMed Central

    Rizkala, Emad R; Monga, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    In the last one to two decades, flexible ureteroscopy has rapidly expanded its role in the treatment of urologic stone disease. With the frequent and expanded use of flexible ureteroscopy, other ancillary instruments were developed in order to ease and facilitate this technique, such as ureteral access sheaths (UAS) and a variety of wires and baskets. These developments, along with improved surgeon ureteroscopic competence, have often brought into question the need to implement the “traditional technique” of flexible ureteroscopy. In this review, we discuss a brief history of flexible ureteroscopy, its expanded indications, and the controversy surrounding the use of UAS, wires, and baskets. PMID:24082447

  11. Intellectual property and information controversy (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    As advanced information has been proceeded rapidly, intellectual property has become more important than ever as business resources of enterprises. Based on the former report by the author "present status of and trend in intellectual property" this paper describes "information" related intellectual property controversy which have been occurred, that is, 1) affairs related to computer hardwares and softwares (the case of compatible machines and OS, the case of application softwares, computer crimes) and 2) affairs on trade secret (the case of revealing enterprises'secret, the case of industrial espionage). It also discusses how intellectual property should be protected and utilized from now on.

  12. J Wave Syndromes: History and Current Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zheng, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    The concept of J wave syndromes was first proposed in 2004 by Yan et al for a spectrum of electrocardiographic (ECG) manifestations of prominent J waves that are associated with a potential to predispose affected individuals to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Although the concept of J wave syndromes is widely used and accepted, there has been tremendous debate over the definition of J wave, its ionic and cellular basis and arrhythmogenic mechanism. In this review article, we attempted to discuss the history from which the concept of J wave syndromes (JWS) is evolved and current controversies in JWS. PMID:27721848

  13. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  14. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  15. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  16. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  17. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  18. Breast cancer screening: controversy of impact.

    PubMed

    Berry, Donald A

    2013-08-01

    Few medical issues have been as controversial--or as political, at least in the United States-as the role of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The advantages of finding a cancer early seem obvious. Indeed, randomized trials evaluating screening mammography demonstrate a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but the benefits are less than one would hope. Moreover, the randomized trials are themselves subject to criticism, including that they are irrelevant in the modern era because most were conducted before chemotherapy and hormonal therapy became widely used. In this article I chronicle the evidence and controversies regarding mammographic screening, including attempts to assess the relative contributions of screening and therapy in the substantial decreases in breast cancer mortality that have been observed in many countries over the last 20-25 years. I emphasize the trade-off between harms and benefits depending on the woman's age and other risk factors. I also discuss ways for communicating the associated risks to women who have to decide whether screening (and what screening strategy) is right for them.

  19. Gardnerella vaginalis: characteristics, clinical considerations, and controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance, Gram stain reaction, and genus affiliation of Gardnerella vaginalis have been controversial since Gardner and Dukes described the organism as the cause of "nonspecific vaginitis," a common disease of women which is now called bacterial vaginosis. The organism was named G. vaginalis when taxonomic studies showed that it was unrelated to bacteria in various genera including Haemophilus and Corynebacterium. Electron microscopy and chemical analyses have elucidated the organism's gram-variable reaction. Controversy over the etiology of bacterial vaginosis was largely resolved by (i) studies using improved media and methods for the isolation and identification of bacteria in vaginal fluids and (ii) standardization of criteria for clinical and laboratory diagnosis. Besides G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., Mycoplasma hominis, and certain obligate anaerobes are now acknowledged as participants in bacterial vaginosis. The finding that G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., and M. hominis inhabit the rectum indicates a potential source of autoinfection in addition to sexual transmission. Extravaginal infections with G. vaginalis are increasingly recognized, especially when the toxic anticoagulant polyanetholesulfonate is omitted from blood cultures and when urine cultures are incubated anaerobically for 48 h. The finding that mares harbor G. vaginalis suggests that an equine model can be developed for studies of Gardnerella pathogenesis. Images PMID:1498765

  20. The Discussion of Biotechnology Controversial Issues--An Exploratory Study about Its Potentialities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha dos Reis, Pedro

    This paper describes a qualitative research that used small group discussion activities centered in biotechnology and genetics controversies as a contribution to the promotion of students' thinking tools. Students' written conclusions and reflections about the activities, teachers' interviews, participant observation of the classes, and their…

  1. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  2. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  3. Interferon-resistant Daudi cells are deficient in interferon-alpha-induced ISGF3 alpha activation, but remain sensitive to the interferon-alpha-induced increase in ISGF3 gamma content.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Tovey, M G

    1993-10-01

    Low levels of the transcription factor ISGF3 alpha were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of untreated Daudi cells, which increased markedly following interferon (IFN) treatment. In contrast no ISGF3 alpha was detected in an IFN-resistant clone of Daudi cells, DIF8, and only low levels were detected in these cells after IFN-alpha treatment. High levels of ISGF3 were produced in vitro, however, by the addition of ISGF3 alpha to extracts of IFN-treated DIF8 cells, indicating that IFN is unable to produce substantial amounts of functional ISGF3 alpha in DIF8 cells. A second clone of IFN-resistant Daudi cells, DIF3, also exhibited defective ISGF3 alpha production, which was restored to normal in the subclone DIF3REV5 that had reverted to high IFN sensitivity. Thus, the antiproliferative effect of IFN on Daudi cells and derived clones is closely related to the level of ISGF3 present in the nucleus of these cells. IFN-alpha, however, also enhances the content of ISGF3 gamma in IFN-resistant cells as well as certain proteins of unknown function, raising the possibility that a second pathway of IFN-alpha signal transduction, distinct from the ISGF3 pathway, remains functional in both DIF8 and DIF3 cells.

  4. [On controversies around the Oedipus Complex].

    PubMed

    Drwiega, Marek

    2002-01-01

    In the article the author would like to draw the readers' attention to one of the central issues of psychoanalysis, i.e. Oedipus complex. In the development of the psychoanalysis the classical conception of Oedipus complex presented by Freud gave rise to a severe criticism both on the part of some psychoanalysts, especially women such as e.g. Melanie Klein, and on the part of ethnographers such as B. Malinowski. In the paper the author presents the main controversies concerning this interesting discussion. The fact of the matter is that the Oedipus complex is a hotly debated subject, not only from the cultural point of view but also within the psychoanalytical movement.

  5. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  6. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application."

  7. Evolution of the Two Cultures controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniek, Ronald J.

    1981-05-01

    The Two Cultures schism is a persistent problem in our society. For over a century, scientific spokesmen and literary critics, from T. H. Huxley and M. Arnold to C. P. Snow and F. R. Leavis, have been involved in the Two Cultures issue. This article examines the evolution of the controversy between the ''scientific'' and ''humanistic'' elements of Western culture and its relation to educational policies. The division and antagonism between these two cultures appears to have arisen from differences in the human attitudes that they are preceived to engender. ''Scientific'' professionalism has been associated with a progressive optimism and self-assurance that nurture a broad humanitarianism, while the ''literary'' tradition is characterized by restraint, acceptance, and a more selective humanism.

  8. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  9. Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnostic Approaches and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Konstantinos; Spanou, Loukia

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In the last ten years a large number of publications have highlighted the limitations of traditional approaches and the inadequacies of conventional biomarkers to diagnose and monitor renal insufficiency in the acute setting. A great effort was directed not only to the discovery and validation of new biomarkers aimed to detect AKI more accurately but also to standardise the definition of AKI. Despite the advances in both areas, biomarkers have not yet entered into routine clinical practice and the definition of this syndrome has many areas of uncertainty. This review will discuss the controversies in diagnosis and the potential of novel biomarkers to improve the definition of the syndrome. PMID:28167845

  10. Current questions and possible controversies in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, L M; Simon, A K; Baehrecke, E H

    2015-01-01

    Interest in autophagy has exploded over the last decade, with publications highlighting crosstalk with several other cellular processes including secretion, endocytosis, and cell suicide pathways including apoptosis. Autophagy proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes independently of their roles in autophagy, creating complexities in the interpretation of autophagy (Atg) mutant gene data. Interestingly, this self-eating process is a survival mechanism that can also promote cell death, but when and how autophagy may ‘switch’ its function is still under debate. Indeed, there are currently many models of how autophagy actually influences cell death. In this review, we highlight some outstanding questions and possible controversies in the autophagy field. PMID:26682061

  11. Controversies in pharmacotherapy of pain management.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; Walsh, Declan; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan B

    2005-09-01

    Since the establishment of the WHO three-step ladder for management of cancer pain, several controversies have arisen, which are partly due to new drug development, reformulations of older analgesics, and technological advancements. As a result, clinicians need clarification of several questions. Is morphine the opioid of choice for moderate to severe pain in cancer? Should combinations of opioids be used? When should spinal opioids be used to treat pain in cancer? What are the appropriate opioid doses for breakthrough pain? Should selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitors be used? What is the best tactic to treat neuropathic pain, and what first-line adjuvant analgesic should be used? And do bisphosphonates relieve bone pain in cancers other than breast cancer and myeloma? This review addresses these questions.

  12. The Brugada syndrome: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Boussy, Tim; Sarkozy, Andrea; Chierchia, Gian-Battista; Richter, Sergio; Brugada, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    The diagnosis of Brugada syndrome (BS) is based on a combination of clinical (malignant arrhythmias presenting as syncopal or sudden death episodes) and electrocardiographic (pathognomonic ST segment elevation morphology) features. Over the last 15 years, since its introduction as a distinct clinical entity, the BS has been extensively investigated worldwide. In this article an overview of recent developments concerning the genetic background, the diagnostic tools and the therapeutic alternatives will be presented. In the last years, the results of the first medium-term follow-up studies have also been published. Some of these studies present contradictory results, especially concerning the identification of useful sudden death predictors in asymptomatic patients. The review presented here will discuss this prognostic controversy and will offer possible explanations for the different results.

  13. Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept.

  14. The controversial role of the Hedgehog pathway in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Mar, BG; Amakye, D; Aifantis, I; Buonamici, S

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) is a developmental signaling pathway in which Hh ligands bind Patched (Ptch), which relieves its inhibition of Smoothened (Smo), allowing the Gli family of transcription factors to translocate to the nucleus and activate Hh target genes. The role of Hh signaling in hematopoiesis is controversial and ill defined. Although some groups observed self-renewal defects with decreased replating and reduced efficiency of secondary murine transplants, other groups reported no hematopoietic phenotypes, which may be related to the timing of Hh abrogation. In malignant hematopoiesis, most attention has been focused on the role of Hh signaling in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), considered by many to be a stem cell disorder that bears the constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Despite the elimination of most leukemia cells through BCR-ABL inhibition, most patients remain PCR positive, suggesting that the putative CML stem cell may be resistant to kinase antagonism. Groups are now exploring the Hh pathway as an alternate pathway supporting CML stem cell survival. Knockdown or inhibition of Smo abrogates or delays the appearance of CML in several in vitro and in vivo models. These data have lead to clinical trials using BCR-ABL kinase and novel Smo inhibitors in combination. PMID:21660044

  15. Mapping Intravascular Ultrasound Controversies in Interventional Cardiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, David; Adams, Samantha; Maresca, Bruno; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with complementary imaging

  16. Endometriosis: A Disease That Remains Enigmatic

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, a gynecologic pathology, is defined by the presence of a tissue similar to uterine endometrium, which is located in places other than physiologically appropriate. These endometrial heterotopic islets contain glands and stroma and are functionally capable of responding to exogenous, endogenous, or local hormonal stimuli. Endometriosis affects 8%–10% of women of reproductive age; in 30% of the women, the condition is associated with primary or secondary infertility. In several instances, endometriosis persists as a minimal or mild disease, or it can resolve on its own. Other cases of endometriosis show severe symptomatology that ends when menopause occurs. Endometriosis can, however, reactivate in several postmenopausal women when iatrogenic or endogenous hormones are present. Endometriosis is occasionally accompanied by malignant ovarian tumors, especially endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas. Its pathogenesis is widely debated, and its variable morphology appears to represent a continuum of individual presentations and progressions. Endometriosis has no pathognomonic signs or symptoms; it is therefore difficult to diagnose. Because of its enigmatic etiopathogenesis, there is currently no satisfactory therapy for all patients with endometriosis. Treatments include medications, surgery, or combined therapies; currently, the only procedures that seem to cure endometriosis are hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In this paper, we review the most controversial and enigmatic aspects of this disease. PMID:23956867

  17. Controversies in the Diagnosis and Management of NAFLD and NASH

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Kowdley, Kris; Charlton, Michael; Tetri, Brent; Harrison, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in a subset of patients with NAFLD and is characterized by the presence of hepa-tocellular injury, which is progressive in a substantial proportion of cases and can lead to cirrhosis and all of its complications. Although the diagnosis of NAFLD can be made through imaging studies or liver biopsy, the diagnosis of NASH still requires histologic confirmation. Liver biopsy should be performed in the presence of risk factors for advanced disease. Measures aimed at promoting weight loss, a healthier lifestyle, and optimization of metabolic risk factors remain the cornerstone of management of NAFLD. Therapeutic agents that are presently considered the most promising in NAFLD are effective in less than 50% of patients. Among patients with biopsy-proven NASH, treatment with pharmacologic agents should be considered; however, the role of specific agents in NASH still needs further study. Despite a wealth of research over the past 15 years, many controversies remain with respect to the diagnosis and management of NAFLD and NASH as well as the influence of alcohol on liver disease progression in these patients. PMID:24976805

  18. Chemoradiation for gastric cancer: controversies, updates and novel techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fan, M; Hu, W

    2015-01-01

    The INT0116 trial established the role of adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) in the multidisciplinary approach to the management of locally advanced gastric cancer. However, whether adjuvant CRT is indispensable for patients undergoing D2 dissection remains undefined. The adjuvant chemoradiation therapy in stomach cancer (ARTIST) trial, which was designed to compare adjuvant chemotherapy to CRT, failed to demonstrate differences in disease-free and overall survival in the whole study group; however, subgroup analysis indicated that patients with lymph node metastasis may benefit from additional radiation. A follow-up ARTIST II trial is currently under way. The efficacy of adjuvant CRT remains controversial because of variation among studies in the inclusion criteria and treatment delivery methods; however, the identification of patients who would benefit from CRT is critical. Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy protect normal tissues via motion management and decreased radiation-induced toxicity and contribute to plan optimization. Further studies integrating clinical and molecular factors as well as neoadjuvant CRT are warranted. PMID:25827208

  19. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  20. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-02-23

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  1. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  2. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  3. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  4. The case for fencing remains intact.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  5. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  6. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains.

    PubMed

    Vass, Arpad A; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the "odor signatures" unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  7. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  8. The Spokane flood controversy and the Martian outflow channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    The controversy over Bretz's hypothesis concerning the cataclysmic Spokane flood is discussed. Attention is directed to similarities between the Channeled Scabland of Washington and some Martian land features considered to be catastrophic flood channels. Characteristics of the enormous plexus of proglacial stream channels eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington are described. The controversiality of the suggestion that a catastrophic flood is responsible for the Martian features is considered with respect to the Spokane flood controversy.

  9. Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Sarah E.; Deering, Chad D.; Bachmann, Olivier; Huber, Christian; Gutiérrez, Francisco J.

    2014-10-01

    The formation of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite via extraction of interstitial melt from an upper crustal mush predicts the complementary formation of large amounts of (typically unerupted) silicic cumulates. However, identification of these cumulates remains controversial. One hindrance to our ability to identify them is a lack of clear predictions for complementary chemical signatures between extracted melts and their residues. To address this discrepancy, we present a generalized geochemical model tracking the evolution of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently experiencing crystallization and extraction of interstitial melt. Our method uses a numerical solution rather than analytical, thereby allowing for various dependencies between crystallinity, partition coefficients for variably compatible and/or incompatible elements, and melt extraction efficiency. Results reveal unambiguous fractionation signatures for the extracted melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. Our model is first applied to a well-constrained example (Searchlight pluton, USA), and provides a good fit to geochemical data. We then extrapolate our results to understanding the relationship between volcanic and plutonic silicic suites on a global scale. Utilizing the NAVDAT database to identify crystal accumulation or depletion signatures for each suite, we suggest that many large granitoids are indeed silicic cumulates, although their crystal accumulation signature is expected to be subtle.

  10. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  11. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  12. Diagnostic Criteria for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pitfalls and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Marla E.; Chizen, Donna R.; Pierson, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that as many as 1.4 million Canadian women may be afflicted with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Although PCOS is heralded as one of the most common endocrine disorders occurring in women, its diagnosis, management, and associated long-term health risks remain controversial. Historically, the combination of androgen excess and anovulation has been considered the hallmark of PCOS. To date, while these symptoms remain the most prevalent among PCOS patients, neither is considered an absolute requisite for the syndrome. Inclusion of ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries as a diagnostic marker has substantially broadened the phenotypic spectrum of PCOS, yet much debate surrounds the validity of these newly identified milder variants of the syndrome. Difficulty in resolving the spectrum of PCOS stems from the continued use of inconsistent and inaccurate methods of evaluating androgen excess, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. At present, there is no clear-cut definition of biochemical hyperandrogenemia, particularly since we depend on poor laboratory standards for measuring androgens in women. Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism are ill-defined in women with PCOS, and the diagnosis of both hirsutism and polycystic ovarian morphology remains alarmingly subjective. Lastly, there is an inappropriate tendency to assign ovulatory status solely on the basis of menstrual cycle history or poorly timed endocrine measurements. In this review, we elaborate on these limitations and propose possible resolutions for clinical and research settings. By stimulating awareness of these limitations, we hope to generate a dialogue aimed at solidifying the evaluation of PCOS in Canadian women. PMID:18786289

  13. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population.

  14. [Giant viruses: update, enigmas, controversies and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2016-12-01

    Unlike microbes known in his time, the first virus (that of tobacco mosaic disease) was discovered by Ivanoski in 1892 because it was not retained by Chamberland's porcelain candles. For more than a century afterward, viruses were equated with this simple property that is still extensively used today (using modern 0,2 µm pore filters) as a practical criterion to delineate the "viral fraction" from other microbes in medical or environmental samples. The first documented exception to the simplistic criterion of particle size came with the discovery of Mimivirus, the viral nature of which was eventually recognized in 2003, following ten years during which it was mistaken for an obligate intracellular bacterium. Thirteen more years later, we now realize that non-filtering "giant viruses" are not rare, probably ubiquitous, and come in a large variety of virion shapes, genome sizes, gene contents, and replication strategies. Following a quick description of the 4 giant virus families known today, we discuss the enigmas, controversies and perspectives of conceptual revolutions that are brought about by this new and booming area of virology.

  15. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  16. The catatonia conundrum: controversies and contradictions.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Parakh, Preeti; Sridhar, M

    2014-02-01

    Although catatonia is known to psychiatrists for more than a century, it is still poorly understood, often under recognized, have inspired debate and criticism about nosological status of the catatonic syndrome in recent times without reaching its conclusion. It can present with a number of psychiatric and medical illnesses and is easily treatable, though treatment response varies depending upon the underlying condition and can lead on to a multitude of complications, if not treated. Some issues are more than forty catatonic signs are available to scientific audience for diagnosis; threshold number for labelling varies according to the nosological system followed and the underlying condition; and mood stabilizers like carbamazepine and lithium are helpful in some cases of idiopathic periodic catatonia. Researchers have been asking for a separate diagnostic category for catatonia since long and the debate has gained pace over the last few years, with new editions of both DSM and ICD coming up. Therefore, this paper looks at the controversies associated with the diagnosis and classification of catatonia, the arguments and counter-arguments and future directions, in crisp.

  17. Controversies in proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Curtis; Henderson, Randal H; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, R Charles; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2016-08-01

    Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use. In this review, we summarize the results of recently published studies that support the safety and efficacy of PT in the treatment of prostate cancer. We also review the available cost-effectiveness data for PT and discuss the future of PT, including the current randomized trial comparing PT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the need for additional research that may help to establish the relative benefit of PT when compared to photon-based radiation therapy.

  18. Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.

    PubMed

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

    2014-01-01

    Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage.

  19. Aortic arch dissection: a controversy of classification.

    PubMed

    Lempel, Jason K; Frazier, Aletta Ann; Jeudy, Jean; Kligerman, Seth J; Schultz, Randall; Ninalowo, Hammed A; Gozansky, Elliott K; Griffith, Bartley; White, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Aortic dissections originating in the ascending aorta and descending aorta have been classified as type A and type B dissections, respectively. However, dissections with intimal flap extension into the aortic arch between the innominate and left subclavian arteries are not accounted for adequately in the widely used Stanford classification. This gap has been the subject of controversy in the medical and surgical literature, and there is a tendency among many radiologists to categorize such arch dissections as type A lesions, thus making them an indication for surgery. However, the radiologic perspective is not supported by either standard dissection classification or current clinical management. In this special report, the origin of dissection classification and its evolution into current radiologic interpretation and surgical practice are reviewed. The cause for the widespread misconception about classification and treatment algorithms is identified. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained as part of this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study to assess all aortic dissection studies performed at the University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore between 2010 and 2012 to determine the prevalence of arch dissections. Finally, a unified classification system that reconciles imaging interpretation and management implementation is proposed.

  20. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  1. Lyme disease: diagnostic issues and controversies.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme disease is a controversial topic. Most practitioners and scientists recognize that Lyme disease is associated with certain objective clinical manifestations supported by laboratory evidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the etiologic agent). There are others, however, who believe that patients with Lyme disease may have a wide variety of entirely nonspecific symptoms without any objective clinical manifestation and that laboratory evidence of infection by B. burgdorferi is not required to support the diagnosis. In reality, this perspective is not evidence based and would inevitably lead to innumerable misdiagnoses, given the high frequency of medically unexplained symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pains, in the general population. Although those espousing this viewpoint do not believe that a positive laboratory test is required, nevertheless, they often seek out and promote alternative, unapproved testing methods that frequently provide false-positive results to justify their diagnosis. Herein, we provide a brief overview of Lyme disease testing, emphasizing current usage and limitations. We also discuss the use of nonvalidated procedures and the prospects for a reduction in such testing practices in the future.

  2. Polyp Resection - Controversial Practices and Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    von Renteln, Daniel; Pohl, Heiko

    2017-03-09

    Detection and complete removal of precancerous neoplastic polyps are central to effective colorectal cancer screening. The prevalence of neoplastic polyps in the screening population in the United States is likely >50%. However, most persons with neoplastic polyps are never destined to develop cancer, and do not benefit for finding and removing polyps, and may only be harmed by the procedure. Further 70-80% of polyps are diminutive (≤5 mm) and such polyps almost never contain cancer. Given the questionable benefit, the high-cost and the potential risk changing our approach to the management of diminutive polyps is currently debated. Deemphasizing diminutive polyps and shifting our efforts to detection and complete removal of larger and higher-risk polyps deserves discussion and study. This article explores three controversies, and emerging concepts related to endoscopic polyp resection. First, we discuss challenges of optical resect-and-discard strategy and possible alternatives. Second, we review recent studies that support the use of cold snare resection for ≥5 mm polyps. Thirdly, we examine current evidence for prophylactic clipping after resection of large polyps.

  3. Microsurgical free flaps: Controversies in maxillofacial reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264

  4. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:24910577

  5. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  6. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  7. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  8. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  9. Interleukin-3 and ex vivo maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Although the utilization of IL-3 in the ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells has been considered as an attractive possibility, its mode of action remains unclear and controversial. Some reports show that IL-3 maintains or even enhances primitive stem cell activity, whereas others show the opposite. The presence of serum in culture media enhances the pro-differentiating effect of IL-3 on stem cells. Conversely, addition of IL-3 to serum-free cultures improves the capacity of TPO, SCF and Flt3-ligand to promote the self-renewal of primitive stem cells. The presence or absence of serum or of some serum substitutes (in serum-free cultures), as well as other culture parameters are probably responsible for these contrasting effects of IL-3 on stem cells. However, none of the data presently evaluated bring a clear, definitive explanation to this apparent paradox. Those data that appear to be the most informative are presented and discussed in this "technical review".

  10. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    PubMed

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  11. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  12. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  13. Controversy in the Composition Classroom: Debate as a Mode of Pre-Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClish, Glen

    Controversy and debate can be effectively employed as the central pre-writing activity in the composition classroom. The current model of prewriting in the composition classroom is the reflective model, which involves relatively private exploration of issues and ideas leading to paper topics. Although in the short run it is easier for both student…

  14. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  15. Controversies in Treatment of Acetabular Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Krupic, Ferid; Biscevic, Mirza; Grubor, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acetabular fractures treatment represents a great controversy, challenge and dilemma for an orthopedic surgeon. Aim: The aim of the paper was to present the results of treatment of 96 acetabular fractures in the Clinic of Traumatology Banja Luka, in the period from 2003 to 2013, as well as to raise awareness regarding the controversy in the methods of choice in treating acetabulum fractures. Material and methods: The series consists of 96 patients, 82 males and 14 females, average age 40.5 years. Traffic trauma was the cause of fractures in 79 patients (85%), and in 17 patients (15%) fractures occurred due to falls from height. Polytrauma was present in 31 patients (32%). According to the classification of Judet and Letournel, representation of acetabular fractures was as follows: posterior wall in 32 patients, posterior column in 28, anterior wall in 4, anterior column in 2, transverse fractures in 8, posterior wall and posterior column in 10, anterior and posterior wall in 6, both- column in 4 and transversal fracture and posterior wall in 2 patients. 14 patients were treated with traction, that is, 6 patients with femoral traction and 8 patients with both lateral and femoral traction. 82 patients (86.4%) were surgically treated. Kocher-Langenbeck approach was applied in the treatment of 78 patients. In two patients from the Kocher-Langenbeck’s approach, the Ollier’s approach had to be applied as well. Two acetabular were primarily treated with Ollier’s approach. Extended Smith- Peterson’s approach was applied 4 times, and Emile Letournel’s (ilioinguinal) approach 14 times. Results: Functional outcome (after follow-up of 18 months), according to the Harris hip score of surgical treatment in 82 patients, was as follows: good 46 (56%), satisfactory 32 (39%) and poor 4 (5%). Results of acetabulum fractures treated with traction were: good 8 (57%), satisfactory 4 (28%) and poor 2 (15%). According to the Brook’s classification of heterotopic

  16. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  17. Psychological controversies in gastroparesis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Sally; Hebbard, Geoff; Knowles, Simon R

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systematically review literature addressing three key psychologically-oriented controversies associated with gastroparesis. METHODS A comprehensive search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases was performed to identify literature addressing the relationship between gastroparesis and psychological factors. Two researchers independently screened all references. Inclusion criteria were: an adult sample of gastroparesis patients, a quantitative methodology, and at least one of the following: (1) evaluation of the prevalence of psychopathology; (2) an outcome measure of anxiety, depression, or quality of life; and (3) evidence of a psychological intervention. Case studies, review articles, and publications in languages other than English were excluded from the current review. RESULTS Prevalence of psychopathology was evaluated by three studies (n = 378), which found that combined anxiety/depression was present in 24% of the gastroparesis cohort, severe anxiety in 12.4%, depression in 21.8%-23%, and somatization in 50%. Level of anxiety and depression was included as an outcome measure in six studies (n = 1408), and while limited research made it difficult to determine the level of anxiety and depression in the cohort, a clear positive relationship with gastroparesis symptom severity was evident. Quality of life was included as an outcome measure in 11 studies (n = 2076), with gastroparesis patients reporting lower quality of life than population norms, and a negative relationship between quality of life and symptom severity. One study assessed the use of a psychological intervention for gastroparesis patients (n = 120) and found that depression and gastric function were improved in patients who received psychological intervention, however the study had considerable methodological limitations. CONCLUSION Gastroparesis is associated with significant psychological distress and poor quality of life. Recommendations for future studies and the development of

  18. Controversy erupts in Brazil over penis nicknames.

    PubMed

    1995-10-09

    Commissioned by the Brazilian health ministry to conduct a publicity campaign designed to encourage the use of condoms, the Master Communication and Marketing company conducted a survey in which it collected dozens of nicknames for the penis. The television component of the campaign involves an actor who holds a heart-to-heart conversation with his penis, recommending that it use condoms and showing it, with a candle, how to do so. "Braulio" was chosen as the name for the penis. Braulio, however, is a common men's name in Brazil. Shortly after the launch of the campaign, men named Braulio staged numerous protests against the use of their name. The Health Minister subsequently suspended the campaign on September 23, 1995, to allow selection of an alternate name for the penis. The campaign has resumed, this time using eight impersonal expressions such as "partner" and "him" to identify the penis, and is planned to run for three months despite the controversy. A journalist formerly named Braulio has officially changed his name to avoid being mocked, a lawyer in Sao Paulo named Braulio will continue to head a suit against the government filed by a group of Braulios alleging moral damage, and the Catholic Church criticizes the bluntness of the campaign, which mentions oral and anal sex on the radio. Nonetheless, a health ministry poll of almost 1000 people found that 80% supported the campaign. The coordinator of the Program of Sexually Transmitted Diseases insists that the blunt language is necessary to reach the lower-income, less-educated masculine population. Official figures indicate that 80% of the slightly more than 71,000 registered AIDS cases in Brazil are among men aged 19-35 years, and it is among men aged 20-40 years that HIV is spreading most rapidly. The health ministry has been bombarded with alternate nicknames for the penis since the initial uproar, enough to fill a book. The article points out that the nicknames vary according to region.

  19. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  20. The Gaia Controversy: AGU'S Chapman Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Eric G.

    The controversial Gaia Hypothesis of James Lovelock of Coombe Mill, Launceston, Cornwall, U.K., and his colleagues variously contends that throughout Earth history the global biosphere has influenced, even controlled, the physicochemical evolution of Earth's environments (especially oceans and climate) for its own benefit. Since the origin of life, the biosphere has influenced selective pressures on evolution, maintained the Earth in a kind of homeostasis, and thus created an environmental optimum through time, regulated by and for the biosphere. Rarely has a hypothesis immediately sparked such passionate response. There is something in it for everybody, from hard core scientists to philosophers, ultraconservationists, students of world religions, mystics, politicians, and space enthusiasts; they were all there in San Diego, March 7-11, 1988, for the AGU Chapman Conference on Gaia Hypotheses. For 4 days an impressive list of specialists presented and debated the pros and cons of Gaia Hypotheses from diverse perspectives: modern and ancient biology, ecology, biochemistry, the physicochemical systems of the Earth, oceans, and atmosphere, and the evolution of the solar system. Focus was on modern to Pleistocene atmosphere-ocean-Earth systems, case histories of their interaction with the biosphere, and relatively simple models drawn from these observations and projected back through time. Equivalent studies on the geological and paleobiological history of the Earth-life system over the past 3.5 b.y. were underrepresented. Extended debates that followed generally strong presentations were lively, argumentative, and remarkably civil despite widely held views. The grace with which Jim Lovelock moved between his strongest critics and supporters set high standards for the debates. Everybody acknowledged a high learning curve.

  1. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons.

  2. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  3. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  4. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

  5. A VLBI Resolution of the Pleiades Distance Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Carl; Reid, Mark J.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Stauffer, John R.; Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The Pleiades is the best studied open cluster in the sky. It is one of the primary open clusters used to define the 'Zero Age Main Sequence' and hence it serves as a cornerstone for programs which use main-sequence fitting to derive distances to other clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy. This role is called into question by the 'Pleiades distance controversy' - the distance to the Pleiades from the Hipparcos space astrometry mission of about 120 pc is significantly different from the distance of 133 pc derived from other techniques. In order to resolve this issue, the Very Long Baseline Array combined with the Green Bank, Effelsberg, and Arecibo telescopes are being used to derive a new, independent trigonometric parallax distance to the Pleiades. From four Pleiades systems we find a distance of 136.2+/-1.2 pc, the most accurate and precise distance to the cluster yet measured. In this contribution we present preliminary parallaxes for the remaining four Pleiades systems not published in Melis et al. (2014, Science 345, 1029). Additionally, binary orbit model fits and preliminary stellar masses are presented for two multiple systems in our sample with significant orbital motion observed during our VLBI monitoring.Funding for this research came from the NSF through awards No. AST-1003318 and No. AST-1313428.

  6. Treatment of scabies and pediculosis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Unlike many other skin diseases, success or failure of therapy of ectoparasitic infestation depends much more on how to use the topical preparation and whom we treat than on which scabicide or pediculicides to use. The diagnosis of scabies should no longer rely on the rather uncommon and unpractical sign of finding a burrow or the number of parasites per infected patient. Most infested individuals have been shown to have several-fold more acari than the oft-quoted average of 12 adult acari per infected patient that appears in most of our textbooks (stemming from Mellanby's work). Contrary to what Mellanby taught us, we know that indirect transmission (ie, without personal contact) does occur. As to which agent to use, the winner remains undeclared at present. Although indirect contact transmission of hair lice has been clarified after thousands of years of infestation, there are still numerous questions, uncertainties, disagreements, and controversies on the subject; for example, we know that lice survive immersion in water but are probably not transmitted in swimming pools. There is no consensus on the best or most correct way to diagnose lice, nor is the problem of resistance resolved. We do not recommend a "no-nit" policy.

  7. Issues, indications, and controversies regarding intratympanic steroid perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of Review Office based Intratympanic inner ear steroid perfusion treatment (ITPs) for Meniere’s disease, autoimmune inner ear disease and sudden sensorineural hearing loss has been expanding over the past 10-15 years, yet remains controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature of basic science and human studies of ITPs treatment. Current Findings Animal studies exist regarding the delivery, distribution, biochemical and microbiological changes in the inner ear post ITPs. However, few clinical studies exist of ITPs treatment in sudden sensorineural hearing loss and even less in treating Meniere’s disease. There are no consistent studies regarding drug delivery methods, type and concentration of steroids. Moreover, there are no studies comparing ITPs results to the natural history of Meniere’s disease. Summary ITPs has impacted otology and neurotology practice due to increased utilization. A sound understanding of the basic science and clinical studies is needed to establish long term efficacy of ITPs in controlling hearing loss in Meniere’s disease by comparison to its natural history, as well as, potential application to other pathologies. PMID:18797285

  8. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  9. Roles of glucocorticoids in human parturition: a controversial fact?

    PubMed

    Li, X Q; Zhu, P; Myatt, L; Sun, K

    2014-05-01

    The pivotal role of glucocorticoids in the initiation of parturition has been very well documented in several domestic mammalian animal species. However the role of glucocorticoids in human parturition remains controversial mainly because of the absence of effect of synthetic glucocorticoids, given to promote fetal organ maturation in pregnant women with threatened preterm delivery, on the length of gestation. This article will review studies of glucocorticoids in human parturition and provide evidence for an important role of glucocorticoids in human parturition as well but a simultaneous high concentration of estrogen within the intrauterine tissues may be necessary for GCs to initiate parturition. The synthetic GCs dexamethasone and betamethasone pass through the placenta intact resulting in potent negative feedback on the fetal HPA axis and diminished production of DHEA from fetal adrenal glands for estrogen synthesis by the placenta. This may negate the effect of systemic administration of GCs on the induction of labor, especially in cases where the myometrium is not yet fully primed by estrogen. Endogenous glucocorticoids are inactivated by the placental 11β-HSD2 thus limiting the negative feedback of maternal cortisol on the fetal HPA axis and allowing the simultaneous rise of cortisol and estrogen levels towards the end of gestation. Therefore, endogenous glucocorticoids, particularly glucocorticoids produced locally in the intrauterine tissues may play an important role in parturition in humans by enhancing prostaglandin production in the fetal membranes and stimulating estrogen and CRH production in the placenta.

  10. Controversies in the Mechanism of Total Parenteral Nutrition Induced Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jain Ajay; Teckman, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30,000 patients are permanently dependent on Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) for survival with several folds higher requiring TPN for a prolonged duration. Unfortunately, it can cause potentially fatal complications. TPN infusion results in impairment of gut mucosal integrity, enhanced inflammation, increased cytokine expression and trans-mucosal bacterial permeation. It also causes endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters and Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD), which includes steatosis, disrupted glucose metabolism, disrupted lipid metabolism, cholestasis and liver failure. Despite multiple theories, its etiology and pathophysiology remains elusive and is likely multifactorial. An important cause for TPN related pathologies appears to be a disruption in the normal enterohepatic circulation due to a lack of feeding during such therapy. This is further validated by the fact that in clinical settings, once cholestasis sets in, its reversal occurs when a patient is receiving a major portion of calories enterally. There are several other postulated mechanisms including gut bacterial permeation predisposing to endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters. An additional potential mechanism includes toxicity of the TPN solution itself, such as lipid mediated hepatic toxicity. Prematurity, leading to a poor development of bile acid regulating nuclear receptors and transporters has also been implicated as a causative factor. This review presents the current controversies and research into mechanisms of TPN associated injury. PMID:27417369

  11. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  12. The Procedurally Directive Approach to Teaching Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Maughn Rollins

    2014-01-01

    Recent articles on teaching controversial topics in schools have employed Michael Hand's distinction between "directive teaching," in which teachers attempt to persuade students of correct positions on topics that are not rationally controversial, and "nondirective teaching," in which teachers avoid persuading students on…

  13. The Rasch Rating Model and the Disordered Threshold Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond J.; Wu, Margaret L.; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Rasch rating (or partial credit) model is a widely applied item response model that is used to model ordinal observed variables that are assumed to collectively reflect a common latent variable. In the application of the model there is considerable controversy surrounding the assessment of fit. This controversy is most notable when the set of…

  14. Main Field Test Report. Discussing Controversial Issues. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.; And Others

    Discussing Controversial Issues (DCI) is a skill training program designed for high school students and teachers with an overall objective of developing student and teacher skill in discussing controversial issues effectively. The course materials identify 13 moderator techniques which teachers practice, and 13 participant techniques which…

  15. Improving Learning by Discussing Controversies in 20th Century Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Rodriguez, Maria A.

    2002-01-01

    Textbooks rarely emphasize how controversial some physics theories were at the time of their proposal. Makes the case that useful classroom debate can be generated by considering the controversy that arose over models of the atom such as Rutherford's and Bohr's, and ideas about fractional charges put forward by Millikan and arising from quark…

  16. Structured Academic Controversies in the Professional Physical Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Lynnette Young; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured academic controversy is a cooperative learning strategy that can promote learning in theoretical physical education classes at the college level. This article explains how to conduct structured academic controversy, providing examples of topics (e.g., adapted physical education, biomechanics, motor development, and sport psychology).…

  17. Culture Shock: Using Art and Art Controversy To Teach History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Endorses the television series entitled "Culture Shock" that views controversial art as an artifact suggesting that the arts, and controversies surrounding them, can help viewers think critically about the issues of past and present societies. Focuses on "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the painting "Olympia,"…

  18. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  19. Implants and Ethnocide: Learning from the Cochlear Implant Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the fictional case of the "Babel fish" to explore and illustrate the issues involved in the controversy about the use of cochlear implants in prelinguistically deaf children. Analysis of this controversy suggests that the development of genetic tests for deafness poses a serious threat to the continued flourishing of Deaf…

  20. What's Wrong with the "Teach the Controversy" Slogan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are often exhorted by creationists to "teach the controversy." Although such encouragement sounds on the surface like a proposal for critical thinking instruction, the history of the creationist movement in North America belies this claim. Rather than teach students to analyze and evaluate actual scientific controversies, the intent of…

  1. Teachers' Perspectives on Incorporating Current Controversial Issues into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Sunal, Cynthia; Haas, Mary; Laughlin, Margaret

    Does a current controversial issue become part of the social studies curriculum in a context where the media focus largely on the issue? A study explored this question through surveys and in-depth interviews that investigated K-12 social studies teachers' perspectives on the incorporation of current controversial issues into the curriculum. A…

  2. Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution Controversy in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenta, Tony; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's Theory of Evolution has stirred controversy since its inception. Public schools in the United States, pressed by special interest groups on both sides of the controversy, have struggled with how best to teach the theory, if at all. Court cases have dealt with whether states can ban the teaching of evolutionary theory, whether Creationism…

  3. Controversial Higher-Education Reforms Spark Riots in Athens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the Greek Parliament's controversial education bill passed recently that sparked riots and unrest in Athens. The government's controversial education package includes measures that would limit the number of years students can take to complete a university degree and would curtail university asylum laws. A separate proposal…

  4. 51-L Challenger Crew Remains Transferred

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Challenger crewmember remains are being transferred from 7 hearse vehicles to a MAC C-141 transport plane at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility for transport to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The STS-51L crew consisted of: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis and Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee and Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.

  5. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    PubMed

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  6. KNOW NUKES: a model for teaching controversial issues

    SciTech Connect

    Thomashow, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation articulates elements of an educational strategy derived from the experience of the KNOW NUKES program, a teacher training project designed to introduce the nuclear power controversy in the high school classroom. This strategy can be used as means of furthering the effectiveness of controversial issues education, not only in the area of nuclear power, but in teaching about any environmental issue. This is specifically achieved by (2) placing the KNOW NUKES institute in the broader context of controversial issues education; (2) describing in detail KNOW NUKES project planning; (3) reviewing the structure and content of the various teaching techniques and materials that have been developed for the KNOW NUKES institute; (4) utilizing a particular technique developed by the institute that reveals varying perspectives on controversial issues, in this case, an instrumental for decoding the controversial issues that are explicit and implicit in corporate image advertisements; and (5) qualitatively evaluating the practical implementation of the KNOW NUKES model.

  7. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  8. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  9. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  10. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes.

  11. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  12. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  13. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  14. Telehomecare technology across sectors: claims of jurisdiction and emerging controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dinesen, Birthe; Gustafsson, Jeppe; Nøhr, Christian; KjærAndersen, Stig; Sejersen, Holger; Toft, Egon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore and identify inter-organisational and inter-professional controversies that emerge when telehomecare technology is implemented across healthcare sectors. Theory A combined inter-organisational and inter-professional perspective constitutes the conceptual framework for this study. Methods The case study approach was applied as the overall methodology of the study. A triangulation of data collection techniques was used in order to provide multiple sources of evidence for exploring and identifying controversies (documents, participant observation, qualitative interviews, focus group interviews). Findings During the design and implementation phases of a telehomecare system, several types of controversies emerged as part of the inter-organisational and inter-professional agenda. These controversies involved competing claims of jurisdiction, controversies over knowledge technologies, or differences in network visions and network architecture. Discussion and conclusions The identification of such controversies and differences in the design and implementation process of the concept of home hospitalisation for heart patients by means of telehomecare technology can contribute to the uncovering of new knowledge. These issues should be taken into account when initiating a telehomecare project and implementing telehomecare technology. Technology in a network and across inter-professional relations poses a challenge to this new field. There is a particular need to precisely define the claims of jurisdiction, and the accompanying controversies that can arise related to knowledge technologies, network visions and network architecture. PMID:18043726

  15. Cancer stem cells in lung cancer: Evidence and controversies.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer, Muhammad; Peacock, Craig D; Matsui, William; Ganju, Vinod; Watkins, D Neil

    2013-07-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is based on a myriad of experimental and clinical observations suggesting that the malignant phenotype is sustained by a subset of cells characterized by the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation and innate resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. CSC may be responsible for disease recurrence after definitive therapy and may therefore be functionally synonymous with minimal residual disease. Similar to other solid tumours, several putative surface markers for lung CSC have been identified, including CD133 and CD44. In addition, expression and/or activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH and capacity of cells to exclude membrane permeable dyes (known as the 'side population') correlate with stem-like function in vitro and in vivo. Embryonic stem cell pathways such as Hedgehog, Notch and WNT may also be active in lung cancers stem cells and therefore may be therapeutically targetable for maintenance therapy in patients achieving a complete response to surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This paper will review the evidence regarding the existence and function of lung CSC in the context of the experimental and clinical evidence and discuss some ongoing controversies regarding this model.

  16. Organic Remains in Finnish Subglacial Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkari, Mikko; Forsström, Lars

    1995-05-01

    Many sites in Fennoscandia contain pre-Late Weichselian beds of organic matter, located mostly in the flanks of eskers. It is a matter of debate whether these fragmentary beds were deposited in situ, or whether they were deposited elsewhere and then picked up and moved by glacial ice. The till-mantled esker of Harrinkangas includes a shallow depression filled with sand and silt containing, for example, several tightly packed laminar sheets of brown moss ( Bryales) remains. It is argued that these thin peat sheets were transported at the base of the ice sheet, or englacially, and were deposited together with the silt and sand on the side of a subglacial meltwater tunnel. Subglacial meltout till subsequently covered the flanks of the esker near the receding ice margin. Information about the depositional and climatic environments was obtained from biostratigraphic analysis of the organic matter. Pollen spectra for the peat represent an open birch forest close to the tundra zone. A thin diamicton beneath the peat contains charred pine wood, recording the former presence of pine forests in western Finland. The unhumified, extremely well-preserved peat evidently originated during the final phase of an ice-free period, most probably the end of the Eemian Interglaciation. It was redeposited in the esker by the last ice sheet. Reconstructions of the Pleistocene chronology and stratigraphy of central Fennoscandia that rely on such redeposited organic matter should be viewed with caution.

  17. The controversial age of Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Hardy, Doug; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Interpreting climate signals contained in natural archives requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon analysis can be a powerful tool for dating high-altitude ice cores, especially for the lowermost segments for which ice flow-induced thinning limits the counting of annual layers. Radiocarbon dating has been applied to ice cores containing sufficient organic material, which is a limiting factor to the wider application of this technique. We present a novel radiocarbon dating approach using carbonaceous aerosols enclosed in the ice to help resolve the debate about the age of the Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers. Paleoclimate reconstructions based on six ice cores drilled in 2000 assigned a basal age of 11'700 years. A recent study claims recurring cycles of waxing and waning controlled primarily by atmospheric moisture and an absence of the ice bodies was suggested for 1200 AD. The Kilimanjaro ice fields are subject to rapid areal shrinkage and thinning and are expected to disappear within several decades. Resolving the controversy of the time frame for the extinction of the Kilimanjaro ice might have wide implications for the understanding of the natural climate variability in the tropics. A stratigraphic sequence of samples from the exposed vertical ice cliffs at the margins of the Northern Ice Field (NIF) was collected in 2011. A total of 45 horizontal short cores (50 cm length) were extracted from 22 horizons characterized by varying micro-particle concentrations. Additionally, 3 samples were taken from the glacier surface to investigate a potential age offset. All samples were shipped frozen to Paul Scherrer Institute, decontaminated in a cold room by removing the outer layer (0.3 mm) and by rinsing the samples with ultra-pure water. The insoluble carbonaceous particles were filtrated by using freshly preheated quartz fibre filters. Procedural blanks were estimated using artificial ice blocks of frozen ultra-pure water treated as real ice samples and were

  18. [Blastocystis spp.: Advances, controversies and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Molina, Nora B; Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A

    2017-02-09

    Blastocystis spp. is the most common protozoan detected in human stool samples. In developing countries, infection rates are higher than 20%. The presence of this parasite in the feces of several host species suggests its zoonotic potential. The clinical relevance and the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in the intestinal tract remain unclear. There are several clinical reports that recognize it as the etiologic agent of several intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis, although the pathogenicity of this parasite has not been proved yet. This wide range of clinical manifestations could be related to the genetic diversity exhibited by this parasite.

  19. Diagnostic Issues and Controversies in DSM-5: Return of the False Positives Problem.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2016-01-01

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was the most controversial in the manual's history. This review selectively surveys some of the most important changes in DSM-5, including structural/organizational changes, modifications of diagnostic criteria, and newly introduced categories. It analyzes why these changes led to such heated controversies, which included objections to the revision's process, its goals, and the content of altered criteria and new categories. The central focus is on disputes concerning the false positives problem of setting a valid boundary between disorder and normal variation. Finally, this review highlights key problems and issues that currently remain unresolved and need to be addressed in the future, including systematically identifying false positive weaknesses in criteria, distinguishing risk from disorder, including context in diagnostic criteria, clarifying how to handle fuzzy boundaries, and improving the guidelines for "other specified" diagnosis.

  20. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  1. Controversies in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decades, important advances have been made in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current diagnostic strategies rely on the sequential use of non-invasive diagnostic tests, based on the pretest clinical probability of disease. Diagnostic tests include D-dimer measurement, leg vein compression ultrasonography, chest computed tomography pulmonary angiography, or ventilation perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these strategies have been extensively validated. They have been widely implemented in clinical practice and have replaced the historical gold standard diagnostic tests (venography and pulmonary angiography). However, new challenges arise, including a lower clinical suspicion threshold and concerns on potential over-diagnosis of VTE. Moreover, the diagnostic management remains suboptimal in many subgroups of patients with suspected VTE: patients with prior VTE, pregnant women, or elderly patients.

  2. Superluminal Neutrinos: The Good Kind of Science Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibella, Michael

    2012-03-01

    After OPERA released results indicating neutrinos were traveling faster than the speed of light, a number of vocal of scientists said that they shouldn't have prematurely engaged in ``science by press release.'' However, controversial claims like this, if handled right, can actually be a boon to science. Getting the public interested in cutting edge physics is notoriously difficult, but the public is always interested in hearing about a controversy. The press conference and following debate becomes a great teaching moment that offers the public a unique opportunity to get an inside and have an in-depth look at how science works. Scientists willing to publicly engage in this kind of civil controversy are important because when other scientific controversies arise, ones with major public policy implications, the public starts out with a better understanding of how science works, and scientists have better practice managing questions from the public.

  3. A Critique of "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)

  4. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participant who has filed a written direct statement. (2) Bad faith inflation of claim. If the Copyright Royalty Judges determine that a participant asserts in bad faith an amount in controversy in excess of...

  5. Commentary: The Anatomy of Controversy: Freedom and Responsibility for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jack L.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the biology teacher in American schools and colleges is discussed with regard to the social, political, and economic implications of new discoveries in science. Controversial ethical issues related to teaching human genetics are presented. (SA)

  6. Current controversies in the relationships between autism and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2015-06-01

    The controversies that have arisen in endeavoring to establish the nature of the relationships between autism and epilepsy might be summarized in a few simple questions, most of which do not yet have clear, complete answers. Does epilepsy cause autism? Does autism cause epilepsy? Are there underlying brain mechanisms that predispose to both conditions? What is the role of genetics in this regard? What is the importance of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors? Do any of the proposed relationships between autism and epilepsy provide insight into useful management or treatment? Is the prognosis of either autism or epilepsy different when the other condition is also present? What is the role of additional comorbidities, such as intellectual impairment or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in the relationship between the two conditions and in influencing treatment choices? From the evidence currently available, it would appear that epilepsy can rarely be the cause of autistic features but is not the cause of autism in most cases. There is currently no credible mechanism for suggesting that autism might cause epilepsy. There is strong evidence for an underlying predisposition for both conditions, particularly arising from genetic investigations. However, many issues remain unresolved. Considering the amount of research that has been published in this area, it is surprising that so few definitive answers have been established. The papers in this issue's special section provide additional insights into the relationships between autism and epilepsy; while they do not provide answers to all the questions, they represent considerable progress in this area and, at the very least, give some strong indication of what research might, in the future, provide such answers.

  7. Key Controversies in Colloid and Crystalloid Fluid Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leedahl, David D.; Kashani, Kianoush B.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 2 centuries have passed since the use of intravenous fluid became a foundational component of clinical practice. Despite a steady stream of published investigations on the topic, questions surrounding the choice, dose, timing, targets, and cost-effectiveness of various fluid options remain insufficiently answered. In recent years, 2 of the most debated topics reference the role of albumin in acute care and the safety of normal saline. Although albumin has a place in therapy for specific patient populations, its high cost relative to other fluids makes it a less desirable option for hospitals and health systems with escalating formulary scrutiny. Pharmacists bear responsibility for reconciling this disparity and supporting the rational use of albumin in acute care through a careful evaluation of recently published literature. In parallel, it has become clear that crystalloids should no longer be considered a homogenous class of fluids. The past reliance on normal saline has been questioned due to recent findings of renal dysfunction attributable to the solution’s supraphysiologic chloride concentration. These safety concerns with 0.9% sodium chloride may result in a practice shift toward more routine use of “balanced crystalloids,” such as lactated Ringer’s or Plasma-Lyte, that mimic the composition of extracellular fluid. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence regarding these 2 important fluid controversies that are likely to affect hospital pharmacists in the coming decades — the evidence-based use of human albumin and the rising role of balanced salt solutions in clinical practice. PMID:26405334

  8. Controversy of the year. Biomedical ethics on the front burner.

    PubMed

    2000-12-22

    CONTROVERSY OF THE YEAR: Biomedical Ethics on the Front Burner It was a hot year for debates over research ethics. Controversy erupted in late 1999 after the death of 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger in a gene-therapy clinical trial at the University of Pennsylvania. Because Penn and one of its clinicians had a financial stake in a gene-therapy company, questions about potential conflicts of interest arose at once.

  9. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    PubMed Central

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  10. The controversial place of vitamin C in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Verrax, J; Calderon, P Buc

    2008-12-15

    In 2008, we celebrate the 80th anniversary of the discovery of vitamin C. Since then, we know that vitamin C possesses few pharmacological actions although it is still perceived by the public as a "miracle-pill" capable to heal a variety of illnesses. Cancer is one of the most common diseases for which a beneficial role of vitamin C has been claimed. Thus, its dietary use has been proposed in cancer prevention for several years. Apart from this nutritional aspect, an extensive and often confusing literature exists about the use of vitamin C in cancer that has considerably discredited its use. Nevertheless, recent pharmacokinetic data suggest that pharmacologic concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved by intravenous injections. Since these concentrations exhibit anticancer activities in vitro, this raises the controversial question of the re-evaluation of vitamin C in cancer treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this commentary is to make a critical review of our current knowledge of vitamin C, focusing on the rationale that could support its use in cancer therapy.

  11. Behind the Evolution-Creation Science Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1982-01-01

    Historical background to Arkansas Act 590, mandating inclusion of creationism in public school curriculum, is given, including the history of antievolution bills, emergence of textbook watchers, and political issues in the law's passage. Suggestions are given for elementary and secondary teachers to become informed and active regarding…

  12. Decay rates of human remains in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, A; Birkby, W H; Jones, A M; Henry, T E; Parks, B O

    1989-05-01

    The environment of southern Arizona with mild winters and hot, dry summers produces great variability in decay rates of human remains. Summer temperatures, which range well over 38 degrees C (100 degrees F), induce rapid bloating as a result of the accumulation of decompositional gases. However, in certain circumstances, the aridity can lead to extensive mummification, allowing preservation of remains for hundreds of years. A retrospective study of 189 cases, concentrating on remains found on the desert floor or in the surrounding mountains and on remains found within closed structures, outlines the time frame and sequences of the decay process. Remains can retain a fresh appearance for a considerable time in the winter, but the onset of marked decomposition is rapid in the summer months. Bloating of the body usually is present two to seven days following death. Following this, within structures, there is frequently rapid decomposition and skeletonization. With outdoor exposure, remains are more likely to pass through a long period of dehydration of outer tissues, mummification, and reduction of desiccated tissue. Exposure of large portions of the skeleton usually does not occur until four to six months after death. Bleaching and exfoliation of bone--the beginning stages of destruction of the skeletal elements--begins at about nine months' exposure. Insect activity, including that of maggot and beetle varieties, may accelerate decomposition, but this process is greatly affected by location of the body, seasonal weather, and accessibility of the soft tissues. Carnivores and other scavengers also are contributing factors, as are clothing or covering of the body, substrate, elevation, and latitude.

  13. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  14. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  15. Selenium or no selenium--that is the question in tumor patients: a new controversy.

    PubMed

    Muecke, Ralph; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Micke, Oliver

    2010-06-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more attention from both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses on the following clinical aspects: protection of normal tissues, sensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that it has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism, and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. In 2009, a significant benefit of sodium selenite supplementation-with no protection of tumor cells, which is often suspected by oncologists- was shown in a prospective randomized trial in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. More recently, concerns arose from 2 large clinical prevention trials (NPC, SELECT) that selenium may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Despite obvious flaws in both studies and good counterarguments, controversy remains on the possible advantages and risks of selenium in cancer prevention. However, in the light of the recent clinical trials the potential benefits of selenium supplementation in tumor patients are becoming obvious, even though further research is needed.

  16. Origins of syphilis and management in the immunocompetent patient: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Farhi, David; Dupin, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Despite the continued efficacy of penicillin since the 1940s, many aspects of the natural history, diagnosis, and management of syphilis remain controversial. A key factor among the numerous factors explaining the persistence of significant areas of controversies is the absence of a gold standard direct method for distinguishing between the different stages of syphilis and appraising treatment response. This contribution presents an overview of some of the most debated aspects of the origins, diagnosis, and management of syphilis in immunocompetent patients. The two main current hypotheses on the origins of Treponema pallidum are the "Columbian" and the "Pre-Columbian" hypotheses. Strong evidence supports that Columbus' crew brought T pallidum to Europe at the time of discovery of the New World. Because T pallidum culture and inoculation to animals are not readily available methods, the gold standard method for the diagnosis of syphilis is the direct identification of T pallidum by dark field microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody tests. These methods, however, are inapplicable in many patients, and thus the diagnosis of syphilis is usually based on the clinical and serologic picture. Serologic tests should only be considered as surrogate markers of the disease and do not provide definite distinction between syphilis stages. The optimal combination of serologic tests is still undefined. Other areas of controversy include the identification of patients who would benefit from a lumbar puncture, the diagnostic criteria of neurosyphilis, and the most relevant markers of treatment response.

  17. Resolving controversies in hip fracture care: the need for large collaborative trials in hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2009-07-01

    Hip fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the burden of disability associated with hip fractures globally vindicate the need for high-quality research to advance the care of patients with hip fractures. Historically, large, multi-centre randomized controlled trials have been rare in the orthopaedic trauma literature. Similar to other medical specialties, orthopaedic research is currently undergoing a paradigm shift from single centre initiatives to larger collaborative groups. This is evident with the establishment of several collaborative groups in Canada, in the United States, and in Europe, which has proven that multi-centre trials can be extremely successful in orthopaedic trauma research.Despite ever increasing literature on the topic of his fractures, the optimal treatment of hip fractures remains unknown and controversial. To resolve this controversy large multi-national collaborative randomized controlled trials are required. In 2005, the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative was officially established following funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research International Opportunity Program with the mandate of resolving controversies in hip fracture management. This manuscript will describe the need, the information, the organization, and the accomplishments to date of the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative.

  18. [Controversial interpretations of the Lorsch medical codex].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Next to the late Heinrich Schipperges, Gundolf Keil, M.D. and Ph.D. (Medieval German), ranks as one of the foremost German medical historians of the Western Middle Ages. Among his lasting merits is the publication of the MS Bamb. med. 1, called by him Lorscher Arzneibuch (Lorsch Medical Manual), which was written during the first years of the 9th century in the abbey of Lorsch (near Worms). Keil maintained that this work was not only the first medical book copied in the German-speaking area but that it was also drawn up in Lorsch and contained e.g. an unequivocal statement of Carolingian health policy, and that it referred, for the first time in the early Middle Ages, to the therapeutic uses of penicillin, glycosides, and hypericin (an active ingredient of St John's wort). Such interpretations will be scrutinized and challenged in the following article.

  19. Colon cancer stem cells: controversies and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Tesori, Valentina; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-05-28

    Tumors have long been viewed as a population in which all cells have the equal propensity to form new tumors, the so called conventional stochastic model. The cutting-edge theory on tumor origin and progression, tends to consider cancer as a stem cell disease. Stem cells are actively involved in the onset and maintenance of colon cancer. This review is intended to examine the state of the art on colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), with regard to the recent achievements of basic research and to the corresponding translational consequences. Specific prominence is given to the hypothesized origin of CSCs and to the methods for their identification. The growing understanding of CSC biology is driving the optimization of novel anti-cancer targeted drugs.

  20. Controversies concerning the antiphospholipid syndrome in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Camarena Cabrera, Dulce María Albertina; Rodriguez-Jaimes, Claudia; Acevedo-Gallegos, Sandra; Gallardo-Gaona, Juan Manuel; Velazquez-Torres, Berenice; Ramírez-Calvo, José Antonio

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a non-inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent thrombotic events and/or obstetric complications associated with the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2 glycoprotein-i antibodies, and/or lupus anticoagulant. Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies associated with recurrent miscarriage, stillbirth, fetal growth restriction and premature birth. The diversity of the features of the proposed placental antiphospholipid antibodies fingerprint suggests that several disease processes may occur in the placentae of women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in the form of immune responses: inflammatory events, complement activation, angiogenic imbalance and, less commonly, thrombosis and infarction. Because of the disparity between clinical and laboratory criteria, and the impact on perinatal outcome in patients starting treatment, we reviewed the aspects of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome related to obstetric complications and seronegative antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and their treatment in obstetrics.

  1. Walking the line. Palliative sedation for existential distress: still a controversial issue?

    PubMed

    Schur, Sophie; Radbruch, Lukas; Masel, Eva K; Weixler, Dietmar; Watzke, Herbert H

    2015-12-01

    Adequate symptom relief is a central aspect of medical care of all patients especially in those with an incurable disease. However, as an illness progresses and the end of life approaches, physical or psychoexistential symptoms may remain uncontrollable requiring palliative sedation. Although palliative sedation has become an increasingly implemented practice in the care of terminally ill patients, sedation in the management of refractory psychological symptoms and existential distress is still a controversial issue and much debated. This case report presents a patient who received palliative sedation for the treatment of existential distress and discusses considerations that may arise from such a therapeutic approach.

  2. Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals.

  3. Chemotherapy for Good-Risk Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    In, Gino; Dorff, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    The rate of diagnosis of germ cell tumors has remained fairly constant. By the International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Classification, roughly 60% of all metastatic germ cell tumors are classified as good risk. This group of patients has an excellent prognosis, with greater than 90% expectation of cure. Treatment standards have not changed much in recent years. This article focuses on key concepts in the development of the currently accepted first-line regimens and addresses some evolving areas of interest, if not controversy.

  4. High-pressure--high-temperature polymorphism in ta: resolving an ongoing experimental controversy.

    PubMed

    Burakovsky, L; Chen, S P; Preston, D L; Belonoshko, A B; Rosengren, A; Mikhaylushkin, A S; Simak, S I; Moriarty, J A

    2010-06-25

    Phase diagrams of refractory metals remain essentially unknown. Moreover, there is an ongoing controversy over the high-pressure melting temperatures of these metals: results of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments differ by at least a factor of 2. From an extensive ab initio study on tantalum we discovered that the body-centered cubic phase, its physical phase at ambient conditions, transforms to another solid phase, possibly hexagonal omega phase, at high temperature. Hence the sample motion observed in DAC experiments is very likely not due to melting but internal stresses accompanying a solid-solid transformation, and thermal stresses associated with laser heating.

  5. Science and politics: free speech controversy at lawrence laboratory.

    PubMed

    Boffey, P M

    1970-08-21

    The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, one of the nation's most distinguished scientific institutions, has been struck by a series of "free speech" controversies in recent months. The laboratory, which is operated by the University of California and is almost entirely funded by the Atomic Energy Commission, has facilities in two California locations, Berkeley and Livermore. Each has been under fire for allegedly stifling open discussion of controversial issues. The Berkeley facility, a leading center for the study of high-energy physics and fundamental nuclear science, has been split by an internal debate over the right of scientists to hold formal political discussions at the laboratory during their lunch hours. The controversy has led to the banning of meetings, the circulating of petitions and counterpetitions bearing hundreds of names, the publishing of an underground newspaper, and the suspension of a controversial physicist. The Livermore facility, a major center for developing nuclear weapons, has been accused of trying to muzzle two staff scientists who contend that existing radiation standards are too lax to protect the public from nuclear radiation hazards. Livermore has also been the target of demonstrations and of a lawsuit seeking to open the weapons laboratory to allow discussions between outsiders and staff scientists concerning the implications of weapons research. The article below discusses the controversy at the Berkeley laboratory, where only unclassified research is performed. A subsequent article will discuss the conflict at security-conscious Livermore.

  6. Deer antler regeneration: cells, concepts, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Szuwart, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The periodic replacement of antlers is an exceptional regenerative process in mammals, which in general are unable to regenerate complete body appendages. Antler regeneration has traditionally been viewed as an epimorphic process closely resembling limb regeneration in urodele amphibians, and the terminology of the latter process has also been applied to antler regeneration. More recent studies, however, showed that, unlike urodele limb regeneration, antler regeneration does not involve cell dedifferentiation and the formation of a blastema from these dedifferentiated cells. Rather, these studies suggest that antler regeneration is a stem-cell-based process that depends on the periodic activation of, presumably neural-crest-derived, periosteal stem cells of the distal pedicle. The evidence for this hypothesis is reviewed and as a result, a new concept of antler regeneration as a process of stem-cell-based epimorphic regeneration is proposed that does not involve cell dedifferentiation or transdifferentiation. Antler regeneration illustrates that extensive appendage regeneration in a postnatal mammal can be achieved by a developmental process that differs in several fundamental aspects from limb regeneration in urodeles.

  7. Controversies in contraception for women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.

    2015-01-01

    Contraception is an important choice that offers autonomy to women with regard to prevention of unintended pregnancies. There is wide variation in the contraceptive practices between continents, countries, and societies. The medical eligibility for contraception for sexually active women with epilepsy (WWE) is determined by the type of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) that they use. Enzyme inducing AEDs such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine increase the metabolism of orally administered estrogen (and progesterone to a lesser extent). Estrogen can increase the metabolism of certain AEDs, such as lamotrigine, leading to cyclical variation in its blood level with resultant adverse effect profile or seizure dyscontrol. AEDs and sex hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in WWE. The potential interactions between AEDs and hormonal contraception need to be discussed with all women in reproductive age-group. The alternate options of oral contraception such as intrauterine copper device, intrauterine levonorgestrel release system, and supplementary protection with barriers need to be presented to them. World Health Organization has recommended to avoid combination contraceptive pills containing estrogen and progesteron in women who desire contraception and in breastfeeding mothers. Care providers need to consider the option of non-enzyme-inducing AEDs while initiating long-term treatment in adolescent and young WWE. PMID:26425002

  8. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: a controversy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are now very widely used in high doses in the management of COPD patients. In sharp contrast to the situation in asthma, ICS provide little or no benefit in COPD patients and may have long-term detrimental effects. High doses of ICS fail to reduce disease progression or mortality, even when combined with a long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA). Several trials have demonstrated that ICS reduce exacerbations by 20-25%, particularly in patients with more severe disease, but these studies are confounded by poor trial design and more appropriate analysis shows no benefit. Indeed, the benefit of combination inhalers seems to be largely due to the effect of the LABA, and long-acting bronchodilators--including tiotropium--provide similar benefits in reducing exacerbations. However, there may be some COPD patients, for example those with concomitant asthma, who benefit from ICS. Yet it has not been possible to identify any clinical factors that predict corticosteroid responsiveness in COPD patients in the large clinical trials. There is increasing evidence that high doses of ICS may have detrimental effects on bones and may increase the risk of pneumonia. ICS fail to suppress inflammation in COPD patients because there is a marked reduction in histone deacetylase-2, the nuclear enzyme that corticosteroids require to switch off activated inflammatory genes. In the future, alternative anti-inflammatory treatments will be needed for COPD or therapeutic strategies which reverse the molecular pathways that causes corticosteroid resistance.

  9. Remaining Pain in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated With Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Altawil, Reem; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Wedrén, Sara; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency of remaining pain in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 months of treatment with methotrexate as the only disease modifying antirheumatic drug, with a special focus on patients with a good clinical response. Methods The study base was cases reported to a population‐based early RA cohort who had followup data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (n = 1,241). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were used to evaluate clinical response to treatment as good, moderate, and no response. The primary end point was remaining pain at the 3‐months followup visit, defined as pain >20 mm on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results Remaining pain in spite of a EULAR good response at followup was associated with higher baseline disability, using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4–3.4] per unit increase), and less baseline inflammation, using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70–0.93] per 10‐mm increase). Similar associations were detected for remaining pain at followup in spite of low inflammatory activity, defined as a C‐reactive protein level <10. Increase in VAS pain during the treatment period was observed in 19% of the whole cohort, with frequencies in the EULAR response groups of 9% (good response), 15% (moderate response), and 45% (no response). Conclusion These results are in line with the hypothesis that a subgroup of early RA patients exhibits pain that is not inflammatory mediated, where alternative treatment strategies to traditional antiinflammatory medications need to be considered. PMID:26784398

  10. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    PubMed

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  11. Current controversies in the management of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tusquets, I; García-Estévez, L; Adrover, E; Calvo, L; Alvarez, I; García Mata, J; Fernández, Y; Margueli, M; Seguí, M A; Muñoz, M; Rodríguez, C; Rodríguez Lescure, A; Colomer, R; Gascón, P; Martín, M; Alba, E; Barnadas, A; Llombart, A; Albanell, J; Lluch, A

    2010-04-01

    The following manuscript summarises the content of the Breast Symposium that was held in May 2008 in Barcelona in which four controversies regarding the management of breast cancer were discussed. The design of the symposium included two speakers per controversy, one in favour and one diverging, and the audience had to vote before and after the presentations to assess changes in the participants' views. The four controversies included: (1) the role of non-conventional predictive factors in selecting treatment for breast cancer; (2) the role of surgery in disseminated disease; (3) are taxanes indicated in the adjuvant treatment of patients with lymph-node-negative disease?; (4) is treatment with tamoxifen (TAM) always required after surgery in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? The symposium concluded with the presentation titled: 'Features of a well designed clinical trial in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer'.

  12. Why Is Studying the Genetics of Intelligence So Controversial?

    PubMed

    Tabery, James

    2015-01-01

    From the very beginning, studies of the nature and nurture of intelligence have been closely associated with an interest in intervening, and those interventions have been surrounded by controversy. The nature of those controversies has not always been the same, however. Since the mid-nineteenth century, when Francis Galton imagined a science that would assess the extent to which a trait like "genius" was due to nature or due to nurture, science and technology have changed dramatically, and so have the interventions that have been envisioned in light of those developments. A scientist today can search for particular stretches of DNA and assess whether differences in those stretches are associated with differences in a human trait of interest; a genetic counselor today can genetically test an individual (be it an embryo, fetus, newborn, child, or adult) and provide information about what that genetic result means, allowing for interventions that can range from terminating a pregnancy to prescribing chemotherapy. So when one asks a question like, "Why is studying the genetics of intelligence controversial?," it is important to realize up front that the answer will be, "It can be controversial for a variety of different reasons, and those reasons have evolved over time." The purpose of this essay is to provide a survey of the controversies that surround genetic studies of intelligence. With the survey in place, I will then draw out several lessons both for scientists who study the genetics of intelligence as well as for science studies scholars (bioethicists, philosophers, historians, sociologists) who reflect and comment on the controversies surrounding that research.

  13. Identification of the skeletal remains of Josef Mengele by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, A J; Allen, M J; Hagelberg, E; Sonnberg, A

    1992-09-01

    There has been considerable controversy over the identity of the skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil in 1985 and believed to be those of Dr Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz 'Angel of Death'. Bone DNA analysis was therefore conducted in an attempt to provide independent evidence of identity. Trace amounts of highly degraded human DNA were successfully extracted from the shaft of the femur. Despite the presence of a potent inhibitor of DNA amplification, microsatellite alleles could be reproducibly amplified from the femur DNA. Comparison of the femur DNA with DNA from Josef Mengele's son and wife revealed a bone genotype across 10 different loci fully compatible with paternity of Mengele's son. Less than 1 in 1800 Caucasian individuals unrelated to Mengele's son would by chance show full paternal inclusion. DNA analysis therefore provides very strong independent evidence that the remains exhumed from Brazil are indeed those of Josef Mengele.

  14. Relational Frame Theory: An Overview of the Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Amy C; Fox, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Although Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) was published over 50 years ago, behavior-analytic research on human language and cognition has been slow to develop. In recent years, a new behavioral approach to language known as relational frame theory (RFT) has generated considerable attention, research, and debate. The controversy surrounding RFT can be difficult to fully appreciate, partly because of the complexity of the theory itself and partly because the debate has spanned several years and several journals. The current paper aims to provide a concise overview of RFT and a summary of key points of debate and controversy. PMID:22477432

  15. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  16. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  17. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  18. Social Reconstruction: The Controversy over the Textbooks of Harold Rugg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet

    The paper examines the controversy over the use of Harold Rugg's textbooks in the social studies curriculum during the 1930s and 40s. The first section discusses the philosophy of social reconstruction maintaining that teachers and students should be in the forefront of social change. Rugg's major contribution to social reconstruction was a…

  19. Is Race Really Controversial in the University Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philion, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Today, even though "social justice" programs exist as a virtual growth industry on US campuses and many universities have incorporated classes on race and racism into their curricula, everyone continues to be faced with the perception that race is a "controversial" topic that has to be broached with care due to its "sensitive nature". This is even…

  20. Teaching Controversy by Seminar: An Example in Quaternary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Describes how seminar work can be structured to help students develop skills of critical thinking and expression when discussing controversial issues in their chosen subject. Particular emphasis is given to methods of organizing instructional materials and appropriate roles for seminar leaders. The debate surrounding the existence of a prehistoric…

  1. Improving the Quality of Science Classroom Discourse on Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddis, Arthur N.

    1991-01-01

    Illustrates how the sophistication of students' discussion on controversial issues can be increased by explicit attention to (1) the defensibility of more than one position, and (2) the relationship between protagonist's interests and the positions adopted. Presents a case study of a teacher using this scheme as he reflects on and modifies his…

  2. Controversial Therapies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines reasons parents may choose a controversial alternative treatment for a child with developmental disabilities and reviews a few specific treatments--vitamin B-6 and magnesium, auditory integration training, megavitamins and minerals, Piracetam, intravenous immunoglobulin, and melatonin. Recommendations on talking with families…

  3. Financing the UNCED Agenda: The Controversy over Additionality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Additionality is the concept that developed countries should finance the costs of developing countries to address global environmental problems and make the transition to sustainable development on top of all other financial aid. Discusses the controversy regarding this concept as discussed at the June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment…

  4. Reading "Daddy's Roommate": Preservice Teachers Respond to a Controversial Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shawyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the responses of the author's 31 pre-service teachers to a controversial picture book. Begins by searching for a short text geared to elementary age children and suited for read-alouds. Notes that she believes that the majority of pre-service teachers at this stage in the program are still very impressionable and must be given multiple…

  5. Cagney and Lacey: Negotiating the Controversial in Popular Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Jim

    This paper discusses some of the ways in which the commitment of the television series Cagney and Lacey to the examination of often controversial social issues from liberal or progressive standpoints--especially issues associated with the women's movement--is worked through in narrative practice. The origins and development of the series are…

  6. Supreme Court Actions Push a Wrenching Controversy Straight at You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's past and expected future rulings on abortion cases will add controversy and costs to schools. Estimates the costs of teenage pregnancy; reviews the legal history of abortion; and offers guidelines on how schools can help reduce teenage pregnancy. (MLF)

  7. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  8. The Elitist-Populist Controversy: A Response to Ralph Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geahigan, George

    1985-01-01

    The central policy issue in the elitist-populist controversy is what works of art are to be included in curricula. Elitists defend the choice of exemplary pieces of art as instructional materials; populists find this advocacy of exemplars restrictive. How the choice of aesthetic exemplars constitutes a curriculum issue is discussed. (RM)

  9. The Vocational-Liberal Arts Controversy: Looking Backwards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sue L.

    The liberal arts-vocational education controversy is examined in this article through a series of fictitious letters based on historical facts that present the thoughts of key educational personalities regarding the community college's role in providing vocational education and liberal arts education. Part I, which takes the form of a letter and…

  10. Before We Were Us, We Were Them: Curating Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keri

    2014-01-01

    Prompted by the passage of Alabama House Bill 56, I organized the museum studies course I taught for Auburn University at Montgomery in the 2013 spring semester around an exhibition on immigration. The course offered the opportunity to engage students, faculty, and the community in discussion of an important, timely, and controversial topic.…

  11. Use of Dramatic Enquiry to Explore Controversies in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Neil; Poad, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing prominence of "How science works" in science courses in England and the imperative of equipping students to engage with the controversies thrown up by the advance of science, science departments need new teaching strategies. Here we describe the application of "Dramatic Enquiry" to GCSE science. The project,…

  12. Taking One's Principles Seriously: A Teacher Confronts Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, William

    2010-01-01

    A teacher faces hostility from certain colleagues who view his decision to attend a controversial lecture as tantamount to the repudiation of the principle of inclusive education and the rights of students with disabilities. The teacher sees the proposed boycott of the lecture as a form of censorship threatening freedom of inquiry and critical…

  13. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  14. Disaster, Controversy--Are You Prepared for the Worst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Robert W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides demographic profiles from "Executive Educator's" fourth annual survey of U.S. school executives. Regarding disaster preparedness, only a small percentage of all districts in earthquake-prone areas have earthquake and fire action plans. Concerning controversial issues, teaching about substance abuse, child abuse, and teen suicide meets…

  15. Relational Frame Theory: An Overview of the Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fox, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Although Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) was published over 50 years ago, behavior-analytic research on human language and cognition has been slow to develop. In recent years, a new behavioral approach to language known as relational frame theory (RFT) has generated considerable attention, research, and debate. The controversy surrounding RFT…

  16. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  17. D. W. Griffith's Controversial Film, "The Birth of a Nation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that enables students to investigate race relations during the Progressive Era by analyzing D. W. Griffith's "The Birth of a Nation" and the controversy surrounding the release of the film. Explores the pros and cons of using motion pictures as teaching tool. Includes two student handouts. (CMK)

  18. Alice Moore and the Kanawha County Textbook Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe

    1980-01-01

    The author considers the 1974 Kanawha County textbook censorship controversy as an attempt by fundamentalist parents to banish "alien" moral influences from the schools and to strengthen community control over learning. He focuses on the role and views of school board member Alice Moore, a leading spokesperson of the fundamentalists.…

  19. Know Nukes: A Model for Teaching Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes a nuclear power workshop that presented techniques useful in controversial issues education. An introductory exercise and an overview of propagandistic techniques (listed in "The Propaganda Game") related to self-deception, language, irrelevance, exploitation, form, and maneuver are included. Outline of workshop presentation…

  20. Teaching About the Creation/Evolution Controversy. Fastback 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    The booklet discusses questions related to teaching engendered by the creation/evolution controversy, presents current positions of educators and textbooks, and recommends a two-model teaching approach. It is divided into six chapters. Chapter I defines and summarizes evolution and creationism as different belief structures, and outlines various…

  1. The Evolution/Creation Science Controversy: Educate Rather Than Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Beverley

    This paper is linked to the theme History and Philosophy of Science. The Evolution and creation science controversy is now in the general public's arena and poses a challenge for school science. The paper begins by briefly describing the current situation concerning this issue in Australia and the United States of America. In the subject Biology,…

  2. Creationism in the Classroom: A Controversy with Serious Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    The resignation of the Revd Professor Michael Reiss from his position as Director of Education at the Royal Society over the issue of the teaching of creationism in school science classes provides the background to this article. The immediate controversy is described and considered in relation to its wider context and to the serious questions that…

  3. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  4. Methods for Addressing Creation/Evolution Controversies in Iowa Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack

    Three papers are provided to assist local school districts and legislators in developing their positions when addressing creation/evolution controversies in Iowa schools. "Creation, Evolution and Public Education: The Position of the Iowa Department of Public Instruction (DPI)" presents the consensus of opinions of national and Iowa…

  5. Liebig-Wohler Controversy and the Concept of Isomerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Soledad

    2008-01-01

    Very often controversies contribute to the development of science. An example is the conflict between Liebig and Wohler on the occasion of their analyses of fulminates and cyanates, which showed that compounds with different properties could have the same composition. Their results, together with other similar evidences, led Berzelius to recognize…

  6. Controversy Continues over the Pledge of Allegiance. Legal Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2005-01-01

    Saying the Pledge of Allegiance in public schools has generated controversy for more than sixty years. On Flag Day, June 14, 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court sidestepped an opportunity to clarify the constitutionality of public school students reciting "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance. But this issue is not going away. Following the Supreme…

  7. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article.

  8. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  9. Teaching Controversial Materials: Teaching about the Nuclear Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Describes difficulties encountered in presenting a college course on nuclear weapons and disarmament. Maintains that such courses must strive for a fuller historical account of the arms race, in addition to stressing the humanistic and ethical questions involved. Warns that controversy will arise and concludes that even blind anger is preferable…

  10. Controversial Issues in Orientation and Mobility: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Jacobson, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of issues in orientation and mobility (0M) considers controversies in: (1) OM systems (use of short cane vs. long cane, dog guide vs. cane, electronic travel aids); (2) OM personnel preparation (such as bachelor's vs. master's level training); and (3) direct services (such as one-to-one vs. group OM lessons). (CL)

  11. Equal Rights Amendment Controversy: Two Worlds in Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Sonja K.

    1979-01-01

    The Equal Rights Amendment controversy is studied as a conflict between two world views that are created by the rhetoric generated by proponents and opponents. Descriptions of the settings, actions, characters, and motivations of the opposing worlds reveal little common ground on which traditional argumentation can occur. (JMF)

  12. Childhood Psychological Disorders: Current Controversies. Making Sense of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursztyn, Alberto M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This accessible, informative book will help teachers, parents, and practitioners make sense of current issues and controversies surrounding childhood disabilities. Almost 12 percent of children in American schools have been identified as disabled in ways that interfere with their capacity to learn. Yet parents of children with disabilities often…

  13. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  14. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  15. [Organic foods and human health: a study of controversies].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Anete Araújo de; Azevedo, Elaine de; Lima, Elinete Eliete de; Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira da

    2012-06-01

    The study of controversies is a methodological tool that generates knowledge about the social and political dimensions of science. This approach can be used to understand and explore the topic of organic foods. The present study aimed to analyze the controversies regarding the status of organic foods. We carried out a review of studies published since 1990 in three websites: International Foundation for Organic Agriculture, Soil Association, and Food and Agriculture Organization. The following controversies were identified: 1) effects on human health of the presence of chemical contaminants in organic foods; 2) the quality of organic foods as compared to conventionally grown foods; and 3) price of organic foods. Based on this review, it is possible to conclude that, even though organic foods stand out for their low toxicity, higher durability, and nutritional content of some items, more comparative studies are required to confirm the nutritional superiority of organic foods and to solve the controversies. The discussion must be contextualized within a broad spectrum of health promotion, in which organic farming appears associated with the support for small farming, biodiversity, and local sustainable development, so as to increase offer and demand for organic products at fair prices for individual and institutional consumers.

  16. MACOS Controversy: Responses to Charges by John Conlan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Peter B.

    The utility of the controversial elementary social studies program, "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS), is argued in this paper. A list of 12 charges made by Congressman John Conlan against MACOS, with responses to the charges, is presented. Specific passages in the student materials, films, and teacher materials are examined in context…

  17. Hot Buttons. Unraveling 10 Controversial Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays that deal with 10 current controversial issues. The issues are also the topics of 10 recent fastbacks from the Phi Delta Kappa fastback series published between 1993 and 1996. Following the introduction, the articles include the following: (1) "Accountability" (Jack Frymier); (2) "Assessment…

  18. Teaching and Prompting Critical Thinking on Public Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.; And Others

    A study was conducted: (1) to determine the proportion of average 6th-grade students who, when given prompts, could produce an incipient form of dialectical reasoning; and (2) to test a unit of instruction developed to teach dialectical reasoning as an appropriate learning strategy for exploring public controversies. It was hypothesized that if…

  19. The Ecology Controversy: Opposing Viewpoints. Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuen, Gary E., Ed.; Bender, David L., Ed.

    Ecological problems are explored in this book of sixteen student readings and exercises aimed at developing and applying critical thinking skills. The readings, mostly extracts from books and periodicals, are introduced by the editor and accompanied by questions. Chapter I, The Population Controversy, includes selections from Paul Ehrlich's The…

  20. Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajkovski, Goran, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies" sheds light on the status of diversity in the field of IT education. It identifies a wide range of problems that educators face on a daily basis, and gives practical, applicable solutions, mainly by showcasing successful and replicable examples. The chapters in "Diversity in…

  1. Millennia of Discord: The Controversial Educational Program of Isocrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Five years ago in "Theory and Research in Education", James R. Muir fired a new salvo in the debate regarding the merits of Isocrates' educational program, a controversy that has endured for more than two millennia. Was the Isocratean program misguided and lowbrow, as in the estimations of Plato and Aristotle--or was it the most successful program…

  2. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  3. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Prophylaxis and treatment controversies.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Daniel Kl

    2012-04-24

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and it carries a high mortality. Prophylaxis for hepatic VOD is commonly given to transplant recipients from the start of conditioning through the early weeks of transplant. However, high quality evidence from randomized controlled trials is scarce with small sample sizes and the trials yielded conflicting results. Although various treatment options for hepatic VOD are available, most have not undergone stringent evaluation with randomized controlled trial and therefore it remains uncertain which treatment offers real benefit. It remains controversial whether VOD prophylaxis should be given, which prophylactic therapy should be given, who should receive prophylaxis, and what treatment should be offered once VOD is established.

  4. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  5. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  6. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  7. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  8. A Lakatosian Framework To Analyze Situations of Cognitive Conflict and Controversy in Students' Understanding of Heat Energy and Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laburu, Carlos Eduardo; Niaz, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes (n=32) Brazilian secondary school students' interactions (conflicts, controversies, and arguments) as they participate in an intact 9th grade classroom activity designed to facilitate their understanding of heat energy and temperature. Reports that the differentiation between heat energy and temperature constitutes considerable…

  9. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  10. Reliability of Growth Indicators and Efficiency of Functional Treatment for Skeletal Class II Malocclusion: Current Evidence and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Current evidence on the reliability of growth indicators in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion, the timing of which relies on such indicators, is highly controversial. Regarding growth indicators, the hand and wrist (including the sole middle phalanx of the third finger) maturation method and the standing height recording appear to be most reliable. Other methods are subjected to controversies or were showed to be unreliable. Main sources of controversies include use of single stages instead of ossification events and diagnostic reliability conjecturally based on correlation analyses. Regarding evidence on the efficiency of functional treatment, when treated during the pubertal growth spurt, more favorable response is seen in skeletal Class II patients even though large individual responsiveness remains. Main sources of controversies include design of clinical trials, definition of Class II malocclusion, and lack of inclusion of skeletal maturity among the prognostic factors. While no growth indicator may be considered to have a full diagnostic reliability in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt, their use may still be recommended for increasing efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion. PMID:28168195

  11. Reliability of Growth Indicators and Efficiency of Functional Treatment for Skeletal Class II Malocclusion: Current Evidence and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Current evidence on the reliability of growth indicators in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion, the timing of which relies on such indicators, is highly controversial. Regarding growth indicators, the hand and wrist (including the sole middle phalanx of the third finger) maturation method and the standing height recording appear to be most reliable. Other methods are subjected to controversies or were showed to be unreliable. Main sources of controversies include use of single stages instead of ossification events and diagnostic reliability conjecturally based on correlation analyses. Regarding evidence on the efficiency of functional treatment, when treated during the pubertal growth spurt, more favorable response is seen in skeletal Class II patients even though large individual responsiveness remains. Main sources of controversies include design of clinical trials, definition of Class II malocclusion, and lack of inclusion of skeletal maturity among the prognostic factors. While no growth indicator may be considered to have a full diagnostic reliability in the identification of the pubertal growth spurt, their use may still be recommended for increasing efficiency of functional treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion.

  12. Nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit: controversies and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ravindra M; Niederman, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia (NP), and its most serious form, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the ICU. Numerous controversies exist, from diagnostic criteria to prevention and treatment, including the issues of attributable mortality of VAP, differences in the approach to early and late VAP, and the best diagnostic methods. Initial, accurate therapy is one of the most important factors determining outcome in VAP. Antibiotic monotherapy versus combination therapy is not clearly defined, as clinicians struggle with the dual risk of inadequate therapy negatively affecting outcome and overtreatment promoting antibiotic resistance. The role of airway and gastrointestinal colonization and innovative preventive strategies such as noninvasive ventilation, antibiotic rotation, and aerosolized antibiotics are discussed. No uniform standards exist for the approach to VAP. The authors highlight the major controversies and dilemmas in the clinical approach to VAP, with recommendations for the bedside management of these patients.

  13. Social controversy belongs in the climate science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Elizabeth M.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.

    2014-04-01

    Scientists, educators and stakeholders are grappling with how to best approach climate change education for diverse audiences, a task made difficult due to persistent social controversy. This Perspective examines how sociocultural learning theories can inform the design and implementation of climate change education experiences for learners with varied understandings of and attitudes towards climate change. The literature demonstrates that explicitly addressing learners' social and community experiences, values and knowledge supports understandings of and increased concern about climate change. Science learning environments that situate climate change in its social context can support conceptual understandings, shift attitudes and increase the participation of diverse communities in responding to climate change. Examples are provided of successful programmes that attend to social dimensions and learners' previous experiences, including experiences of social controversy.

  14. Understanding the agreements and controversies surrounding childhood psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The number of children in the US taking prescription drugs for emotional and behavioral disturbances is growing dramatically. This growth in the use of psychotropic drugs in pediatric populations has given rise to multiple controversies, ranging from concerns over off-label use and long-term safety to debates about the societal value and cultural meaning of pharmacological treatment of childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. This commentary summarizes the authors' eight main findings from the first of five workshops that seek to understand and produce descriptions of these controversies. The workshop series is convened by The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute located in Garrison, New York, U.S.A. PMID:18261228

  15. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe.

  16. Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the "autism epidemic"? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public's trust in the nation's vaccine system.

  17. Socio-scientific controversies and students' conceptions about scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro; Galvão, Cecília

    This article discusses the results of a mainly qualitative study into possible impacts of recent controversial socio-scientific issues on a group of Portuguese secondary school students regarding their conceptions about scientists. The 86 participants: (1) answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions; and (2) wrote a science fiction story involving a group of scientists working on a particular situation of her/his choice. Next, semi-structured interviews were carried out to clarify and discuss the ideas embodied in the stories and mentioned in the questionnaire. All data underwent a process of content analysis. The socio-scientific controversies recently discussed, and the way science and scientists are depicted in the media, seem to have produced some impact on students' conceptions about scientists. Based on the results obtained, some remarks and educational implications are discussed.

  18. Current controversies in clinical management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kerschan-Schindl, K; Mikosch, P; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Gasser, R W; Dimai, H-P; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Dobnig, H; Roschger, P; Preisinger, E; Klaushofer, K; Resch, H; Pietschmann, P

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in postmenopausal women. Despite the fact that fragility fractures cause many problems - a bio-psycho-social burden for the individual and an economic burden for the society - osteoporosis is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Controversies exist concerning assessment with different tools for initiating a disease-specific treatment, patient monitoring with bone turnover markers, and treatment duration due to potential side effects in long-term treatment. This manuscript outlines and discusses these controversies and the presented cases, representatives for frequent clinical problems, may give guidance for the clinician in deciding how and how long to treat his/her patient. Re-evaluations of the patients on a regular basis are essential to warrant the necessity of treatment continuation and may improve patients' compliance.

  19. Controversies and challenges of vaccination: an interview with Elizabeth Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-10-16

    Although strong evidence exists that the benefits of vaccination by far outweigh potential adverse events, controversy still exists. This has led opponents of vaccination to question its safety, efficacy and necessity. In an interview with Professor Elizabeth Miller, we discuss the continuum of beliefs held by vaccine refusers and hesitators, the resulting health consequences, and ways in which health professionals and industry regulators can help promote transparency to better convey the substantial health benefits of vaccination.

  20. Chlorine: Undergraduate Research on an Element of Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hasok

    2009-04-01

    If chemical elements were people, chlorine would be a celebrity. Although intrinsically no more or less important than any other element, chlorine has had a knack of making headlines. The genre of "object biography" has been quite successful in popular science recently. We took this opportunity to write a "biographical" study of chlorine. Chlorine's wide range of interesting controversies is well suited for attracting and maintaining the enthusiasm of the diverse range of students we teach in our department.

  1. Surgical Treatment of Epiphrenic Diverticulum: Technique and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Ciro; Wiesel, Ory; Fisichella, P Marco

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this article is to illustrate the current minimal invasive approaches to patients with epiphrenic diverticulum in terms of preoperative evaluation, surgical technique, and outcomes. Two techniques will be presented: a laparoscopic and a video-assisted thoracic repair. Indications for each technique will be discussed as well as proper patient selection and management. Current controversies in the treatment of patients with this rare disease will be addressed.

  2. The controversy over the minimum quantum requirement for oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jane F; Govindjee

    2014-10-01

    During the early- to mid-twentieth century, a bitter controversy raged among researchers on photosynthesis regarding the minimum number of light quanta required for the evolution of one molecule of oxygen. From 1923 until his death in 1970, Otto Warburg insisted that this value was about three or four quanta. Beginning in the late 1930s, Robert Emerson and others on the opposing side consistently obtained a value of 8-12 quanta. Warburg changed the protocols of his experiments, sometimes in unexplained ways, yet he almost always arrived at a value of four or less, except eight in carbonate/bicarbonate buffer, which he dismissed as "unphysiological". This paper is largely an abbreviated form of the detailed story on the minimum quantum requirement of photosynthesis, as told by Nickelsen and Govindjee (The maximum quantum yield controversy: Otto Warburg and the "Midwest-Gang", 2011); we provide here a scientific thread, leaving out the voluminous private correspondence among the principal players that Nickelsen and Govindjee (2011) examined in conjunction with their analysis of the principals' published papers. We explore the development and course of the controversy and the ultimate resolution in favor of Emerson's result as the phenomenon of the two-light-reaction, two-pigment-system scheme of photosynthesis came to be understood. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the discovery by Otto Warburg of the requirement for bicarbonate in the Hill reaction.

  3. Embryo stem cell research: ten years of controversy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2010-01-01

    This overview of 10 years of stem cell controversy reviews the moral conflict that has made ESCs so controversial and how this conflict plays itself out in the legal realm, focusing on the constitutional status of efforts to ban ESC research or ESC-derived therapies. It provides a history of the federal funding debate from the Carter to the Obama administrations, and the importance of the Raab memo in authorizing federal funding for research with privately derived ESCs despite the Dickey-Wicker ban on federal funding of embryo research. It also reviews the role that scientists themselves have played in developing regulations for ESC research, the emergence of ESCROs as special review bodies for ESC research, and the thorough consent requirements for donation of IVF embryos to ESC research. With research now transitioning from the lab to the clinic, the article reviews the challenges of ensuring safety and consent in translational research. It concludes with a call for respecting those persons who have to using or working with ESC products and an account of how obtaining stem cells from a person's own cells will alleviate some but not all of the controversy surrounding ESC research.

  4. Cellular Origins of Beta Cell Regeneration: a Legacy view of Historical Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Anne; Kushner, Jake A.

    2013-01-01

    Beta cell regeneration represents a major goal of therapy for diabetes. Unraveling the origin of beta cells during pancreatic regeneration could help restore a functional beta cell mass in diabetes patients. This scientific question has represented a longstanding interest still intensively investigated today. This review focuses on pioneering observations and subsequent theories made hundred years ago and describes how technical innovation helped resolve some, but not all, of the controversies generated by these early investigators. At the end of the nineteenth century, complete pancreatectomy demonstrated the crucial physiological role of the pancreas and its link to diabetes. Pancreatic injury models, including pancreatectomy and ductal ligation, allowed investigators to describe islet function and to assess the regenerative capacity of the pancreas. Three main theories were proposed to explain the origins of newly formed islets: 1) transdifferentiation of acinar cells into islets, 2) islet neogenesis, a process reminiscent of islet formation during embryonic development, and 3) replication of preexisting islet cells. Despite considerable technical innovation in the last fifty years, the origin of new adult beta cells remains highly controversial and the same three theories are still debated today. PMID:19765178

  5. The Watson-Forbes Biogeographical Controversy Untangled 170 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Simone

    2016-10-24

    Hewett Cottrell Watson and Edward Forbes were two naturalists of the Victorian age. They were protagonists on a dispute that generated comment and serves as an illuminating case study of misunderstanding in priority issues. Watson accused Forbes of having plagiarized his original classification of the British plants into groups on the basis of their geographical distribution. This controversy originated mostly from a so-far-ignored basic difference in Watson's and Forbes' ideas about biogeographical regionalization. Watson's classification of the British flora into groups of species with similar distribution was probably the first application of the concept of "regional chorotype." By contrast, the biogeographical classification of the British flora proposed by Forbes belongs to the concept of "element," because it was based on assumed species history (i.e. colonization routes). The two approaches may produce similar outcomes, but remain conceptually different. Although personal reasons may have contributed to exacerbate the Watson-Forbes controversy, failure in recognizing this distinction by its actors and their contemporaries, such as Hooker and Darwin, was the most important cause.

  6. The Controversial Role of Food Allergy in Infantile Colic: Evidence and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Rita; Pezzella, Vincenza; Cosenza, Linda; Amoroso, Antonio; Di Scala, Carmen; Amato, Francesco; Iacono, Giuseppe; Berni Canani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) are an increasing problem in Western countries, affecting up to 10% of young children. FAs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. The role of FAs as a potential causative factor for infantile colic (IC) is still controversial. We report the most recent evidence on the pathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic aspects of FA-induced infantile colic (IC) and suggest a stepwise diagnostic approach. We selected articles on clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis and management of FAs and IC from of 1981 to 2015. Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed, using the following terms: colic, infantile colic, food allergy and infantile colic, infantile colic treatment. The possible relationship between FAs and IC derives from the presence of dysmotility with visceral hypersensitivity and dysbiosis, demonstrated in both conditions, and the clinical response to dietary interventions. Unfortunately, the design of the studies, poor characterization of atopy and different dietary approaches limit the understanding of the importance of FAs in subjects with IC. The role of FAs in IC subjects without other symptoms of atopy remains controversial. However, where there is a suspicion of FAs, a short trial with an extensively hydrolyzed cow’s proteins formula or, if breast fed, with maternal elimination diet may be considered a reasonable option. PMID:25808260

  7. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  8. Treating to Protect: Current Cardiovascular Treatment Approaches and Remaining Needs

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Michael; Werner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Current best practice to reduce cardiovascular disease involves evaluating patients' global cardiovascular risk profiles and devising treatment strategies accordingly. Despite the proven efficacy of this approach, very few physicians are adequately assessing risk, and consequently patients are failing to achieve desired treatment targets. Modifying lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, and cessation of smoking, remains one of the simplest and most potent means of reducing risk. Newly emerging evidence suggests that moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking for 30 minutes a day), eg, by raising levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, improves endothelial function and enhances vascular repair. However, patients remain remarkably reluctant to lifestyle changes, even in the face of overt, life-threatening disease. Statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and death in both primary and secondary prevention studies. However, over 90% of adults at high risk for coronary heart disease fail to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in spite of statin therapy. Similarly, only about 37% of patients with hypertension meet blood pressure targets. Antihypertensive drugs achieve different levels of cardioprotection. Mounting evidence links regimens containing beta-blockers or diuretics with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers appear to confer extra protection on target organs on top of blood pressure reduction. The ONTARGET Trial Program is designed to clarify the importance of this effect. Educating patients, raising physicians' awareness, and implementing effective and safe treatment regimens are all necessary steps to bring about the much-needed improvements in cardiac health outcomes. PMID:18449384

  9. Parasomnias and nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE): lights and shadows--controversial points in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bisulli, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Provini, Federica; Leta, Chiara; Lugaresi, Elio; Tinuper, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is characterized by seizures with complex, often bizarre, violent behaviour arising only or mainly during sleep. These unusual seizures and their occurrence during sleep are often accompanied by normal EEG tracings and neuroradiological findings, making it difficult to distinguish NFLE seizures from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias. NFLE was described for the first time in 1981, but, as its epileptic origin was controversial, the condition was called nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia. Even though many aspects of parasomnias and NFLE have been clarified in the last two decades, the problem of differential diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. This paper discusses some controversial points still under debate. The difficulties in distinguishing nocturnal epileptic seizures from parasomnias reflect just one aspect of the intriguing issue of the pathophysiological relationships between all types of paroxysmal motor behaviours during sleep.

  10. B and H, the intensity vectors of magnetism: A new approach to resolving a century-old controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, John J.

    2000-05-01

    The B and H controversy, which has persisted for more than a century, is at bottom a debate over the structure of the macroscopic magnetic field, both in a vacuum and in a magnetized body. It is also a controversy over units and notation. It is paralleled by the problem of D and E in dielectrics. Its origins are traced to a dual magnetic field concept of William Thomson, to an altogether different dual field concept of Faraday, and to Maxwell's attempt to bind the concepts of Thomson and Faraday together. The author argues that severe ambiguities were inadvertently introduced to this subject during its foundational period and subsequently, and that many of these still remain embedded in the present-day interpretation of the subject. The article attempts to clear up a long history of misunderstanding by dealing with each difficulty in the same sequence in which it was introduced to electromagnetism.

  11. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  12. Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

    PubMed

    Piegorsch, W W

    1990-12-01

    R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

  13. Current controversies in the diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder in the world. The spectrum of VWD spans quantitative and qualitative deficiencies of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a platelet adhesive protein. It manifests primarily as mucocutaneous bleeding, but severely affected patients may suffer soft tissue bleeding and hemarthroses. There is disagreement in the multiple guidelines published regarding diagnosis, especially of type 1 VWD, which also remains the most opaque with respect to molecular characterization. Treatment with desmopressin (DDAVP) is most effective in type 1 VWD, but regimens are not standardized. It is not clear which type 2 VWD patients with qualitative deficiencies can be treated with DDAVP and which ones should receive VWF concentrates. No guidelines stipulate which patients might benefit from prophylactic VWF infusions and how they should be dosed. These are some current controversies in VWD that are discussed in this review. PMID:26288715

  14. A Decade of Controversy: Balancing Policy With Evidence in the Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M.; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  15. Facts and controversies in our understanding of how caloric restriction impacts the mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Hepple, Russell T

    2013-10-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has pronounced benefits in promoting healthy aging. Amongst the most frequently implicated physiological mechanisms implicated in this benefit is altered mitochondrial function. Whereas a reduction in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a widely consistent effect of CR, an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, which is accepted by many as fact, is contradicted on several levels, most critically by a lack of increase in mitochondrial protein synthesis rate in vivo. Furthermore, an increase in PGC-1α protein and markers of mitochondrial content with CR is a highly variable observation between studies. On the other hand, deacetylation of several mitochondrial proteins by the sirtuin, Sirt3, is an increasingly reported observation and at least so far, this observation is consistent between studies. Notwithstanding this point, the controversies evident in the published literature underscore the significant questions that remain in our understanding of how CR impacts the mitochondrion and suggest we have yet to fully understand the complexities herein.

  16. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature.

  17. A decade of controversy: balancing policy with evidence in the regulation of prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M; Kravitz, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising.

  18. Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

  19. RU 486, mifepristone: a review of a controversial drug.

    PubMed

    DiPierri, D

    1994-06-01

    RU 486 (mifepristone), commonly referred to as the French abortion pill, has received much attention in the popular media. Much of this information has clouded the facts, and has been shrouded by controversy. Political, religious, and personal bias have slanted the presentation of the potential uses of this drug. Health care practitioners must be able to provide clients with the most accurate and factual information available. This article details the physiological effects of RU 486, as well as research data regarding uses and side effects. RU 486's most well publicized use, and efficacy, as an abortifacient are discussed in detail.

  20. Controversies in the Management of the Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rodman, Regina E; Kellman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma is a significant cause of morbidity in the United States. Despite the large volume of trauma surgeries at most academic institutions, there is still controversy regarding management of many traumatic injuries. The literature lacks clear-cut best practices for most fractures. In orbital trauma, there is debate about the optimal timing of repair, preferred biomaterial to be used, and the utility of evaluation afterward with intraoperative computed tomographic scan. In repair of mandible fractures, there is debate regarding open versus closed reduction of subcondylar fractures, or alternatively, endoscopic repair.

  1. Controversies and Trends in United Kingdom Bunion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William D; Walker, Christopher R

    2016-06-01

    Current practice and controversies in UK bunion surgery are discussed. Patients tend to be offered a distally based metatarsal osteotomy, such as a chevron or scarf osteotomy, for mild to moderate symptomatic bunions. Greater deformities are managed with a more extreme scarf, supplemented with a proximal phalangeal osteotomy. A proximal fusion in the form of the Lapidus-type procedure is still reserved for the most severe, hypermobile, or arthritic cases. Minimally invasive techniques for bunions have failed to disseminate into common UK practice. The trends in the United Kingdom regarding litigation, venous thromboembolism, and osteodesis for bunion surgery are also discussed.

  2. The monarch butterfly controversy: scientific interpretations of a phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shelton, A M; Sears, M K

    2001-09-01

    The future development and use of agricultural biotechnology has been challenged by two preliminary studies indicating potential risk to monarch butterfly populations by pollen from corn engineered to express proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. Likewise, these studies have also challenged the way in which science should be performed, published in scientific journals and communicated to the public at large. Herein, we provide a history of the monarch controversy to date. We believe a retrospective view may be useful for providing insights into the proper roles and responsibilities of scientists, the media and public agencies and the consequences when they go awry.

  3. Concise review: limbal epithelial stem cell therapy: controversies and challenges.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Anna R; Daniels, Julie T

    2011-12-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are a population of stem cells responsible for maintenance and repair of the corneal surface. Injury and disease can result in a deficiency of these stem cells, the vision affecting condition called limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) in which the cornea becomes opaque, vascularized, and inflamed. Cultured LESC therapy was first described in 1997;29:19231932-19231932.and LESCs cultured from either patients or donors have been used to successfully treat LSCD. In this review, some of the challenges and controversies associated with cultured LESC therapy will be discussed including alternative stem cell sources.

  4. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-12-29

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy.

  5. Prion protein in Alzheimer's pathogenesis: a hot and controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Benilova, Iryna; De Strooper, Bart

    2010-08-01

    The role for cellular prion protein PrP(c) in beta-amyloid (Abeta) oligomer-induced synaptic impairment is a topic of great interest and some controversy. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine Aguzzi and co-workers explore the contribution of PrP(c) to deficient long term potentiation (LTP) and soluble Abeta levels in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model and show that the role of prions in Abeta related toxicity is far from 'black and white' suggesting complex interpretations of the data available thus far.

  6. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops?

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Y

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Medical therapy is the first-line option in glaucoma management, with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) being the most frequently used preservative in antiglaucoma medications. Its use is however, known to be associated with deleterious effects on the ocular surface. This review is an attempt to critically evaluate whether BAC really is indispensable for better bioavailability of antiglaucoma drugs and consequently, better IOP control. How to cite this article: Louati Y, Shaarawy T. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops? J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):104-107. PMID:26997764

  7. On the programmed/non-programmed aging controversy.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, T C

    2012-07-01

    The programmed vs. non-programmed aging controversy has now existed in some form for at least 150 years. For much of the XX century, it was almost universally believed that evolution theory prohibited programmed (adaptive) aging in mammals and there was little direct experimental or observational evidence favoring it. More recently, multiple new evolutionary mechanics concepts that support programmed aging and steadily increasing direct evidence favoring it overwhelmingly support the existence of programmed aging in humans and other organisms. This issue is important because the different theories suggest very different mechanisms for the aging process that in turn suggest very different paths toward treating and preventing age-related diseases.

  8. Global challenges, efforts, and controversies in neonatal care.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Nicole E; Batra, Maneesh; Kuzminski, Jacquelyn; Lee, Anne C C; O'Callahan, Cliff

    2014-12-01

    Simple low-cost, evidence-based interventions such as clean delivery practices, immediate warming, umbilical cord care, and neonatal resuscitation could prevent 40% to 70% of newborn deaths globally, but many obstacles preclude the provision of those basic interventions for all newborns, particularly in low-resource regions. Global efforts have led to widespread development of neonatal clinical practice guidelines, training programs, and policies. Because of a shortage of health care resources, standards of care have been redefined to meet the needs of underserved populations. This article provides an overview of the challenges, efforts, and controversies surrounding neonatal health in low-resource settings.

  9. Left ventricular assist devices: current controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Erin M; Black, Matthew C; Monreal, Gretel; Slaughter, Mark S

    2016-12-07

    Advanced heart failure is a growing epidemic that leads to significant suffering and economic losses. The development of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to improved quality of life and long-term survival for patients diagnosed with this devastating condition. This review briefly summarizes the short history and clinical outcomes of LVADs and focuses on the current controversies and issues facing LVAD therapy. Finally, the future directions for the role of LVADs in the treatment of end-stage heart failure are discussed.

  10. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  11. Seminars: controversies in the management of pediatric thyroid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gingalewski, Cynthia A; Newman, Kurt D

    2006-12-15

    Thyroid cancer in children is a rare malignancy with unusual biological behavior. It often presents at advanced stages, yet behaves in a benign manner, when compared to its adult counterpart. Surgeons have debated the risks and benefits of aggressive surgical procedures for over a decade. A consensus treatment plan for childhood thyroid cancer has not been achieved, however radical surgical procedures have, in general, fallen out of favor. The best operative and adjuvant strategy for these children can only be determined when a better understanding of the tumor cell biology and genetics of this cancer is known. This review discusses the current controversies in the management of differentiated childhood thyroid malignancy.

  12. Controversies in the Management of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, Sayuri; Boone, M Dustin

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a physical insult (a bump, jolt, or blow) to the brain that results in temporary or permanent impairment of normal brain function. TBI describes a heterogeneous group of disorders. The resulting secondary injury, namely brain swelling and its sequelae, is the reason why patients with these vastly different initial insults are homogenously treated. Much of the evidence for the management of TBI is poor or conflicting, and thus definitive guidelines are largely unavailable for clinicians at this time. A substantial portion of this article focuses on discussing the controversies in the management of TBI.

  13. Beyond Controversies: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in India

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847

  14. The enigma of facial beauty: esthetics, proportions, deformity, and controversy.

    PubMed

    Naini, Farhad B; Moss, James P; Gill, Daljit S

    2006-09-01

    The study of the face and the ability to alter its form have fascinated mankind for thousands of years. The clinical ability to alter dentofacial form, whether through orthodontics, facial growth modification, or surgery, requires an understanding of facial beauty, including the evaluation of facial esthetics, proportions, and symmetry. The purposes of this article were to give a brief contemporary overview of our concepts of facial beauty and esthetics and to consider a long-standing and controversial debate on the treatment of patients with dentofacial deformities.

  15. Understanding the Nature of Science Through a Critical and Reflective Analysis of the Controversy Between Pasteur and Liebig on Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Carmona, Antonio; Acevedo-Díaz, José Antonio

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a qualitative study, descriptive-interpretive in profile, of the effectiveness in learning about the nature of science (NOS) of an activity relating to the historical controversy between Pasteur and Liebig on fermentation. The activity was implemented during a course for pre-service secondary science teachers (PSSTs) specializing in physics and chemistry. The approach was explicit and reflective. Three research questions were posed: (1) What conceptions of NOS do the PSSTs show after a first reflective reading of the historical controversy?, (2) What role is played by the PSSTs' whole class critical discussion of their first reflections on the aspects of NOS dealt with in the controversy?, and (3) What changes are there in the PSSTs' conceptions of NOS after concluding the activity? The data for analysis was extracted from the PSSTs' group reports submitted at the end of the activity and the audio-recorded information from the whole class discussion. A rubric was prepared to assess this data by a process of inter-rater analysis. The results showed overall improvement in understanding the aspects of NOS involved, with there being a significant evolution in some cases (e.g., conception of scientific theory) and moderate in others (e.g., differences in scientific interpretations of the same phenomenon). This reveals that the activity has an educational utility for the education of PSSTs in NOS issues. The article concludes with an indication of some educational implications of the experience.

  16. Discussion of the Controversy Concerning a Historical Event Among Pre-service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justi, Rosária; Mendonça, Paula Cristina Cardoso

    2016-10-01

    As part of a teacher training project, 16 future chemistry teachers participated in a dramatisation activity (a mock trial of the Fritz Haber case), in which they discussed a controversy concerning an event from the history of science: the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Fritz Haber in 1918. Preparations for the role-play activity, the dramatisation of the mock trial, and the subsequent discussions were video-recorded. We also collected the written material produced by the pre-service teachers and the reflective journals they produced during their involvement with the activity. This article discusses the contributions of such an experience to future teachers' knowledge on aspects related to both nature of science and argumentation, as well as to their views on their future actions related to authentic teaching of and about science. The results show that such contributions were meaningful.

  17. 42 CFR 405.747 - Dismissal of request for hearing; amount in controversy less than $100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... controversy less than $100. 405.747 Section 405.747 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... controversy less than $100. The ALJ shall, without holding a hearing, dismiss the request for hearing if the request for hearing plainly shows that less than $100 is in controversy. If a hearing is held and the...

  18. Several Controversial Issues on Early Childhood Education and Care in Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Michio

    This paper provides an overview of current controversial issues in early childhood education in Japan. One controversy discussed is the increasing emphasis on cognitive development in early childhood programs since World War II, especially the focus on reading and writing; and presents the controversy surrounding the task of learning Japanese and…

  19. After the Fairness Doctrine: Controversial Broadcast Programming and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aufderheide, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Asserts that suspension by the Federal Communications Commission of the Fairness Doctrine (which required broadcasters to air controversy and air it fairly) has not led to greater amounts of controversial programing. Argues that cancellation of the rule may in fact have limited the airing of controversy. (SG)

  20. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  1. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  2. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  3. National survey of provider opinions on controversial characteristics of liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Secunda, Katharine; Gordon, Elisa J; Sohn, Min W; Shinkunas, Laura A; Kaldjian, Lauris C; Voigt, Michael D; Levitsky, Josh

    2013-04-01

    Candidate selection for liver transplantation presents challenging ethical issues that require balancing the principles of justice and utility. The goal of this study was to assess the opinions of U.S. transplant providers regarding the ways in which controversial medical and psychosocial characteristics influence patient eligibility for liver transplantation. An online, anonymous survey about adult patient characteristics was sent to providers (hepatologists, surgeons, psychiatrists, and social workers) at all 102 active adult liver transplant centers in the United States. A majority of the providers (251/444 or 56.5%) completed the survey. The providers were queried about 8 characteristics, and the 3 that were ranked most controversial were incarceration, marijuana use, and psychiatric diagnoses. Most providers identified a patient age ≥ 80 years (62.7%), a body mass index ≥ 45 kg/m2 (56.6%), and current incarceration with a lifetime sentence (54.7%) as absolute contraindications to liver transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, the identification of absolute contraindications varied significantly with the provider type, the center volume, and the geographical region. Less than half of the providers reported that their centers had written policies regarding most of the characteristics examined. In conclusion, providers differ significantly in their opinions on controversial patient characteristics and transplant contraindications. Along with a paucity of literature data on outcomes, these provider differences may play a role in the fact that many centers do not have formal policies for selecting patients with these characteristics. Evidence-based data on the outcomes of such patients are needed to guide the formation of written policies to better standardize eligibility criteria.

  4. Human safety controversies surrounding nitrate and nitrite in the diet.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L

    2012-05-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are part of the human diet as nutrients in many vegetables and part of food preservation systems. In the 1950s and 1960s the potential for formation of nitrosamines in food was discovered and it ignited a debate about the safety of ingested nitrite which ultimately focused on cured meats. Nitrate impurities in salt used in the drying of meat in ancient times resulted in improved protection from spoilage during storage. This evolved into their deliberate modern use as curing ingredient responsible for 'fixing' the characteristic color associated with cured meats, creating a unique flavor profile, controlling the oxidation of lipids, and serving as an effective antimicrobial. Several critical reports and comprehensive reviews reporting weak associations and equivocal evidence of nitrite human health safety have fostered concerns and debate among scientists, regulators, press, consumer groups, and consumers. Despite periodic controversy regarding human health concerns from nitrite consumption, a building base of scientific evidence about nitrate, nitrite, heme chemistry, and the overall metabolism of nitrogen oxides in humans has and continues to affirm the general safety of nitrate/nitrite in human health. As nitrite based therapeutics emerge, it is important to consider the past controversies and also understand the beneficial role in the human diet.

  5. A web of controversies: complexity in the burgess shale debate.

    PubMed

    Baron, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Using the Burgess Shale controversies as a case-study, this paper argues that controversies within different domains may interact as to create a situation of "com- plicated intricacies," where the practicing scientist has to navigate through a context of multiple thought collectives. To some extent each of these collectives has its own dynamic complete with fairly negotiated standards for investigation and explanation, theoretical background assumptions and certain peculiarities of practice. But the intellectual development in one of these collectives may "spill over" having far reaching consequences for the treatment of apparently independent epistemic problems that are subject of investigation in other thought collectives. For the practicing scientist it is necessary to take this complex web of interactions into account in order to be able to navigate in such a situation. So far most studies of academic science have had a tendency to treat the practicing scientist as members of a single (enclosed) thought collective that stands intellectually isolated from other similar entities unless the discipline was in a state of crisis of paradigmatic proportions. The richness and complexity of Burgess Shale debate shows that this encapsulated kind of analysis is not enough.

  6. Phylogeny and life histories of the 'Insectivora': controversies and consequences.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E

    2005-02-01

    The evolutionary relationships of the eutherian order Insectivora (Lipotyphla sensu stricto) are the subject of considerable debate. The difficulties in establishing insectivore phylogeny stem from their lack of many shared derived characteristics. The grouping is therefore something of a 'wastebasket' taxon. Most of the older estimates of phylogeny, based on morphological evidence, assumed insectivore monophyly. More recently, molecular phylogenies argue strongly against monophyly, although they differ in the extent of polyphyly inferred for the order. I review the history of insectivore phylogenetics and systematics, focussing on the relationships between the six extant families (Erinaceidae--hedgehogs and moonrats, Talpidae - moles and desmans, Soricidae - shrews, Solenodontidae--solenodons, Tenrecidae--tenrecs and otter-shrews and Chrysochloridae--golden moles). I then examine how these various phylogenetic hypotheses influence the results of comparative analyses and our interpretation of insectivore life-history evolution. I assess which particular controversies have the greatest effect on results, and discuss the implications for comparative analyses where the phylogeny is controversial. I also explore and suggest explanations for certain insectivore life-history trends: increased gestation length and litter size in tenrecs, increased encephalization in moles, and the mixed fast and slow life-history strategies in solenodons. Finally, I consider the implications for comparative analyses of the recent strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis of an endemic African clade of mammals that includes the insectivore families of tenrecs and golden moles.

  7. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  8. Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kia, Leila; Hirano, Ikuo

    2015-07-01

    Over the past three decades, the detection of oesophageal mucosal eosinophils has transitioned from a biomarker of GERD to a diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). In GERD, oesophageal eosinophils are considered part of the chronic inflammatory response to acid reflux, whereas the marked eosinophilia in EoE is viewed as a central feature of the immune response to ingested food and/or environmental antigen stimulation. Descriptions of a considerable subset of patients with symptomatic, endoscopic and histological findings of EoE that resolve with PPI therapy has led to confusion and controversy regarding the distinction of EoE from GERD. Study findings indicate that PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) more closely resembles EoE than GERD, both from a clinical and immunological aspect. Although responsiveness to PPI therapy should not be utilized to exclude EoE, PPI therapy is effective at reducing oesophageal eosinophilia in ∼40% of patients, and PPI therapy is both a safe and practical initial step in the management of patients with oesophageal eosinophilia. Ongoing studies elucidating the mechanism behind PPI-REE will improve our understanding and management of EoE. In this Review, the mechanisms and evidence that underlie the controversy in the distinction between GERD and EoE are evaluated.

  9. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  10. ["I do not wish to be controversial": the arrival of the plague in Brazil; analysis of a controversy, 1899].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo do; Silva, Matheus Alves Duarte da

    2013-11-30

    This article analyzes a debate brought to the public arena by Jornal do Commercio newspaper in August and September 1899 involving two sanitation officials: Nuno de Andrade, Director-General of Public Health, and Jorge Pinto, Director of Hygiene and Public Welfare of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The issue in question was the measures taken by the federal government to prevent bubonic plague reaching Brazil from Porto, Portugal, where there was an epidemic. The theoretical framework for the analysis is Pierre Bourdieu's notion of field, and Bruno Latour's studies into scientific controversy.

  11. The timing of India-Asia collision onset - facts, theories, controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Huang, Wentao; An, Wei; Webb, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The timing of initial collision between India and Asia has remained grossly and windingly controversial for half a century. This paper attempts to review this crucial and hotly debated argument, describing first the different methods used to constrain the age of collision and discussing next the rationale, results, inferences and problems associated with each. We conclude that stratigraphy represents the best direct way to unravel collision chronology. Other methods focusing on the magmatic, metamorphic or paleomagnetic record provide additional fundamental constraints, but cannot provide a robust direct estimate of collision onset. Initial collision in the central-eastern Himalaya is dated directly at the Middle Paleocene (59±1 Ma) by the abrupt change in sediment provenance recorded in trench settings (Hu et al., 2015). The quasi-synchronous unconformities documented along both Tethyan passive margin of India and active margin of Asia from Tibet to Zanskar-Ladakh confirm that orogeny was underway at the close of the Paleocene (56 Ma) (Garzanti et al., 1987; Li et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2016), well before the disappearance of marine seaways in the Himalaya during the Eocene (50 Ma) (Najman et al., 2010). Sedimentary evolution and provenance changes in marine to fluvio-deltaic successions are recorded synchronously within error from the western to the central-eastern Himalaya, failing to provide evidence for diachronous collision. These coherent observations are hard to reconcile with three widely cited hypotheses invoking either earlier events of arc-continent collision or ophiolite obduction, or the protracted existence of a Greater India Basin, which should be all rejected after discussing the geological evidence. A scenario no more complex than the one involving solely the passive continental margin of India and the active continental margin of Asia is needed to explain the geological evolution of the nascent Himalaya. The collision between the Tethys

  12. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Mendisco, F.; Pemonge, M. H.; Leblay, E.; Romon, T.; Richard, G.; Courtaud, P.; Deguilloux, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence. PMID:25487339

  13. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Mendisco, F; Pemonge, M H; Leblay, E; Romon, T; Richard, G; Courtaud, P; Deguilloux, M F

    2015-01-19

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence.

  14. A controversial idea as a cultural resource: The Lysenko controversy and discussions of genetics as a 'democratic' science in postwar Japan.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kaori

    2015-08-01

    The Japanese discussion of the theory of Soviet agronomist Trofim D. Lysenko began in the postwar years under the American occupation. Leftists introduced Lysenko's theory immediately after the war as part of a postwar scientists' movement. Unlike many American geneticists, who sharply criticized the theory, Japanese geneticists initially participated in the discussion in an even-handed way; their scientific interests in the roles of cytoplasm and the environment in heredity shaped their initial sympathetic reaction. As the Cold War divide deepened, however, Japanese scientists began expressing sharp anti-Lysenko criticisms that resembled the American criticisms. Interestingly, throughout the period, Japanese geneticists' overall aim in the discussion remained largely unchanged: to effectively reconstruct their discipline and maintain its proper image and authority. However, the shift in their reaction occurred due to an evolving sociopolitical context, especially the shift in the meaning of 'democratic' science from a science that employed democratic processes to a science of a liberal-democratic state. Regarding Lysenko's idea as a cultural resource could help to explain how and why it was treated differently in different places, and why a controversy emerged in certain contexts but not in others.

  15. Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B; Barshop, Bruce A; Deschênes, Georges; Emma, Francesco; Goodyer, Paul; Lipkin, Graham; Midgley, Julian P; Ottolenghi, Chris; Servais, Aude; Soliman, Neveen A; Thoene, Jess G; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2016-06-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years. The molecular basis is due to mutations in CTNS, the gene encoding for the lysosomal cystine-proton cotransporter, cystinosin. During adolescence and adulthood, extrarenal manifestations of cystinosis develop and require multidisciplinary care. Despite substantial improvement in prognosis due to cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine, no cure of the disease is currently available. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Controversies Conference on cystinosis to review the state-of-the-art knowledge and to address areas of controversies in pathophysiology, diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment in different age groups. More importantly, promising areas of investigation that may lead to optimal outcomes for patients afflicted with this lifelong, systemic disease were discussed with a research agenda proposed for the future.

  16. Controversies in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux and achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kurt E; Duffy, Andrew J; Bell, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    The immense success of laparoscopic surgery as an effective treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and achalasia has established minimal invasive surgery as the gold standard for these two conditions with lower morbidity and mortality, shorter hospital stay, faster convalescence, and less postoperative pain. One controversy in the treatment of GERD evolves around laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) as the preferred treatment for Barrett’s esophagus and the procedure’s potential to reduce the risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. GERD has also been associated with respiratory symptoms, asthma and laryngeal injury, and a second controversy prompts discussions about whether total or partial fundoplication is the more appropriate treatment for GERD. A new and promising alternative in the treatment of GERD is endoluminal therapy. Three types of this new treatment option will be discussed: radiofrequency energy delivered to the lower esophageal sphincter, the creation of a mechanical barrier at the gastroesophageal junction, and the direct endoscopic tightening of the lower esophageal sphincter. Laparoscopic surgery is discussed not only as a very effective treatment for GERD but also as permanent cure for achalasia. This review analyzes the three most important treatment options for achalasia: medications, pneumatic dilatation, and surgical therapy. Medications as the only true non-invasive option in the treatment of achalasia are not as effective as LARS because of their short half-life and variable absorption due to the poor esophageal emptying. The second treatment option, pneumatic dilatation, involves the stretching of the lower esophagus and is still considered the most effective non-surgical treatment for achalasia. Finally, surgical therapy for achalasia and the two major controversies concerning this laparoscopic treatment are discussed. The first involves the extent to which the myotomy is extended onto the stomach, and the second

  17. Neon Lights up a Controversy: The Solar Ne/O Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Nasraoui, K.; Roames, J. K.; Lippner, L. A.; Garst, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The standard solar model was so reliable that it could predict the existence of the massive neutrino. Helioseismology measurements were so precise that they could determine the depth of the convection zone. This agreement between theory and observation was the envy of all astrophysics-until recently, when sophisticated three-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of the solar atmosphere reduced the metal content by a factor of almost 2. Antia & Basu suggested that a higher value of the solar neon abundance, ANe/AO=0.52, would resolve this controversy. Drake & Testa presented evidence in favor of this idea from a sample of 21 Chandra stars with enhanced values of the neon abundance, ANe/AO=0.41. In this Letter, we have analyzed solar active region spectra from the archive of the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission, a NASA mission from the 1980s, as well as full-Sun spectra from the pioneering days of X-ray astronomy in the 1960s. These data are consistent with the standard neon-to-oxygen abundance value, ANe/AO=0.15 (Grevesse & Sauval). We conclude, therefore, that the enhanced-neon hypothesis will not resolve the current controversy.

  18. Scleroderma: nomenclature, etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Fett, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Scleroderma refers to a heterogeneous group of autoimmune fibrosing disorders. The nomenclature of scleroderma has changed dramatically in recent years, with morphea (localized scleroderma), limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma encompassing the currently accepted disease subtypes. Major advances have been made in the molecular studies of morphea and systemic sclerosis; however, their etiologies and pathogenesis remain incompletely understood. Although morphea and systemic sclerosis demonstrate activation of similar inflammatory and fibrotic pathways, important differences in signaling pathways and gene signatures indicate they are likely biologically distinct processes. Morphea can cause significant morbidity but does not affect mortality, whereas systemic sclerosis has the highest disease-specific mortality of all autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Treatment recommendations for morphea and systemic sclerosis are based on limited data and largely expert opinions. Current collaborative efforts in morphea and systemic sclerosis research will hopefully lead to better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of these rare and varied diseases and improved treatment options.

  19. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  20. If fibromyalgia did not exist, we should have invented it. A short history of a controversial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perrot, S

    2012-09-28

    Fibromyalgia is a recent disease, and some physicians remain doubtful about its reality. The history of fibromyalgia is a story of controversies: the fight between subjectivity and cartesianism, and between old mind and body concepts. Fibromyalgia represents the emblematic condition of unexplained medical symptoms, far from well-defined diseases with objective biomarkers. In this review we will follow the fibromyalgia story along the ages and sciences to better understand this complex pain disorder, between soma and psyche, and between medicine and psycho-sociology and to demonstrate that fibromyalgia exist, we have not invented it.

  1. Complications And Controversies Of Regional Anaesthesia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Kishore, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Summary Complications of regional anaesthesia has been recognised from very long time. Fortunately serious complication are rare. Safe, effective practice of neuraxial anaesthesia requires a detailed knowledge of potential complications, their incidence and risk factors associated with their occurrence. The incidence of complication were higher for spinal than for epidural anaesthesia. These complications being rare, so existing studies are mainly retrospective, providing information about incidence and their associations but not necessarily demonstrate causality. There are many areas of controversies regarding the usage of regional anaesthesia i.e. in outpatient surgical procedures, epidural test dose, its safety in infected / febrile / immuno compromised patients, / in patients with neurological disorder and in patients receiving anti-coagulants. Recommendations proposed may be acceptable based on the judgment of the responsible anaesthesiologist. The consensus statements are designed to encourage safe and quality patient care but cannot guarantee a specific outcome. PMID:20640104

  2. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  3. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  4. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved.

  5. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kathleen; Miner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV) health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term prospective studies to determine safety. Literature spanning over the past 30 years has suggested that not only is there a possible increased CV risk in men with low levels of testosterone, but the benefits from testosterone therapy may even lower this risk. We review here the recent studies that have garnered such intense scrutiny. This article is intended as a thorough review of testosterone levels and CV risk, providing the clinician with the facts needed to make informed clinical decisions in managing patients with clinical hypogonadism.

  6. Race and genetics: controversies in biomedical, behavioral, and forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never. Researchers should instead focus on developing standards for when and how to use racial variables. The article then discusses 1 context, criminology, in which the use of racial variables in behavioral genetics research could be particularly problematic. If genetic studies of criminalized behavior use forensic DNA databanks or forensic genetic profiles, they will be confounded by the many racial biases of the law enforcement and penal system.

  7. Sources of Controversy Surrounding Latitudinal Patterns in Herbivory and Defense.

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Nunes, Krystal A; Baskett, Carina; Kotanen, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Both herbivory and plant defenses against herbivores have been predicted to increase toward tropical regions. Early tests of this latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) were supportive, but accumulating evidence has been mixed. We argue that the lack of clarity might be due to heterogeneity in methodology and problems with study design and interpretation. We suggest possible solutions. Latitudinal studies need to carefully consider spatial and phylogenetic scale, to link plant defense measurements to herbivore performance, and to incorporate additional concepts from plant defense theory such as tolerance and induced defense. In addition, we call for consistent measures of herbivory to standardize comparisons across biomes. Improving methodology in future studies of LHDH should resolve much of the current controversy.

  8. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies.

    PubMed

    VanEpps, Eric M; Roberto, Christina A; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-03-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet.

  9. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.S. )

    1989-08-04

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended tolerance doses in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them. 35 references.

  10. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview.

    PubMed

    Walker, J S

    1989-08-04

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended "tolerance doses" in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them.

  11. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves.

  12. [Treatment based on patient's consent: controversies, doubts, ambiguities].

    PubMed

    Zaba, Czesław; Swiderski, Paweł; Zaba, Zbigniew; Klimberg, Aneta; Przybylski, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    The authors aimed at directing the reader's attention to regulations by law related to the consent to treatment, the form and interpretation of which may induce controversies among clinicians. Among various problems associated with such a vast topic, the authors focused on the issue of the so called "printed form consent", commonly practiced, but legally groundless in view of the legal regulations in force. The report also presented selected aspects of obtaining consent to treatment of a juvenile patient, specifying and discussing unclear and doubtful situations. Another topic stressed in the paper involved treatment executed in the absence of consent or when preferences of the patient are unknown, particularly in emergencies. Finally, selected aspects of compulsory procedures were presented, in particular the principles of compulsory examination of a patient in penal proceedings and the use of constraint in the emergency detoxification centers.

  13. Controversy and consensus in disaster mental health research.

    PubMed

    Tierney, K J

    2000-01-01

    Controversies regarding the mental health consequences of disasters are rooted both in disciplinary orientations and in the widely varied research strategies that have been employed in disaster mental health studies. However, despite a history of dissensus, there are also key issues on which researchers agree. Disasters constitute stressful and traumatic experiences. However, vulnerability to such experiences, as well as to more chronic stressors, is socially structured, reflecting the influence of socio-economic status and other axes of stratification, including gender, race, and ethnicity. Disaster events differ in the extent to which they generate stress for victims. A holistic perspective on disaster mental health would take into account not only disaster event characteristics, but also social-systemic sources of both acute and chronic stress, secondary and cumulative stressors, and victims internal and external coping capacities.

  14. Leukemic blast cells and controversies in models of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, D F; Sklyarenko, L M; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Ivanovskaya, T S

    2015-03-01

    Classical and up-to-date models of hematopoietic lineage determination are briefly reviewed with the focus on myeloid-based models challenging the existence of the common progenitor for T cells, B cells and NK cells. The analysis of immunophenotype of leukemic blast cells seems to be a promising approach for interpreting some controversies in the schemes of normal hematopoiesis. The literature data as well as our own findings in the patients with various types of acute leukemias are in favor of the concept postulating that common myeloid-lymphoid progenitors giving rise to T and B cell branches retain the myeloid potential. The similarity of some immunophenotypic features of blast cells in pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute monoblastic leukemia is consistent with monocyte origin postulated in the studies of normal hematopoiesis. Study of acute leukemias may be the challenging area of research allowing for new insight into the origin of hematopoietic cell lineages.

  15. Resolving controversy of unusually high refractive index of a tubulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosudský, O.; Dráber, P.; Cifra, M.

    2017-02-01

    The refractive index of a tubulin is an important parameter underlying fundamental electromagnetic and biophysical properties of microtubules – protein fibers essential for several cell functions including cell division. Yet, the only experimental data available in the current literature show values of the tubulin refractive index (n=2.36\\text{--}2.90) which are much higher than what the established theories predict based on the weighted contribution of the polarizability of individual amino acids constituting the protein. To resolve this controversy, we report here modeling and rigorous experimental analysis of the refractive index of a purified tubulin dimer. Our experimental data revealed that the refractive index of the tubulin is n=1.64 at wavelength 589 nm and 25 °C, that is much closer to the values predicted by the established theories than what the earlier experimental data provide.

  16. Controversies Related to Diabetes and Risk of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spradling, Kyle; Youssef, Ramy F

    2016-03-15

    In recent years, a growing number of case-control and cohort studies have suggested that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) may have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer (BC). However, the body of evidence linking DM and BC is controversial and largely composed of observational studies with significant heterogeneity in study design. In this review, we outline the current body of evidence associating DM with BC. We also highlight the evidence surrounding the relationship between BC and two antidiabetic medications, metformin and pioglitazone. Currently, not enough evidence is available to decisively conclude that DM is associated with an increased risk for development of BC. Similarly, the current body of evidence is inadequate to establish a causal relationship between pioglitazone and BC nor a protective relationship between metformin and BC.

  17. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies*

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved. PMID:24474104

  18. Clinical diagnostic criteria and classification controversies in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    RASCOVSKY, KATYA; GROSSMAN, MURRAY

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can manifest as a spectrum of clinical syndromes, ranging from behavioural impairment to language or motor dysfunction. Recently, revised diagnostic criteria have been proposed for the behavioural and progressive aphasia syndromes associated with frontotemporal degeneration. The present review will summarize these diagnostic guidelines and highlight some lingering controversies in the classification of FTLD clinical syndromes. We will discuss common tools and methods used to identify the insidious changes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), the value of new, patient-based tasks of orbitofrontal function, and the issue of a benign or ‘phenocopy’ variant of bvFTD. With regard to primary progressive aphasia (PPA), we will discuss the scope of the semantic disorder in semantic-variant PPA, the nature of the speech disorder in non-fluent, agrammatic PPA, and the preliminary utility of a logopenic PPA classification. PMID:23611345

  19. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  20. The Relative Value Unit: History, Current Use, and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Baadh, Amanjit; Peterkin, Yuri; Wegener, Melanie; Flug, Jonathan; Katz, Douglas; Hoffmann, Jason C

    2016-01-01

    The relative value unit (RVU) is an important measuring tool for the work performed by physicians, and is currently used in the United States to calculate physician reimbursement. An understanding of radiology RVUs and current procedural terminology codes is important for radiologists, trainees, radiology managers, and administrators, as this knowledge would help them to understand better their current productivity and reimbursement, as well as controversies regarding reimbursement, and permit them to adapt to reimbursement changes that may occur in the future. This article reviews the components of the RVU and how radiology payment is calculated, highlights trends in RVUs and resultant payment for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging and examinations, and discusses current issues involving RVU and current procedural terminology codes.

  1. No man's land revisited: the primary flexor tendon repair controversy.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, William L; Manske, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    New surgical procedures, novel concepts, and/or the presentation of very good results with an apparently discredited technique meet varying degrees of resistance among the establishment of any profession. In hand surgery this phenomenon was exemplified in a striking fashion with the presentation of a controversial report entitled, "Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man's land" by Kleinert, Kutz, Ashbell, and Martinez of Louisville, KY, at the 1967 American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) annual meeting. The discussant, Joseph Boyes, expressed such skepticism that a special ASSH committee was appointed to go to Louisville and review the results to determine if they were as good as claimed. They were, and today primary flexor tendon repair is the procedure of choice for most flexor tendon lacerations.

  2. Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?123

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of sugar and its relation to various potential adverse health consequences are the subjects of considerable debate and controversy. This supplement to Advances in Nutrition provides an expanded summary of a symposium held on 26 April 2014 entitled “Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?” as part of the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014. The articles in the supplement discuss results of current systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as randomized controlled trials and draw implications for public policy considerations. In addition, future research gaps are identified. Current research trials conducted with commonly consumed sugars [e.g., sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)] do not support a unique relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, risk factors for heart disease, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Neurologic differences in response to studies that used pure fructose compared with pure glucose have not been confirmed using typical sugars that are consumed (i.e., sucrose and HFCS), which contain ∼50% glucose and fructose. We conclude that added sugars consumed in the normal forms in which humans consume them, at amounts typical of the human diet and for the time period studied in randomized controlled trials, do not result in adverse health consequences. Although more research trials are needed in many areas of sugar consumption and health, there is little scientific justification for recommending restricting sugar consumption below the reasonable upper limit recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 of no more than 25% of calories.

  3. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it`s findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, {open_quotes}Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.{close_quotes} The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau`s response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government`s program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists.

  4. Controversies in diabetes in 2013 - a brief update.

    PubMed

    Gajos, Grzegorz; Piłaciński, Stanisław; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Therefore, a proper understanding of the mechanisms and efficient treatment of the disease is becoming increasingly important. The article briefly describes controversies in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) pathogenesis and diagnosis (genetic background, accelerator hypothesis, new autoantibodies, new information on LADA - latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, and the role of TRAIL - tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and treatment (how to deal with fluctuations of blood glucose concentrations and the occurrence of hypoglycemia, the role of healthy lifestyle, especially physical exercise, and a proper diet, treatment of insulin resistance and the challenges in detecting diabetic neuropathy). Moreover, issues in the pathogenesis of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are considered (novel risk factors - vascular hyperglycemic memory, hypoglycemia, altered profile of microRNAs expression, impaired function of vascular progenitor cells, altered fibrin clot properties and iron-induced blood coagulation). Modern treatment of T2DM, based on lifestyle intervention and antidiabetic drugs, is full of controversies and it seems that over time the number of uncertainties is constantly increasing. Recent trials have reported disappointing results in lifestyle intervention (LOOK-AHEAD) and antihyperglycemic treatment (ACCORD, SAVOR-TIMI 53, EXAMINE, concerns about sulfonylureas safety). Moreover, there are considerable deviations from treatment targets that are recommended by the guidelines (blood glucose, hypertension, blood lipids) in real-life clinical practice in patients at different stages of the disease development. It seems that beneficial modification of the natural history of diabetes is unlikely in the foreseeable future unless we are able to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the pathomechanisms of the disease.

  5. On the controversy about the sharpness of human cochlear tuning.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Eustaquio-Martin, Almudena

    2013-10-01

    In signal processing terms, the operation of the mammalian cochlea in the inner ear may be likened to a bank of filters. Based on otoacoustic emission evidence, it has been recently claimed that cochlear tuning is sharper for human than for other mammals. The claim was corroborated with a behavioral method that involves the masking of pure tones with forward notched noises (NN). Using this method, it has been further claimed that human cochlear tuning is sharper than suggested by earlier behavioral studies. These claims are controversial. Here, we contribute to the controversy by theoretically assessing the accuracy of the NN method at inferring the bandwidth (BW) of nonlinear cochlear filters. Behavioral forward masking was mimicked using a computer model of the squared basilar membrane response followed by a temporal integrator. Isoresponse and isolevel versions of the forward masking NN method were applied to infer the already known BW of the cochlear filter used in the model. We show that isolevel methods were overall more accurate than isoresponse methods. We also show that BWs for NNs and sinusoids equate only for isolevel methods and when the levels of the two stimuli are appropriately scaled. Lastly, we show that the inferred BW depends on the method version (isolevel BW was twice as broad as isoresponse BW at 40 dB SPL) and on the stimulus level (isoresponse and isolevel BW decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing level over the level range where cochlear responses went from linear to compressive). We suggest that the latter may contribute to explaining the reported differences in cochlear tuning across behavioral studies and species. We further suggest that given the well-established nonlinear nature of cochlear responses, even greater care must be exercised when using a single BW value to describe and compare cochlear tuning.

  6. Framing effectiveness in impact assessment: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development

    SciTech Connect

    Rozema, Jaap G.; Bond, Alan J.

    2015-01-15

    There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of impact assessment tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in impact assessment as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which impact assessment can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of impact assessment – environmental impact assessment (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the cases. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of impacts, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of impact assessment in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve impact assessment effectiveness, or whether it is

  7. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents.

  8. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  9. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  10. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  11. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  12. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  13. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  14. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  15. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  16. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  18. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  19. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  20. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR