Science.gov

Sample records for activity remain unclear

  1. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  2. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  3. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    PubMed

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  4. Invasive Swallow-worts: An allelopathic role for -(-) antofine remains unclear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum) are two invasive plant species in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada that have undergone rapidly expanding ranges over the past 30 years. Both species possess a highly bioactive phytotoxin -(-) antofine in r...

  5. Remaining activity determination of the resid desulfurization catalyst in a commerical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yung-Ji Tarng; Sheng-Yang Ju

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to present a method to determine the remaining catalyst activity of the resid desulfurization plant. Using the daily available operating data, we can establish a performance curve which is a temperature versus days on stream curve. By the use of the performance curve, we can in situ predict how much the catalyst life remains. With the knowledge of the catalyst life remaining, plant engineers are able to control the operating conditions to meet the specified run length of the catalyst suggested by the catalyst venders and refinery planning department. There are five heavy oil desulfurization (RDS) plants in Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) to produce the low sulfur fuel oil and low metal content feed stocks for the downstream processes. In general four or five reactors are connected in series for the reacting system and catalysts of various types are loaded in each reactor. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. The VSOP 5 GHz Active Galactic Nucleus Survey. V. Imaging Results for the Remaining 140 Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, R.; Fomalont, E. B.; Wiik, K.; Horiuchi, S.; Hirabayashi, H.; Edwards, P. G.; Murata, Y.; Asaki, Y.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Scott, W. K.; Taylor, A. R.; Gurvits, L. I.; Paragi, Z.; Frey, S.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Rioja, M. J.; Fodor, S.; Lister, M. L.; Mosoni, L.; Coldwell, G.; Piner, B. G.; Yang, J.

    2008-04-01

    In 1997 February, the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-bourne element for the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP) mission. Approximately 25% of the mission time was dedicated to the VSOP survey of bright compact active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 5 GHz. This paper, the fifth in the series, presents images and models for the remaining 140 sources not included in the third paper in the series, which contained 102 sources. For most sources, the plots of the (u,v) coverage, the visibility amplitude versus (u,v) distance, and the high-resolution image are presented. Model fit parameters to the major radio components are determined, and the brightness temperature of the core component for each source is calculated. The brightness temperature distributions for all of the sources in the VSOP AGN survey are discussed.

  7. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    PubMed

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive.

  8. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  9. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  10. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  11. Obamacare 2012: prognosis unclear for interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), informally referred to as ObamaCare, is a United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. ACA has substantially changed the landscape of medical practice in the United States and continues to influence all sectors, in particular evolving specialties such as interventional pain management. ObamaCare has been signed into law amidst major political fallouts, has sustained a Supreme Court challenge and emerged bruised, but still very much alive. While proponents argue that ObamaCare will provide insurance for almost everyone, with an improvement in the quality of and reduction in the cost of health care,, opponents criticize it as being a massive bureaucracy laden with penalties and taxes, that will ultimately eliminate personal medicine and individual practices. Based on the 2 years since the passage of ACA in 2010, the prognosis for interventional pain management is unclear. The damage sustained to interventional pain management and the majority of medicine practices is irreparable. ObamaCare may provide insurance for all, but with cuts in Medicare to fund Obamacare, a limited expansion of Medicaid, the inadequate funding of exchanges, declining employer health insurance coverage and skyrocketing disability claims, the coverage will be practically nonexistent. ObamaCare is composed of numerous organizations and bureaucracies charged with controlling the practice of medicine through the extension of regulations. Apart from cutting reimbursements and reducing access to interventional pain management, administration officials are determined to increase the role of midlevel practitioners and reduce the role of individual physicians by liberalizing the scope of practice regulations and introducing proposals to reduce medical education and training.

  12. Scavenging activity can produce predictable patterns in surface skeletal remains scattering: observations and comments from two experiments.

    PubMed

    Kjorlien, Yvonne P; Beattie, Owen B; Peterson, Arthur E

    2009-07-01

    In forensic contexts, surface deposited remains are frequently found that have been scattered by various taphonomic processes. In an effort to develop strategies to improve recovery rates, this study evaluates whether patterns can be detected in the scattering of remains due to scavenger activity. In two experiments, 24 human analogues (pig carcasses) were placed in two adjacent but differing environmental contexts: 12 in wooded and 12 in open grassland. Six carcasses in each of these contexts were dressed in human clothing. Elapsed time and direction of movement information for each carcass and its parts were collected and analyzed. Unclothed carcasses and carcasses in open contexts exhibited scavenger activity sooner than the others. Scattering of remains occurred along game trails and was directed away from human population and activity. Due to the highly variable nature of scavenger activity, daily observations during a research project are the key leading to a better understanding of the development of these patterns.

  13. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  14. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  15. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies.

  16. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  17. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity remains detectable during severe aplasia following bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Morton, C T; Solovey, A; Dandelet, L; Bach, R R; Hebbel, R P; Slungaard, A; Key, N S

    2001-02-01

    Using a novel whole blood assay, we recently demonstrated that tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) is present in normal individuals. Preliminary experiments suggested that this activity is localized in the mononuclear cell fraction. Postulating that whole blood TF PCA would therefore be undetectable when monocytes and neutrophils are absent from peripheral blood, we assayed TF PCA during the peri-transplant period in 15 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic (n = 12) or autologous (n = 3) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Baseline (pre-transplant) mean TF PCA was higher in patients compared to normal controls (P <0.005). Unexpectedly, although TF PCA during the period of profound aplasia was significantly reduced compared to baseline (p <0.05), fully 55% of the initial activity remained detectable. During the engraftment phase, TF PCA returned to pre-transplant levels, with a linear correlation between monocyte counts and TF PCA (r = 0.63). In contrast to normal whole blood, incubation of aplastic samples with E. Coli lipopolysaccharide ex vivo failed to induce TF PCA. Throughout the period of study--but especially during the aplastic phase--the absolute number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) that were TF antigen-positive was increased compared to normals (P <0.001). However, removal of these cells from whole blood samples failed to significantly diminish total TF PCA indicating that CECs alone could not account for the detectable TF PCA during aplasia. We conclude that neither circulating mature myelo-monocytic cells nor endothelial cells can account for all the functionally intact TF in peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to identify the other source(s) of TF PCA.

  18. 75 FR 75432 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a Portfolio Margining Account in a Commodity Broker... portfolio margining account that is a futures account constitute ``customer property''; and owners of such...) ] securities in a portfolio margining account held as a futures account, and (ii) an owner of such account....

  19. Functional testing strategy for coding genetic variants of unclear significance in MLH1 in Lynch syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Schäfer, Dieter; Langer, Deborah; Köger, Nicole; Wittmann, Margarethe; Aretz, Stefan; Steinke, Verena; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Trojan, Jörg; König, Rainer; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela; Plotz, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Lynch syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations in the MLH1 gene, but genetic variants of unclear significance frequently preclude diagnosis. Functional testing can reveal variant-conferred defects in gene or protein function. Based on functional defect frequencies and clinical applicability of test systems, we developed a functional testing strategy aimed at efficiently detecting pathogenic defects in coding MLH1 variants. In this strategy, tests of repair activity and expression are prioritized over analyses of subcellular protein localization and messenger RNA (mRNA) formation. This strategy was used for four unclear coding MLH1 variants (p.Asp41His, p.Leu507Phe, p.Gln689Arg, p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met). Expression was analyzed using a transfection system, mismatch repair (MMR) activity by complementation in vitro, mRNA formation by reverse transcriptase-PCR in carrier lymphocyte mRNA, and subcellular localization with dye-labeled fusion constructs. All tests included clinically meaningful controls. The strategy enabled efficient identification of defects in two unclear variants: the p.Asp41His variant showed loss of MMR activity, whereas the compound variant p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met had a defect of expression. This expression defect was significantly stronger than the pathogenic expression reference variant analyzed in parallel, therefore the defect of the compound variant is also pathogenic. Interestingly, the expression defect was caused additively by both of the compound variants, at least one of which is non-pathogenic when occurring by itself. Tests were neutral for p.Leu507Phe and p.Gln689Arg, and the results were consistent with available clinical data. We finally discuss the improved sensitivity and efficiency of the applied strategy and its limitations in analyzing unclear coding MLH1 variants.

  20. White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  1. White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  2. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  3. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  4. [What remains of arthrography?].

    PubMed

    Morvan, G

    1994-06-15

    At the time of RMI, arthrography appears sometimes old-fashioned. However this exam, which knows a second youth in relation with the supply of CT-scan (arthro-CT) remains the gold-standard in the exploration of many pathologic situations: intra-articular foreign bodies, tears of glenoid or acetabular labrum, precise assessment of chondral or ligamentous lesions (especially of the ankle), sub-scapularis tendon tears, adhesive capsulitis, complications of prosthesis, appreciation of intra-articular position of the needle's tip before injection of a therapeutic drug. Arthrography, completed or not by CT-slices gives, in this indications, excellent spatial resolution images, easy to perform, to read, to understand and to transmit at the clinicians, with a reasonable cost and a minor risk. RMI is a more and more used alternative, especially for the study of meniscus and ligaments of the knee, and rotator's cuff of the shoulder. It's sure that, with the increase of the RMI image's quality, other common indications will slip towards this technique, but nevertheless at this time (and it seams to me, for a long time) arthrography and arthro-CT will remain an excellent diagnostic tool with a very competitive advantages/inconvenience ratio.

  5. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  6. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P < 0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  7. New Swift/XRT observation shows faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 remains active 1 year after outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, R.; Wijnands, R.; Heinke, C.; Degenaar, N.

    2012-02-01

    The faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 was discovered through the detection of two type-I bursts by BeppoSAX's WFC in 1996-1997 (in't Zand et al. 1999, NuPhS, 69, 228). Around the times of both bursts, no persistent emission was detected from the source with BeppoSAX. RXTE/ASM observations suggested that the source was active from early 1996 till late 1997 with an X-ray luminosity of ~ 1E+36 erg/s (for d=8 kpc; Cornelisse et al.

  8. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.

  9. The invisible basal cell carcinoma: how reflectance confocal microscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinically unclear facial macules and papules.

    PubMed

    Ruini, C; Hartmann, D; Saral, S; Krammer, S; Ruzicka, T; von Braunmühl, T

    2016-11-01

    Difficult to diagnose and early non-melanoma skin cancer lesions are frequently seen in daily clinical practice. Besides precancerous lesions such as actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) score the highest frequency in skin tumors. While infiltrative and nodular BCCs require a surgical treatment with a significant impact on the patients' quality of life, early and superficial BCCs might benefit from numerous conservative treatments, such as topical immune-modulators or photodynamic therapy. Dermoscopy has shown a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of early BCCs, and non-invasive imaging techniques like reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) have proven to be helpful. The aim of our study was to investigate the importance of RCM in the diagnosis of BCCs with indistinct clinical and dermoscopic features. We retrospectively examined 27 histologically proven BCCs in which diagnosis was not possible based on naked eye examination; we separately reviewed clinical, dermoscopic, and confocal microscopy features and evaluated the lesions meeting the common diagnostic criteria for BCCs, and our diagnostic confidence. All lesions were clinically unclear, with no characteristic features suggestive for BCC; dermoscopy showed in most cases unspecific teleangiectasias (74 %) and micro-erosions (52 %). Confocal microscopy revealed in most of the cases the presence of specific criteria: peripheral palisading of the nuclei (89 %), clefting (70 %), stromal reaction (70 %), dark silhouettes (70 %), inflammatory particles (70 %), and tumor islands (67 %). In the absence of significant diagnostic clinical signs and with unclear dermoscopic features, specific confocal patterns were present in most of the lesions and enabled a correct diagnosis. In the absence of significant clinical features of BCC and in the case of uncertain dermoscopy, striking confocal features are detectable and easy to recognize in most cases. Confocal microscopy can therefore be

  10. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  11. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  12. Hot spots remain the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the drilling activity and petroleum activity in Africa. The areas which seem to hold the highest promise for new discoveries or increased exports are Egypt's Western Desert which seems to offer the possibility of significant oil discoveries. In addition, Nigeria has dramatically increased its exploration activity which is counter to the global trend in 1986. Areas where activity is decreasing are Cameroon, South Africa. It is pointed out that the Gabon crude oil reserves may have been raised 60% by a single on-shore discovery.

  13. Improvised Explosive Devices: Unclear Whether Culvert Denial Systems to Protect Troops are Functioning or Were Ever Installed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-23

    Regional Command-South. At least 4 of the contracts awarded by RCC-Kandahar were blanket purchase agreements ( BPA ) with multiple task orders against them...for the construction of culvert denial systems. Of the BPAs that we reviewed, both W91B4L-11-A-0031 (82 task orders) and W91B4L-11-A-0034 (14 task...orders) are no longer active. However, W91B4L-11-A-0033 (currently 117 task orders) and W91B4L-11-A-0037 (currently 198 task orders) are active BPAs

  14. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  15. P2X7 Receptor-mediated Scavenger Activity of Mononuclear Phagocytes toward Non-opsonized Particles and Apoptotic Cells Is Inhibited by Serum Glycoproteins but Remains Active in Cerebrospinal Fluid*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ben J.; Duce, James A.; Valova, Valentina A.; Wong, Bruce; Bush, Ashley I.; Petrou, Steven; Wiley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid phagocytosis of non-opsonized particles including apoptotic cells is an important process that involves direct recognition of the target by multiple scavenger receptors including P2X7 on the phagocyte surface. Using a real-time phagocytosis assay, we studied the effect of serum proteins on this phagocytic process. Inclusion of 1–5% serum completely abolished phagocytosis of non-opsonized YG beads by human monocytes. Inhibition was reversed by pretreatment of serum with 1–10 mm tetraethylenepentamine, a copper/zinc chelator. Inhibitory proteins from the serum were determined as negatively charged glycoproteins (pI < 6) with molecular masses between 100 and 300 kDa. A glycoprotein-rich inhibitory fraction of serum not only abolished YG bead uptake but also inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes or neuronal cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Three copper- and/or zinc-containing serum glycoproteins, ceruloplasmin, serum amyloid P-component, and amyloid precursor protein, were identified, and the purified proteins were shown to inhibit the phagocytosis of beads by monocytes as well as phagocytosis of apoptotic neuronal cells by macrophages. Human adult cerebrospinal fluid, which contains very little glycoprotein, had no inhibitory effect on phagocytosis of either beads or apoptotic cells. These data suggest for the first time that metal-interacting glycoproteins present within serum are able to inhibit the scavenger activity of mononuclear phagocytes toward insoluble debris and apoptotic cells. PMID:22461619

  16. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  17. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  18. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  19. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT.

  20. Interferon-resistant Daudi cells are deficient in interferon-alpha-induced ISGF3 alpha activation, but remain sensitive to the interferon-alpha-induced increase in ISGF3 gamma content.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Tovey, M G

    1993-10-01

    Low levels of the transcription factor ISGF3 alpha were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of untreated Daudi cells, which increased markedly following interferon (IFN) treatment. In contrast no ISGF3 alpha was detected in an IFN-resistant clone of Daudi cells, DIF8, and only low levels were detected in these cells after IFN-alpha treatment. High levels of ISGF3 were produced in vitro, however, by the addition of ISGF3 alpha to extracts of IFN-treated DIF8 cells, indicating that IFN is unable to produce substantial amounts of functional ISGF3 alpha in DIF8 cells. A second clone of IFN-resistant Daudi cells, DIF3, also exhibited defective ISGF3 alpha production, which was restored to normal in the subclone DIF3REV5 that had reverted to high IFN sensitivity. Thus, the antiproliferative effect of IFN on Daudi cells and derived clones is closely related to the level of ISGF3 present in the nucleus of these cells. IFN-alpha, however, also enhances the content of ISGF3 gamma in IFN-resistant cells as well as certain proteins of unknown function, raising the possibility that a second pathway of IFN-alpha signal transduction, distinct from the ISGF3 pathway, remains functional in both DIF8 and DIF3 cells.

  1. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  2. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-02-23

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  3. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  4. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  5. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  6. The case for fencing remains intact.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  7. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  8. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains.

    PubMed

    Vass, Arpad A; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the "odor signatures" unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  9. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  10. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  11. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  12. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  13. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    PubMed

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  14. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  15. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  16. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  17. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  18. 51-L Challenger Crew Remains Transferred

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Challenger crewmember remains are being transferred from 7 hearse vehicles to a MAC C-141 transport plane at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility for transport to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The STS-51L crew consisted of: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis and Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee and Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.

  19. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  20. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  1. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes.

  2. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  3. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  4. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  5. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Organic Remains in Finnish Subglacial Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkari, Mikko; Forsström, Lars

    1995-05-01

    Many sites in Fennoscandia contain pre-Late Weichselian beds of organic matter, located mostly in the flanks of eskers. It is a matter of debate whether these fragmentary beds were deposited in situ, or whether they were deposited elsewhere and then picked up and moved by glacial ice. The till-mantled esker of Harrinkangas includes a shallow depression filled with sand and silt containing, for example, several tightly packed laminar sheets of brown moss ( Bryales) remains. It is argued that these thin peat sheets were transported at the base of the ice sheet, or englacially, and were deposited together with the silt and sand on the side of a subglacial meltwater tunnel. Subglacial meltout till subsequently covered the flanks of the esker near the receding ice margin. Information about the depositional and climatic environments was obtained from biostratigraphic analysis of the organic matter. Pollen spectra for the peat represent an open birch forest close to the tundra zone. A thin diamicton beneath the peat contains charred pine wood, recording the former presence of pine forests in western Finland. The unhumified, extremely well-preserved peat evidently originated during the final phase of an ice-free period, most probably the end of the Eemian Interglaciation. It was redeposited in the esker by the last ice sheet. Reconstructions of the Pleistocene chronology and stratigraphy of central Fennoscandia that rely on such redeposited organic matter should be viewed with caution.

  7. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  8. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis, an Unclear Nosologic Entity: Case Report of an Adult Man with Rising of Amylase and Lipase and Spinal Cord Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Sangineto, Moris; Perrone, Antonio; Agosti, Pasquale; Boccuti, Viera; Campobasso, Anna; Sabbà, Carlo

    2017-02-23

    Here we present the case of a 57-years old patient affected by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare disease characterized by an uncontrolled immune activation, resulting in clinical and biochemical manifestations of extreme inflammation. In a previous hospitalization, the patient showed fever, hepato-splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperferrtitinemia, lymphadenopathy and cholestasis. No diagnosis was done, however, he totally recovered after splenectomy. Eight months later, he relapsed, showing also hypofibrinogenemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hemophagocytic signs in bone marrow, cholestatic jaundice, high LDH and high PT-INR. Interestingly, he presented increased levels of amylase and lipase in absence of radiologic signs of pancreatitis. He was treated with Dexamethasone and Cyclosporine according to HLH-2004 guidelines. The clinical and biochemical manifestations disappeared in a few weeks, but he was newly hospitalized for lower limbs hypotonia caused by a hemophagocytic lesion of the cauda equina and lumbar cord. The death occurred in a few days, despite the immunosuppressive treatment.

  9. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis, an Unclear Nosologic Entity: Case Report of an Adult Man with Rising of Amylase and Lipase and Spinal Cord Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Antonio; Agosti, Pasquale; Boccuti, Viera; Campobasso, Anna; Sabbà, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present the case of a 57-years old patient affected by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare disease characterized by an uncontrolled immune activation, resulting in clinical and biochemical manifestations of extreme inflammation. In a previous hospitalization, the patient showed fever, hepato-splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperferrtitinemia, lymphadenopathy and cholestasis. No diagnosis was done, however, he totally recovered after splenectomy. Eight months later, he relapsed, showing also hypofibrinogenemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hemophagocytic signs in bone marrow, cholestatic jaundice, high LDH and high PT-INR. Interestingly, he presented increased levels of amylase and lipase in absence of radiologic signs of pancreatitis. He was treated with Dexamethasone and Cyclosporine according to HLH-2004 guidelines. The clinical and biochemical manifestations disappeared in a few weeks, but he was newly hospitalized for lower limbs hypotonia caused by a hemophagocytic lesion of the cauda equina and lumbar cord. The death occurred in a few days, despite the immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:28286628

  10. [Foreign-born report more problems after total hip arthroplasty than Swedish-born. Unclear why, but better informed and educated interpreters may be needed].

    PubMed

    Krupic, Ferid; Kärrholm, Johan

    2015-08-18

    In 2013, 23.3% of the Swedish population of 9.7 million had foreign background and 15.4% were born outside the country. Immigrants, just as natives, suffer or will suffer from hip disease, which could involve surgery with total hip arthroplasty. Our aim was to explore the association between birthplace (in or outside Sweden), socio-economic factors and outcome after primary total hip arthroplasty. Records from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register were cross-matched with population-based registers from the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden.  Preoperatively immigrants reported more problems with self-care (P≤0.02), usual activities (P≤0.05) and anxiety/depression (P≤0.005) as well as higher levels of pain. Postoperatively immigrants reported more problems in all EQ-5D dimensions. Improved patient information, better training of medical staff and better access to interpreters could facilitate these patients' contacts with health care and also contribute to improved outcome.

  11. Decay rates of human remains in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, A; Birkby, W H; Jones, A M; Henry, T E; Parks, B O

    1989-05-01

    The environment of southern Arizona with mild winters and hot, dry summers produces great variability in decay rates of human remains. Summer temperatures, which range well over 38 degrees C (100 degrees F), induce rapid bloating as a result of the accumulation of decompositional gases. However, in certain circumstances, the aridity can lead to extensive mummification, allowing preservation of remains for hundreds of years. A retrospective study of 189 cases, concentrating on remains found on the desert floor or in the surrounding mountains and on remains found within closed structures, outlines the time frame and sequences of the decay process. Remains can retain a fresh appearance for a considerable time in the winter, but the onset of marked decomposition is rapid in the summer months. Bloating of the body usually is present two to seven days following death. Following this, within structures, there is frequently rapid decomposition and skeletonization. With outdoor exposure, remains are more likely to pass through a long period of dehydration of outer tissues, mummification, and reduction of desiccated tissue. Exposure of large portions of the skeleton usually does not occur until four to six months after death. Bleaching and exfoliation of bone--the beginning stages of destruction of the skeletal elements--begins at about nine months' exposure. Insect activity, including that of maggot and beetle varieties, may accelerate decomposition, but this process is greatly affected by location of the body, seasonal weather, and accessibility of the soft tissues. Carnivores and other scavengers also are contributing factors, as are clothing or covering of the body, substrate, elevation, and latitude.

  12. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient’s baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs’ function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  13. Remaining Pain in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated With Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Altawil, Reem; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Wedrén, Sara; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency of remaining pain in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 months of treatment with methotrexate as the only disease modifying antirheumatic drug, with a special focus on patients with a good clinical response. Methods The study base was cases reported to a population‐based early RA cohort who had followup data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (n = 1,241). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were used to evaluate clinical response to treatment as good, moderate, and no response. The primary end point was remaining pain at the 3‐months followup visit, defined as pain >20 mm on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results Remaining pain in spite of a EULAR good response at followup was associated with higher baseline disability, using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4–3.4] per unit increase), and less baseline inflammation, using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70–0.93] per 10‐mm increase). Similar associations were detected for remaining pain at followup in spite of low inflammatory activity, defined as a C‐reactive protein level <10. Increase in VAS pain during the treatment period was observed in 19% of the whole cohort, with frequencies in the EULAR response groups of 9% (good response), 15% (moderate response), and 45% (no response). Conclusion These results are in line with the hypothesis that a subgroup of early RA patients exhibits pain that is not inflammatory mediated, where alternative treatment strategies to traditional antiinflammatory medications need to be considered. PMID:26784398

  14. Sensory Stimulation-Based Complete Protection from Ischemic Stroke Remains Stable at 4 Months Post-Occlusion of MCA

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Aneeka M; Lay, Christopher C; Davis, Melissa F; Frostig, Ron D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research from our lab has shown that when using a rodent model of ischemic stroke (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion), mild sensory stimulation, when delivered within two hours of ischemic onset, completely protects the cortex from impending ischemic stroke damage when assessed 24 hours post-occlusion. However, the long-term stability of this protection remains unclear. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging for assessment of cortical function, laser speckle imaging for assessment of blood flow, a battery of behavioral tests and cresyl violet for histological assessment, the present study examined whether this protection was long-lasting. When assessed 4 months post-occlusion (this length of time being equivalent to 10–15 years in humans), rats receiving sensory stimulation treatment immediately after ischemic onset exhibit normal neuronal and vascular function, and they are behaviorally and histologically equivalent to healthy controls (surgical shams). Thus, the complete neuroprotection due to cortical activation via sensory stimulation remains stable with time. These findings add support to the translational potential of this sensory stimulation-based treatment. PMID:24634892

  15. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  16. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  17. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  18. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  19. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  20. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  1. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  2. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  3. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives. PMID:23691472

  4. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  5. Motives for Using Facebook, Patterns of Facebook Activities, and Late Adolescents' Social Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and…

  6. Clarifying the Meaning of Extracurricular Activity: A Literature Review of Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Kenneth R.; Nemelka, Blake; Nemelka, Mark; Gardner, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities has long been recognized as having important benefits for business students, including the development of competencies relevant to future career success. Unfortunately, a review of the literature suggests that what constitutes an extracurricular activity remains ambiguous and unclear as no…

  7. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  8. Treating to Protect: Current Cardiovascular Treatment Approaches and Remaining Needs

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Michael; Werner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Current best practice to reduce cardiovascular disease involves evaluating patients' global cardiovascular risk profiles and devising treatment strategies accordingly. Despite the proven efficacy of this approach, very few physicians are adequately assessing risk, and consequently patients are failing to achieve desired treatment targets. Modifying lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, and cessation of smoking, remains one of the simplest and most potent means of reducing risk. Newly emerging evidence suggests that moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking for 30 minutes a day), eg, by raising levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, improves endothelial function and enhances vascular repair. However, patients remain remarkably reluctant to lifestyle changes, even in the face of overt, life-threatening disease. Statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and death in both primary and secondary prevention studies. However, over 90% of adults at high risk for coronary heart disease fail to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in spite of statin therapy. Similarly, only about 37% of patients with hypertension meet blood pressure targets. Antihypertensive drugs achieve different levels of cardioprotection. Mounting evidence links regimens containing beta-blockers or diuretics with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers appear to confer extra protection on target organs on top of blood pressure reduction. The ONTARGET Trial Program is designed to clarify the importance of this effect. Educating patients, raising physicians' awareness, and implementing effective and safe treatment regimens are all necessary steps to bring about the much-needed improvements in cardiac health outcomes. PMID:18449384

  9. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  10. Physical Activity and Sports Team Participation: Associations with Academic Outcomes in Middle School and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…

  11. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  12. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  13. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  14. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E.; Cowley, Mark J.; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect. PMID:26908133

  15. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stephane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Therese; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stephanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E.; Cowley, Mark J.; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothee; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, Francois; Deleuze, Jean -Francois; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-02-24

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14 ± 5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Lastly, our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect.

  16. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  17. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents.

  18. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  19. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  20. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  1. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  3. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  4. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  5. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  6. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  8. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  9. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  10. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  11. 20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  12. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often resorted to violent means, while women turned to poisoning, drowning, study ... likely to attempt suicide, but males used more violent methods. And all attempts were most common in ...

  14. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  15. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  16. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  18. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  1. 15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ON NORTH SIDE, STONE WALL AND METAL RAILING ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Lake Street Bridge, Spanning Ruddiman Creek at Lake Shore Drive, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  2. The Slopes Remain the Same: Reply to Wolfe (2016)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Wolfe (2016) responds to my article (Kristjánsson, 2015), arguing among other things, that the differences in slope by response method in my data reflect speed accuracy trade-offs. But when reaction times and errors are combined in one score (inverse efficiency) to sidestep speed accuracy trade-offs, slope differences still remain. The problem that slopes, which are thought to measure search speed, differ by response type therefore remains. PMID:27872743

  3. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  5. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  6. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  7. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach.

  8. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  9. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  10. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  11. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents.

  12. Intolerance of uncertainty in emotional disorders: What uncertainties remain?

    PubMed

    Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara Ann; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The current paper presents a future research agenda for intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor for emotional disorders. In light of the accumulating interest and promising research on IU, it is timely to emphasize the theoretical and therapeutic significance of IU, as well as to highlight what remains unknown about IU across areas such as development, assessment, behavior, threat and risk, and relationships to cognitive vulnerability factors and emotional disorders. The present paper was designed to provide a synthesis of what is known and unknown about IU, and, in doing so, proposes broad and novel directions for future research to address the remaining uncertainties in the literature.

  13. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain About SPR Drawdown and Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    and to the ARCO ter- minal in Texas City , Texas. These terminals provide connections to two marine terminals and nine refineries in Texas. 0 Texoma...RCED-91-16 Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain Chater 2 DOE’s Egbleatis of Crient Drawdown Capabllity Appear Reamnable, but Tankeir MAmilability Col

  15. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  16. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. BLAST FURNACE No. 1 IS ON THE RIGHT, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) end and clerestory monitor of Machine Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Machine Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  3. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. Remaining True to the Vision: Promoting Research in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Ann P.; Burgess, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for family and consumer sciences professionals to generate new knowledge through research and then share findings with diverse groups. Specific Action Steps describe methods to incorporate research into university curricula to promote this role. The ultimate goal is to inspire new professionals to remain true to the…

  5. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  6. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  7. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  8. 6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL BUILDING AND UTILITY BRIDGE TO BUILDING ACROSS NINTH STREET HABS No. IA-160-AR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Klauer Manufacturing Company Factory, 301 Ninth Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. 22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains of machinery house platform east of drawspan; note cables (still connected to drawspan) coming off the winding drum; view to north. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  11. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  12. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  13. 8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street Pump House. Ashes would be removed via a dump truck driven under the hopper above the garage door. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  15. 1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  16. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  18. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  19. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  1. Diagnosis of aortic dextroposition on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Costea, Georgică; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2012-03-01

    The fine macroscopic observation of a young adult female skeleton recovered from a Roman graveyard in Romania revealed distinctive flattening of the vertebra related to a right-sided aorta. Associated bone anomalies may be related to a Kartagener syndrome. This case highlights the fact that visceral anomalies may be diagnosed even on skeletal remains. Such lesions could be useful for osteo-archaeologists, of course, but also for forensic anthropologist investigators dealing with skeletonized remains (for example during the identification process of a dead body, through comparison with known medical data for missing people). More, hypotheses about cause and/or manner of death may be given, and a possibility of genetic confirmation exists.

  2. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  3. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date.

  4. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Girish, Kl; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-07-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  5. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  6. Remaining useful life prediction based on known usage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.

    2003-08-01

    Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has developed a novel statistical approach to estimating the remaining useful life of aircraft components based on known usage monitoring data. The analysis technique is known as the Remaining Useful Life Estimation (RULE) methodology. The basic premise of RULE is to determine conservative predictions for the component loads and fatigue life values from Monte Carlo simulations based on a desired component reliability. Then, as the aircraft's usage is monitored, the component life can be calculated with a known reliability based on the conservative predictions generated by the Monte Carlo simulation. The RULE methodology, which has been successfully tested on small-scale analytical problems, is ideally suited to be integrated into both rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. Furthermore, modifications to the technology may prove to be applicable to wide variety of health and prognostic problems.

  7. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages.

  8. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  9. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  10. Hominid mandibular remains from Sangiran: 1952-1986 collection.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Aziz, Fachroel; Baba, Hisao

    2005-11-01

    Eight hominid mandibular and associated dental remains discovered between 1952-1986 from the Early Pleistocene deposits of Sangiran, Central Java, are described. Although the specimens are surface finds, their original stratigraphic positions can be reasonably inferred on the basis of coincidental sources of information. These specimens significantly increase the dento-gnathic sample available for intensive morphological investigation of the earliest Javanese hominids [Kaifu et al., 2005].

  11. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  12. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  13. Genetic analysis of modern and historical burned human remains.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Ringleb, Arne; Gebühr, Michael; Simeoni, Eva

    2005-03-01

    Burning of corpses is a well-known funeral procedure that has been performed for a long time in many cultures. Nowadays more and more corpses are burned in crematories and buried in urns, often for practical and financial reasons. In some scientific, criminal or civil cases even after cremation there is the need of genetic investigations for identification or paternity testing. Furthermore, burned remains are the only remains left in North Europe from 1200 BC to 500 AD. This makes genetic investigation of those materials interesting for anthropological reasons. We present on one hand a systematic investigation of 10 corpses before and after the cremation and on the other hand the analysis of seven historical remains representing the bronze age. We chose the ground bone powder and the less destroyed bone parts respectively and employed a slightly modified commercially available DNA extraction method. The presence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was tested by a simple but highly sensitive Duplex-PCR. DNA quantification was done using real time PCR, and genetic typing was tried out using the AmpFISTR Identifiler Multiplex Kit, followed by an automatic analysis on an AbiPrism310.

  14. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  15. Hospital nurses' intentions to remain: exploring a northern context.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Rick; Bruning, Nealia S

    2005-01-01

    Retaining nurses is of significant concern to all hospitals but even more of a concern to northern and rural hospital managers. This study provides insights into factors related to nurses' intentions to remain. A sample of 122 nurses from 13 northern hospitals in Western Canada participated in the study. The nurses completed questionnaires and participated in structured interviews. A model was proposed which suggested that work experiences (job and decision latitude, feedback, perceptions of how viewed and treated by others, fairness of policies, and safety of the job environment) would be related to job satisfaction and then affective commitment. Age and tenure, and ties to the community were proposed as predictors of continuance commitment. Both affective and continuance commitments were expected to be related to intention to remain in the hospital. The model was partially supported by regression analyses. Work experiences predicted job satisfaction and affective commitment. Affective commitment, continuance commitment, and ties to the community are related to nurses' intentions to remain. Supplemental analyses indicated that the strongest relationships were found for management's views and treatment of nurses, knowledge and ability utilization, safe environment, and fairness of organizational policies.

  16. Global health inequity: scientific challenges remain but can be solved

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Carol A.; Yamada, Tadataka

    2008-01-01

    Advances in science and technology have transformed the health of the populations of the developed world, with substantial increases in life expectancy and reductions in morbidity. These advances have not, however, touched the lives of the poorest people of the world — the billions living in developing countries. This Review Series on global health highlights the key factors contributing to inequity in health across the globe and the scientific questions that remain unanswered but are critical to creating effective and appropriate health solutions. The gaps in knowledge identified in this series point the way for scientists to contribute to a changed world. PMID:18382736

  17. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  18. [Identification of the cadaveric remains of Josef Mengele].

    PubMed

    Helmer, R

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined in order to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently in all details to the exhumed skull.

  19. Identification of the cadaver remains of Josef Mengele.

    PubMed

    Helmer, R P

    1987-11-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently to the exhumed skull.

  20. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  1. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  2. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  3. Remaining challenges in childhood cancer and newer targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm A; Reaman, Gregory H

    2015-02-01

    Despite the enormously important and gratifying advances in cancer treatment outcomes for children with cancer, cancer remains the biggest cause of death from disease in children. Because the etiology and biology of cancers that occur in children differ dramatically from those that occur in adults, the immediate extrapolation of efficacy and safety of new cancer drugs to childhood cancer indications is not possible. We discuss factors that will play key roles in guiding pediatric oncologists as they select lines of research to pursue in their quest for more effective treatments for children with cancer.

  4. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  5. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  6. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  7. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  8. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  9. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  10. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.

  11. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  12. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  13. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    DOE PAGES

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; ...

    2016-02-24

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14 ± 5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents ismore » associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Lastly, our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect.« less

  15. Procedural performance following sleep deprivation remains impaired despite extended practice and an afternoon nap

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Cousins, James Nicholas; Chong, Pearlynne L. H.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of sleep loss on procedural memory is well established, yet it remains unclear how extended practice opportunities or daytime naps can modulate the effect of a night of sleep deprivation. Here, participants underwent three training and test conditions on a sequential finger tapping task (SFTT) separated by at least one week. In the first condition they were trained in the evening followed by a night of sleep. Two further conditions took place where evening training was followed by a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). One of the TSD conditions included a one-hour nap opportunity (15:00). Compared to the condition in which sleep was permitted, a night of TSD resulted in poorer performance across 4 practices the following day (10:00–19:00). The deleterious effect of a single night of TSD on procedural performance, was neither clearly alleviated by an afternoon nap nor by multiple practice opportunities. Interestingly, significant gains in performance were observed in all conditions after a one-week delay. Recovery sleep on subsequent nights thus appeared to nullify the effect of a single night of sleep deprivation, underscoring the importance of offline consolidation on the acquisition of procedural skill. PMID:27782172

  16. Storm-Related Postmortem Damage to Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Maijanen, Heli; Wilson-Taylor, Rebecca J; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-05-01

    In April 2011, human skeletons were exposed to heavy storms at the outdoor Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) in Knoxville, Tennessee. Of the approximate 125 skeletons at the ARF in April 2011, 30 donations exhibited postmortem damage that could be attributed to the storms. At least 20 of the affected donations exhibit postmortem damage clearly associated with hailstones due to the oval shape and similar small size of the defects observed. The irregular shape and larger size of other defects may be a product of other falling objects (e.g., tree branches) associated with the storms. Storm-related damage was observed throughout the skeleton, with the most commonly damaged skeletal elements being the scapula and ilium, but more robust elements (i.e., femora and tibiae) also displayed characteristic features of hailstone damage. Thus, hailstone damage should be considered when forensic practitioners observe unusual postmortem damage in skeletal remains recovered from the outdoor context.

  17. Advances and remaining challenges in adult literacy research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners.

  18. Hydrogen effect on remaining life of hydroprocessing reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iwadate, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, J.

    1988-02-01

    Old vintage 2.25Cr-1Mo steels used for high-temperature/pressure hydroprocessing reactors have a high potential for temper embrittlement. The cracks caused by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) have been experienced in a stainless steel overlay and base metal of hydroprocessing reactors. In this paper, the temper embrittlement behavior during long-term service is discussed using the results of isothermal temper embrittlement tests up to 30,000 h of exposure. HE susceptibility of base metals, i.e., the threshold stress intensity factor K/sub IH/ and hydrogen-assisted crack growth rate behavior are also discussed. Based on the experimental data obtained, the remaining life assessment of a 2.25Cr-1Mo steel hydroprocessing reactor is analyzed from knowledge of HE.

  19. Spinal diastematomyelia: a means of identification of charred remains.

    PubMed

    Beggan, Caitlin; Towers, Mark; Farrell, Michael; Jaber, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of medico legal autopsy examination is the positive identification of the deceased in addition to the determination of the cause of death in most jurisdictions and additionally the manner of death in many jurisdictions. Notwithstanding the established and recognised value of DNA analysis in human identification, in the case of significant and extensive thermal injury in victims of fire, DNA analysis may prove difficult. Fire fatality identification can be assisted by alternative methods in this situation, including correlation between ante mortem and post mortem radiological investigations, identification of rare medical disease and or dental record examinations, where available. We describe a case where identification of charred human remains from a car fire was securely determined by demonstration of the presence of a rare congenital abnormality of the spinal cord, Diastematomyelia.

  20. Mining Cancer Transcriptomes: Bioinformatic Tools and the Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Milan, Thomas; Wilhelm, Brian T

    2017-02-22

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has had a profound impact on the field of cancer genomics. With the enormous quantities of data being generated from tumor samples, researchers have had to rapidly adapt tools or develop new ones to analyse the raw data to maximize its value. While much of this effort has been focused on improving specific algorithms to get faster and more precise results, the accessibility of the final data for the research community remains a significant problem. Large amounts of data exist but are not easily available to researchers who lack the resources and experience to download and reanalyze them. In this article, we focus on RNA-seq analysis in the context of cancer genomics and discuss the bioinformatic tools available to explore these data. We also highlight the importance of developing new and more intuitive tools to provide easier access to public data and discuss the related issues of data sharing and patient privacy.

  1. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices PMID:25417648

  2. Knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of Toxocara: the enigma remains.

    PubMed

    Holland, C V

    2017-01-01

    Toxocara species infect a wide range of companion, domestic and wild animals as definitive and paratenic hosts, via multiple routes of transmission, producing long-lived tissue-inhabiting larvae and resistant eggs that can survive in the external environment. Therefore Toxocara and the disease it causes in humans, toxocariasis, represents an ideal aetiological agent for the development of the one health approach. However, despite increasing awareness of the public health significance of toxocariasis, gaps in our understanding of certain key aspects of the parasite's biology and epidemiology remain. These gaps hinder our ability to integrate research effort within the veterinary, medical and environmental disciplines. This review will highlight key deficits in our understanding of nine dimensions of Toxocara epidemiology and discuss a potential scenario to develop a more integrated, one health approach to improve our understanding of the prevention and control of this complex and cryptic zoonosis.

  3. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  4. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-alpha in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induce...

  5. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  6. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  7. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  8. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A.; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  9. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  10. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging.

  11. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized.

  12. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, B. Gary; Fisher, Daniel C.; Borns, Harold W.; Churchill-Dickson, Lisa L.; Dorion, Christopher C.; Weddle, Thomas K.

    2004-05-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) dated at 12,200 ± 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ± 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea.

  13. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  14. Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Sarah E.; Deering, Chad D.; Bachmann, Olivier; Huber, Christian; Gutiérrez, Francisco J.

    2014-10-01

    The formation of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite via extraction of interstitial melt from an upper crustal mush predicts the complementary formation of large amounts of (typically unerupted) silicic cumulates. However, identification of these cumulates remains controversial. One hindrance to our ability to identify them is a lack of clear predictions for complementary chemical signatures between extracted melts and their residues. To address this discrepancy, we present a generalized geochemical model tracking the evolution of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently experiencing crystallization and extraction of interstitial melt. Our method uses a numerical solution rather than analytical, thereby allowing for various dependencies between crystallinity, partition coefficients for variably compatible and/or incompatible elements, and melt extraction efficiency. Results reveal unambiguous fractionation signatures for the extracted melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. Our model is first applied to a well-constrained example (Searchlight pluton, USA), and provides a good fit to geochemical data. We then extrapolate our results to understanding the relationship between volcanic and plutonic silicic suites on a global scale. Utilizing the NAVDAT database to identify crystal accumulation or depletion signatures for each suite, we suggest that many large granitoids are indeed silicic cumulates, although their crystal accumulation signature is expected to be subtle.

  15. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  16. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  17. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyle, B.G.; Fisher, D.C.; Borns, H.W.; Churchill-Dickson, L. L.; Dorion, C.C.; Weddle, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ) dated at 12,200 ?? 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ?? 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  18. Our Understanding of Ion Outflows from Earth and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of energetic ion beams and conics by Shelley et al. and transversely accelerated ions by Klumpar in the 1970's heralded the extensive satellite, rocket, and radar observations of ion outflows over the past four decades. This body of observation has shaped our contemporary view on ion outflows and their important role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The variety of ion outflows may be categorized into thermal and suprathermal outflows. Both categories of outflows are strongly influenced by solar EUV irradiance and solar wind energy input, and the state of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and (at times) plasmasphere. Several important challenges remain in our quest for a fully quantitative, multi-scale understanding of ion outflows. These include the detection of the lowest-energy ions in the tenuous sunlit magnetosphere; the influence of these hidden ions in the magnetosphere; ion transit between low and high altitudes at quiet times; the role of microscale processes; the simultaneous monitoring of different outflow populations and their circulation and redistributions in the magnetosphere; the influence of solar energy input, the thermosphere and the plasmasphere on outflow composition, characteristics, and variability; and the effects of this variability on the coupling between thermal and suprathermal outflows and on the overall magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  19. ABO blood typing of human skeletal remains in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, I

    1984-03-01

    The author reports about the theoretical effects of his paleoserologic investigations on some historical population genetics problems. First he refers to the essence of the two modifications by the help of which the fluorescent antibody method can be made suitable for blood typing or archeological skeletal remains and determines his working units (sample, series, "population") used in the paleoserologic researches. The benefits of the projection of the ABO blood typing results on the map of the cemetaries are demonstrated. The distribution of the several phenotypes are collated to the character or richness of the grave goods and to the taxonomic features of the late individuals. The thorough examination of the serogenetic distances among the several samples of a given historical period may cast more light on the ethnic interrelations of the earlier populations living in the same geographic area. Following up the serogenetic changes of a population during subsequent historical periods, new ideas can be gained about the importance of the environmental, economic, and demographic factors shaping the serogenetic profile of the population.

  20. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  1. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  2. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  3. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  4. New WHO member hopes to remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Tuvalu is a country of slightly more than 8000 inhabitants spread over 3 small reef islands and 6 atolls approximately 1000 km north of Fiji. It gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1978 and was admitted to the World Health Organization (WHO) in May 1993. Although Tuvalu had a national AIDS program before being admitted to WHO, WHO's Western Pacific Regional OFfice now supports the program. No case of HIV infection has been reported in Tuvalu, but an active AIDS committee nonetheless oversees health education and promotion activities. For example, the 300 seamen being trained at the Tuvalu Maritime School to work on ships internationally are taught on sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention education as part of their coursework. Youth leaders and Sunday school teachers have also been recruited to spread the word on AIDS prevention. Finally, WHO expresses its approval of Tuvalu's policy against restricting people infected with HIV, including short-term travellers.

  5. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  6. Skeletal manifestations of tuberculosis in modern human remains.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Maryna; Buskes, Jenifer

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathologists study the presence of diseases in the past and as such have a vast knowledge of skeletal changes associated with different conditions. Tuberculosis is one of the most studied diseases and still remains a major health problem today. Its manifestations in past populations have been extensively described, but less is known about its bony involvement in the post-antibiotic era. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and manifestations of skeletal lesions in the post-antibiotic era in a South African sample and compare it to that found before the introduction of antibiotics. Skeletons of 205 individuals from modern skeletal collections and who are known to have died from TB were assessed. It was found that 39.2% of all individuals dying in the post-antibiotic era showed skeletal changes that could be associated with TB, while another 27.5% showed nonspecific changes. The highest incidences were found in individuals who died after 1985, when co-infection with HIV and drug resistance became common. While, as expected, vertebral and rib changes were the most common, the number of individuals who showed changes to the skull, and specifically intracranially, was surprising. These could most probably be associated with TB meningitis, although this specific cause of death was noted in only a few individuals. It seems that individuals may be living longer as a result of long-term antibiotic use, leaving more time for lesions to develop. Clin. Anat. 29:854-861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Remaining Life Expectancy Measurement and PSA Screening of Older Men.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Mohile, Supriya G; Dale, William

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend informed decision-making regarding prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for men with at least 10 years of remaining life expectancy (RLE). Comorbidity measures have been used to judge RLE in previous studies, but assessments based on other common RLE measures are unknown. We assessed whether screening rates varied based on four clinically relevant RLE measures, including comorbidities, in a nationally-representative, community-based sample. METHODS: Using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), we selected men over 65 without prostate cancer (n=709). They were stratified into three RLE categories (0-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13+ years) based on validated measures of comorbidities, self-rated health status, functional status, and physical performance. The independent relationship of each RLE measure and a combined measure to screening was determined using multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Self-rated health (OR = 6.82; p < 0.01) most closely correlated with RLE-based screening, while the comorbidity index correlated the least (OR = 1.50; p = 0.09). The relationship of RLE to PSA screening significantly strengthened when controlling for the number of doctor visits, particularly for comorbidities (OR= 43.6; p < 0.001). Men who had consistent estimates of less than 7 years RLE by all four measures had an adjusted PSA screening rate of 43.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the RLE measure used, men who were estimated to have limited RLE had significant PSA screening rates. However, different RLE measures have different correlations with PSA screening. Specific estimates of over-screening should therefore carefully consider the RLE measure used.

  8. The manufacturing process should remain the focus for severe febrile reactions in children administered an Australian inactivated influenza vaccine during 2010.

    PubMed

    Li-Kim-Moy, Jean; Booy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccine safety is an ongoing issue. In 2010, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), Fluvax(®) and Fluvax Junior(®) manufactured by CSL Biotherapies ('CSL'), Parkville, Australia, were associated with a marked increase in febrile seizures (FS) in children <5 years old. Extensive investigations initially failed to identify a root cause. The company's researchers recently published two papers outlining their latest findings. Cytokine responses to TIV were measured in paediatric whole blood assays (WBA); NF-κB activation was assessed using a HEK293 cell line reporter assay. CSL suggest that the combination of new influenza strains (H1N1 A/California/7/2009 and B/Brisbane/60/2008), increased complexes of viral RNA and lipid in the vaccine, and inherent sensitivities of some children <5 years old caused elevated inflammatory responses resulting in FS. Whilst the papers provide insight into pathogenesis, much remains unclear. The WBA were from only 10 'healthy' children, potentially affecting generalisability of the results and reliability of these in vitro tests in assessing future influenza vaccine safety. Increased fever rates (without FS) found in CSL TIV studies between 2005 and 2010 suggest a long-standing contribution to reactogenicity from the manufacturing process. More detailed comparisons with non-CSL vaccines would have helped elucidate the relative contribution of patient/strain factors and the manufacturing process. The focus remains on manufacturing process differences as the key causative factor of elevated febrile responses. Studies underway, of modified vaccines in young children, will determine whether reactogenicity issues have been successfully addressed and whether CSL TIV can be relicensed in children <5 years of age.

  9. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  10. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal

  11. Chemical Loss of Polar Ozone: Present Understanding and Remaining Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, Ross; Canty, Tim; Cunnold, Derek; Dorf, Marcel; Frieler, Katja; Godin-Beekman, Sophie; Newchurch, Michael; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Stimpfle, Rick; Streibel, Martin; vonderGathen, Peter; Weisenstein, Debra; Yan, Eun-Su

    2005-01-01

    Not long after the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was established that halogen compounds, supplied to the atmosphere mainly by anthropogenic activities, are the primary driver of polar ozone loss. We will briefly review the chemical mechanisms that cause polar ozone loss and the early evidence showing the key role played by anthropogenic halogens. Recently, stratospheric halogen loading has leveled off, due to adherence to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments that has essentially banned CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and other halocarbons. We will describe recent reports of the first stage of recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole (e.g., a statistically significant slowing of the downward trend), associated with the leveling off of stratospheric halogens. Despite this degree of understanding, we will discuss the tendency of photochemical models to underestimate the observed rate of polar ozone loss and a hypothesis that has recently been put forth that might resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we will briefly discuss chemical loss of Arctic ozone, which

  12. Chemical Loss of Polar Ozone: Present Understanding and Remaining Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Cunnold, D.; Dorf, M.; Frieler, K.; Godin-Beekman, S.; Newchurch, M. J.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Rex, M.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Streibel, M.; von der Gathen, P.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Yang, E.

    2005-12-01

    Not long after the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was established that halogen compounds, supplied to the atmosphere mainly by anthropogenic activities, are the primary driver of polar ozone loss. We will briefly review the chemical mechanisms that cause polar ozone loss and the early evidence showing the key role played by anthropogenic halogens. Recently, stratospheric halogen loading has leveled off, due to adherence to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments that has essentially banned CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and other halocarbons. We will describe recent reports of the first stage of recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole (e.g., a statistically significant slowing of the downward trend), associated with the leveling off of stratospheric halogens. Despite this degree of understanding, we will discuss the tendency of photochemical models to underestimate the observed rate of polar ozone loss and a hypothesis that has recently been put forth that might resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we will briefly discuss chemical loss of Arctic ozone, which also involves anthropogenic halogens but is governed primarily by year-to-year variability in stratospheric temperature.

  13. The initiation and effects of plasma contact activation: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lisha; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-03-01

    The plasma contact system sits atop the intrinsic coagulation cascade and plasma kallikrein-kinin pathway, and in vivo its activation contributes, respectively, to coagulation and inflammation mainly via two downstream pathways. This system has been widely investigated, its activation mechanisms by negatively charged surfaces and the interactions within its components, factor XII, prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen are well understood at the biochemical level. However, as most of the activators that have been discovered by in vitro experiments are exogenous, the physiological activators and roles of the contact system have remained unclear and controversial. In the last two decades, several physiological activators have been identified, and a better understanding of its roles and its connection with other signaling pathways has been obtained from in vivo studies. In this article, we present an overview of the contact pathway with a focus on the activation mechanisms, natural stimuli, possible physiological roles, potential risks of its excessive activation, remaining questions and future prospects.

  14. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina Maria; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in energetic metabolism, epigenetics, protein folding, as well as in a number of diverse regulatory processes. The problem of localisation of flavin cofactor synthesis events and in particular of the FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2) in HepG2 cells is addressed here by confocal microscopy in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalysed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesising activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone". The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear or a mitochondrial enzyme that is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, EC 1.-.-.-) and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4), respectively which carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, assisted by tetrahydrofolate used to form 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  15. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with 110mAg showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 µg/kg (0.002 - 3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. This paper presents an overview of biosolids Ag chemistry in historic and contemporary biosolids sourced from the UK, USA and Australia from the 1950s until today by drawing on a unique collection of archived, stockpiled and contemporary biosolids samples. Characteristics of biosolids Ag chemistry determined in this study included total Ag measurement by neutron activation analysis (NAA); the assessment of Ag lability by 110mAg isotopic dilution (E-values); and Ag speciation by X-ray Absorp

  16. A partial skeleton of Proteopithecus sylviae (Primates, Anthropoidea): first associated dental and postcranial remains of an Eocene anthropoidean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Elwyn L.; Seiffert, Erik R.

    1999-12-01

    Recent excavation in the Late Eocene quarry L-41 (Fayum Depression, Egypt) revealed two tibiae and a femur in direct association with a mandible of Proteopithecus sylviae, arguably the most generalized African anthropoidean known from cranial remains. This discovery represents the first association of dental and postcranial material belonging to an Eocene anthropoidean, and provides new insights into the functional anatomy and phylogenetic position of Proteopithecus. The hindlimb morphology of Proteopithecus is most similar to small-bodied platyrrhines among living and extinct primates and is consistent with a locomotor repertoire that included a considerable amount of running and pronograde leaping. In certain dental and postcranial features, Proteopithecus differs from the other Fayum anthropoideansand shows a greater resemblance to living and extinct platyrrhines, but it is unclear whether these features are of particular phylogenetic significance.

  17. Quasispecies, error catastrophe, and the antiviral activity of ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Graci, Jason D; Cameron, Craig E

    2002-07-05

    Ribavirin is the first synthetic, broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside. Despite its more than 30 year history, the mechanism of action of this compound remains unclear and somewhat controversial. Recent data suggest the possibility that the activity of ribavirin against RNA viruses is a reflection of incorporation of ribavirin into the viral genome. Because ribavirin incorporation is not specific, this event leads to lethal mutagenesis of the virus population. The data supporting this new proposal for the mechanism of action of ribavirin are reviewed herein. In addition, we discuss briefly the challenges that remain for development of lethal mutagenesis as an effective antiviral strategy.

  18. Construct Maps: Do They Make the Unclear Clear?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Becker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In his article "Construct Maps for Standard Setting," Adam E. Wyse provides a detailed review on the current use of construct maps in standard setting, including how they may be operationalized within a variety of standard-setting methods. The premise of the argument is that construct maps can serve as a useful tool for conducting a…

  19. Giant scrotal lymphedema of unclear etiology: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Scrotal lymphedema is common in the tropics and subtropics. The giant variants can cause a lot of physical disability and psychological disturbances. Case presentation We present a 25-year-old Nigerian male with giant scrotal lymphedema with severe debilitating symptoms, immobility and emotional disturbance. He benefited from a modified Charles' procedure and reconstruction of the penile shaft using a split-thickness skin graft. Conclusion Giant scrotal lymphedema related to poverty, ignorance and neglect, is amenable to surgery. Surgery provides a cosmetically acceptable and functionally satisfying outcome. PMID:19830170

  20. Balkanization Makes It Unclear Just What the Doctor Ordered.

    PubMed

    Kirkner, Richard Mark

    2016-09-01

    Physicians are a disparate lot. At last count, there were more than 300 member organizations of the American Association of Medical Societies. These organizations tread common ground on a host of issues in play in this upcoming election cycle. They also part ways on some important issues, including their stance on the Affordable Care Act.

  1. Influence of different fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, I. V.; Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recently, many farmers have converted to low-disturbance tillage land cultivation as disk or plow fields can result in water and wind erosion of soil. So, crop residue and plant crowns and roots are left to hold the soil. However, low-disturbance tillage can be a challenge to manage since the key to crop production still requires good seed-to-soil contact. Therefore, decomposition of stubble in agricultural soils in situ is an issue of the day of modern agriculture. The aim of the present study was to compare different organic and inorganic fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil. Materials and methods Field trials were conducted in Krasnodar region, Russia. To promote stubble decomposition, a biopreparation that was cultural liquid obtained during cultivation of white-rot fungi Coriolus hirsutus 075 (Wulf Ex. Fr.) Quel. was used at the dosage of 150 ml/ha. The other tested supplements included ammonium nitrate (34 kg/ha), commercially available humate LignohumateTM (0.2 kg/ha) and combination of Lignohumate and biopreparation. Test plots were treated once after wheat harvesting. Non-treated ploughed plot was used as a blank. Soil samples were collected within 2 and 14 weeks after soil treatment. To control soil potential for stubble remains decomposition enzymatic activity is soil was determined. To perform soil analysis, stubble remains were carefully separated from soils followed by soil extraction with 0.14 M phosphate buffer pH 7.1 and analysis of the extracts for laccase and peroxidase activities [1,2]. Estimation of stubble decomposition in soil was performed by cellulose contents determination [3]. Results and discussion The obtained results demonstrated after 14 weeks of treatment increase of soil enzymatic activity due to soil supplementation was observed. Introduction of ammonium nitrate resulted in 108% of peroxidise activity as compared to blank. That value for Lignohumate variant was estimated

  2. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  3. Remaining uncertainties in the use of Rn-222 as a quantitative tracer of submarine groundwater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, W.C.; Santos, I.R.; Weinstein, Y.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Herut, B.

    2007-01-01

    Research performed in many locations over the past decade has shown that radon is an effective tracer for quantifying submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The technique works because both fresh and saline groundwaters acquire radon from the subterranean environment and display activities that are typically orders of magnitude greater than those found in coastal seawaters. However, some uncertainties and unanswered problems remain. We focus here on three components of the mass balance, each of which has some unresolved issues: (1) End-member radon - what to do if groundwater Rn measurements are highly variable? (2) Atmospheric evasion -do the standard gas exchange equations work under high-energy coastal mixing scenarios? And (3) "mixing" losses - are there other significant radon losses (e.g. recharge of coastal waters into the aquifer) besides those attributed to mixing with lower-activity waters offshore? We address these issues using data sets collected from several different types of coastal environment. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  4. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  5. Assessment of shikonin for potential estrogenic activity by dual-luciferase reporter based bioluminescent measurements in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping-Ping

    2011-02-01

    Shikonin, an active component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., shows multiple pharmacological properties. However, the estrogenic activity of shikonin is remaining unclear. We assessed the potential estrogenic activity of shikonin with dual-luciferase reporter assay and bioluminescent measurements, by using transient cotransfection with estrogen dependent plasmid pERE-TK-Luc and internal control plasmid pRL-TK in MCF-7 cells. Estrogenic activity of shikonin, even at high concentration did not alter significantly compared to negative control (p > 0.05) and were significantly lower than those with E2 (p < 0.01). Concluding, shikonin demonstrates no estrogenic activity in vitro.

  6. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation).

  7. Diagnostics and Prognostics Tools for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Plant Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Henager, Charles H.; Dixit, Mukul; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in expanding the use of nuclear power to provide sustainable, carbon-free energy. As part of these activities in the USA, there are major initiatives focused on "life extension" for existing light-water nuclear power reactors (LWR) from 60 to 80 (or 100) years. To enable longer term operation, a range of advanced diagnostics and prognostics methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are necessary. A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of LWRs is the early detection and monitoring of materials degradation. Material aging and degradation due to stresses and irradiation is a critical element in assessing potential for the failure of components in legacy nuclear power plants. A related issue is the ability to estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of components and systems based on condition assessment or degradation information. Detection of early stage damage in materials and assessment of remaining life is important in proactive or prognostic-based life management of legacy nuclear power plants. These approaches go beyond what is currently included in "condition-based maintenance," this strategy can potentially improve safety and reduce costs by detecting damage and scheduling appropriate maintenance/mitigation strategies early in the component lifecycle. For early detection of degradation, novel nondestructive (i.e., without destroying the utility of the specimen) tests that are suitable for continuous monitoring over extended time periods are needed, as are new techniques for data integration. The challenge of predicting remaining life starting from earlier phases of degradation is also largely unsolved and will require new prognostics tools. This paper will discuss the development and application of advanced diagnostics and prognostics tools to the life extension problem. The focus of these activities will be on ferritic and

  8. Isolation and identification of a cytopathic activity in Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takuma; Tomi, Naoko; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Ishikura, Hiroaki; Ohno, Yuka; Arvind, Ramanathan; Arai, Takao; Ishikawa, Isao; Arakawa, Shinichi

    2006-12-08

    Interactions between pathogens and host induce human disorders including periodontitis, disintegration of the tooth supporting tissues. Tannerella forsythia has been linked to the periodontitis and several cytopathic reagents have been found in the bacterium; however, its contribution to the disease remains unclear. Biochemical approach to explore the cytopathic effect revealed two distinct activities in T. forsythia (ATCC 43037) extract; one detaches adherent cells from substratum and another arrests cells at G2. An executor of former activity, forsythia detaching factor (FDF) was identified; its genomic sequence and peptidase activity revealed that FDF is a substantial form of putative PrtH; prtH gene was hypothetically identified directly from a DNA fragment of the bacterium and its native product has never been shown. Since FDF was found in the bacterial culture supernatant, its activity implies a contribution to the disintegration of tissues although the mechanism how FDF disturbs cellular anchors remains elusive.

  9. Unidentified bodies and human remains: an Italian glimpse through a European problem.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Porta, D; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Poppa, P; Grandi, M

    2010-02-25

    The identification of cadavers (the main activity of forensic odontologists and anthropologists) is a crucial issue in forensic pathology, but the official entity of this problem is still poorly known in most countries, apart from a few American reports. In this article the authors present a descriptive study of unidentified decedents over a 14-year period (1995-2008) in Milan. The number of cadavers or human remains arriving at the morgue with no identity amounts to 454 - 3.1% of all autopsies at the Institute of Legal Medicine, with a mean of 32 unidentified subjects every year; 62% reached a positive identification in a period of time ranging from a few days to 10 years. 17% on an average remain unidentified. Most identification processes involved forensic odontology and anthropology. This study aims at revealing the problem and hopefully may provide some food for thought for forensic pathologists, anthropologists and odontologists so that they may focus on this issue and on possible solutions in their countries.

  10. High-performance vertical Si PiN diode by hole remaining mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Masanori; Baba, Akiyoshi; Shiba, Yuji; Omura, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    A novel diode with a unique trench shape is predicted by TCAD simulation to have high performance. The novel 600 V vertical PiN diode with hole pockets by the Bosch deep trench process shows a better trade-off curve between reverse recovery loss and forward voltage. The reverse recovery loss is reduced by half. In addition, the active chip size of the novel diode is reduced to two-thirds that of the conventional PiN diode in the same forward voltage. Thanks to the hole pockets with an electric field in the diagonal direction, the remaining hole suppresses the surge voltage with noise for high performance. In this paper, we specially focus on the analysis of phenomenon and the noise suppression mechanism during reverse recovery. The novel diode structure is a strong candidate when developing the fabrication process after silicon trench etching is established.

  11. A Novel Forensic Investigation Applied to Bone Remains Exhumed near to Quirra Interforce Firing Range.

    PubMed

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta M; Capitani, Federico; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The need to implement novel techniques, able to support a causal link between exposure and pathology, has been emerged over the recent years. The application of scanning electron microscope coupled with probe X-ray microanalysis (by means of an energy-dispersive spectroscopy) has been developed by our research group for the bone remains investigation. It was aimed to testify the exposure to microsized and nanosized pollutions, due to military activities in the Quirra interforce firing range, of a Sardinian shepherd, died of acute leukemia. Metallic debris with a combustive morphology and with an oncogenic potential has been surely detected inside his bone marrow canal. This novel technique has proved to be able to bring to light a source of past exposure preserved over time within the bone marrow canal. It can be useful for postmortem analyses, delivering a new avant-garde approach to modern forensic science.

  12. Description of plastic remains found in the stomach contents of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas landed in Ecuador during 2014.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Luis, Rigoberto

    2016-12-15

    Squids are active and opportunistic predators that feed on a wide range of prey. Their active movements in the water column and their voracity promote a high consumption of food. In the pelagic environment off Ecuador, marine pollution is characterized by plastic debris with a mainland origin, including plastics trash of fishing gears. The objective of this work was to describe the presence of plastic remains in the stomach contents of Dosidicus gigas caught off the coast of Ecuador. Results demonstrated that 12% of the stomachs contained plastic remains. These plastics were identified as multifilament of polyethylene lines and polyvinyl chloride remains. Findings of this work could be related to an increase in the discharge of solid materials in the water column, increasing the probability to be ingested by the jumbo squid.

  13. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, Jennifer A.; Ordóñez, Adriana; Chambers, Joseph E.; Beckett, Alison J.; Patel, Vruti; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S.; Bradley, Jayson; Peden, Andrew A.; Prior, Ian A.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor produced in the liver that is responsible for the regulation of pulmonary inflammation. The commonest pathogenic gene mutation yields Z-α1-antitrypsin, which has a propensity to self-associate forming polymers that become trapped in inclusions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is unclear whether these inclusions are connected to the main ER network in Z-α1-antitrypsin-expressing cells. Using live cell imaging, we found that despite inclusions containing an immobile matrix of polymeric α1-antitrypsin, small ER resident proteins can diffuse freely within them. Inclusions have many features to suggest they represent fragmented ER, and some are physically separated from the tubular ER network, yet we observed cargo to be transported between them in a cytosol-dependent fashion that is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and dependent on Sar1 and sec22B. We conclude that protein recycling occurs between ER inclusions despite their physical separation.—Dickens, J. A., Ordóñez, A., Chambers, J. E., Beckett, A. J., Patel, V., Malzer, E., Dominicus, C. S., Bradley, J., Peden, A. A., Prior, I. A., Lomas, D. A., Marciniak, S. J. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin. PMID:27601439

  14. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Embree, Lindsay M; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item.

  15. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide.

  16. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  17. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. [Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: questions remaining after 50 years of research].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Vélez, Juan Camilo; Figueroa-Gordon, Lourdes Carolina

    2009-03-01

    The excitation-contraction coupling mechanism was defined as the entire sequence of reactions linking excitation of plasma membrane to activation of contraction in skeletal muscle. By using different techniques, their regulation and interactions have been studied during the last 50 years, defining until now the importance and origin of the calcium ion as a contractile activator and the main proteins involved in the whole mechanism. Furthermore, the study of the ultrastructural basis and pharmacological regulation of the excitation-contraction coupling phenomenon has begun. The excitation-contraction coupling is thought to be altered in situations as ageing, muscle fatigue and some muscle diseases. However, many questions remain to be answered. For example, (1) How excitation-contraction coupling develops and ages? (2) What role does it play in muscle fatigue and other diseases? (3) What is the nature of the interaction between the proteins believed to be involved? The present review describes excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle and techniques used to better understand it as an introduction for discussing unanswered questions regarding excitation-contraction coupling.

  19. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  20. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  1. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  2. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  3. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The ] human remains were removed...

  4. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  5. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  6. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  7. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  8. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  9. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  10. Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1994-11-01

    Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

  11. Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

  12. Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Shanan S; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A

    2011-12-01

    Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to

  13. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Sugawara, Sho K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener.

  14. Risk remaining from fine particle contaminants after vacuum cleaning of hard floor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew; Johnson, David L; Brooks, J; Griffith, Daniel A

    2008-12-01

    In the indoor environment, settled surface dust often functions as a reservoir of hazardous particulate contaminants. In many circumstances, a major contributing source to the dust pool is exterior soil. Young children are particularly susceptible to exposure to both outdoor derived soil and indoor derived dust present in the indoor dust pool. This is because early in life the exploratory activities of the infant are dominated by touching and mouthing behavior. Inadvertent exposure to dust through mouth contact and hand-to-mouth activity is an inevitable consequence of infant development. Clean-up of indoor dust is, in many circumstances, critically important in efforts to minimize pediatric exposure. In this study, we examine the efficiency of vacuum cleaner removal of footwear-deposited soil on vinyl floor tiles. The study utilized a 5 x 10 foot (c. 152.5 x 305 cm) test surface composed of 1-foot-square (c. 30.5 x 30.5 cm) vinyl floor tiles. A composite test soil with moderately elevated levels of certain elements (e.g., Pb) was repeatedly introduced onto the floor surface by footwear track-on. The deposited soil was subsequently periodically removed from randomly selected tiles using a domestic vacuum cleaner. The mass and loading of soil elements on the tiles following vacuuming were determined both by wet wipe collection and by subsequent chemical analysis. It was found that vacuum cleaner removal eliminated much of the soil mass from the floor tiles. However, a small percentage of the mass was not removed and a portion of this residual mass could be picked up by moistened hand-lifts. Furthermore, although the post-vacuuming tile soil mass was sizably reduced, for some elements (notably Pb) the concentration in the residual soil was increased. We interpret this increased metal concentration to be a particle size effect with smaller particles (with a proportionately higher metal content) remaining in situ after vacuuming.

  15. Mechanisms of Action of Brief Alcohol Interventions Remain Largely Unknown – A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Gaume, Jacques; McCambridge, Jim; Bertholet, Nicolas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale are disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content; exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness. Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications were searched for original research or review on active ingredients (components or mechanisms) of face-to-face BIs [and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing (BMI)] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among patients in the emergency room, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such. Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions. PMID

  16. Histoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Review of New Developments and Remaining Gaps.

    PubMed

    Adenis, Antoine A; Aznar, Christine; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for histoplasmosis, a fungal disease with worldwide distribution that can affect both immunocompromised and imunocompetent individuals. During the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, morbidity and mortality due to histoplasmosis remained a public heatlh problem in low-income and high-income countries. The true burden of HIV-associated histoplasmosis is either not fully known or neglected since it is not a notifiable disease. Progress has been made in DNA patterns of strains and understanding of pathogenesis, and hopefully these will help identify new therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, histoplasmosis is still widely mistaken for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, leading to numerous avoidable deaths, even if they are easily distinguishable. The new diagnostic tools and therapeutics developments have still not been made available in most endemic regions. Still, recent developments are promising because of their good clinical characteristics and also because they will be commercially available and affordable. This review of published data and gaps may help define and guide future research.

  17. Health Benefits In 2016: Family Premiums Rose Modestly, And Offer Rates Remained Stable.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Long, Michelle; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Foster, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2016, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,435 for single coverage and $18,142 for family coverage. The family premium in 2016 was 3 percent higher than that in 2015. On average, workers contributed 18 percent of the premium for single coverage and 30 percent for family coverage. The share of firms offering health benefits (56 percent) and of workers covered by their employers' plans (62 percent) remained statistically unchanged from 2015. Employers continued to offer financial incentives for completing wellness or health promotion activities. Almost three in ten covered workers were enrolled in a high-deductible plan with a savings option-a significant increase from 2014. The 2016 survey included new questions on cost sharing for specialty drugs and on the prevalence of incentives for employees to seek care at alternative settings.

  18. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  19. Moving SDM forward in Canada: milestones, public involvement, and barriers that remain.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Stacey, Dawn; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Coutu, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Canada's approach to shared decision making (SDM) is as disparate as its healthcare system; a conglomerate of 14 public plans at various administrative levels. SDM initiatives are taking place in different pockets of the country and are in different stages of development. The most advanced provincial initiative is occurring in Saskatchewan, where in 2010 the provincial government prepare to introduce patient decision aids into certain surgical specialties. With regard to decision support tools for patients, perhaps the most active entity is the Patient Decision Aids Research Group in Ottawa, Ontario. This group maintains a public inventory of decision aids ranked according to International Patient Decision Aid Standards and has developed the generic Ottawa Personal Decision Guide, as well as a toolkit for integrating decision aids in clinical practice. All of these tools are publicly available free of charge. Professional interest in SDM in Canada is not yet widespread, but Canada's principal health research funding agency is sponsoring several important SDM projects. Researchers from institutions across the country are promoting SDM through continuing professional development programs and other interventions in fields as varied as primary care, dietary medicine and workplace rehabilitation. Still, the future of SDM in Canada remains uncertain. Canada's provincially based structure obliges promoters to work with each province separately, and the recent growth of private healthcare risks dissipating efforts to implement SDM.

  20. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  1. Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The authors adapted the concept of future time perspective (FTP) to the work context and examined its relationships with age and work characteristics (job complexity and control). Structural equation modeling of data from 176 employees of various occupations showed that age is negatively related to 2 distinct dimensions of occupational FTP: remaining time and remaining opportunities. Work characteristics (job complexity and control) were positively related to remaining opportunities and moderated the relationship between age and remaining opportunities, such that the relationship became weaker with increasing levels of job complexity and control.

  2. Taphonomic alterations by the rodent species woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T

    2015-12-01

    This forensic case report describes the taphonomic effects of woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon a set of skeletonized human remains recovered in Massachusetts, USA. Remains of an individual of this rodent species were discovered where it had been nesting inside the human cranium. Fine, parallel grooves indicative of small rodent gnawing were noted on multiple postcranial elements, and all isolated grooves were consistent in size with the incisors of this species. Other taphonomic alterations to these remains include some gnawing damage and dispersal by large carnivores. This case represents the first report of this rodent species affecting human remains.

  3. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  4. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  5. Cereblon inhibits proteasome activity by binding to the 20S core proteasome subunit beta type 4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Min; Lee, Jongwon; Park, Chul-Seung

    2012-10-26

    In humans, mutations in the gene encoding cereblon (CRBN) are associated with mental retardation. Although CRBN has been investigated in several cellular contexts, its function remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CRBN plays a role in regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Heterologous expression of CRBN inhibited proteasome activity in a human neuroblastoma cell line. Furthermore, proteasome subunit beta type 4 (PSMB4), the β7 subunit of the 20S core complex, was identified as a direct binding partner of CRBN. These findings suggest that CRBN may modulate proteasome activity by directly interacting with the β7 subunit.

  6. Hypolipemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot polyphenols: from animal models to human studies.

    PubMed

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Sacco, Iolanda; Janda, Elzbieta; Malara, Claudio; Ventrice, Domenica; Colica, Carmen; Visalli, Valeria; Muscoli, Saverio; Ragusa, Salvatore; Muscoli, Carolina; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Romeo, Franco

    2011-04-01

    Bergamot juice produces hypolipemic activity in rats though the mechanism remains unclear. Here we investigated on the effect of bergamot extract (BPF) in diet-induced hyperlipemia in Wistar rats and in 237 patients suffering from hyperlipemia either associated or not with hyperglycaemia. BPF, given orally for 30 days to both rats and patients, reduces total and LDL cholesterol levels (an effect accompanied by elevation of cHDL), triglyceride levels and by a significant decrease in blood glucose. Moreover, BPF inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity and enhanced reactive vasodilation thus representing an efficient phytotherapeutic approach in combating hyperlipemic and hyperglycaemic disorders.

  7. A communication network within the cytoplasmic domain of toll-like receptors has remained conserved during evolution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shikha; Pandey, Kalpana; Rathore, Yogendra S; Sagar, Amin; Pattnaik, U Bharat K; Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain, that is, the cytoplasmic domain, in toll-like receptors (TLRs) from different species showed high sequence conservation in stretches spread across the surface as well as the core of the domain. To probe the structure-function significance of these residues, especially those coming from the core of TIR domains, we analyzed molecular dynamics trajectories of sequence similarity based models of human TIR domains. This study brought forth that N-terminal of the TIR domain simultaneously interacts with the flanking residues of the BB loop and central β-sheets. At the same time, residues of the central β-strands form favorable contacts with the DD loop and C-terminal, thus forming a two-way circuit between the N- and C-termini. In this work, the array of intradomain interactions is termed as communication network. Importantly, the "hubs" of this communication network were found to be conserved in all human TLRs. Earlier mutagenesis-function correlation work brought forth that certain mutations in the "core" of the TIR domain of TLR4 (e.g. in IFI767-769AAA and L815A) led to almost complete abrogation of signaling and reasoning for this dramatic loss-of-function has remained unclear, since these sites are not surface exposed. Using MD studies, we show here that this communication network gets disrupted in mutants of human TLR4 which were earlier reported to be functionally compromised. Extension of MD studies to heterodimer of TLR1/2 suggested that this evolutionarily conserved communication network senses the interactions formed upon dimerization and relays it to surfaces which are not involved in direct interdomain contacts.

  8. Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Jan; Sullivan, Shannon; Chung, Jeffrey M; Ross, Ian B; Mamelak, Adam N; Rutishauser, Ueli

    2017-04-01

    Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors and was predictive of memory content. Medial frontal cortex persistent activity, on the other hand, was modulated by memory load and task set but was not stimulus-specific. Trial-by-trial variability in persistent activity in both areas was related to memory strength, because it predicted the speed and accuracy by which stimuli were remembered. This work reveals, in humans, direct evidence for a distributed network of persistently active neurons supporting working memory maintenance.

  9. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ensure that a person who is qualified in the emergency evacuation procedures for the airplane, as... are shut down; and (ii) At least one floor level exit remains open to provide for the deplaning of... are shut down; (ii) At least one floor level exit remains open to provide for the deplaning...

  10. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  11. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND ESTATES DEATHS AND ESTATES Real Property Overseas Belonging to A... disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include provisions regarding a person's right to direct disposition of remains. Host country law may or may...

  12. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Funerary Objects in the Possession of the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO... Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, and... cultural affiliation with the human remains should contact the Colorado Historical Society at the...

  13. 78 FR 25470 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Parkway has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, published in a Notice of Inventory Completion Correction in the Federal Register on April 1, 2005. This notice corrects...

  14. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented.

  15. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    PubMed

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  16. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  17. After rotator cuff tears, the remaining (intact) tendons are mechanically altered.

    PubMed

    Perry, Stephanie M; Getz, Charles L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Although presumed, damage in the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons in the presence of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear or multiple tendon tear has not been well studied. This study used an animal model of multiple rotator cuff tendon tears to investigate alterations in the remaining (intact) tendon mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks after injury. Twenty-four rats served as uninjured controls, whereas 72 were divided among 3 tendon detachment groups: supraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus + infraspinatus tendon detachment, and supraspinatus + subscapularis tendon detachment. The remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons had decreased mechanical properties in the presence of rotator cuff tears. The remaining (intact) subscapularis and infraspinatus tendon cross-sectional areas increased, whereas tendon modulus decreased after tears of both 1 and 2 tendons. The remaining (intact) tendon cross-sectional areas continued to increase with time after injury. These alterations could potentially lead to further tendon damage and tear progression.

  18. Adaptive muscle plasticity of a remaining agonist following denervation of its close synergists in a model of complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dambreville, Charline; Charest, Jérémie; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Kuczynski, Victoria; Grenier, Guillaume; Frigon, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) alters the contractile properties of skeletal muscle, and although exercise can induce positive changes, it is unclear whether the remaining motor system can produce adaptive muscle plasticity in response to a subsequent peripheral nerve injury. To address this, the nerve supplying the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus muscles was sectioned unilaterally in four cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion after spinal transection. In these spinal cats, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were collected before and for 8 wk after denervation. Muscle histology was performed on LG and medial gastrocnemius (MG) bilaterally in four spinal and four intact cats. In spinal cats, cycle duration for the hindlimb ipsilateral or contralateral to the denervation could be significantly increased or decreased compared with predenervation values. Stance duration was generally increased and decreased for the contralateral and ipsilateral hindlimbs, respectively. The EMG amplitude of MG was significantly increased bilaterally after denervation and remained elevated 8 wk after denervation. In spinal cats the ipsilateral LG was significantly smaller than the contralateral LG, whereas the ipsilateral MG weighed significantly more than the contralateral MG. Histological characterizations revealed significantly larger fiber areas for type IIa fibers of the ipsilateral MG in three of four spinal cats. Microvascular density in the ipsilateral MG was significantly higher than in the contralateral MG. In intact cats, no differences were found for muscle weight, fiber area, or microvascular density between homologous muscles. Therefore, the remaining motor system after complete SCI retains the ability to produce adaptive muscle plasticity.

  19. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  20. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented. PMID:22776751

  1. Polyomavirus T Antigens Activate an Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Giacobbi, Nicholas S.; Gupta, Tushar; Coxon, Andrew; Pipas, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic expression of Simian Virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) increased levels of mRNAs encoding interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). The mechanism by which T antigen increases levels of ISGs in MEFs remains unclear. We present evidence that expression of T antigen from SV40, Human Polyomaviruses BK (BKV) or JC (JCV) upregulate production of ISGs in MEFs, and subsequently result in an antiviral state, as determined by inhibition of VSV or EMCV growth. The first 136 amino acids of LT are sufficient for these activities. Furthermore, increased ISG expression and induction of the antiviral state requires STAT1. Finally, the RB binding motif of LT is necessary for activation of STAT1. We conclude that the induction of the STAT1 mediated innate immune response in MEFs is a common feature shared by SV40, BKV and JCV. PMID:25589241

  2. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of vertebrae for identification of decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Vidoli, Giovanna; Melinek, Judy

    2006-09-01

    This case study demonstrates the importance of involving an anthropologist in forensic situations with decomposed remains. Anthropological consultation was used in conjunction with the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs to establish positive identification of unknown, decomposed remains. The remains had no traditional identifying features such as fingerprints or dental. Through anthropological analysis, it was determined the decedent was male, between 20 and 23 years at time of death and c. 5'2'' tall. This information allowed for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem radiographs. The missing person was identified comparing the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae between ante- and postmortem radiographs.

  3. Mesoscale infraslow spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations recapitulate high-frequency activity cortical motifs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Allen W; Mohajerani, Majid H; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Wang, Yu Tian; Murphy, Timothy H

    2015-07-20

    Neuroimaging of spontaneous, resting-state infraslow (<0.1 Hz) brain activity has been used to reveal the regional functional organization of the brain and may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers of neurological disease. However, these imaging studies generally rely on indirect measures of neuronal activity and the nature of the neuronal activity correlate remains unclear. Here we show, using wide-field, voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the mesoscale spatiotemporal structure and pharmacological dependence of spontaneous, infraslow cortical activity in anaesthetized and awake mice. Spontaneous infraslow activity is regionally distinct, correlates with electroencephalography and local field potential recordings, and shows bilateral symmetry between cortical hemispheres. Infraslow activity is attenuated and its functional structure abolished after treatment with voltage-gated sodium channel and glutamate receptor antagonists. Correlation analysis reveals patterns of infraslow regional connectivity that are analogous to cortical motifs observed from higher-frequency spontaneous activity and reflect the underlying framework of intracortical axonal projections.

  4. Mesoscale infraslow spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations recapitulate high-frequency activity cortical motifs

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Allen W.; Mohajerani, Majid H.; LeDue, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Yu Tian; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging of spontaneous, resting-state infraslow (<0.1 Hz) brain activity has been used to reveal the regional functional organization of the brain and may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers of neurological disease. However, these imaging studies generally rely on indirect measures of neuronal activity and the nature of the neuronal activity correlate remains unclear. Here we show, using wide-field, voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the mesoscale spatiotemporal structure and pharmacological dependence of spontaneous, infraslow cortical activity in anaesthetized and awake mice. Spontaneous infraslow activity is regionally distinct, correlates with electroencephalography and local field potential recordings, and shows bilateral symmetry between cortical hemispheres. Infraslow activity is attenuated and its functional structure abolished after treatment with voltage-gated sodium channel and glutamate receptor antagonists. Correlation analysis reveals patterns of infraslow regional connectivity that are analogous to cortical motifs observed from higher-frequency spontaneous activity and reflect the underlying framework of intracortical axonal projections. PMID:26190168

  5. Canonical nucleosome organization at promoters forms during genome activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Feng, Jianxing; Fu, Kai; Wang, Chenfei; Ge, Ying; Pauli, Andrea; van Hummelen, Paul; Schier, Alexander F; Liu, X Shirley

    2014-02-01

    The organization of nucleosomes influences transcriptional activity by controlling accessibility of DNA binding proteins to the genome. Genome-wide nucleosome binding profiles have identified a canonical nucleosome organization at gene promoters, where arrays of well-positioned nucleosomes emanate from nucleosome-depleted regions. The mechanisms of formation and the function of canonical promoter nucleosome organization remain unclear. Here we analyze the genome-wide location of nucleosomes during zebrafish embryogenesis and show that well-positioned nucleosome arrays appear on thousands of promoters during the activation of the zygotic genome. The formation of canonical promoter nucleosome organization is independent of DNA sequence preference, transcriptional elongation, and robust RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding. Instead, canonical promoter nucleosome organization correlates with the presence of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and affects future transcriptional activation. These findings reveal that genome activation is central to the organization of nucleosome arrays during early embryogenesis.

  6. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. IET control building (TAN620). remains of periscope connections and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). remains of periscope connections and control console at far west wall of control room. facing westerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Simple and highly effective DNA extraction methods from old skeletal remains using silica columns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Sim, Jeong Eun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2010-10-01

    The recovery of DNA data from old skeletal remains is often difficult due to degraded and very low yield of extracted DNA and the presence of PCR inhibitors. Herein, we compared several silica-based DNA extraction methods from artificially degraded DNA, DNA with PCR inhibitors and DNA from old skeletal remains using quantitative real-time PCR. We present a modified large-scale silica-based extraction combined with complete demineralization, that enables maximum DNA recovery and efficient elimination of PCR inhibitors. This is performed with high concentration of EDTA solution for demineralization of bone powder followed by QIAamp spin columns and buffers from the QIAquick PCR purification kit. We have successfully used this modified technique to perform STR analysis for 55-year-old skeletal remains. The results of this study will contribute to solve the forensic cases dealing with skeletal remains.

  9. Isolation of PCR ready-human DNA using copper nanoparticles from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Anand; Ansari, Niha; Shah, Shahil; Rao, M V; Menon, Shobhana K

    2017-01-01

    Present study represents a novel approach of PCR ready-human DNA extraction method from skeletal remains using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for personnel identification. To achieve rapid, cost effective, sensitive and non-hazardous method for DNA extraction we utilized CuNPs synthesized using microwave. The applicability of this approach was first tested in blood samples and afterwards, this system was extended to skeletal remains' samples also. This method yields good quality DNA that are ready for PCR reactions from small quantities of blood and skeletal remains. Consequently, even small quantities of nanoparticles could be potentially utilized for a highly efficient isolation of DNA from skeletal remains as well as from ancient archaeological samples. The present method has the advantages that it is quick with high yield, inexpensive, robust, environment friendly and does not require use of hazardous organic solvents.

  10. Determining postmortem interval using glycoproteinous adhesion deposits by Balanus improvisus on human skeletal and dental remains.

    PubMed

    Bytheway, Joan A; Pustilnik, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    An anthropological analysis was conducted on skeletal and dental remains brought to the Galveston County Medical Examiner's office. The skeletal remains were dry, fragmented, and absent of typical fluvial characteristics. During microscopic examination, semitransparent, circular objects were discovered on the dentition, the mandible, tibial plateau, and distal femur. The objects were glycoproteinous adhesions deposited by the acorn barnacle, Balanus improvisus. B. improvisus is an intertidal barnacle found in estuaries in Galveston Bay. Basal diameter of the adhesions on the dentition were significantly smaller than those found on the postcranial bones (p = 0.010), indicating two consecutive cohorts adhered to the bone and dentition. As settlement typically occurs once a year, this would indicate that the remains were in the fluvial environment for at least 375-410 days. It is important in geographic areas that have prevalent fluvial environments that human remains, particularly dentition, are microscopically examined for marine life evidence.

  11. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  12. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  13. Botulinum Toxin Complex Increases Paracellular Permeability in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    MIYASHITA, Shin-ichiro; SAGANE, Yoshimasa; INUI, Ken; HAYASHI, Shintaro; MIYATA, Keita; SUZUKI, Tomonori; OHYAMA, Tohru; WATANABE, Toshihiro; NIWA, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells, and MAPK activation was estimated from western blots. L-TC of C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 increased paracellular dextran flux and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in IEC-6 cells. The permeability increase induced by L-TC was abrogated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These results indicate that L-TC increases paracellular permeability by activating p38, but not JNK and ERK. PMID:23884081

  14. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  15. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    PubMed

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline.

  16. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans remain compositionally equivalent to conventional soybeans (Glycine max L.) during three years of field testing.

    PubMed

    McCann, Melinda C; Liu, Keshun; Trujillo, William A; Dobert, Raymond C

    2005-06-29

    Previous studies have shown that the composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) and selected processed fractions was substantially equivalent to that of conventional soybeans over a wide range of analytes. This study was designed to determine if the composition of GTS remains substantially equivalent to conventional soybeans over the course of several years and when introduced into multiple genetic backgrounds. Soybean seed samples of both GTS and conventional varieties were harvested during 2000, 2001, and 2002 and analyzed for the levels of proximates, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones. The measured analytes are representative of the basic nutritional and biologically active components in soybeans. Results show a similar range of natural variability for the GTS soybeans as well as conventional soybeans. It was concluded that the composition of commercial GTS over the three years of breeding into multiple varieties remains equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

  17. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  18. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  19. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  20. An Analysis of the Alleged Skeletal Remains of Carin Göring

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  1. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-02-01

    Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal-distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal-distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure.

  2. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Judy

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities designed to give students an opportunity to solve concrete problems involving spatial relationships and logical thinking utilizing hands-on manipulatives. Provides teacher instructions and four reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  3. Activity flow over resting-state networks shapes cognitive task activations

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael W.; Ito, Takuya; Bassett, Danielle S.; Schultz, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has helped reveal the intrinsic network organization of the human brain, yet its relevance to cognitive task activations has been unclear. Uncertainty remains despite evidence that resting-state FC patterns are highly similar to cognitive task activation patterns. Identifying the distributed processes that shape localized cognitive task activations may help reveal why resting-state FC is so strongly related to cognitive task activations. We found that estimating task-evoked activity flow (the spread of activation amplitudes) over resting-state FC networks allows prediction of cognitive task activations in a large-scale neural network model. Applying this insight to empirical functional MRI data, we found that cognitive task activations can be predicted in held-out brain regions (and held-out individuals) via estimated activity flow over resting-state FC networks. This suggests that task-evoked activity flow over intrinsic networks is a large-scale mechanism explaining the relevance of resting-state FC to cognitive task activations. PMID:27723746

  4. The brain's spontaneous activity and its psychopathological symptoms - "Spatiotemporal binding and integration".

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2017-03-28

    Neuroimaging provided much insight into the neural activity of the brain and its alterations in psychiatric disorders. However, despite extensive research, the exact neuronal mechanisms leading to the various psychopathological symptoms remain unclear, yet. In addition to task-evoked activity during affective, cognitive, or other challenges, the brain's spontaneous or resting state activity has come increasingly into the focus. Basically all psychiatric disorders show abnormal resting state activity with the relation to psychopathological symptoms remaining unclear though. I here suggest to conceive the brain's spontaneous activity in spatiotemporal terms that is, by various mechanisms that are based on its spatial, i.e., functional connectivity, and temporal, i.e., fluctuations in different frequencies, features. I here point out two such spatiotemporal mechanisms, i.e., "spatiotemporal binding and integration". Alterations in the resting state's spatial and temporal features lead to abnormal "spatiotemporal binding and integration" which results in abnormal contents in cognition as in the various psychopathological symptoms. This, together with concrete empirical evidence, is demonstrated in depression and schizophrenia. I therefore conclude that we need to develop a spatiotemporal approach to psychopathology, "spatiotemporal psychopathology:" as I call it.

  5. Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening our understanding

    PubMed Central

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Cummings, Greta; Cranley, Lisa A; Ferron, Era Mae; Harvey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Title Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening ourunderstanding. Aim This paper is a report of a study to identify nurse reported determinants of intention to remain employed and to develop a model explaining determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed. Background A worsening shortage of nurses globally suggests that efforts must be made to promote retention of nurses. However, effective retention promotion strategies depend on understanding the factors influencing nurse retention. Methods A descriptive study using focus group methodology was implemented. Thirteen focus groups including 78 nurses were carried out in two Canadian provinces in 2007. Thematic analysis strategies were incorporated to analyse the data. Findings Eight thematic categories reflecting factors nurses described as influencing their intentions to remain employed emerged from focus groups: (1) relationships with co-workers, (2) condition of the work environment, (3) relationship with and support from one’s manager, (4) work rewards, (5) organizational support and practices, (6) physical and psychological responses to work, (7) patient relationships and other job content, and (8) external factors. A model of determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed is hypothesized. Conclusion Findings were both similar to and different from previous research. The overriding concept of job satisfaction was not found. Rather, nurse assessments of satisfaction within eight thematic categories were found to influence intentions to remain employed. Further testing of the hypothesized model is required to determine its global utility. Understanding determinants of intention to remain employed can lead to development of strategies that strengthen nurse retention. Incorporation of this knowledge in nurse education programmes is essential. PMID:20423434

  6. Tracing partners of patients with syphilis infection remains challenging: experience of Geneva Hospital.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Angèle, Gayet-Ageron; Martine, Girard-Strohbach; Laurence, Toutous Trellu

    2017-01-01

    Syphilis has been reinstated on the list of notifiable diseases in Switzerland since 2006 and the active management of sexual partners is encouraged to avoid reinfection. However, contact tracing has yielded unsatisfactory results and the incidence of syphilis remains important, especially in high-risk populations. The aim of this study was to compare the proportions of notified sexual partners of patients diagnosed with syphilis by the laboratories of Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) with those diagnosed in private laboratories (non-HUG) and to assess the risk factors for no notification to sexual partners. All syphilis cases notified to the Office of the Surgeon General in Geneva (Switzerland) between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were analysed. The proportions of partner notification (PN) between HUG and non-HUG laboratories were compared by Chi square test and the main risk factors for no notification to sexual partners were assessed by binomial log-linear regression. Among a total of 720 notifications reported, 244 cases were diagnosed with contagious syphilis stages and 263 with non-contagious stages (i.e. successfully treated patients with or late latent cases). Overall, PN was higher among contagious than non-contagious cases (58.4% versus 31.0%; p = 0.030) and it was significantly higher in the non-HUG compared to the HUG group (75.9% versus 50.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Risk factors independently associated with no notification to sexual partners were the place of diagnosis (risk ratio [RR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-2.27 for HUG versus non-HUG, respectively), age >45 years (RR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.76) and if the patient had received treatment for syphilis (RR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.38-2.66). Our results illustrate the difficulty of contact tracing in syphilis infection and the necessity to improve this crucial part of sexually transmitted infection management.

  7. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-05

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction.

  8. A novel approach of remaining discharge energy prediction for large format lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-03-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack remaining discharge energy is a crucial challenge to the battery energy storage systems. In this paper, a new method of battery pack remaining discharge energy estimation is proposed using the recursive least square-unscented Kalman filter. To predict the remaining discharge energy precisely, the inconsistency of the battery pack caused by different working temperatures is taken into consideration and the degree of battery inconsistency is quantified based on mathematical methods of statistics. In addition, the recursive least square is applied to identify the parameters of the battery pack model on-line and the unscented Kalman filter is employed in battery pack remaining discharge energy and energy utilization ratio estimation. The experimental results in terms of battery states estimation under the new European driving cycle and real driven profiles, with the root mean square error less than 0.01, further verify that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack remaining discharge energy with high accuracy. What's more, the relationship between the pack energy utilization ratio and the degree of battery inconsistency is summarized in the paper.

  9. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  10. Activation of human long interspersed nuclear element 1 retrotransposition by benzo(a)pyrene, an ubiquitous environmental carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Stribinskis, Vilius; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2006-03-01

    Long interspersed nuclear elements [LINE-1 (L1)] are abundant retrotransposons in mammalian genomes that remain silent under most conditions. Cellular stress signals activate L1, but the molecular mechanisms controlling L1 activation remain unclear. Evidence is presented here that benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental hydrocarbon metabolized by mammalian cytochrome P450s to reactive carcinogenic intermediates, increases L1 retrotransposition in HeLa cells. Increased retrotransposition is mediated by up-regulation of L1 RNA levels, increased L1 cDNA synthesis, and stable genomic integration. Activation of L1 is dependent on the ability of BaP to cause DNA damage because it is absent in HeLa cells challenged with nongenotoxic hydrocarbon carcinogens. Thus, the mutations and genomic instability observed in human populations exposed to genotoxic environmental hydrocarbons may involve epigenetic activation of mobile elements dispersed throughout the human genome.

  11. mTORC1-Induced HK1-Dependent Glycolysis Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong-Seok; Hisata, Shu; Park, Mi-Ae; DeNicola, Gina M; Ryter, Stefan W; Nakahira, Kiichi; Choi, Augustine M K

    2015-07-07

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates activation of immune cells and cellular energy metabolism. Although glycolysis has been linked to immune functions, the mechanisms by which glycolysis regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1-induced glycolysis provides an essential mechanism for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, we demonstrate that hexokinase 1 (HK1)-dependent glycolysis, under the regulation of mTORC1, represents a critical metabolic pathway for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Downregulation of glycolysis by inhibition of Raptor/mTORC1 or HK1 suppressed both pro-IL-1β maturation and caspase-1 activation in macrophages in response to LPS and ATP. These results suggest that upregulation of HK1-dependent glycolysis by mTORC1 regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  12. Homeostatic regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and degradation by light-controlled single synaptic activation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qingming; Gilbert, James; Man, Heng-Ye

    2011-01-01

    During homeostatic adjustment in response to alterations in neuronal activity, synaptic expression of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is globally tuned up- or down so that the neuronal activity is restored to a physiological range. Given that a central neuron receives multiple presynaptic inputs, whether and how AMPAR synaptic expression is homeostatically regulated at individual synapses remains unclear. In cultured hippocampal neurons, we report that when activity of an individual presynaptic terminal is selectively elevated by light-controlled excitation, AMPAR abundance at the excited synapses is selectively down-regulated in an NMDAR-dependent manner. The reduction in surface AMPARs is accompanied by enhanced receptor endocytosis and dependent on proteasomal activity. Synaptic activation also leads to a site-specific increase in the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and polyubiquitination levels, consistent with AMPAR ubiquitination and degradation in the spine. These results indicate that AMPAR accumulation at individual synapses is subject to autonomous homeostatic regulation in response to synaptic activity. PMID:22153376

  13. Pesticide pollution remains severe after cleanup of a stockpile of obsolete pesticides at Vikuge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elfvendahl, Sara; Mihale, Matobola; Kishimba, Michael A; Kylin, Henrik

    2004-12-01

    High levels of DDT residues and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found in soil, well water, and surface water around a collapsed pesticide storage shed at Vikuge Farm, Tanzania. Residues of DDT and HCHs were found at three soil depths down to 50 cm. Surface soil samples contained up to 28% total DDT and 6% total HCH residues. Water samples had concentrations of up to 30 microg L(-1) of organochlorine pesticides. Other compounds detected were aldrin, azinphos-methyl, carbosulfan, gamma-chlordane, chlorprofam, heptachlor, hexazinone, metamitron, metazachlor, pendimethalin, and thiabendazole. Although the visible remains of pesticides have been removed, the remaining soil is itself hazardous waste and poses a risk to the environment and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages. These findings show the necessity to follow up the environmental situation at former storage sites of obsolete stocks of pesticides, and that the environmental problems are not necessarily solved by removing the visible remains.

  14. Comparison of morphological and molecular genetic sex-typing on mediaeval human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Niederstätter, Harald; McGlynn, George; Stadler, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    Archaeological excavations conducted at an early mediaeval cemetery in Volders (Tyrol, Austria) produced 141 complete skeletal remains dated between the 5th/6th and 12th/13th centuries. These skeletons represent one of the largest historical series of human remains ever discovered in the East Alpine region. Little historical information is available for this region and time period. The good state of preservation of these bioarchaeological finds offered the opportunity of performing molecular genetic investigations. Adequate DNA extraction methods were tested in the attempt to obtain as high DNA yields as possible for further analyses. Molecular genetic sex-typing using a dedicated PCR multiplex ("Genderplex") gave interpretable results in 88 remains, 78 of which had previously been sexed based on morphological features. We observed a discrepancy in sex determination between the two methods in 21 cases. An unbiased follow-up morphological examination of these finds showed congruence with the DNA results in all but five samples.

  15. Neandertal postcranial remains from the Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J; Ortega, Jon; López, Mariano V; Parmová, Klára; Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-04-01

    The Sima de las Palomas, southeastern Spain, has yielded a series of Neandertal postcranial remains, including immature and mature isolated elements and the fragmentary partial skeleton of a young adult (Palomas 92). The remains largely conform to the general late archaic/Neandertal morphological pattern in terms of humeral diaphyseal shape, pectoralis major tuberosity size and pillar thickness, ulnar coronoid process height, manual middle phalangeal epiphyseal breadth, manual distal phalangeal tuberosity shape and breadth, femoral diaphyseal shape, and probably body proportions. Palomas 92 contrasts with the Neandertals in having variably gracile hand remains, a more sellar trapezial metacarpal 1 facet, more anteroposteriorly expanded mid-proximal femoral diaphysis, and less robust pedal proximal phalanges. The Palomas Neandertals contrast with more northern European Neandertals particularly in various reflections of overall body size.

  16. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  17. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  18. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of antemortem surgical records for identification of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Scott, Audrey L; Congram, Derek; Sweet, David; Fonseca, Stephen; Skinner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This case review illustrates the important contributions of forensic archeological methods and forensic anthropological analysis to the identification of found skeletal remains. After reassociation of skeletal remains found in two locations, anthropological analysis provided the basis for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem medical records. Partial DNA profiles were supportive but not conclusive and antemortem dental records were not available. Comparison of antemortem traumas, skeletal morphology, and surgical artifacts with antemortem radiographs and surgical records led to positive identification of an individual missing for almost a decade.

  19. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  20. Identification and analysis of human remains recovered from wells from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Pećina-Slaus, Nives; Brkić, Hrvoje; Balicević, Drinko; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Pećina, Tatjana Cicvara

    2007-08-24

    From 1996 to the present, the remains of 61 individuals killed during the 1991 War in Croatia were recovered from both dried out and functioning wells. Positive identification was established in 60.7% or 37/61 cases. Remains recovered from the same geographical region but from non-well settings were identified in 77.4% or 1256/1623 cases. The purpose of this paper is to report on the taphonomic, demographic and trauma characteristics of remains recovered from wells and identify factors responsible for the discrepancy in the identification ratios. The age and sex distributions in the well and non-well series were similar, as were the frequencies of recovered personal documents, jewelry and other artifacts. The taphonomic features of the remains were, however, significantly different. Preservation of remains was considerably better in non-well settings (1400/1623 or 86.3% compared to 40/61 or 65.5% in wells). Congruently, commingling of remains was more frequent in wells (26/61 or 42.6% compared to 77/1623 or 4.7% in non-well settings). In bodies recovered from non-well settings the preservation, state and commingling of the remains were strongly correlated with positive identification. None of these features were correlated with the identification of bodies from wells. Instead, identification of remains from wells was significantly affected by the presence or absence of water in the well. As both series have similar frequencies, and identical rankings of identification factors, the reason for the discrepancy in the identification ratios lies in the fact that by themselves, these factors were rarely sufficient for positive identification. In both series the majority of identifications (51.4% in the well, and 58.1% in the non-well series) were established through a combination of biological and non-biological features. The significantly lower identification ratio in the well series resulted from the difficult recovery conditions in wells with significant amounts of

  1. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing.

  2. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P < 0.05). The participants were more likely to retain their incisors (especially their canines) for their entire lifetimes than do so for their molars. From the incisors to the second premolars, they had more mandibular teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P < 0.0001). Finally, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth

  3. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Modulates Thalamic Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Russo, Gary S.; Hashimoto, Takao; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective tool for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism by which STN DBS elicits its beneficial effect, however, remains unclear. We previously reported STN stimulation increased the rate and produced a more regular and periodic pattern of neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). Here we extend our observations to neurons in the pallidal (ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)) and cerebellar (ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)) receiving areas of the motor thalamus during STN DBS. Stimulation parameters that produced improvement in rigidity and bradykinesia resulted in changes in the pattern and power of oscillatory activity of neuronal activity that were similar in both regions of the motor thalamus. Neurons in both VA/VLo and VPLo tended to become more periodic and regular with a shift in oscillatory activity from low to high frequencies. Burst activity was reduced in VA/VLo, but was not significantly changed in VPLo. There was also a significant shift in the population of VA/VLo neurons that were inhibited during STN DBS, while VPLo neurons tended to be activated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that STN DBS increases output from the nucleus and produces a change in the pattern and periodicity of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network, and that these changes include cerebellar pathways likely via activation of adjacent cerebello-thalamic fiber bundles. PMID:19005057

  4. Structural determinants of MALT1 protease activity.

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, Christian; Leder, Lukas; Blank, Jutta; Bernardi, Anna; Melkko, Samu; Decock, Arnaud; D'Arcy, Allan; Villard, Frederic; Erbel, Paulus; Hughes, Nicola; Freuler, Felix; Nikolay, Rainer; Alves, Juliano; Bornancin, Frederic; Renatus, Martin

    2012-05-25

    The formation of the CBM (CARD11-BCL10-MALT1) complex is pivotal for antigen-receptor-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Signaling is dependent on MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), which not only acts as a scaffolding protein but also possesses proteolytic activity mediated by its caspase-like domain. It remained unclear how the CBM activates MALT1. Here, we provide biochemical and structural evidence that MALT1 activation is dependent on its dimerization and show that mutations at the dimer interface abrogate activity in cells. The unliganded protease presents itself in a dimeric yet inactive state and undergoes substantial conformational changes upon substrate binding. These structural changes also affect the conformation of the C-terminal Ig-like domain, a domain that is required for MALT1 activity. Binding to the active site is coupled to a relative movement of caspase and Ig-like domains. MALT1 binding partners thus may have the potential of tuning MALT1 protease activity without binding directly to the caspase domain.

  5. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  6. 17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR DRIVEN BY A SMALL STEAM ENGINE LOCATED EAST OF PUMP NO. 4; THIS UNIT REPLACED AN EARLIER GENERATOR INSTALLED IN 1909 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 38 CFR Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. - Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial of a veteran whose...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed. (a)...

  8. Intertextual Evaluation, Conflicting Evaluative Criteria, and the Controversy over Native American Burial Remains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Emery M.

    1992-01-01

    The intertextual model of evaluation proposed by M. Riffaterre is explored and applied to two problems, the general problem of what to do when there are multiple but conflicting criteria for evaluating a policy, and the specific issues of disposition of native American burial remains. (SLD)

  9. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  10. 1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND INCLUDING SUPPORT BUILDING (BACKGROUND), FLAME TRENCH (FOREGROUND) RECENT ADDITION (O-RING FACILITY) OVER OTHER FLAME TRENCH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    PubMed

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors).

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2012: Optimal management of T2DM remains elusive.

    PubMed

    Holman, Rury R

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide, >366 million people with type 2 diabetes mellitus remain at excess risk of cardiovascular disease and face a lifetime of treatment escalation for this progressive disorder. Studies in 2012 have re-affirmed the safety of early insulin treatment, metformin use in renal impairment, and shown β-cell function preservation over several years.

  13. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good... officer of the Marine Corps designated a judge advocate, and each civil service and contracted civilian attorney who practices law under the cognizance and supervision of the JAG shall maintain a...

  14. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  15. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  16. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  17. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  18. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  19. DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haverić, Sanin; Kalamujić, Belma; Kovačević, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin; Pojskić, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Bajrović, Kasim; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Drobnič, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306

  20. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  1. A Bayesian Prognostic Algorithm for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dixit, Mukul; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-01

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need nondestructive measurement methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is then, based on a condition assessment or degradation trend, to have the ability to estimate the remaining useful life based of components, structures and systems based on the available materials degradation information. Such measurement and modeling methods form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches. Prognostic methods that predict remaining life based on large crack growth, and phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics, have been reported by several researchers. The challenge of predicting remaining life for earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel and enhanced sensors and data integration techniques. A recent review has considered the stages of degradation and sensing methods that can potentially be employed to detect and monitor early degradation for nuclear power plant applications. An experimental assessment of selected diagnostic techniques was also reported recently. However, the estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) determined from nondestructive diagnostic measurements for early degradation is still an unsolved problem. This present paper will discuss the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms applied to the early degradation- life problem.

  2. Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.

    2004-07-01

    The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

  3. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  4. Wide Complex Tachycardia – Ventricular Tachycardia or Not Ventricular Tachycardia, That Remains the Question

    PubMed Central

    B Garner, John; M Miller, John

    2013-01-01

    Arriving at the correct diagnosis in cases of wide complex tachycardia remains problematic for many clinicians. In this paper, we review the historical development of criteria used to differentiate among the major diagnostic possibilities and compare the strengths and weaknesses of various differentiating algorithms. PMID:26835036

  5. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... control. (4) A museum or Federal agency may also transfer control of funerary objects that are...

  6. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... unidentifiable human remains and associated funerary objects. (1) A museum or Federal agency that is unable to... that none of them has objected to the proposed transfer of control. (4) A museum or Federal agency...

  7. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... control. (4) A museum or Federal agency may also transfer control of funerary objects that are...

  8. Role of mobile IPv6 for mobile networks and its remaining issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Kan, Zhigang

    2001-10-01

    Mobile IPv6 has received tremendous attention from the cellular telephony industry for use in the next generation networks. This paper starts with recent development of Mobile IPv6 technologies and its standards, and explores remaining issues such as fast handover, smooth handover, mobility managements, AAA, QoS, security and scenarios in its deployment, with particular attention to IPv6.

  9. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... individual were recovered from the Emerald Mound site during legally authorized excavation projects. No known.... In 1972, human remains representing 24 individuals were recovered from the Emerald Mound site during... funerary objects recovered from the Boyd site, Gordon Mounds site, and Emerald Mound site, and the...

  10. Why Japanese workers remain in the labor force so long: lessons for the United States?

    PubMed

    Williamson, John B; Higo, Masa

    2009-12-01

    As part of the search for ways to increase labor force participation rates among older workers in the United States, it makes sense to take a close look at evidence from Japan, one of the few industrial countries with a substantially higher labor force participation rate among older workers, particularly men, than the United States. Based mainly on prior studies and original interview data, we first discuss five potential factors which help explain why Japanese workers remain in the labor force as long as they do: (1) perceived economic necessity; (2) the large fraction of workers who are self-employed; (3) a culture that puts a high value on remaining in the labor force throughout the life course; (4) the long healthy life expectancy; and (5) the government's role in facilitating the labor force participation of older workers. We suggest that the Japanese national cultural value on remaining economically productive well into old age clearly underlies the development of the government's legislative initiatives aiming to extend the working lives of older workers. We then outline three policy suggestions for those seeking to increase labor force participation rates among older U.S. workers: (1) increase the financial incentive to workers who remain in the labor force; (2) improve public programs designed to foster efforts by older workers to become self-employed; and (3) increase the extent of government efforts to link older workers to prospective employers.

  11. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  12. 49. Taken from highline; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Taken from high-line; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; no longer used, "McKinley hat was open receptacle with bell below. Hat carried charge to furnace top, dumping it to bell; bell locked onto furnace top, dropping charge into furnace. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  13. Influences of the Heart: Novice and Experienced Teachers Remaining in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan V.; Brown, John J., Jr.; Kirby-Smith, Antionette; Severson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a phenomenological inquiry that described factors that influenced two novice and two experienced teachers' decisions to remain in the teaching field. These teachers taught in both Title I and non-Title I elementary schools, and their teaching experiences ranged from four months to 38 years. Data for this research…

  14. Female College Presidents: Characteristics to Become and Remain Chief Executive Officer of a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balram, Arlette

    2012-01-01

    Through an ethnographic approach, the perceptions of female college presidents from the northeastern region of the United States regarding leadership styles and the characteristics to become and remain the chief executive officer of a college were investigated. Six presidents from various types of four-year colleges were interviewed. Themes,…

  15. Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of skeet range shooting stations (posts) in foreground. This was one of North Base's few recreational features. In the distance is a debris field of spent clay pigeons - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Skeet Range, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  17. The Thornless Rose: A Phenomenological Look at Decisions Career Teachers Make to Remain in the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mindi S.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Brown, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    Attrition among the agricultural education profession is concerning as approximately 50% of agriculture teachers leave within the first six years of teaching. Therefore, the purpose of the phenomenological study, conducted from an emic perspective, was to explore and describe secondary agriculture teachers' experiences related to remaining in the…

  18. Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Instrumental Factors That Impact Their Decisions to Remain in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Tiffany Pointer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that impact teachers' decisions to remain teaching in an urban school district. The researcher analyzed survey data provided by the Office of Planning and Accountability for an urban school district in Tennessee. The findings of the study are also discussed as well as any implication for…

  19. Showing up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience among Students of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests…

  20. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  1. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  2. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  3. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  4. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Missimer, David M.; Summer, Michael E.; Fink, Samuel D.

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  5. 48 CFR 837.7005 - Unclaimed remains-all other cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unclaimed remains-all other cases. 837.7005 Section 837.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Mortuary Services 837.7005 Unclaimed remains—all other cases. Requests for information...

  6. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  7. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  8. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  9. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  10. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  11. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  12. 29 CFR 520.507 - How long does my certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long does my certificate remain in effect? 520.507 Section 520.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING...

  13. 29 CFR 520.507 - How long does my certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long does my certificate remain in effect? 520.507 Section 520.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING...

  14. 29 CFR 520.507 - How long does my certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long does my certificate remain in effect? 520.507 Section 520.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING...

  15. 29 CFR 520.507 - How long does my certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long does my certificate remain in effect? 520.507 Section 520.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING...

  16. 29 CFR 520.507 - How long does my certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How long does my certificate remain in effect? 520.507 Section 520.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING...

  17. 76 FR 795 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS. The human remains and cultural items were removed from Claiborne County, MS... Superintendent, Natchez Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS. This notice corrects the total number and types of...

  18. Optimization of DNA Recovery and Amplification from Non-Carbonized Archaeobotanical Remains

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated decisions as to which one to use for a given task. The experimental findings should prove useful to the aDNA and archaeological communities by guiding future research methodologies and ensuring precious archaeobotanical remains are studied in optimal ways, and may thereby yield important new perspectives on the interactions between humans and past plant communities. PMID:24475182

  19. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  20. Nondestructive sampling of human skeletal remains yields ancient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Deborah A; Bonine, Holly M; Mata-Míguez, Jaime; Kemp, Brian M; Snow, Meradeth H; LeBlanc, Steven A

    2012-02-01

    Museum curators and living communities are sometimes reluctant to permit ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human skeletal remains because the extraction of aDNA usually requires the destruction of at least some skeletal material. Whether these views stem from a desire to conserve precious materials or an objection to destroying ancestral remains, they limit the potential of aDNA research. To help address concerns about destructive analysis and to minimize damage to valuable specimens, we describe a nondestructive method for extracting DNA from ancient human remains. This method can be used with both teeth and bone, but it preserves the structural integrity of teeth much more effectively than that of bone. Using this method, we demonstrate that it is possible to extract both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from human remains dating between 300 BC and 1600 AD. Importantly, the method does not expose the remains to hazardous chemicals, allowing them to be safely returned to curators, custodians, and/or owners of the samples. We successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA from 90% of the individuals tested, and we were able to analyze 1-9 nuclear loci in 70% of individuals. We also show that repeated nondestructive extractions from the same tooth can yield amplifiable mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The high success rate of this method and its ability to yield DNA from samples spanning a wide geographic and temporal range without destroying the structural integrity of the sampled material may make possible the genetic study of skeletal collections that are not available for destructive analysis.

  1. (210)Po poisoning as possible cause of death: forensic investigations and toxicological analysis of the remains of Yasser Arafat.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Bochud, François; Baechler, Sébastien; Castella, Vincent; Augsburger, Marc; Bailat, Claude; Michaud, Katarzyna; Straub, Marietta; Pecchia, Marco; Jenk, Theo M; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    The late president of the Palestinian Authority, Yasser Arafat, died in November 2004 in Percy Hospital, one month after having experienced a sudden onset of symptoms that included severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain and which were followed by multiple organ failure. In spite of numerous investigations performed in France, the pathophysiological mechanisms at the origin of the symptoms could not be identified. In 2011, we found abnormal levels of polonium-210 ((210)Po) in some of Arafat's belongings that were worn during his final hospital stay and which were stained with biological fluids. This finding led to the exhumation of Arafat's remains in 2012. Significantly higher (up to 20 times) activities of (210)Po and lead-210 ((210)Pb) were found in the ribs, iliac crest and sternum specimens compared to reference samples from the literature (p-value <1%). In all specimens from the tomb, (210)Po activity was supported by a similar activity of (210)Pb. Biokinetic calculations demonstrated that a (210)Pb impurity, as identified in a commercial source of 3MBq of (210)Po, may be responsible for the activities measured in Arafat's belongings and remains 8 years after his death. The absence of myelosuppression and hair loss in Mr Arafat's case compared to Mr Litvinenko's, the only known case of malicious poisoning with (210)Po, could be explained by differences in the time delivery-scheme of intake. In conclusion, statistical Bayesian analysis combining all the evidence gathered in our forensic expert report moderately supports the proposition that Mr Arafat was poisoned by (210)Po.

  2. Spectral analysis of pharmaceutical formulations prepared according to ancient recipes in comparison with old museum remains.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, M Cristina; Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Baraldi, P

    2011-10-01

    A study of the composition of the remains of ancient ointments from museums was undertaken to enable understanding of the preparation techniques. Comparison of ancient recipes from different historical periods and spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic and/or organic remains recovered in museum vessels enabled preparation of ancient pharmaceutical-cosmetic formulations. Farmacopea Augustana by Occo was one the most important books studied for the 14 formulations prepared in the laboratory. Three formulations are discussed in detail and raw materials and new preparations were proposed for ozone ageing. The most important micro Raman results are discussed. The spectra of the raw materials lipids, beeswax, and resins are discussed; beeswax and pig suet (axŭngia) Raman spectra were found to be similar, but different from those of the aged oils. SERS was applied to ancient ointments and galbanum and the Raman spectra are reported and discussed for the first time.

  3. Archaeobotanical Study of Ancient Food and Cereal Remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  4. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian

    2013-07-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed.

  5. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human remains from a seventh century cist burial on Anglesey, UK.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Wilson, Andrew S; Nik Hassan, Nik F; Davidson, Andrew; Burnett, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Specimens from human remains exhibiting unusual preservation excavated from a seventh century stone cist burial at Towyn y Capel in Anglesey, UK, have been analysed using Raman spectroscopy with near-infrared laser excitation at 1,064 and 785 nm. Specimens of hair and bone provided evidence for severe degradation and microbial colonisation. The deposits within the stone cist showed that some microbially mediated compounds had been formed. Analysis of crystals found at the interface between the hair and the skeletal neck vertebrae revealed a mixture of newberyite and haematite, associated with decomposition products of the hair and bone. An interesting differential degradation was noted in the specimens analysed which could be related to the air-void and the presence of plant root inclusions into the stone cist. This is the first time that Raman spectroscopy has been used in the forensic archaeological evaluation of burial remains in complex and dynamic environments.

  6. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  7. Healed Depressed Parasagittal Skull Fractures-A Feature of Archaic Australian Aboriginal Remains.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Keryn; Brophy, Brian; Cornish, Brian; Byard, Roger W

    2016-11-01

    The skeletal remains of eight Australian Aboriginals with healed depressed skull fractures were examined. Male:female ratio 5:3; age range 20-60 yrs. Burial dates by (14) C dating in three cases were 500 years BP (n = 2) and 1300 BP. There were 13 healed depressed skull fractures manifested by shallow indentations of cortical bone and thinning of diploe, with no significant disturbance of the inner skull tables. Nine (69%) were located within 35 mm of the sagittal suture/midline. These lesions represent another acquired feature that might be helpful in suggesting that a skull is from a tribal Aboriginal individual and may be particularly useful if the remains are represented by only fragments of calvarium. While obviously not a finding specific to this population, these healed injuries would be consistent with the possible results of certain types of conflict behavior reported in traditional Aboriginal groups that involved formalized inflicted blunt head trauma.

  8. Remaining Technical Challenges and Future Plans for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of Oil-Free technologies (foil gas bearings, solid lubricants and advanced analysis and predictive modeling tools) to advanced turbomachinery has been underway for several decades. During that time, full commercialization has occurred in aircraft air cycle machines, turbocompressors and cryocoolers and ever-larger microturbines. Emerging products in the automotive sector (turbochargers and superchargers) indicate that high volume serial production of foil bearings is imminent. Demonstration of foil bearings in APU s and select locations in propulsion gas turbines illustrates that such technology also has a place in these future systems. Foil bearing designs, predictive tools and advanced solid lubricants have been reported that can satisfy anticipated requirements but a major question remains regarding the scalability of foil bearings to ever larger sizes to support heavier rotors. In this paper, the technological history, primary physics, engineering practicalities and existing experimental and experiential database for scaling foil bearings are reviewed and the major remaining technical challenges are identified.

  9. Identification of the skeletal remains of Josef Mengele by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, A J; Allen, M J; Hagelberg, E; Sonnberg, A

    1992-09-01

    There has been considerable controversy over the identity of the skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil in 1985 and believed to be those of Dr Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz 'Angel of Death'. Bone DNA analysis was therefore conducted in an attempt to provide independent evidence of identity. Trace amounts of highly degraded human DNA were successfully extracted from the shaft of the femur. Despite the presence of a potent inhibitor of DNA amplification, microsatellite alleles could be reproducibly amplified from the femur DNA. Comparison of the femur DNA with DNA from Josef Mengele's son and wife revealed a bone genotype across 10 different loci fully compatible with paternity of Mengele's son. Less than 1 in 1800 Caucasian individuals unrelated to Mengele's son would by chance show full paternal inclusion. DNA analysis therefore provides very strong independent evidence that the remains exhumed from Brazil are indeed those of Josef Mengele.

  10. An analysis of human skeletal remains with cerebral palsy: associated skeletal age delay and dental pathologies.

    PubMed

    Megyesi, Mary S; Tubbs, Ryan M; Sauer, Norman J

    2009-03-01

    In 2002 the authors were asked to examine the skeletal remains of an individual with a known history of severe cerebral palsy (CP) who was 21-23 years old at death. Skeletal age estimates of 11-15 years and dental age estimates of c. 16 years are younger than the known age of the decedent. Skeletal analysis also identified dental pathologies such as chronic tooth grinding and substantial calculus deposits. Scarce literature exists on forensic human remains cases with CP, and this study contrasts the age discrepancy and other features of this case with typical clinical characteristics of CP. A review of the CP literature suggests that delayed skeletal maturation and dental pathologies such as those observed in this case are indicative of complications related to CP. This article may alert future investigators to some of the osteological signs of CP and the probability that age indicators may be misleading.

  11. Forensic age estimation in human skeletal remains: current concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal identification has a long tradition in both physical and forensic anthropology. The process generally begins with formulation of a biological profile (osteobiography); specifically, estimation of sex, age, ethnicity and stature. The present paper briefly reviews a selection of the principal methods used for one aspect of the identification process; the estimation of personal age. It is well-documented that variability in the morphological features used to assess age in the human skeleton progressively increases from birth to old age. Thus choice of method is inherently related to whether unidentified remains are those of a juvenile or an adult. This review, therefore, considers methods appropriate for age estimation in both juvenile and adult remains; the former being primarily based on developmental, and the latter degenerative, morphological features. Such a review is timely as new methods are constantly being developed, concurrent with refinements to those already well established in mainstream anthropology.

  12. Remaining useful life prediction for an adaptive skew-Wiener process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeyi; Xu, Zhengguo; Ke, Xiaojie; Wang, Wenhai; Sun, Youxian

    2017-03-01

    Predicting the remaining useful life for operational devices plays a critical role in prognostics and health management. As the models based on the stochastic processes are widely used for characterizing the degradation trajectory, an adaptive skew-Wiener model, which is much more flexible than traditional stochastic process models, is proposed to model the degradation drift of industrial devices. To make full use of the prior knowledge and the historical information, an on-line filtering algorithm is proposed for state estimation, a two-stage algorithm is adopted to estimate unknown parameters as well. For remaining useful life prediction, a novel result is presented with an explicit form based on the closed skew normal distribution. Finally, sufficient Monte Carlo simulations and an application for ball bearings in rotating electrical machines are used to validate our approach.

  13. {13C }/{12C } ratios of pleistocene mummified remains from beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, Miguel; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    1985-01-01

    During the Quaternary glacial episodes, when sea level was considerably lower, Asia and North America were linked by large extensions of circumarctic land (Beringia), which remained unglaciated. This land mass served not only as a biogeographical bridge for plants, animals, and humans, but also supported a biome very different from present tundra or boreal coniferous forests, which was dominated by steppes and a rich mammalian megafauna. Carbon stable isotope ratios of Beringian late Pleistocene mummified remains of bison, equids, mammoth, caribou, musk-ox, moose, woolly rhino, and other undetermined species, found preserved in permafrost, indicate that these megaherbivores fed exclusively on C 3 plants, and that C 4 grasses were not differentially ingested by bison, as previously suggested. Paleoclimatic constraints probably prevented the formation of a warm-season (C 4) guild during the later part of the growing season in the steppes of Beringia during the last glaciation.

  14. Constant negotiating: managing work-related musculoskeletal disorders while remaining at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Smith-Young, Joanne; Solberg, Shirley; Gaudine, Alice

    2014-02-01

    We used grounded theory to explore processes and strategies used by workers affected by work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) while they remained in the workplace, and we developed a theory to describe the overall process. Participants included 25 workers affected by WMSDs who were currently employed in various workplaces in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The theoretical model has five main phases: (a) becoming concerned, (b) getting medical help, (c) dealing with the workplace, (d) making adjustments to lifestyle, and (e) taking charge, each with separate subphases. Constant negotiating was the core variable that explained the overall process, with workers engaged in negotiations with others in occupational, health, and social contexts. Using a two-dimensional figure, we illustrate the negotiation strategies workers used. We discuss implications for health care, workplaces, education, and research for creating a culture of understanding and respect for injured workers who wish to remain working after developing WMSDs.

  15. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia.

  16. Microscopic analysis of feather and hair fragments associated with human mummified remains from Kagamil Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.; Frohlich, Bruno; Harper, Albert B.; Gilberg, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    Human mummified remains of 34 different infant and adult individuals from Kagamil Island, Alaska, are accessioned in the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Kagamil Island is one of the small islands in the Island of Four Mountains group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and is well known for the mummy caves located on the southwest coast of the island. The Kagamil mummy holdings at the Smithsonian represent one of the largest, best documented and preserved collections of this type. Although these specimens are stored in ideal conditions, many small feather and hair fragments have become loose or disassociated from the actual mummies over the years. This preliminary investigation of fragmentary fiber material retrieved from these artifacts is the first attempt to identify bird and mammal species associated with the mummified remains of the Kagamil Island, Alaska collection and is part of the ongoing research connected with these artifacts.

  17. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  18. An acupuncture needle remaining in a lung for 17 years: case study and review.

    PubMed

    Lewek, Pawel; Lewek, Joanna; Kardas, Przemyslaw

    2012-09-01

    The case of a 67-year-old patient with an acupuncture needle remaining in his left lung is described. This foreign body was a remnant of a procedure performed by a doctor 17 years previously for osteoarthritic back pain. On the basis of this case, a review was performed of literature available in the PubMed database dealing with acupuncture needles remaining in a patient's body. A total of 25 articles were found. The articles describe needles found in the bladder, shoulder girdle, spinal cord, right ventricle, L5 nerve root, medulla oblongata, skin, carpal tunnel, nuchal and occipital area, calf and paraspinal muscle. Migration of needle fragments to the liver, pancreas, stomach, colon, breast, kidney, muscles, and spinal cord has been reported in the literature. In cases where patients were operated on, the needles were removed without subsequent complications and the patients recovered fully.

  19. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-02-17

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet") yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd) c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1(st) c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  20. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories.

  1. A simple metric sexing method for unknown skeletal remains: the Sacro-Clavicular Index (SCI).

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Martin; Trautmann, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Sex diagnosis on human skeletal remains from forensic or archaeological contexts is often hampered by poor preservation or completeness. The successful application of most identification methods demands the presence of skull or pelvis, since most reliable sex-determining features can be found here; unfortunately, because of their fragile anatomy, these bones are frequently damaged or destroyed. To compensate for this, we tested the effectiveness of two often well preserved postcranial structures as instrument of sexing skeletal individuals. Preliminary results are promising.

  2. Guidance on the Use of Historic Human Remains Detection Dogs for Locating Unmarked Cemeteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Control test site with human and animal buffers depicted. .................................. 28 Figure 7. Results of Team AM dog survey of Control...significantly more ground than the archaeologists, (b) did not alert on the remains of wild animals that were observed on the ground surface, and (c) were...consisted of three stages. The first stage was a controlled survey, where human and animal bones were buried at known depths in a field. After several

  3. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    and combat support vehicles, ships, and aircraft, the adoption of natural gas —whether as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG...tacticaldefensemedia.com16 | DoD Power & Energy Fall 2014 For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas By Bret...Strogen and Patrick Lobner Abundance and Utility Fueling the Force Natural Gas M ilitary energy strategists often recount the British Royal Navy’s decision

  4. Molecular mechanism on cadmium-induced activity changes of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via alterations in activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanism of CAT and SOD response under Cd-induced oxidative stress in the liver of zebrafish. The enzyme activity changes observed in vitro were consistent with those seen in vivo, indicating the direct interaction of CAT and SOD with Cd contributes to their activity change in vivo. Further experiments utilizing multiple spectroscopic methods, isothermal titration calorimetry and a molecular docking study were performed to explore the mechanism of molecular interaction of CAT and SOD with Cd. Different interaction patterns were found that resulted in misfolding and changed the enzyme activities. Taken together, we suggest the misfolding of CAT and SOD contributes to their activity change under Cd-induced oxidative stress in vivo.

  5. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures. PMID:24765580

  6. Opposing effects of Elk-1 multisite phosphorylation shape its response to ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Anastasia; Theillet, Francois-Xavier; Foster, Charles; Cheng, Tammy M; Miralles, Francesc; Bates, Paul A; Selenko, Philipp; Treisman, Richard

    2016-10-14

    Multisite phosphorylation regulates many transcription factors, including the serum response factor partner Elk-1. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional activation domain (TAD) of Elk-1 by the protein kinase ERK at multiple sites potentiates recruitment of the Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex and transcriptional activation, but the roles of individual phosphorylation events had remained unclear. Using time-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that ERK2 phosphorylation proceeds at markedly different rates at eight TAD sites in vitro, which we classified as fast, intermediate, and slow. Mutagenesis experiments showed that phosphorylation of fast and intermediate sites promoted Mediator interaction and transcriptional activation, whereas modification of slow sites counteracted both functions, thereby limiting Elk-1 output. Progressive Elk-1 phosphorylation thus ensures a self-limiting response to ERK activation, which occurs independently of antagonizing phosphatase activity.

  7. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Lindauer, Susanne; Tomasto-Cagigao, Elsa; Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960's provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960's. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations.

  8. Skeletal remains of a diminutive primate from the Paleocene of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Most living mammal orders, including our own, started their career during the first 10 million years of the Cenozoic, the Age of Mammals. The fossil record documents that early Paleogene adaptive radiations of various clades included tiny species of the size of living shrews. Remains of particularly diminutive limb bones are described from the late Paleocene site of Walbeck, Sachsen-Anhalt. Discovered in 1939, it has remained the only known Paleocene mammal-bearing locality from Germany. The remains are referred to the family Adapisoriculidae, which is considered on the basis of the present postcranial evidence to represent plesiadapiform primates rather than alleged lipotyphlan insectivores as previously proposed. The Walbeck fossils compete with the Early Eocene species Toliapina vinealis from Europe and Picromomys petersonorum from North America for the status of the smallest known primate, fossil and living. Their estimated body weights are as small as 10 g. The limb bones show features related to enhanced flexion at the elbow and hip joint, suggesting arboreal habits and environments such as terminal branches. The diminutive size and tooth morphology suggest feeding on small insects and other invertebrates. Postcranials are important to assess early radiations, such tiny specimens as the present ones are extremely scarce in the fossil record, however.

  9. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  10. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    PubMed

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article.

  11. Post-operative hemimaxillectomy rehabilitation using prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining natural teeth

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xing Zhou; Wang, Ming Yi; Ong, Hui Shan; Zhang, Chen Ping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results. The patients were assessed using the prosthesis functioning scale of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, retention and bite force were recorded for both the temporary prosthesis and the final prosthesis. RESULTS: The mean bite force of the prosthetic first molar was increased to 69.2 N. The mean retentive force increased to 13.5 N after zygoma implant insertion. The bite force on the prosthetic first molar was improved to 229.3 N. CONCLUSION: Bite force increased significantly with the support of a zygoma implant. The use of zygoma implants in the restoration of maxillary defects improved functional outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:27759845

  12. Recovery Rates of Human Fetal Skeletal Remains Using Varying Mesh Sizes.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; De La Paz, Jade S

    2016-01-01

    Human fetal skeletal elements of different gestational ages were screened with multiple mesh sizes (6.4 mm [1/4 inch], 3.2 mm [1/8 inch], 2.0 mm, and 1.0 mm) to determine their recovery rates. All remains were previously macerated, and no significantly damaged elements were used. The 6.4 mm mesh allowed a large loss of elements (63.2% overall), including diagnostic elements, while no diagnostic elements were lost when the 1 mm mesh (0.2%) was used. When using the 3.2 mm mesh, 16.2% of the bones were lost, including some diagnostic elements (primarily tooth crowns), while 7.5% were lost using the 2.0 mm mesh. The authors recommend that the potential loss of information incurred when utilizing larger mesh sizes be taken into consideration when planning recovery methods where fetal remains may be encountered and that a minimum of 1.0 mm mesh be utilized in recovery contexts known to include fetal remains.

  13. Hand and foot remains from the Gran Dolina Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C; Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

    1999-01-01

    We report here the study of the 22 hand and foot remains from the Early Pleistocene level TD6 of the Gran Dolina site at Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) recovered from 1994 to 1996. These remains are paratypes of Homo antecessor. All of the elements are briefly described and compared with other fossil hominids. The capitate has a constricted neck, well developed head, strong attachment for the ligamentum interosseum trapezoid-capitate, a palmarly placed trapezoid facet with a distinctive small dorsal trapezoid facet, a highly curved and oblique orientation of the second metacarpal facet, and a transversally oriented dorsodistal border. A hamate with a moderately projecting and lightly built hamulus; an inferred reduced styloid process on the third metacarpal base; a wide second metacarpal head; and middle phalanges with well marked insertions for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and wide heads. The morphology and dimensions of the pedal remains from TD6 are very similar to modern humans; but the base, proximal articular surface and shafts of the proximal hallucal phalanges are more rounded and the midshaft of the proximal toe phalanx is wider.

  14. Dental health of children: where we are today and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common disease in man and presents a tremendous health-affecting challenge and fiscal burden to both developed and underdeveloped countries. Changing demographics including increased number of ethnic minorities, cultural practices and diet, the number of children living in poverty or near poverty, and the special needs of medically compromised children have made solutions more complex and evasive. Systemic and topical fluoride contacts remain the most cost-effective public health response to preventing caries among children. The time-honored impact of reducing sugars and carbohydrates in the diet and improving oral hygiene practices also remain essential. New technology has the potential of offering remineralization strategies. The dental profession is challenged to be proactive in identifying alternatives and implementing new and creative ways to embrace underserved children and improve their access to care including trauma prevention. The impact on families and society, including financial and general well-being, due to poor oral health is significant. Lower income families absorb disproportionately the effect of dental diseases due to lack of education, food availability and selection, and access to early preventive care.

  15. Evidence of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in human skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lavín, M; Mansilla, J; Pineda, C; Pijoán, C; Ochoa, P

    1994-02-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is one of the earliest recognized disease entities in the history of medicine. It has a peculiar periosteal proliferation distinctive from other bone diseases. In its advanced stage, it leaves an indelible mark on the skeleton. It has been recently shown that digital clubbing is accompanied by a bone remodeling process of the underlying phalanges. Thus, theoretically, this entity can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains. We studied part of the collection of skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica preserved at the National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico City. We examined 1000 specimens and found 2 skeletons with widespread, bilateral, symmetric periosteal proliferation of the tubular bones in addition to the bone remodeling changes of the distal phalanges. One of the specimens was from the Formative period (2000 B.C. to 100 A.D.). We conclude that hypertrophic osteoarthropathy can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains and that this disease was present in Mesoamerica near the time of the original description of clubbing by Hippocrates about 2500 years ago.

  16. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results.

  17. Choosing and remaining in mental health nursing: perceptions of Western Australian nurses.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Carole A; Hauck, Yvonne; Hoffman, Rosemary

    2014-12-01

    Mental health nursing has an ageing workforce with a critical shortage of nurses in Western Australia. Additionally, mental health is not the preferred career for many graduate nurses. Current challenges with recruitment and retention suggest that strategies are needed to address this issue. This research project adopted a novel approach that focused on exploring the positive aspects of why mental health nurses remain, rather than why they leave. A cross-sectional design was employed comprising a brief interview survey, and nurses working within one public mental health service in Western Australia were invited to participate. A total of 192 nurses participated across 5 months, from adult, older adult, forensic, and education/research programmes. Thematic analysis was conducted from five key questions, and responses from questions one and two are discussed in this paper: 'Why did you choose mental health nursing?' and 'Why do you remain in mental health nursing?'. The main themes extracted in response to choosing mental health nursing were wanting to make a difference, mental health captured my interest, encouraged by others, and opportunities. Subsequent themes extracted from responses to remaining in mental health nursing were facing reality, passion for mental health nursing, patient-centred caring, and workplace conditions. Findings will be utilized to inform strategies for recruitment and retention of graduate nurses; further development of support systems, such as preceptorship training and improving student clinical experiences; as well as improving professional development opportunities for existing mental health nurses.

  18. Annual and seasonal patterns of insect succession on decomposing remains at two locations in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Voss, Sasha C; Spafford, Helen; Dadour, Ian R

    2009-12-15

    This study considered annual, seasonal and shorter term variation in patterns of insect succession onto decomposing remains at two contrasting locations in Western Australia, bushland and agricultural. The degree of consistency in insect succession patterns over spatial and temporal scales was evaluated through multivariate analysis of occurrence-based distance matrices. Insect assemblages were strongly correlated between locations, within corresponding time periods, indicating that patterns of insect succession were similar between localised sites within the same broad geographic area. This suggests that there is reasonable scope for the application of baseline succession data generated at a single study site to a range of decomposition sites within a given region. Differences were largely due to species absences at the agricultural site. Three species of Coleoptera were identified as possible representatives of bushland habitat, Ptomaphila lacrymosa (Silphidae), Omorgus tatei (Trogidae) and Helea castor (Tenebrionidae), and may be indicative of post mortem movement between habitat types. Within locations, variation in insect assemblages was not significant between years. Within years, insect assemblages varied significantly over time on a seasonal time scale and as decomposition progressed through defined decomposition stages. Forensically relevant data detailing the seasonal pattern of insect succession onto decomposing remains for Western Australia are reported. Additional focus has been directed towards hymenopteran parasitoids that frequent decomposing remains and parasitise Diptera colonisers. Parasitoids can be used to provide an extended PMI timeframe in cases where traditional forensic indicators have completed their development.

  19. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains.

  20. The use of fish remains in sediments for the reconstruction of paleoproductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, T.; Ferreira-Bartrina, V.; Santos, A. M. P.; Pinheiro, J.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the works concerning fish productivity are based in fish landing records. However, in order to understand the causes of variability in fish productivity (natural and/or anthropogenic) it is essential to have information from periods when human impacts (e.g., fisheries) are considered unimportant. This can be achieved through the use of fish remains, i.e. scales, vertebrae and otoliths, from sediment records. The obtained data can be used to develop time series of fish stocks revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries or millennia. The majority of these works are located in Eastern Boundary Current Systems (e.g., Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California), because these are associated with coastal upwelling and high productivity, which in some cases is at the origin of low bottom oxygen levels, leading to scale preservation. A search for fish remains in the Portuguese margin sediments is in progress in the context of the ongoing research project POPEI (High-resolution oceanic paleoproductivity and environmental changes; correlation with fish populations), which intend to fill the gap in studies of this type for the Canary Current System. In this paper we review some general ideas of the use of fish remains, related studies, methodologies and data processing, as well as presenting the first results of POPEI.

  1. Neanderthal hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    PubMed

    Mersey, Ben; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Brudvik, Kyle; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    The hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy cave (Ardèche, France) comprise 24 specimens of Eemian age (ca. 120 ka). The specimens include primarily complete elements, which are rare among the Moula-Guercy postcrania. The hand remains have several characteristic Neanderthal traits including a laterally facing (parasagittally oriented) second metacarpal-capitate articulation, a short styloid process, a wide proximal articular surface on the third metacarpal, and absolutely expanded apical tuberosities on the distal hand phalanges relative to modern humans. The foot remains include several incomplete elements along with an antimeric pair of naviculars, a medial cuneiform and cuboid, and a single complete element from each of the distal segments (one each: metatarsal, proximal foot phalanx, intermediate foot phalanx, distal foot phalanx). Consistent among the specimens are relatively wide diaphyses for length in the metatarsals and phalanges and large and prominent muscle attachments, both consistent with previously published Neanderthal morphology. The hand and foot collection from Moula-Guercy is an important dataset for future studies of Neanderthal functional morphology, dexterity, and behavior as it represents a previously undersampled time period for European Neanderthals.

  2. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene.

  3. Neanderthal axial and appendicular remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    PubMed

    Mersey, Ben; Brudvik, Kyle; Black, Michael T; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    Excavations carried out during the 1990s at Moula-Guercy cave Ardèche, France, yielded 108 hominid specimens dating to 100-120 Ka. In this paper, we describe and compare the 39 axial and appendicular specimens not including hand and foot bones. Among these remains are a large adult femur, several clavicles, a likely antimeric pair of radial heads, and a nearly complete superior pubic ramus. Analyses of this material indicate a clear affinity with Neanderthals by the presence of large and robust muscle attachments, thick long bone cortices, a long pubic ramus, and a superoinferiorly flattened clavicle shaft. The recovered remains reveal the presence of a mature male, a smaller mature individual, possibly a reproductive age female, an immature individual of age 10-12, and a second immature individual of age 4. Future analyses on the Moula-Guercy remains will illuminate ties to other known Neanderthal populations and contribute to the ongoing debate over the relative rate of Neanderthal metric growth.

  4. Proposed classes of morphological autopsy findings for decomposed and skeletal remains in mass death investigations.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah; Potter, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of mass death events, often involving partial or skeletal human remains, requires investigators to condense information on a large number of victims into a single report. Prosecution of war crimes typically requires that victims be categorized according to the injuries sustained. Reports recognizing only the presence or absence of trauma are misleading or misrepresentative. This study introduces a 4 class system for skeletal remains based on morphologic autopsy findings. Each class corresponds to the lethal potential of the trauma or pathologic conditions evident at autopsy, and the certainty with which cause of death can be determined. Data were extracted from 766 autopsy cases involving decomposed or skeletal remains from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator in which cause and manner of death were ruled. Statistically significant associations between morphology class and the cause and manner of death, positive identification, and natural and non-natural deaths were evident in this study. Intraobserver and interobserver tests revealed excellent replicability and reliability in the assignment of morphology classes to individual cases. In addition to its mass death applications, this classification system offers potential research contributions to physical anthropologists and bioarchaeologists studying human populations in antiquity.

  5. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOEpatents

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  6. Dating human skeletal remains using a radiometric method: biogenic versus diagenetic 90Sr and 210Pb in vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2012-07-10

    In forensic science, there is a strong interest in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains up to 50 years after death. Currently, there are no reliable methods to resolve PMI, the determination of which relies almost exclusively on the experience of the investigating expert. Here we measured (90)Sr and (210)Pb ((210)Po) incorporated into bones through a biogenic process as indicators of the time elapsed since death. We hypothesised that the activity of radionuclides incorporated into trabecular bone will more accurately match the activity in the environment and the food chain at the time of death than the activity in cortical bone because of a higher remodelling rate. We found that determining (90)Sr can yield reliable PMI estimates as long as a calibration curve exists for (90)Sr covering the studied area and the last 50 years. We also found that adding the activity of (210)Po, a proxy for naturally occurring (210)Pb incorporated through ingestion, to the (90)Sr dating increases the reliability of the PMI value. Our results also show that trabecular bone is subject to both (90)Sr and (210)Po diagenesis. Accordingly, we used a solubility profile method to determine the biogenic radionuclide only, and we are proposing a new method of bone decontamination to be used prior to (90)Sr and (210)Pb dating.

  7. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology: can vivianite be a marker of human remains permanence in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different

  8. Im Osten etwas Neues: Anthropological analysis of remains of German soldiers from 1915-1918.

    PubMed

    Jankauskas, Rimantas; Miliauskiene, Zydrūne; Stankeviciūte, Daina; Kuncevicius, Albinas

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2005, exhumation and identification of the remains of German soldiers was performed in Panevezys (Northern Lithuania). Historical data indicate that in autumn of 1915 the building of a local gymnasium was transformed into a military hospital, and casualties were buried in its garden. The hospital functioned until the German withdrawal in the winter 1918. Archaeological finds include ID tags, personal items, residues of uniforms and medical devices. Routine anthropological analysis was performed on the site, as the remains had to be ready for scheduled reburial the same summer. In total, the remains of 837 soldiers have been discovered. Most of the remains belong to males up to 30 years of age. There were, however, remains of five females. The average stature (acc. Trotter-Gleser) of males (+/- SD) was 171.4 +/- 5.1 cm (range 155.4-188.8 cm). Dental status was characterized by a high incidence of antemortal tooth loss (81.8% of individuals, 14.9% teeth) and caries complications. Some healed trauma and other lesions (including some suggestive of tuberculosis) indicate that they were not obstacles for military service. The highest number of pathologies observed was leg trauma (125 cases, among them 49 amputations), followed by head trauma (48 cases, among them 13 cases with surgical treatment, and 8 cases of maxillofacial lesions), trauma of upper extremity (29 cases, including 9 amputations); incidence of other kinds of trauma was much lower (trunk area - 7, pelvic area - 5, possible abdominal traumas, indicated by metal plates with wire, probably used to support drain inserted into abdominal cavity - 36, lesions of vertebral column - 2) - this can be explained by worse field-survival after such lesions and smaller involvement of the skeleton. However, a significant number of skeletons (115) were covered with lime, suggesting death from other (infection?) causes; the presence of chronic disease treatment is suggested by a certain number (32) of

  9. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  10. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  11. The Replisomes Remain Spatially Proximal throughout the Cell Cycle in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mangiameli, Sarah M.; Veit, Brian T.; Wiggins, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    The positioning of the DNA replication machinery (replisome) has been the subject of several studies. Two conflicting models for replisome localization have been proposed: In the Factory Model, sister replisomes remain spatially co-localized as the replicating DNA is translocated through a stationary replication factory. In the Track Model, sister replisomes translocate independently along a stationary DNA track and the replisomes are spatially separated for the majority of the cell cycle. Here, we used time-lapse imaging to observe and quantify the position of fluorescently labeled processivity-clamp (DnaN) complexes throughout the cell cycle in two highly-divergent bacterial model organisms: Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Because DnaN is a core component of the replication machinery, its localization patterns should be an appropriate proxy for replisome positioning in general. We present automated statistical analysis of DnaN positioning in large populations, which is essential due to the high degree of cell-to-cell variation. We find that both bacteria show remarkably similar DnaN positioning, where any potential separation of the two replication forks remains below the diffraction limit throughout the majority of the replication cycle. Additionally, the localization pattern of several other core replisome components is consistent with that of DnaN. These data altogether indicate that the two replication forks remain spatially co-localized and mostly function in close proximity throughout the replication cycle. The conservation of the observed localization patterns in these highly divergent species suggests that the subcellular positioning of the replisome is a functionally critical feature of DNA replication. PMID:28114307

  12. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones.

  13. Detection and characterization of volatile organic compounds from burned human and animal remains in fire debris.

    PubMed

    DeHaan, John D; Taormina, Eimi I; Brien, David J

    2017-03-01

    Debris collected from various test sites where mammalian remains (human and porcine) had been burned in a variety of full-scale fire scenarios was evaluated for the presence of volatile residues that could be characteristic of those remains. Levels of volatiles were measured using the method commonly used for fire debris analysis: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Homologous n-aldehydes (from n-pentanal to n-nonanal) proved to be a significant indicator of the presence of burned animal tissue as they were observed in nearly all of the samples. Such aldehydes are created by the combustion of animal fats. One aldehyde, n-hexanal, appeared more frequently than the other aldehydes, n-pentanal, n-heptanal, n-octanal, and n-nonanal. Ethanol was detected in two-thirds of the samples, while acetone appeared in about three-fourths of the samples, but both were detected at much lower concentrations than n-hexanal. These appear to have been combustion products of the substrates on which each body burned, rather than originating from the combustion of the body. There appeared to be no qualitative distinction between volatile products produced from burned porcine carcasses and those from human cadavers. Since a homologous series of C5-C9n-aldehydes is not produced as a dominant species by the pyrolysis or combustion of any normally encountered substrate (carpet, bedding, wood products or upholstery), their detection by normal fire debris methods appears to be a valid indicator of the presence of burned animal remains. These data will also provide guidance to fire debris analysts as to the nature of volatiles associated with the combustion of human bodies in real-world fires.

  14. Mass disasters: rapid molecular screening of human remains by means of short tandem repeats typing.

    PubMed

    Corach, D; Sala, A; Penacino, G; Sotelo, A

    1995-09-01

    Human remains identification represents a challenging situation and constitutes a difficult task associated with mass disasters. The only highly efficient means for individual and family group reconstruction is that based on DNA typing. On July 18, 1994 an explosion destroyed the A.M.I.A. (Argentine Israeli Association). Over 100 people died; however, the exact number of victims is still being investigated. Our Service received over 70 remains to be characterized by DNA typing in order to determine the number of victims and to try to reconstruct the family groups to which they belonged. DNA was extracted by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) based protocol, a rapid molecular screening of all samples was carried out by multiplex STR amplifications including HUMTH01, HUMFABP, HUMHPRTB, HUMRENA4, HUMVWA, HUMFES/FPS and Y27H39LR. Samples with identical genotypes were HaeIII-digested. Southern blotted and probed with YNH-24 (D2S44). PH-30 (D4S139). LH-1 (D5S110) and MS-1 (D1S7) for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) evaluation. The minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) approach was used in those cases in which band or profile shift were detected in Southern blot assays. Kinship between victims and putative relatives was initially evaluated by comparison of short tandem repeat (STR) profiles and then confirmed by VNTR with the above probes. The high identification efficiency attained in this case is, in part, supported by a previous experience, the DNA-based molecular characterization of human remains caused by the explosion of the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, March 1992.

  15. The Replisomes Remain Spatially Proximal throughout the Cell Cycle in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mangiameli, Sarah M; Veit, Brian T; Merrikh, Houra; Wiggins, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    The positioning of the DNA replication machinery (replisome) has been the subject of several studies. Two conflicting models for replisome localization have been proposed: In the Factory Model, sister replisomes remain spatially co-localized as the replicating DNA is translocated through a stationary replication factory. In the Track Model, sister replisomes translocate independently along a stationary DNA track and the replisomes are spatially separated for the majority of the cell cycle. Here, we used time-lapse imaging to observe and quantify the position of fluorescently labeled processivity-clamp (DnaN) complexes throughout the cell cycle in two highly-divergent bacterial model organisms: Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Because DnaN is a core component of the replication machinery, its localization patterns should be an appropriate proxy for replisome positioning in general. We present automated statistical analysis of DnaN positioning in large populations, which is essential due to the high degree of cell-to-cell variation. We find that both bacteria show remarkably similar DnaN positioning, where any potential separation of the two replication forks remains below the diffraction limit throughout the majority of the replication cycle. Additionally, the localization pattern of several other core replisome components is consistent with that of DnaN. These data altogether indicate that the two replication forks remain spatially co-localized and mostly function in close proximity throughout the replication cycle. The conservation of the observed localization patterns in these highly divergent species suggests that the subcellular positioning of the replisome is a functionally critical feature of DNA replication.

  16. Prognostication of LED Remaining Useful Life and Color Stability in the Presence of Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Zang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-06-22

    The reliability of LED products may be affected by both luminous flux drop and color shift. Previous research on the topic focuses on either luminous maintenance or color shift. However, luminous flux degradation usually takes very long time to observe in LEDs under normal operating conditions. In this paper, the impact of a VOC (volatile organic compound) contaminated luminous flux and color stability are examined. As a result, both luminous degradation and color shift had been recorded in a short time. Test samples are white, phosphorconverted, high-power LED packages. Absolute radiant flux is measured with integrating sphere system to calculate the luminous flux. Luminous flux degradation and color shift distance were plotted versus aging time to show the degradation pattern. A prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the state variables and state estimator have been proposed in this paper. In this PHM framework, unscented kalman filter (UKF) was deployed as the carrier of all states. During the estimation process, third order dynamic transfer function was used to implement the PHM framework. Both of the luminous flux and color shift distance have been used as the state variable with the same PHM framework to exam the robustness of the method. Predicted remaining useful life is calculated at every measurement point to compare with the tested remaining useful life. The result shows that state estimator can be used as the method for the PHM of LED degradation with respect to both luminous flux and color shift distance. The prediction of remaining useful life of LED package, made by the states estimator and data driven approach, falls in the acceptable errorbounds (20%) after a short training of the estimator.

  17. Long-Term Functional Dynamics of an Aphidophagous Coccinellid Community Remain Unchanged despite Repeated Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Bahlai, Christine A.; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Gage, Stuart H.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Aphidophagous coccinellids (ladybeetles) are important providers of herbivore suppression ecosystem services. In the last 30 years, the invasion of exotic coccinellid species, coupled with observed declines in native species, has led to considerable interest in the community dynamics and ecosystem function of this guild. Here we examined a 24-year dataset of coccinellid communities in nine habitats in southwestern Michigan for changes in community function in response to invasion. Specifically we analyzed their temporal population dynamics and species diversity, and we modeled the community’s potential to suppress pests. Abundance of coccinellids varied widely between 1989 and 2012 and became increasingly exotic-dominated. More than 71% of 57,813 adult coccinellids captured over the 24-year study were exotic species. Shannon diversity increased slightly over time, but herbivore suppression potential of the community remained roughly constant over the course of the study. However, both Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential due to native species declined over time in all habitats. The relationship between Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential varied with habitat type: a positive relationship in forest and perennial habitats, but was uncorrelated in annual habitats. This trend may have been because annual habitats were dominated by a few, highly voracious exotic species. Our results indicated that although the composition of the coccinellid community in southwestern Michigan has changed dramatically in the past several decades, its function has remained relatively unchanged in both agricultural and natural habitats. While this is encouraging from the perspective of pest management, it should be noted that losses of one of the dominant exotic coccinellids could result in a rapid decline in pest suppression services if the remaining community is unable to respond. PMID:24349505

  18. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  19. DNA and RNA profiling of excavated human remains with varying postmortem intervals.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, M; Wiskerke, D; Gerretsen, R R R; Tabak, J; Sijen, T

    2016-11-01

    When postmortem intervals (PMIs) increase such as with longer burial times, human remains suffer increasingly from the taphonomic effects of decomposition processes such as autolysis and putrefaction. In this study, various DNA analysis techniques and a messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling method were applied to examine for trends in nucleic acid degradation and the postmortem interval. The DNA analysis techniques include highly sensitive DNA quantitation (with and without degradation index), standard and low template STR profiling, insertion and null alleles (INNUL) of retrotransposable elements typing and mitochondrial DNA profiling. The used mRNA profiling system targets genes with tissue specific expression for seven human organs as reported by Lindenbergh et al. (Int J Legal Med 127:891-900, 27) and has been applied to forensic evidentiary traces but not to excavated tissues. The techniques were applied to a total of 81 brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and skin samples obtained from 19 excavated graves with burial times ranging from 4 to 42 years. Results show that brain and heart are the organs in which both DNA and RNA remain remarkably stable, notwithstanding long PMIs. The other organ tissues either show poor overall profiling results or vary for DNA and RNA profiling success, with sometimes DNA and other times RNA profiling being more successful. No straightforward relations were observed between nucleic acid profiling results and the PMI. This study shows that not only DNA but also RNA molecules can be remarkably stable and used for profiling of long-buried human remains, which corroborate forensic applications. The insight that the brain and heart tissues tend to provide the best profiling results may change sampling policies in identification cases of degrading cadavers.

  20. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lisa S.; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists’ widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure—specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human

  1. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: population affinities and pathological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Jacob, T; Indriati, E; Soejono, R P; Hsü, K; Frayer, D W; Eckhardt, R B; Kuperavage, A J; Thorne, A; Henneberg, M

    2006-09-05

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose that LB1 is drawn from an earlier pygmy H. sapiens population but individually shows signs of a developmental abnormality, including microcephaly. Additional mandibular and postcranial remains from the site share small body size but not microcephaly.

  2. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  3. Boosting your product pipeline through innovative licensing. Pinpointing and managing successful alliances to remain competitive.

    PubMed

    So, L

    2001-09-01

    With the recent outbreak of large mergers and acquisitions and the looming pipeline crisis among large pharmaceutical companies, this meeting aimed to bring together senior officers from the business development and licensing sectors of top biotech and pharma companies, to discuss all aspects of licensing with a focus on remaining competitive. Along with in-depth analyses and theories delivered by representatives from investment banks, consultancy firms and academia, the conference presented delegates with interesting viewpoints and practical advice on partnering strategies, and issues surrounding licensing.

  4. Characterization of cultural remains associated to a human skeleton found at the site HMS Swift (1770)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, M. S.; Gómez, B. A.; Parera, S. D.; Elkin, D.; De Rosa, H.; Ciarlo, N. C.; Svoboda, H.

    2010-08-01

    Different types of materials found in association with a human skeleton found in an 18th century shipwreck in Patagonia (Argentina) were analyzed by means of OM, SEM-EDX, HPLC, and chemical analysis. Alizarin and purpurin, the main anthraquinones of the dye plant Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) were identified as the coloring matter of a red fabric attached to the skeleton. Metallographic and chemical analysis of one of the dome-shaped buttons associated to the human bones revealed that it was composed of a Pb-Sn-Cu alloy known as pewter. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the remains originally were part of a private marine uniform.

  5. Bare metal or drug-eluting stent implantation in last remaining vessel PCI? A serious dilemma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jianhua; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2009-04-01

    This case report describes the treatment of an old male diabetic patient with last remaining vessel coronary artery disease and poor left ventricular function. In presence of an old occlusion of the left main coronary artery, a subtotal stenosis of a dominant right coronary artery required angioplasty. After ample consideration it was decided to implant a bare metal stent (BMS) instead of a drug-eluting stent (DES). The major reason was the fear for early discontinuation of clopidogrel in case a drug-eluting stent was placed. The procedure and follow-up are described followed by an overview of current literature concerning similar pathology.

  6. A Patency Capsule Remained Intact in the Colon over 210 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Hihara, Yu; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Okaniwa, Shinji; Mizukami, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a 35-year-old male patient whom a patency capsule stayed in his gut without breaking. He has a history of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and multiple abdominal surgeries. Prestudy was performed for abdominal searching, but a patency capsule remained in the colon over 9 days. He displayed neither abdominal nor obstructive symptoms in that period. We collected the patency capsule using colonoscopy after dilating a postoperative stricture at an anastomotic site of the rectum. Clinicians should bear in mind that patency capsules may become retained as distally as the colon in patients with a surgical history of the large intestine. PMID:28321345

  7. The Genome Russia project: closing the largest remaining omission on the world Genome map.

    PubMed

    Oleksyk, Taras K; Brukhin, Vladimir; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing the great era of genome exploration of the world, as genetic variation in people is being detailed across multiple varied world populations in an effort unprecedented since the first human genome sequence appeared in 2001. However, these efforts have yet to produce a comprehensive mapping of humankind, because important regions of modern human civilization remain unexplored. The Genome Russia Project promises to fill one of the largest gaps, the expansive regions across the Russian Federation, informing not just medical genomics of the territories, but also the migration settlements  of historic and pre-historic Eurasian peoples.

  8. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mathijssen, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as "important," as "sacred," and as a vehicle to continue intense and physical relationships with the dead. Based on quantitative and qualitative data this article illustrates the ambiguity of such relationships. It highlights the diverse experiences, unexpected challenges, and moral obligations that can be evoked by the deceased's ashes, where the latter are seen as embedded in material practices and entangled in social relationships.

  9. National health spending in 2013: growth slows, remains in step with the overall economy.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Lassman, David; Catlin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 US health care spending increased 3.6 percent to $2.9 trillion, or $9,255 per person. The share of gross domestic product devoted to health care spending has remained at 17.4 percent since 2009. Health care spending decelerated 0.5 percentage point in 2013, compared to 2012, as a result of slower growth in private health insurance and Medicare spending. Slower growth in spending for hospital care, investments in medical structures and equipment, and spending for physician and clinical care also contributed to the low overall increase.

  10. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction.

  11. State and Municipal Innovations in Obesity Policy: Why Localities Remain a Necessary Laboratory for Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Marice; Farias, Ruben; Gostin, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Municipal and state governments are surging ahead in obesity prevention, providing a testing ground for innovative policies and shifting social norms in the process. Though high-profile measures such as New York City’s soda portion rule attract significant media attention, we catalog the broader array of initiatives in less-known localities. Local innovation advances prevention policy, but faces legal and political constraints—constitutional challenges, preemption, charges of paternalism, lack of evidence, and widening health inequalities. These arguments can be met with astute framing, empirical evidence, and policy design, enabling local governments to remain at the forefront in transforming obesogenic environments. PMID:25602886

  12. State and municipal innovations in obesity policy: why localities remain a necessary laboratory for innovation.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Belinda; Ashe, Marice; Farias, Ruben; Gostin, Lawrence

    2015-03-01

    Municipal and state governments are surging ahead in obesity prevention, providing a testing ground for innovative policies and shifting social norms in the process. Though high-profile measures such as New York City's soda portion rule attract significant media attention, we catalog the broader array of initiatives in less-known localities. Local innovation advances prevention policy, but faces legal and political constraints-constitutional challenges, preemption, charges of paternalism, lack of evidence, and widening health inequalities. These arguments can be met with astute framing, empirical evidence, and policy design, enabling local governments to remain at the forefront in transforming obesogenic environments.

  13. Effect of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe integrity and remaining life

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping is often exposed to corrosive fluids. During service, such exposure may cause localized corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking that affects structural integrity. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines. It accounts for both axial and hoop stress. Cracks are modeled using inelastic fracture mechanics. Both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes are addressed. Corrosion and crack-growth rates are used to predict remaining service life.

  14. Effect of stress corrosion cracking on integrity and remaining life of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.; Harle, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    External stress-corrosion cracking of pipelines is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. Longitudinal cracks initiate on the outside surface of the pipe and link up to form flaws that, in some cases, can lead to pipe rupture. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines and considers both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes. A methodology also is presented to calculate the remaining life of a pipeline containing flaws of known size.

  15. [Modern biology, imagery and forensic medicine: contributions and limitations in examination of skeletal remains].

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Dominique; Plu, Isabelle; Froment, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Forensic examination is often requested when skeletal remains are discovered. Detailed visual observation can provide much information, such as the human or animal origin, sex, age, stature, and ancestry, and approximate time since death. New three-dimensional imaging techniques can provide further information (osteometry, facial reconstruction). Bone chemistry, and particularly measurement of stable or unstable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, yields information on diet and time since death, respectively. Genetic analyses of ancient DNA are also developing rapidly. Although seldom used in a judicial context, these modern anthropologic techniques are nevertheless available for the most complex cases.

  16. Fungal remains in Pleistocene ground squirrel dung from Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirozynski, Kris A.; Carter, Adrian; Day, Richard G.

    1984-11-01

    Fungi in dung of the Arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) collected near Dominion Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada, have a radiocarbon age of 12,200 ± 100 yr B.P. Most of the fungal remains are assignable to modern taxa, and most of these are either widespread saprobes or nonspecific coprophiles. However, specimens identified as Chaetomium simile and Thecaphora deformans represent fungi that may be more characteristic of rodent dung than that of other animals, inviting consideration of dung fungi as a potential source of paleontological data.

  17. How do we Remain Us in a Time of Change: Culture and Knowledge Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of findings of a NASA agency-wide Knowledge Management Team considering culture and knowledge management issues at the agency. Specific issues identified by the team include: (1) NASA must move from being a knowledge hoarding culture to a knowledge sharing culture; (2) NASA must move from being center focused to being Agency focused; (3) NASA must capture the knowledge of a departing workforce. Topics considered include: what must NASA know to remain NASA, what were previous forms of knowledge reproduction and how has technological innovations changed these systems, and what changes in funding and relationships between contractors and NASA affected knowledge reproduction.

  18. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  19. Alterations of brain activity in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients.

  20. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France: what has been done and what remains to be done].

    PubMed

    Py, J-Y; Schlanger, S; Gorodetzky, D; Lapègue, R; Besse-Moreau, M; Herr, A-L; Renaudier, P; Daurat, G; Breton, P

    2012-11-01

    French regulation requires hospital blood banks to have data processing of their blood transfusion activities. In order to help them to achieve this goal, guidelines were published by an official working party. For their diffusion, a study was launched to assess current gaps between guidelines and reality. Analysis of the first forty responses shows: 1) computerization is already set up for main blood banks and is going well for the others; 2) most of guideline functionalities are now working in main blood banks; but some points need specific developments; 3) taken as a whole, other blood banks are further from guideline requirements, even if some have already reached the goal; 4) guidelines are able to point out to all hospital blood banks what remains to be done.

  1. Probability based remaining capacity estimation using data-driven and neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-05-01

    Since large numbers of lithium-ion batteries are composed in pack and the batteries are complex electrochemical devices, their monitoring and safety concerns are key issues for the applications of battery technology. An accurate estimation of battery remaining capacity is crucial for optimization of the vehicle control, preventing battery from over-charging and over-discharging and ensuring the safety during its service life. The remaining capacity estimation of a battery includes the estimation of state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-energy (SOE). In this work, a probability based adaptive estimator is presented to obtain accurate and reliable estimation results for both SOC and SOE. For the SOC estimation, an n ordered RC equivalent circuit model is employed by combining an electrochemical model to obtain more accurate voltage prediction results. For the SOE estimation, a sliding window neural network model is proposed to investigate the relationship between the terminal voltage and the model inputs. To verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model and estimation algorithm, experiments under different dynamic operation current profiles are performed on the commercial 1665130-type lithium-ion batteries. The results illustrate that accurate and robust estimation can be obtained by the proposed method.

  2. Restorative resins: hardness and strength vs. quantity of remaining double bonds.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, E

    1982-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that the Wallace indentation hardness of smooth surface resins is a factor of prime importance for the abrasion by food of Class 1 restorations. In the present work factors affecting the hardness of polymers were investigated. In addition the tensile strength of composite resins was measured and related to the catalytic system of the polymer. It was found that for a given composition of the monomer the Wallace hardness number increased with increasing content of inhibitor, decreased with increasing content of peroxide, and was unaffected by changes in the content of amine. The hardness was well correlated with the quantity of double bonds remaining in the polymer. BISGMA-based polymers showed no variation in hardness when the originating monomer varied with respect to content of a bi- or a trifunctional diluting monomer. Light-polymerized polymers were relatively hard as compared to chemically cured materials of adequate setting time. The tensile strength of composite resins was predominantly determined by the monomer content of peroxide and increased herewith. The tensile strength was well correlated with the quantity of remaining double bonds in the constituting polymer.

  3. Impacts of curatorial and research practices on the preservation of fossil hominid remains.

    PubMed

    Le Cabec, Adeline; Toussaint, Michel

    2016-12-13

    Fossil remains are the only physical evidence of past forms of life which researchers can use to study the evolutionary biology of a species, especially regarding the human lineage. We review and consider the way in which the conditions surrounding a fossil's discovery and its use for scientific research impacts its long-term preservation. The deterioration of the body starts soon after death, continues in the sediments and only a subsample of the anatomical elements will persist and may finally be unearthed by archeologists. From their recovery onwards, fossil remains are exposed to many sources of further damage: from handling, restoration, measuring to invasive sampling. On the one hand, curators are faced with the inherent challenge of balancing their responsibility to protect fossil specimens with allowing researchers to perform specific analyses or invasive sampling detrimental to the preservation of the fossil. On the other hand, scientists may find their analyses complicated by multiple factors including taphonomy, or restoration techniques (e.g., consolidants, cleaning chemicals). We provide several historical examples illustrating the complex nature of the factors acting on fossil preservation. We discuss concerns about producing and sharing (digital) data from fossils. Finally, we also suggest and support some curatorial practices which maximize the traceability of treatments underwent by a fossil.

  4. MIS 3 mammoth remains from Sweden—implications for faunal history, palaeoclimate and glaciation chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukkonen, P.; Arppe, L.; Houmark-Nielsen, M.; Kjær, K. H.; Karhu, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The distribution of low-arctic megafaunal remains in time and space from the area previously covered by the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) suggests the presence of breeding mammoth populations in the circum-Baltic region during the time interval from 44 to 26 ka ago. The transport history of 30 mammoth teeth and bones from southern and north-central Sweden was estimated and the remains were subjected to osteological analyses and 14C dating. Oxygen isotope analyses of tooth enamel indicate a palaeoclimate considerably more homogenous than that experienced in Sweden today, showing moderate north-south gradients in the δ18O value of precipitation and temperature. In general, the results support the model of restricted ice sheet distribution during the second half of the Middle Weichselian. The clear discrepancy in the inferred absence of glaciation in the central Swedish uplands and the Baltic basin as evidenced by the Swedish mammoth data versus the Danish OSL-based glaciation chronology in the period from 40 to 30 ka ago is discussed in the light of radiocarbon calibration and glacial dynamics.

  5. Embryonic stem cells remain highly pluripotent following long term expansion as aggregates in suspension bioreactors.

    PubMed

    zur Nieden, Nicole I; Cormier, Jaymi T; Rancourt, Derrick E; Kallos, Michael S

    2007-05-01

    Increasing attention has been drawn towards pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their potential use as the primary material in various tissue engineering applications. Successful clinical implementation of this technology would require a quality controlled reproducible culture system for the expansion of the cells to be used in the generation of functional tissues. Recently, we showed that suspension bioreactors could be used in the regulated large-scale expansion of highly pluripotent murine ESCs. The current study illustrates that these bioreactor protocols can be adapted for long term culture and that murine ESC cultures remain highly undifferentiated, when serially passaged in suspension bioreactors for extended periods. Flow cytometry analysis and gene expression profiles of several pluripotency markers, in addition to colony and embryoid body (EB) formation tests were conducted at the start and end of the experiment and all showed that the ESC cultures remained highly undifferentiated over extended culture time in suspension. In vivo teratoma formation and in vitro differentiation into neural, cardiomyocyte, osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, performed at the end of the long term culture, further supported the presence of functional and undifferentiated ESCs in the expanded population. Overall, this system enables the controlled expansion of highly pluripotent murine ESC populations.

  6. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  7. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type.

  8. Identification of Giovanni Battista Morgagni remains following historical, anthropological, and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Alberto; Zampieri, Fabio; Zampieri, Girolamo; Giuliodori, Alice; Thiene, Gaetano; Caenazzo, Luciana

    2014-11-01

    Morgagni died on December 5, 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim Church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children, four daughters, and one son were already buried. In 1868 and 1900, the tomb was opened to identify Morgagni. Among the remains of several adult individuals, two skulls considered of very old persons were identified and replaced in an earthenware jar inside the sepulcher. In 2011, we opened the tomb and found the remains described during the first two identifications, but additionally, we found the skulls fragments of three very young individuals which could have been Morgagni's children. An anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls inside the earthenware jar belonged to the oldest individuals ("senilis") between those found in the tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children. In conclusion, thanks to the interaction between historical studies, anthropological research, and molecular analysis that reinforce each other, we can assume that the skull is Giovanni Battista Morgagni's and that the series of skull fragments are from his children who were buried together with their parents.

  9. Novel dating method to distinguish between forensic and archeological human skeletal remains by bone mineralization indexes.

    PubMed

    Patonai, Zoltan; Maasz, Gabor; Avar, Peter; Schmidt, Janos; Lorand, Tamas; Bajnoczky, Istvan; Mark, Laszlo

    2013-03-01

    The fast, high-throughput distinction between paleoanthropological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medicolegal science. In this paper, a novel screening method has been described, using the crystallinity index (C.I.) and carbonate-phosphate index (C/P) as a means to distinguish between archeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. According to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, the archeological bone samples are characterized by a range of C.I. between 2.84 and 3.78 and by low C/P values of 0.10-0.33, while the C.I. and C/P ranges of forensic skeletal remains are 2.55-3.18 and 0.38-0.88, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) changes were observed in C/P as well as C.I. values between the groups of forensic and archeological skeletal samples. The suggested dating method needs only a few milligramms of bone tissue; thus, it can be extremely useful for distiguishing ancient and recent bone fragments.

  10. Reconstruction of stand dynamics over the last 2500 years from spruce remains in a treeline peatland

    SciTech Connect

    Arseneault, D.; Payette, S.

    1995-06-01

    Stem remains of black spruce Picea mariana (Mill. BSP.) buried in a permafrost treeless peatland were used for the reconstruction of the long-term forest dynamics at treeline in northeastern Canada. Because most spruce remains were well preserved, forest development was assessed from stem morphology (growth form) and tree ring patterns. The peatland border was colonized by a spruce forest from at least 500 BC (2500 BP) to 1568 AD. Most spruce individuals showed an erect, monopodial bole with only minor stem damage at the snow-air interface. The forest successfully regenerated after two fire events around 350 BC and 10 AD. The number of damaged stems at the snow-air interface increased after another fire around 700 AD, although faster ring growth occurred between 860 and 1000 AD (Medieval period). The forest shifted to an open krummholz after the last fire in 1568 AD because of reduced postfire regeneration and site opening. Reforestation of the site would necessitate sustained warmer conditions than those presently prevailing there.

  11. Key findings and remaining questions in the areas of core-concrete interaction and debris coolability

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, M. T.; Gerardi, C.; Bremer, N.; ...

    2016-10-31

    The reactor accidents at Fukushima-Dai-ichi have rekindled interest in late phase severe accident behavior involving reactor pressure vessel breach and discharge of molten core melt into the containment. Two technical issues of interest in this area include core-concrete interaction and the extent to which the core debris may be quenched and rendered coolable by top flooding. The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) programs at Argonne National Laboratory included the conduct of large scale reactor material experiments and associated analysis with the objectives of resolving the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensionalmore » molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. These tests provided a broad database to support accident management planning, as well as the development and validation of models and codes that can be used to extrapolate the experiment results to plant conditions. This paper provides a high level overview of the key experiment results obtained during the program. Finally, a discussion is also provided that describes technical gaps that remain in this area, several of which have arisen based on the sequence of events and operator actions during Fukushima.« less

  12. Key findings and remaining questions in the areas of core-concrete interaction and debris coolability

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Gerardi, C.; Bremer, N.; Basu, S.

    2016-10-31

    The reactor accidents at Fukushima-Dai-ichi have rekindled interest in late phase severe accident behavior involving reactor pressure vessel breach and discharge of molten core melt into the containment. Two technical issues of interest in this area include core-concrete interaction and the extent to which the core debris may be quenched and rendered coolable by top flooding. The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) programs at Argonne National Laboratory included the conduct of large scale reactor material experiments and associated analysis with the objectives of resolving the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. These tests provided a broad database to support accident management planning, as well as the development and validation of models and codes that can be used to extrapolate the experiment results to plant conditions. This paper provides a high level overview of the key experiment results obtained during the program. Finally, a discussion is also provided that describes technical gaps that remain in this area, several of which have arisen based on the sequence of events and operator actions during Fukushima.

  13. Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2013-03-01

    Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of spatiotemporal Pb isoscapes for provenancing of human remains.

    PubMed

    Keller, Austin T; Regan, Laura A; Lundstrom, Craig C; Bower, Nathan W

    2016-04-01

    Geospatially distributed isotopes (isoscapes) from biogeochemically fractionated processes have been applied in many forensic investigations, such as authentication of food and sourcing of drugs. Provenancing of human remains using isotopes has been hindered by a lack of appropriate isoscapes, by changes in these isoscapes over time, and by various homogenization processes. In this study we create spatiotemporal isoscapes for anthropogenic lead (Pb) for the contiguous United States and Europe using literature data from dated sediments, soils and biological tissues. We compare (206)Pb/(207)Pb isoscapes with isoscapes of δ(13)C, δ(18)O and (87)Sr/(86)Sr to determine their relative efficacy for the forensic identification of human remains. We do this comparison using third molar enamel data from 22 United States Air Force Academy cadets with known life trajectories born between 1983 and 1985. We use these spatiotemporal isoscapes with osteologic analyses, hospital records and isotopic analyses of tooth enamel carbonate from permanent teeth to help identify 32 individuals from unmarked graves found in a forgotten 19th century mental asylum cemetery.

  15. The efficacy of high-throughput sequencing and target enrichment on charred archaeobotanical remains

    PubMed Central

    Nistelberger, H. M.; Smith, O.; Wales, N.; Star, B.; Boessenkool, S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of archaeological plant material is preserved in a charred state. Obtaining reliable ancient DNA data from these remains has presented challenges due to high rates of nucleotide damage, short DNA fragment lengths, low endogenous DNA content and the potential for modern contamination. It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three different laboratories, presenting the largest HTS assessment of charred archaeobotanical specimens to date. Rigorous analysis of our data – excluding false-positives due to background contamination or incorrect index assignments – indicated a lack of endogenous DNA in nearly all samples, except for one lightly-charred maize cob. Even with target enrichment, this sample failed to yield adequate data required to address fundamental questions in archaeology and biology. We further reanalysed part of an existing dataset on charred plant material, and found all purported endogenous DNA sequences were likely to be spurious. We suggest these technologies are not suitable for use with charred archaeobotanicals and urge great caution when interpreting data obtained by HTS of these remains. PMID:27881876

  16. Molecular genetic analysis on the remains of the Dark Countess: Revisiting the French Royal family.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Berger, Cordula; Sänger, Timo; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The "Dark Counts" were a mysterious couple that appeared in the Thuringian village Eishausen in 1807. After living in self imposed solitude for 30 years the woman died and was buried under the name Sophia Botta. Her companion, who presented himself as Vavel de Versay, died in 1845 and was later identified as Leonardus Cornelius van der Valck, secretary of the Dutch embassy in Paris. Their lifestyle led to speculations that she was the true princess Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France, daughter of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. According to these speculations she was substituted by another young woman on a voyage from Paris to Vienna. Molecular genetic analyses were set out to test the remains attributed to the Dark Countess. Mitochondrial DNA testing brought concordant results determined in two forensic laboratories (Innsbruck, Austria and Freiburg, Germany) on parallel samples of the remains. The results were in exclusion to both, the mitochondrial lineage earlier reported for the French Royal family and the mitochondrial haplotype observed in a living descendant of the Royal family.

  17. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Mendisco, F.; Pemonge, M. H.; Leblay, E.; Romon, T.; Richard, G.; Courtaud, P.; Deguilloux, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence. PMID:25487339

  18. Current prevalence rate of latex allergy: Why it remains a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaozong; McIntosh, James; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard. Methods: Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed. Results: Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of latex-derived products have been approved and regulated by government agencies, such as FDA, whereas the majority of finished products do not label whether they contain latex. Owing to millions of unidentifiable products containing latex and many routes for exposure to latex, preventing contact with latex allergens and reducing the prevalence of latex allergy are more difficult than expected. Reported data suggest that the average prevalence of latex allergy worldwide remains 9.7%, 7.2%, and 4.3% among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and general population, respectively. Conclusions: Latex-derived products are ubiquitous, and latex allergy remains a highly prevalent health risk in many occupations and to the general population. Developing alternative materials and increasing the ability to identify and label latex-derived products will be practicable approaches to effectively control the health risks associated with latex. PMID:27010091

  19. Online estimation of lithium-ion battery remaining discharge capacity through differential voltage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangming; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of battery remaining discharge capacity (QRDC) is essential for the remaining driving range prediction on pure electric vehicles. A traditional QRDC estimation method is based on the determination of battery state of charge (SOC), in which the estimation accuracy could be affected by the variation in discharge conditions. In this research, a novel QRDC estimation method through differential voltage (dV/dQ) analysis is introduced for lithium-ion batteries. Through analyzing the characteristics of terminal voltage variation, the present QRDC could be estimated by the dV/dQ value, which is capable to provide an accurate estimation result under various discharge conditions. On a commercial lithium-ion battery, the dV/dQ method is implemented for QRDC estimation under pulse discharge profiles and dynamic profiles. The result shows that the dV/dQ method could provide accurate QRDC estimation results under various discharge profiles in the latter part of the discharge process, and the QRDC estimation accuracy could hence be improved by combining the differential voltage analysis with the SOC-based method. Owing to the simple computation process, the dV/dQ-based estimation method is very competitive in onboard applications.

  20. Plant stanol content remains stable during storage of cholesterol-lowering functional foods.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, V; Laakso, P; Kuusisto, P; Niemelä, J; Laitinen, K

    2016-04-01

    Plant stanols reduce the absorption of both dietary and biliary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to examine the stability of plant stanols in the form of plant stanol esters in spreads and biscuits stored under typical storage conditions. The plant stanol content of two commercial margarine-type spreads, containing 35% and 60% absorbable fat, was 6.5 and 6.4 g/100 g after production and remained unaltered when stored at 6 °C for a shelf life of 18 and 22 weeks, respectively. Comparable results were obtained for plant stanol ester ingredient stored under the same conditions and for plant stanol ester-containing biscuits stored at room temperature for up to 74 weeks. Furthermore, the peroxide value and free fatty acids showed that the quality of the food products remained good. The present study demonstrated that plant stanol esters as an ingredient and when added in food products, are stable whilst stored under the appropriate conditions.