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Sample records for activity remained elevated

  1. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  2. Elevated blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke remains controversial: could this issue be resolved?

    PubMed

    Hadjiev, Dimiter I; Mineva, Petya P

    2013-01-01

    A transient elevated arterial blood pressure is common in acute ischemic stroke and is often associated with a poor prognosis. The underlying mechanisms of blood pressure elevation are not well understood and its management is still unresolved. This article focuses on pathophysiology and management of elevated blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke. There is evidence that the main causes of a transient blood pressure elevation in acute ischemic stroke are the focal cerebral hypoperfusion and the stress responses with neuroendocrine systems activation. Clinical trials have reported that blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke may have detrimental effect, probably because of impaired cerebral autoregulation. However, quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion has not been performed during emergency blood pressure reduction in acute ischemic stroke. We suggest that ultrasound carotid artery disease evaluation and cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using bilateral transcranial ultrasonography, during blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke might contribute to maintaining of an adequate penumbral perfusion and prevent infarct enlargement. Such an approach could individualize the antihypertensive treatment in acute ischemic stroke and improve functional outcome. Prospective studies are needed to confirm such a treatment strategy.

  3. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  4. Skeletal muscle protein breakdown remains elevated in pediatric burn survivors up to one year post injury

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Tony; Herndon, David N.; Porter, Craig; Chondronikola, Maria; Chaidemenou, Anastasia; Abdelrahman, Doaa Reda; Bohanon, Fredrick J.; Andersen, Clark; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Acute alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism are a well-established event associated with the stress response to burns. Nevertheless, the long-lasting effects of burn injury on skeletal muscle protein turnover are incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to investigate fractional synthesis (FSR) and breakdown (FBR) rates in skeletal muscle of pediatric burn patients (N=42, >30% total body surface area burns) for up to 1 year after injury. Skeletal muscle protein kinetics were measured in the postprandial state following bolus injections of 13C6 and 15N phenylalanine stable isotopes. Plasma and muscle phenylalanine enrichments were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that the FSR in burn patients was 2- to 3-fold higher than values from healthy men previously reported in the literature (p≤0.05). The FBR was 4- to 6-fold higher than healthy values (p<0.01). Therefore, net protein balance was lower in burn patients compared to healthy men from 2 weeks to 12 months post injury (p<0.05). These findings show that skeletal muscle protein turnover stays elevated for up to 1 year after burn, an effect attributable to simultaneous increases in FBR and FSR. Muscle FBR exceeds FSR during this time, producing a persistent net negative protein balance, even in the postprandial state, which likely contributes to the prolonged cachexia seen in burned victims. PMID:26263438

  5. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    PubMed

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  6. Wall shear stresses remain elevated in mature arteriovenous fistulas: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, G T; McGloughlin, T M; Burke, P E; Egan, M; Wallis, F; Walsh, M T

    2011-02-01

    Maintaining vascular access (VA) patency continues to be the greatest challenge for dialysis patients. VA dysfunction, primarily due to venous neointimal hyperplasia development and stenotic lesion formation, is mainly attributed to complex hemodynamics within the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The effect of VA creation and the subsequent geometrical remodeling on the hemodynamics and shear forces within a mature patient-specific AVF is investigated. A 3D reconstructed geometry of a healthy vein and a fully mature patient-specific AVF was developed from a series of 2D magnetic resonance image scans. A previously validated thresholding technique for region segmentation and lumen cross section contour creation was conducted in MIMICS 10.01, allowing for the creation of a 3D reconstructed geometry. The healthy vein and AVF computational models were built, subdivided, and meshed in GAMBIT 2.3. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT 6.3.2 (Fluent Inc., Lebanon, NH) was employed as the finite volume solver to determine the hemodynamics and shear forces within the healthy vein and patient-specific AVF. Geometrical alterations were evaluated and a CFD analysis was conducted. Substantial geometrical remodeling was observed, following VA creation with an increase in cross-sectional area, out of plane curvature (maximum angle of curvature in AVF=30 deg), and angle of blood flow entry. The mean flow velocity entering the vein of the AVF is dramatically increased. These factors result in complex three-dimensional hemodynamics within VA junction (VAJ) and efferent vein of the AVF. Complex flow patterns were observed and the maximum and mean wall shear stress (WSS) magnitudes are significantly elevated. Flow reversal was found within the VAJ and efferent vein. Extensive geometrical remodeling during AVF maturation does not restore physiological hemodynamics to the VAJ and venous conduit of the AVF, and high WSS and WSS gradients, and flow reversal persist. It is

  7. Interleukin-6 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression remains elevated in revived live endothelial cells following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H

    2013-12-01

    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications.

  8. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  9. High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    We examined changes in lipid profiles of 40 adult northern elephant seal bulls over the 3-month breeding fast and the 1-month molting fast to investigate impacts of fasting on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were initially high (3930 ± 190mgL(-1)and 1610 ± 170mgL(-1), respectively) and decreased significantly over the breeding season. Total cholesterol and LDL declined significantly with adipose tissue reserves (p<0.001), and LDL levels as low as 43 mgL(-1) were measured in seals late in the breeding fast. Less dramatic but similar changes in lipid metabolism were observed across the molting fast. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remained consistently elevated (>1750 mgL(-1)) suggesting that elephant seals defend HDL concentrations, despite significant depletion of TC and LDL across the breeding fast. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher during the molt, consistent with lower rates of lipid oxidation needed to meet metabolic energy demands during this period. The maintenance of HDL during breeding is consistent with its role in delivering cholesterol from adipose tissue for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and potentially mitigates oxidative stress associated with fasting.

  10. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Protein Breakdown Remains Elevated in Pediatric Burn Survivors up to One-Year Post-Injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tony; Herndon, David N; Porter, Craig; Chondronikola, Maria; Chaidemenou, Anastasia; Abdelrahman, Doaa Reda; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Andersen, Clark; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-11-01

    Acute alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism are a well-established event associated with the stress response to burns. Nevertheless, the long-lasting effects of burn injury on skeletal muscle protein turnover are incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to investigate fractional synthesis (FSR) and breakdown (FBR) rates of protein in skeletal muscle of pediatric burn patients (n  =  42, >30% total body surface area burns) for up to 1 year after injury. Skeletal muscle protein kinetics were measured in the post-prandial state following bolus injections of C6 and N phenylalanine stable isotopes. Plasma and muscle phenylalanine enrichments were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that the FSR in burn patients was 2- to 3-fold higher than values from healthy men previously reported in the literature (P ≤ 0.05). The FBR was 4- to 6-fold higher than healthy values (P  <  0.01). Therefore, net protein balance was lower in burn patients compared with healthy men from 2 weeks to 12 months post-injury (P  <  0.05). These findings show that skeletal muscle protein turnover stays elevated for up to 1 year after burn, an effect attributable to simultaneous increases in FBR and FSR. Muscle FBR exceeds FSR during this time, producing a persistent negative net protein balance, even in the post-prandial state, which likely contributes to the prolonged cachexia seen in burned victims.

  12. Remaining activity determination of the resid desulfurization catalyst in a commerical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yung-Ji Tarng; Sheng-Yang Ju

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to present a method to determine the remaining catalyst activity of the resid desulfurization plant. Using the daily available operating data, we can establish a performance curve which is a temperature versus days on stream curve. By the use of the performance curve, we can in situ predict how much the catalyst life remains. With the knowledge of the catalyst life remaining, plant engineers are able to control the operating conditions to meet the specified run length of the catalyst suggested by the catalyst venders and refinery planning department. There are five heavy oil desulfurization (RDS) plants in Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) to produce the low sulfur fuel oil and low metal content feed stocks for the downstream processes. In general four or five reactors are connected in series for the reacting system and catalysts of various types are loaded in each reactor. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Quinolinic acid/tryptophan ratios predict neurological disease in SIV-infected macaques and remain elevated in the brain under cART

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Julia L.; Meulendyke, Kelly A.; Liao, Zhaohao; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Gama, Lucio; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena; Li, Ming; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Graham, David R.; Zink, M. Christine

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan catabolism likely contributes to HIV-associated neurological disorders. However, KP activation in brain tissue during HIV infection has been understudied, and the effect of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) on KP induction in the brain is unknown. To examine these questions, tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, quinolinic acid, and serotonin levels were measured longitudinally during SIV infection in striatum and CSF from untreated and cART-treated pigtailed macaques. mRNA levels of KP enzymes also were measured in striatum. In untreated macaques, elevations in KP metabolites coincided with transcriptional induction of upstream enzymes in the KP. Striatal KP induction was also temporally associated - but did not directly correlate - with serotonin losses in the brain. CSF quinolinic acid/tryptophan ratios were found to be the earliest predictor of neurological disease in untreated SIV-infected macaques, outperforming other KP metabolites as well as the putative biomarkers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, cART did not restore KP metabolites to control levels in striatum despite control of virus, though CSF metabolite levels were normalized in most animals. Overall these results demonstrate that cerebral KP activation is only partially resolved with cART, and that CSF QUIN/TRP ratios are an early, predictive biomarker of CNS disease. PMID:25776527

  14. The VSOP 5 GHz Active Galactic Nucleus Survey. V. Imaging Results for the Remaining 140 Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, R.; Fomalont, E. B.; Wiik, K.; Horiuchi, S.; Hirabayashi, H.; Edwards, P. G.; Murata, Y.; Asaki, Y.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Scott, W. K.; Taylor, A. R.; Gurvits, L. I.; Paragi, Z.; Frey, S.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Rioja, M. J.; Fodor, S.; Lister, M. L.; Mosoni, L.; Coldwell, G.; Piner, B. G.; Yang, J.

    2008-04-01

    In 1997 February, the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-bourne element for the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP) mission. Approximately 25% of the mission time was dedicated to the VSOP survey of bright compact active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 5 GHz. This paper, the fifth in the series, presents images and models for the remaining 140 sources not included in the third paper in the series, which contained 102 sources. For most sources, the plots of the (u,v) coverage, the visibility amplitude versus (u,v) distance, and the high-resolution image are presented. Model fit parameters to the major radio components are determined, and the brightness temperature of the core component for each source is calculated. The brightness temperature distributions for all of the sources in the VSOP AGN survey are discussed.

  15. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    PubMed

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive.

  16. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Matthew S; Bebu, Ionut; Tracy, Russell; So-Armah, Kaku; Okulicz, Jason; Ganesan, Anuradha; Armstrong, Adam; O'Bryan, Thomas; Rimland, David; Justice, Amy C; Agan, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6-148.0, p = 0.002). This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03). Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases.

  17. Mushroom toxicosis in dogs in general practice causing gastroenteritis, ptyalism and elevated serum lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Barton, L

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom toxicosis is rarely diagnosed in dogs and is poorly reported in the veterinary literature. This report suggests that mushroom toxicosis is a potentially under-diagnosed condition in first opinion practice in the UK. Nine dogs with clinical signs consistent with mushroom toxicosis were identified from the records of an out-of-hours emergency service between August 2010 and January 2011. Four dogs were later excluded because of clinical inconsistencies. Clinical signs included acute profuse ptyalism (5/5), diarrhoea (5/5), vomiting (4/5), hypovolaemia (4/5), stuporous (3/5) or obtunded mentation (1/5), miosis (2/5) and hypothermia (2/5). Serum lipase activity was elevated in 4/4 dogs; canine-specific pancreatic lipase was elevated in the remaining dog. Four dogs recovered with aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, analgesia and supportive care; the remaining dog was euthanased due to severe clinical signs and financial constraints. Mushroom toxicosis is an important differential diagnosis for acute gastroenteritis and one possible cause of some cases of "Seasonal Canine Illness". Affected dogs may demonstrate elevated pancreatic enzymes and mushroom toxicosis should be considered in cases of elevated lipase or abnormal semi-quantitative canine-specific pancreatic lipase activities.

  18. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  19. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  20. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  1. Elevated temperature creep properties for selected active metal braze alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Active metal braze alloys reduce the number of processes required for the joining of metal to ceramic components by eliminating the need for metallization and/or Ni plating of the ceramic surfaces. Titanium (Ti), V, and Zr are examples of active element additions which have been used successfully in such braze alloys. Since the braze alloy is expected to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch strains between the metal and ceramic materials, a knowledge of its elevated temperature mechanical properties is important. In particular, the issue of whether or not the creep strength of an active metal braze alloy is increased or decreased relative to its non-activated counterpart is important when designing new brazing processes and alloy systems. This paper presents a survey of high temperature mechanical properties for two pairs of conventional braze alloys and their active metal counterparts: (a) the conventional 72Ag-28Cu (Cusil) alloy, and the active braze alloy 62.2Ag- 36.2Cu-1.6Ti (Cusil ABA), and (b) the 82Au-18Ni (Nioro) alloy and the active braze alloy Mu-15.5M-0.75Mo-1.75V (Nioro ABA). For the case of the Cusil/Cusil ABA pair, the active metal addition contributes to solid solution strengthening of the braze alloy, resulting in a higher creep strength as compared to the non-active alloy. In the case of the Nioro/Nioro ABA pair, the Mo and V additions cause the active braze alloy to have a two-phase microstructure, which results in a reduced creep strength than the conventional braze alloy. The Garofalo sinh equation has been used to quantitatively describe the stress and temperature dependence of the deformation behavior. It will be observed that the effective stress exponent in the Garofalo sinh equation is a function of the instantaneous value of the stress argument.

  2. Primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Brümmer, V; Schneider, S; Strüder, H K; Askew, C D

    2011-05-05

    While the effects of exercise on brain cortical activity from pre-to post-exercise have been thoroughly evaluated, few studies have investigated the change in activity during exercise. As such, it is not clear to what extent changes in exercise intensity influence brain cortical activity. Furthermore, due to the difficulty in using brain-imaging methods during complex whole-body movements like cycling, it is unclear to what extent the activity in specific brain areas is altered with incremental exercise intensity over time. Latterly, active electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes combined with source localization methods allow for the assessment of brain activity, measured as EEG current density, within specific cortical regions. The present study aimed to investigate the application of this method during exercise on a cycle ergometer, and to investigate the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the magnitude and location of any changes in electrocortical current density. Subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test until subjective exhaustion. Current density of the EEG recordings during each test stage, as well as before and after exercise, was determined. Spatial changes in current density were localized using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to three regions of interest; the primary motor cortex, primary sensory cortex and prefrontal cortex, and were expressed relative to current density within the local lobe. It was demonstrated that the relative current density of the primary motor cortex was intensified with increasing exercise intensity, whereas activity of the primary sensory cortex and that of the prefrontal cortex were not altered with exercise. The results indicate that the combined active EEG/LORETA method allows for the recording of brain cortical activity during complex movements and incremental exercise. These findings indicate that primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity

  3. Scavenging activity can produce predictable patterns in surface skeletal remains scattering: observations and comments from two experiments.

    PubMed

    Kjorlien, Yvonne P; Beattie, Owen B; Peterson, Arthur E

    2009-07-01

    In forensic contexts, surface deposited remains are frequently found that have been scattered by various taphonomic processes. In an effort to develop strategies to improve recovery rates, this study evaluates whether patterns can be detected in the scattering of remains due to scavenger activity. In two experiments, 24 human analogues (pig carcasses) were placed in two adjacent but differing environmental contexts: 12 in wooded and 12 in open grassland. Six carcasses in each of these contexts were dressed in human clothing. Elapsed time and direction of movement information for each carcass and its parts were collected and analyzed. Unclothed carcasses and carcasses in open contexts exhibited scavenger activity sooner than the others. Scattering of remains occurred along game trails and was directed away from human population and activity. Due to the highly variable nature of scavenger activity, daily observations during a research project are the key leading to a better understanding of the development of these patterns.

  4. Phorbol ester induces elevated oxidative activity and alkalization in a subset of lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chii-Shiarng )

    2002-01-01

    Background: Lysosomes are acidic organelles that play multiple roles in various cellular oxidative activities such as the oxidative burst during cytotoxic killing. It remains to be determined how lysosomal lumen oxidative activity and pH interact and are regulated. Here, I report the use of fluorescent probes to measure oxidative activity and pH of lysosomes in live macrophages upon treatment with the tumor promotor phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and provide novel insight regarding the regulation of lysosomal oxidative activity and pH. Results: The substrate used to measure oxidative activity was bovine serum albumin covalently coupled to dihydro-2?, 4,5,6,7,7?-hexafluorofluorescein (OxyBURST Green H2HFF BSA). During pulse-chase procedures with live macrophages, this reduced dye was internalized through an endocytic pathway and accumulated in the lysosomes. Oxidation of this compound results in a dramatic increase of fluorescence intensity. By using low-light level fluorescence microscopy, I determined that phorbol ester treatment results in increased oxidative activity and pH elevation in different subsets of lysosomes. Furthermore, lysosomes with stronger oxidative activity tended to exclude the acidotropic lysosomal indicator, and thus exhibit higher alkalinity. Conclusions: Results indicate that there is a regulatory mechanism between lysosomal oxidative activity and pH. Activation of lysosomal Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) oxidase by phorbol ester may result in increase of intralysosomal O2?- and H2O2, concurrent with pH elevation due to consumption of H+ and generation of OH-. Furthermore, effect of phorbol ester on elevated oxidative activity and pH is heterogeneous among total lysosomal population. Higher oxidative activity and/or pH are only observed in subsets of lysosomes.

  5. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  6. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  7. 75 FR 61857 - Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Statement on Sound Practices Concerning...: Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities describes...

  8. Comparing trapezius muscle activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ishida, Tomoya; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Motoki; Ezawa, Yuya; Sugawara, Makoto; Tohyama, Harukazu; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles’ activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation. [Subjects] Twenty male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity for each of the three regions of the trapezius muscles in the three different planes of elevation were collected while the participants maintained 30, 60, and 90 degrees of elevation in each plane. The EMG data were normalized with maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and compared among the planes at each angle of elevation. [Results] There were significantly different muscle activities among the elevation planes at each angle. [Conclusion] This study found that the three regions of the trapezius muscles changed their activity depending on the planes of shoulder elevation. These changes in the trapezius muscles could induce appropriate scapular motion to face the glenoid cavity in the correct directions in different planes of shoulder elevation. PMID:26157248

  9. A comparison of bat activity at low and high elevations in the Black Hills of western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, J.; Adams, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the differences in activity patterns and community structure of bats between low (<150 m) and high ( ! 575 m) elevation sites in two habitats of the Capitol State Forest, Washington. Total bat activity averaged four times higher at low elevation sites than at high elevation sites. Feeding activity was almost 20 times higher at low elevation sites. However, the non-myotis group had similar activity levels at high and low elevation, whereas myotis group activity decreased at higher elevations. Different levels of activity between elevations could be the result of differences in insect availability, climatic conditions, and morphology of the bat species.

  10. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies.

  11. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  12. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity remains detectable during severe aplasia following bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Morton, C T; Solovey, A; Dandelet, L; Bach, R R; Hebbel, R P; Slungaard, A; Key, N S

    2001-02-01

    Using a novel whole blood assay, we recently demonstrated that tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) is present in normal individuals. Preliminary experiments suggested that this activity is localized in the mononuclear cell fraction. Postulating that whole blood TF PCA would therefore be undetectable when monocytes and neutrophils are absent from peripheral blood, we assayed TF PCA during the peri-transplant period in 15 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic (n = 12) or autologous (n = 3) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Baseline (pre-transplant) mean TF PCA was higher in patients compared to normal controls (P <0.005). Unexpectedly, although TF PCA during the period of profound aplasia was significantly reduced compared to baseline (p <0.05), fully 55% of the initial activity remained detectable. During the engraftment phase, TF PCA returned to pre-transplant levels, with a linear correlation between monocyte counts and TF PCA (r = 0.63). In contrast to normal whole blood, incubation of aplastic samples with E. Coli lipopolysaccharide ex vivo failed to induce TF PCA. Throughout the period of study--but especially during the aplastic phase--the absolute number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) that were TF antigen-positive was increased compared to normals (P <0.001). However, removal of these cells from whole blood samples failed to significantly diminish total TF PCA indicating that CECs alone could not account for the detectable TF PCA during aplasia. We conclude that neither circulating mature myelo-monocytic cells nor endothelial cells can account for all the functionally intact TF in peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to identify the other source(s) of TF PCA.

  13. 75 FR 77047 - Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured.... Title of Proposal: Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities. OMB Number: 1550-0111. Form Number: N/A. Description: Statement on Sound Practices...

  14. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  15. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  16. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (p<.01) for women with myofascial TMD (median=3.31 μV and mean=4.98 μV) than for control women (median=2.83 μV and mean=3.88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  17. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  18. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-Null Heterozygous Mice Exacerbates Elevated Open Field Activity

    PubMed Central

    Eells, Jeffrey B.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X.; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M.; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice. PMID:25855987

  19. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  20. Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

  1. Prehypertension-Associated Elevation in Circulating Lysophosphatidlycholines, Lp-PLA2 Activity, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjoo; Jung, Saem; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Prehypertension is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites that are associated with prehypertension. A group of 53 individuals was identified who remained within the range of prehypertension during repeated measurements in a 3-year period. This group was compared with the control group of 53 normotensive subjects who were matched for age and gender. Metabolomic profiles were analyzed with UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The prehypertensive group showed higher levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) containing C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:2, C18:1, C18:0, C20:5, C20:4, C20:3, and C22:6, higher circulating Lp-PLA2 activity, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), interleukin 6 (IL-6), urinary 8-epi-PGF2α, and higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), before and after adjusting for BMI, WHR, smoking, alcohol consumption, serum lipid profiles, glucose, and insulin. LysoPC (16:0) was the most important plasma metabolite for evaluating the difference between control and prehypertensive groups, with a variable important in the projection (VIP) value of 17.173, and it showed a positive and independent association with DBP and SBP. In the prehypertensive group, the levels of lysoPC (16:0) positively and significantly correlated with ox-LDL, Lp-PLA2 activity, 8-epi-PGF2α, ba-PWV, and IL-6 before and after adjusting for confounding variables. Prehypertension-associated elevations in lysoPCs, Lp-PLA2 activity, ox-LDL, urinary 8-epi-PGF2α, IL-6, and ba-PWV could indicate increased oxidative stress from Lp-PLA2-catalyzed PC hydrolysis during increased LDL oxidation, thereby enhancing proinflammation and arterial stiffness. PMID:24800806

  2. Aspirin Has Limited Ability to Modulate Shear-Mediated Platelet Activation Associated with Elevated Shear Stress of Ventricular Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Lorenzo; Tran, Phat L.; Sheriff, Jawaad; Brengle, William; Ghosh, Ram; Chiu, Wei-Che; Redaelli, Alberto; Fiore, Gianfranco B.; Pappalardo, Federico; Bluestein, Danny; Slepian, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) while effective in advanced heart failure, remain plagued by thrombosis related to abnormal flows and elevated shear stress. To limit cfVAD thrombosis, patients utilize complex anti-thrombotic regimens built upon a foundation of aspirin (ASA). While much data exists on ASA as a modulator of biochemically-mediated platelet activation, limited data exists as to the efficacy of ASA as a means of limiting shear-mediated platelet activation, particularly under elevated shear stress common within cfVADs. We investigated the ability of ASA (20, 25 and 125 μM) to limit shear-mediated platelet activation under conditions of: 1) constant shear stress (30 dyne/cm2 and 70 dyne/cm2); 2) dynamic shear stress, and 3) initial high shear exposure (70 dyne/cm2) followed by low shear exposure – i.e. a platelet sensitization protocol, utilizing a hemodynamic shearing device providing uniform shear stress in vitro. The efficacy of ASA to limit platelet activation mediated via passage through a clinical cfVAD system (DeBakey Micromed) in vitro was also studied. ASA reduced platelet activation only under conditions of low shear stress (38% reduction compared to control, n = 10, p < 0.004), with minimal protection at higher shear stress and under dynamic conditions (n = 10, p > 0.5) with no limitation of platelet sensitization. ASA had limited ability (25.6% reduction in platelet activation rate) to modulate shear-mediated platelet activation induced via cfVAD passage. These findings, while performed under “deconstructed” non-clinical conditions by utilizing purified platelets alone in vitro, provide a potential contributory mechanistic explanation for the persistent thrombosis rates experienced clinically in cfVAD patients despite ASA therapy. An opportunity exists to develop enhanced pharmacologic strategies to limit shear-mediated platelet activation at elevated shear levels associated with mechanical circulatory support

  3. Elevated CO2-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase differentially affects nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis plants under different nitrate supplies.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huijun; Yan, Minggang; Chen, Ni; Xie, Huaqiang; Ke, Shouwei

    2016-02-01

    CO2 elevation often alters the plant's nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the first enzyme acting in the nitrate assimilation pathway. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The association between elevated CO2-induced alterations of NR activity and nitric oxide (NO) was examined in Col-0 Arabidopsis fed with 0.2-10 mM nitrate, using NO donors, NO scavenger, and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. The noa1 mutant, in which most NOS activity was lost, and the NR activity-null mutant nia1 nia2 were also used to examine the above association. In response to CO2 elevation, NR activity increased in low-nitrate Col-0 plants but was inhibited in high-nitrate Col-0 plants. NO scavenger and NOS inhibitor could eliminate these two responses, whereas the application of NO donors mimicked these distinct responses in ambient CO2-grown Col-0 plants. Furthermore, in both low- and high-nitrate conditions, elevated CO2 increased NOS activity and NO levels in Col-0 and nia1 nia2 plants but had little effect on NO level and NR activity in noa1 plants. Considering all of these findings, this study concluded that, in response to CO2 elevation, either the NR activity induction in low-nitrate plants or the NR activity inhibition in high-nitrate plants is regulated by NOS-generated NO.

  4. Characteristics of lower limb muscle activity during upper limb elevation in badminton players

    PubMed Central

    Masu, Yujiro; Nagai, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify the characteristics of postural control in badminton players by examining their lower-limb muscle activity during upper-limb elevation. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen badminton players and 14 non-players were studied. The subjects were instructed to perform an upper-limb elevation task in order to measure the activities of the biceps femoris and biceps brachii. [Results] When elevating the dominant hand, the mean biceps femoris integrated electromyogram showed markedly higher values in the player group, for the contralateral compared with the ipsilateral leg. Similarly, when elevating the dominant hand, the difference in the maximum integrated electromyogram response time between the ipsilateral and contralateral legs was significantly smaller in the players compared with non-players. [Conclusion] It may be possible to reduce the time needed to elevate the dominant hand by shifting lower-limb activity from the ipsilateral to the contralateral leg more quickly, while increasing the rate of rise in contralateral leg muscle activity. PMID:27799681

  5. Elevated calpain activity in acute myelogenous leukemia correlates with decreased calpastatin expression

    PubMed Central

    Niapour, M; Farr, C; Minden, M; Berger, S A

    2012-01-01

    Calpains are intracellular cysteine proteases that have crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Elevated calpain activity has been associated with many pathological states. Calpain inhibition can be protective or lethal depending on the context. Previous work has shown that c-myc transformation regulates calpain activity by suppressing calpastatin, the endogenous negative regulator of calpain. Here, we have investigated calpain activity in primary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blast cells. Calpain activity was heterogeneous and greatly elevated over a wide range in AML blast cells, with no correlation to FAB classification. Activity was particularly elevated in the CD34+CD38− enriched fraction compared with the CD34+CD38+ fraction. Treatment of the cells with the specific calpain inhibitor, PD150606, induced significant apoptosis in AML blast cells but not in normal equivalent cells. Sensitivity to calpain inhibition correlated with calpain activity and preferentially targeted CD34+CD38− cells. There was no correlation between calpain activity and p-ERK levels, suggesting the ras pathway may not be a major contributor to calpain activity in AML. A significant negative correlation existed between calpain activity and calpastatin, suggesting calpastatin is the major regulator of activity in these cells. Analysis of previously published microarray data from a variety of AML patients demonstrated a significant negative correlation between calpastatin and c-myc expression. Patients who achieved a complete remission had significantly lower calpain activity than those who had no response to treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate elevated calpain activity in AML, anti-leukemic activity of calpain inhibition and prognostic potential of calpain activity measurement. PMID:22829235

  6. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  7. Elevated adenosine signaling via adenosine A2B receptor induces normal and sickle erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaiqi; Zhang, Yujin; Bogdanov, Mikhail V; Wu, Hongyu; Song, Anren; Li, Jessica; Dowhan, William; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S; Molina, Jose G; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-03-05

    Erythrocyte possesses high sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity and is the major cell type supplying plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate, a signaling lipid regulating multiple physiological and pathological functions. Recent studies revealed that erythrocyte SphK1 activity is upregulated in sickle cell disease (SCD) and contributes to sickling and disease progression. However, how erythrocyte SphK1 activity is regulated remains unknown. Here we report that adenosine induces SphK1 activity in human and mouse sickle and normal erythrocytes in vitro. Next, using 4 adenosine receptor-deficient mice and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) is essential for adenosine-induced SphK1 activity in human and mouse normal and sickle erythrocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to excess plasma adenosine and elevated erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Lowering adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy or genetic deletion of ADORA2B significantly reduced excess adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity in ADA-deficient mice. Finally, we revealed that protein kinase A-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation functioning downstream of ADORA2B underlies adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Overall, our findings reveal a novel signaling network regulating erythrocyte SphK1 and highlight innovative mechanisms regulating SphK1 activity in normal and SCD.

  8. Electrocardiograhic findings resulting in inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Shariq; McCrary, Justin; Wayne, Lori; Gratton, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt reperfusion has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a goal of culprit vessel patency in <90 minutes. This requires a coordinated approach between the emergency medical services (EMS), emergency department (ED) and interventional cardiology. The urgency of this process can contribute to inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) activations. Objectives One of the major determinants of inappropriate activations has been misinterpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in the patient with acute chest pain. Methods We report the ECG findings for all CCL activations over an 18-month period after the inception of a STEMI program at our institution. Results There were a total of 139 activations with 77 having a STEMI diagnosis confirmed and 62 activations where there was no STEMI. The inappropriate activations resulted from a combination of atypical symptoms and misinterpretation of the ECG (45% due to anterior ST-segment elevation) on patient presentation. The electrocardiographic abnormalities were particularly problematic in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusions In this single-center, prospective observational study, nearly half of the inappropriate STEMI activations were due to the misinterpretation of anterior ST-segment elevation and this finding was commonly seen in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:25009790

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik; Holz, Olaf; Magnussen, Helgo; Olejnicka, Beata; Welte, Tobias; Rabe, Klaus F; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed triglyceride and hs-CRP levels to be the best predictors of PAI-1 within COPD. GOLD Stages II and III remained independently associated with higher PAI-1 levels in a final regression analysis. Conclusion The data from the present study showed that the serum levels of PAI-1 are higher in patients with COPD and that moderate-to-severe airflow limitation, hypertriglyceridemia, and systemic inflammation are independent predictors of an elevated PAI-1 level. PAI-1 may be a potential biomarker candidate for COPD-specific and extra-pulmonary manifestations. PMID:28356730

  10. Altered activity of the serratus anterior during unilateral arm elevation in patients with cervical disorders.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, H; Kristjansson, E; Einarsson, E; Karduna, A; Jonsson, H

    2011-12-01

    Altered activity in the axioscapular muscles is considered to be an important feature in patients with neck pain. The activity of the serratus anterior (SA) and trapezius muscles during arm elevation has not been investigated in these patients. The objectives of this study was to investigate whether there is a pattern of altered activity in the SA and trapezius in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) (n=22) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) (n=27). An asymptomatic group was selected for baseline measurements (n=23). Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity of the SA as well as the upper, middle, and lower trapezius during unilateral arm elevation in the three subject groups. Both arms were tested. With no interaction, the main effect for the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity for serratus anterior was statistically significant among the groups. Post hoc comparison revealed a significantly delayed onset of muscle activation and less duration of muscle activity in the IONP group, and in the WAD group compared to the asymptomatic group. There were no group main effects or interaction effects for upper, middle and lower trapezius. This finding may have implications for scapular stability in these patients because the altered activity in the SA may reflect inconsistent or poorly coordinated muscle activation that may reduce the quality of neuromuscular performance and induce an increased load on the cervical and the thoracic spine.

  11. Elevated glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in Fragile X mice: Key metabolic regulator with evidence for treatment potential

    PubMed Central

    Min, Wenzhong William; Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Yan, Qijiang; Sikorski, Christopher; Chen, Shengqiang; Jope, Richard S.; Bauchwitz, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding the underlying defects of and developing potential treatments for Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable mental retardation. It has been shown that neuronal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling is affected in FX animal models, with consequent alterations in activity-dependent protein translation and synaptic spine functionality. We demonstrate here that a central metabolic regulatory enzyme, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is present in a form indicating elevated activity in several regions of the FX mouse brain. Furthermore, we show that selective GSK3 inhibitors, as well as lithium, are able to revert mutant phenotypes of the FX mouse. Lithium, in particular, remained effective with chronic administration, although its effects were reversible even when given from birth. The combination of an mGluR5 antagonist and GSK3 inhibitors was not additive. Instead, it was discovered that mGluR5 signaling and GSK3 activation in the FX mouse are coordinately elevated, with inhibition of mGluR5 leading to inhibition of GSK3. These findings raise the possibility that GSK3 is a fundamental and central component of FXS pathology, with a substantial treatment potential. PMID:18952114

  12. Elevated endometrial natural killer cell activity during early porcine pregnancy is conceptus-mediated.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Croy, B A; Chapeau, C; King, G J

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated an extended time course of endometrial NK cell activity during gestation and the mechanisms underlying changes in uterine NK cell activity in pigs. Endometrial tissues were collected from cyclic, pseudopregnant and pregnant nulliparous pigs on various days post-estrus, and from pigs 10 days after insemination with seminal plasma or killed spermatozoa. NK effector cells were isolated from each endometrial sample, size fractionated and tested for cytolytic activity against NK target cells (K562) using chromium release assays and immunocytochemically for the frequency of perforin-positive cells. Various cell fractions showed different levels of NK activity and had different proportions of cells expressing perforin. Morphologically, cells in the fraction with maximal NK activity almost all showed typical lymphocyte size and shape. Substantially elevated NK cell activity was recorded in pregnant pigs on days 10 and 20 of gestation. By day 30, the cytolytic activity declined dramatically to an almost undetectable level. Very little activity was found in uterine cells isolated from cyclic, pseudopregnant, and seminal plasma or killed spermatozoa inseminated animals, and no differences were detected either between follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle or between different days of pseudopregnancy. These results indicate that elevated NK cell activity during early porcine pregnancy cannot be attributed to contributions from either the maternal systemic endocrine status or from components of boar semen. The changes in NK cell activity observed in porcine endometrial tissues during early pregnancy must therefore be associated with the actual presence of conceptuses.

  13. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumelevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were

  14. Increased renal epithelial na channel expression and activity correlate with elevation of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Haloui, Mounsif; Tremblay, Johanne; Seda, Ondrej; Koltsova, Svetlana V; Maksimov, Georgy V; Orlov, Sergei N; Hamet, Pavel

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure with age is one of the hallmarks of hypertension in both males and females. This study examined transcriptomic profiles in the kidney of 12-, 40-, and 80-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats and 4 recombinant inbred strains in search for functional genetic elements supporting temporal dynamics of blood pressure elevation. We found that both in males and females of spontaneously hypertensive rats and hypertensive recombinant inbred strains age-dependent blood pressure increment was accompanied by 50% heightened expression of epithelial sodium channel β- and γ-subunits. Epithelial sodium channel subunit expression correlated positively with blood pressure but correlated negatively with renin expression. Increased epithelial sodium channel activity was observed in cultured epithelial cells isolated from the kidney medulla of 80-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats but not in age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto. This difference remained evident after 24-hour treatment with aldosterone. 22Na uptake in the perfused kidney medulla was increased whereas the urinary Na/K ratio was decreased in old spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with normotensive controls. The difference was eliminated by the administration of epithelial sodium channel inhibitor benzamil. Observations in recombinant inbred strains representing various mixtures of parental hypertensive and normotensive genomes suggest that Scnn1g and Scnn1b genes themselves are not implicated in heightened expression and that the increased expression is neither secondary nor required for a partial elevation of blood pressure in contrast to spontaneously hypertensive rats. We suggest that spontaneously hypertensive rats display an intact negative feed-back between renin-angiotensin-system and epithelial Na channel activity whose upregulated expression is supported by a yet unknown mechanism.

  15. Immune activity elevates energy expenditure of house sparrows: a link between direct and indirect costs?

    PubMed

    Martin, Lynn B; Scheuerlein, Alex; Wikelski, Martin

    2003-01-22

    The activation of an immune response is beneficial for organisms but may also have costs that affect fitness. Documented immune costs include those associated with acquisition of special nutrients, as well as immunopathology or autoimmunity. Here, we test whether an experimental induction of the immune system with a non-pathological stimulant can elevate energy turnover in passerine birds. We injected phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a commonly used mitogen that activates the cell-mediated immune response, into the wing web of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We then examined energetic costs resulting from this immune activity and related those costs to other physiological activities. We found that PHA injection significantly elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of challenged sparrows relative to saline controls. We calculated the total cost of this immune activity to be ca. 4.20 kJ per day (29% RMR), which is equivalent to the cost of production of half of an egg (8.23 kJ egg(-1)) in this species. We suggest that immune activity in wild passerines increases energy expenditure, which in turn may influence important life-history characteristics such as clutch size, timing of breeding or the scheduling of moult.

  16. The elevational pattern of microbial community and enzyme activity along the northern slop of Changbai Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Xinyu; Ge, Jianpin; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Wang, Dan

    2014-05-01

    we present a comprehensive analysis of soil microbial community structure, enzyme activities and their role in soil organic matter mineralization along six elevations representing five typical vegetation types from forest to alpine tundra in Changbai Mountain, China. The results showed that the microbial PLFAs presented hump-shaped patterns along the elevation with the total microbial PLFAs highest in Ermans birch forest soil. The fungi to bacteria and gram positive to negative bacteria ratios increased along the elevation with the lowest values in Broad leaved forest and Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest soil, respectively. The soil microbial community structures showed a biogeography distribution pattern in vertical direction with microbial community structures in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest different from other four sites. The soil enzyme activities in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest were significantly higher than in other four elevations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed substantial differences in soil microbial community composition among study sites, appeared to be driven primarily by MAT, MAP, soil temperature and content of silt & clay on the first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 87.1 % of the total sample variance. However, soil nutrients mainly responsible for the variation of soil enzyme activities. The soil organic matter mineralization rates tended to be highest in Ermans birch forest site and lowest in Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest site and showed positive relationship with total microbial, bacterial and actinomycetes PLFAs. These findings could be used to facilitate interpretation of soil microbial community and ecological function in latitude forests ecosystem especially in volcanic forest ecosystem.

  17. Elevated hydrostatic pressure activates sodium/hydrogen exchanger-1 in rat optic nerve head astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Amritlal; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Delamere, Nicholas A; Terán, Marcos A

    2009-07-01

    Optic nerve head astrocytes become abnormal in eyes that have elevated intraocular pressure, and cultured astrocytes display altered protein expression after being subjected for > or = 1 days to elevated hydrostatic pressure. Here we show that 2-h elevated hydrostatic pressure (15 or 30 mmHg) causes phosphorylation of ERK1/2, ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p90(RSK)), and Na/H exchanger (NHE)1 in cultured rat optic nerve head astrocytes as judged by Western blot analysis. The MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 abolished phosphorylation of NHE1 and p90(RSK) as well as ERK1/2. To examine NHE1 activity, cytoplasmic pH (pH(i)) was measured with BCECF and, in some experiments, cells were acidified by 5-min exposure to 20 mM ammonium chloride. Although baseline pH(i) was unaltered, the rate of pH(i) recovery from acidification was fourfold higher in pressure-treated astrocytes. In the presence of either U0126 or dimethylamiloride (DMA), an NHE inhibitor, hydrostatic pressure did not change the rate of pH(i) recovery. The findings are consistent with NHE1 activation due to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p90(RSK), and NHE1 that occurs in response to hydrostatic pressure. These responses may precede long-term changes of protein expression known to occur in pressure-stressed astrocytes.

  18. Elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity in a patient with primary acquired sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kanno, H; Fujii, H; Tani, K; Morisaki, T; Takahashi, K; Horiuchi, N; Kizaki, M; Ogawa, T; Miwa, S

    1988-03-01

    We report a case of primary acquired sideroblastic anemia (PASA) associated with elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity. The patient was an 85-year-old Japanese male. Analysis of the peripheral blood revealed pancytopenia, and the bone marrow findings showed marked ringed sideroblasts and chromosomal deletion (46XY, 11q-). The erythrocyte ADA activity was 17 times higher than that of normal control, the leukocyte ADA activity was within the normal range, and the plasma ADA activity was 2 times higher than the normal mean. The adenine nucleotides in the patient's erythrocytes were within normal range. According to starch gel electrophoresis, ADA isozyme of the patient was ADA 1. Western blotting showed an increased amount of ADA protein in the patient's erythrocytes. Southern blotting revealed no gene amplification or large structural change. Dot blot analysis of the reticulocyte mRNA showed no increase in the amount of ADA mRNA in the patient's reticulocytes compared with those of reticulocyte-rich controls. We considered that the mechanism of elevated ADA activity in this acquired defect was similar to that found in hereditary hemolytic anemia associated with ADA overproduction.

  19. Impaired autophagy activity is linked to elevated ER-stress and inflammation in aging adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Amiya Kumar; Mau, Theresa; O'Brien, Martin; Garg, Sanjay; Yung, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction in aging is associated with inflammation, metabolic syndrome and other diseases. We propose that impaired protein homeostasis due to compromised lysosomal degradation (micro-autophagy) might promote aberrant ER stress response and inflammation in aging adipose tissue. Using C57BL/6 mouse model, we demonstrate that adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from old (18-20 months) mice have reduced expression of autophagy markers as compared to the younger (4-6 months) cohort. Elevated expressions of ER-stress marker CHOP and autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 are observed in old SVFs compared to young, when treated with either vehicle or with thapsigargin (Tg), an ER stress inducer. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 (Baf), a vacuolar-type H (+)-ATPase, or Tg elevated expressions of CHOP, and SQSTM1/p62 and LC-3-II, in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes. We also demonstrate impaired autophagy activity in old SVFs by analyzing increased accumulation of autophagy substrates LC3-II and p62. Compromised autophagy activity in old SVFs is correlated with enhanced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Finally, SVFs from calorie restricted old mice (CR-O) have shown enhanced autophagy activity compared to ad libitum fed old mice (AL-O). Our results support the notion that diminished autophagy activity with aging contributes to increased adipose tissue ER stress and inflammation. PMID:27777379

  20. Quantifying cambial activity of high-elevation conifers in the Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaco, E.; Biondi, F.; Rossi, S.; Deslauriers, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the physiological mechanisms that control the formation of tree rings provides the necessary biological basis for developing dendroclimatic reconstructions and dendroecological histories. Studies of wood formation in the Great Basin are now being conducted in connection with the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN), a recently established transect of valley-to-mountaintop instrumented stations in the Snake and Sheep Ranges of the Great Basin. Automated sensors record meteorological, soil, and vegetational variables at these sites, providing unique opportunities for ecosystem science, and are being used to investigate the ecological implications of xylogenesis. We present here an initial study based on microcores collected during summer 2013 from mountain and subalpine conifers (including Great Basin bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva) growing on the west slope of Mt. Washington. Samples were taken from the mountain west (SM; 2810 m elevation) and the subalpine west (SS, 3355 m elevation) NevCAN sites on June 16th and 27th, 2013. The SS site was further subdivided in a high (SSH) and a low (SSL) group of trees, separated by about 10 m in elevation. Microscopic analyses showed the effect of elevation on cambial activity, as annual ring formation was more advanced at the lower (mountain) site compared to the higher (subalpine) one. At all sites cambium size showed little variations between the two sampling dates. The number of xylem cells in the radial enlargement phase decreased between the two sampling dates at the mountain site but increased at the subalpine site, confirming a delayed formation of wood at the higher elevations. Despite relatively high within-site variability, a general trend of increasing number of cells in the lignification phase was found at all sites. Mature cells were present only at the mountain site on June 27th. Spatial differences in the xylem formation process emerged at the species level and, within

  1. Loss of plant biodiversity eliminates stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on earthworm activity in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Arnone, John A; Zaller, Johann G; Hofer, Gabriela; Schmid, Bernhard; Körner, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Earthworms are among the world's most important ecosystem engineers because of their effects on soil fertility and plant productivity. Their dependence on plants for carbon, however, means that any changes in plant community structure or function caused by rising atmospheric CO2 or loss of plant species diversity could affect earthworm activity, which may feed back on plant communities. Production of surface casts measured during three consecutive years in field experimental plots (n = 24, 1.2 m(2)) planted with local calcareous grassland species that varied in plant species richness (diversity levels: high, 31 species; medium, 12; low, 5) and were exposed to ambient (356 μl CO2 l(-1)) or elevated (600 μl CO2 l(-1)) CO2 was only consistently stimulated in high diversity plots exposed to elevated CO2 (+120 %, 31 spp: 603 ± 52 under ambient CO2 vs. 1,325 ± 204 g cast dwt. m(-2) year(-1) under elevated CO2 in 1996; +77 %, 940 ± 44 vs. 1,663 ± 204 g cast dwt. m(-2) year(-1) in 1998). Reductions in plant diversity had little effect on cast production in ecosystems maintained at ambient CO2, but the stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on cast production disappeared when plant species diversity was decreased to 12 and 5 species. High diversity plots were also the only communities that included plant species that an earlier field study showed to be among the most responsive to elevated CO2 and to be most preferred by earthworms to deposit casts near. Further, the +87 % CO2-induced increase in cast production measured over the 3 years corresponded to a parallel increase in cumulative total nitrogen of 5.7 g N m(-2) and would help explain the large stimulation of aboveground plant biomass production observed in high-diversity communities under elevated CO2. The results of this study demonstrate how the loss of plant species from communities can alter responses of major soil heterotrophs and consequently ecosystem biogeochemistry.

  2. Elevated CETP Lipid Transfer Activity is Associated with the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Hiroshi; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Elias, Darlene J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is an important lipid transfer factor in plasma that enhances prothrombinase activity in purified systems. This study was conducted to test the association of plasma CETP activity with venous thrombosis (VTE) and to address the procoagulant mechanism of CETP activity in prothrombinase assays. Methods: We measured CETP lipid transfer activity in plasmas of 49 male VTE patients and in plasmas of matched controls. CETP procoagulant activity was tested in purified prothrombinase systems. Results: CETP lipid transfer activity levels were significantly higher in VTE patients than in controls (p = 0.0008). A subset of patients carrying the CETP mutations Ala373Pro and Arg451Gln, which were also linked to the VTE risk, showed significantly higher plasma CETP activity than the non-carriers. The plasma CETP activity negatively correlated with APTT, suggesting that the CETP activity is associated with plasma coagulability. Recombinant (r) CETP bound to both factor Xa (Kd = 15 nM) and Gla-domainless factor Xa (Kd = 59 nM), whereas rCETP enhanced prothrombin activation by factor Xa, but not by Gla-domainless factor Xa. rCETP also required factor Va for enhancement of prothrombinase activity. When we addressed the effects of mutations in CETP on prothrombinase activity, Gln451-rCETP was found to have five-fold higher thrombin generation activity than wt-rCETP or Pro373-rCETP. Conclusions: Elevated CETP lipid transfer activity in plasma was associated with the risk of VTE. Gln451-CETP, which is linked to VTE, has much higher procoagulant activity than wt-CETP. CETP might act as a physiologic procoagulant by mechanisms that involve its direct binding to factor Xa. PMID:27169917

  3. Economic Analysis for Commingling Effects of Insect Activity in the Elevator Boot Area.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Dennis R; Casada, Mark E; Langemeier, Michael R; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-12-01

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model were developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects of insect activity in the boot area. Modified pilot-scale bucket elevator legs, containing residual wheat or corn, were infested with varying insect pest densities prior to clean grain transfers. Appropriate grain discounts were applied to grain samples obtained from clean grain transfers over either: 1) insect-free and untreated boots, 2) infested and untreated boots, or 3) infested and chemical-treated (β-cyfluthrin) boots. The insect-free boots simulated performing clean-out of the boot area. Partial budget analysis and stochastic dominance modeling indicated that boot sanitation (cleanout) about every 30 d, avoiding costly grain discounts from insect commingling, is the preferred choice. Although chemical spray treatments of the empty boot may reduce insect populations of some boot residual grains, boot cleanout always had lower and usually zero insect pest populations in the boot residual grain, providing higher facility operational net income without the use of chemicals.

  4. Elevated Slit2 Activity Impairs VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Tumor Neovascularization in EphA2-deficient Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Youngblood, Victoria; Wang, Shan; Song, Wenqiang; Walter, Debra; Hwang, Yoonha; Chen, Jin; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenic remodeling during embryonic development and in adult tissue homeostasis is orchestrated by cooperative signaling between several distinct molecular pathways, which are often exploited by tumors. Indeed, tumors upregulate pro-angiogenic molecules while simultaneously suppressing angiostatic pathways in order to recruit blood vessels for growth, survival, and metastatic spread. Understanding how cancers exploit pro- and anti-angiogenic signals is a key step in developing new, molecularly targeted anti-angiogenic therapies. While EphA2, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is required for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis, the mechanism through which these pathways intersect remains unclear. Slit2 expression is elevated in EphA2-deficient endothelium, and here it is reported that inhibiting Slit activity rescues VEGF-induced angiogenesis in cell culture and in vivo, as well as VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis, in EphA2-deficient endothelial cells and animals. Moreover, blocking Slit activity or Slit2 expression in EphA2-deficient endothelial cells restores VEGF-induced activation of Src and Rac, both of which are required for VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. These data suggest that EphA2 suppression of Slit2 expression and Slit angiostatic activity enables VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible mechanism for impaired endothelial responses to VEGF in the absence of EphA2 function. PMID:25504371

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  6. Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests.

    PubMed

    Haff, Tonya M; Magrath, Robert D

    2011-08-23

    Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent-offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk.

  7. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-10-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in (TH)leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis.

  8. Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Beranek, Josef; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Hallar, Anna G.; McCubbin, Ian; Thornton, Joel A.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2013-12-09

    We present measurements of CCN concentrations and associated aerosol composition and size properties at a high-elevation research site in March 2011. CCN closure and aerosol hygroscopicity were assessed using simplified assumptions of bulk aerosol properties as well as a new method utilizing single particle composition and size to assess the importance of particle mixing state in CCN activation. Free troposphere analysis found no significant difference between the CCN activity of free tropospheric aerosol and boundary layer aerosol at this location. Closure results indicate that using only size and number information leads to adequate prediction, in the majority of cases within 50%, of CCN concentrations, while incorporating the hygroscopicity parameters of the individual aerosol components measured by single particle mass spectrometry adds to the agreement, in most cases within 20%, between predicted and measured CCN concentrations. For high-elevation continental sites, with largely aged aerosol and low amounts of local area emissions, a lack of chemical knowledge and hygroscopicity may not hinder models in predicting CCN concentrations. At sites influenced by fresh emissions or more heterogeneous particle types, single particle composition information may be more useful in predicting CCN concentrations and understanding the importance of particle mixing state on CCN activation.

  9. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  10. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  11. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-23

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  12. Serum IgD elevation is an early marker of B cell activation during infection with the human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuma, H; Zolla-Pazner, S; Litwin, S; el-Sadr, W; Sharpe, S; Zehr, B; Weiss, S; Saxinger, W C; Marmor, M

    1987-01-01

    Serum IgD levels in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were studied as a means of monitoring the character and timing of B cell activation in individuals with this infection. Significantly increased levels of IgD were characteristic of homosexual men who were HIV seropositive but asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The hyper IgD globulinaemia became progressively more pronounced in patients with increasingly severe infection and reached its most marked level in patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC). In ARC patients, IgD levels were increased 8.8-fold above normal which was disproportionately greater than the 2.4-fold increase in IgG, the 1.8-fold increase in IgA and the 1.6-fold increase in IgM. IgD levels declined in AIDS patients (although remained elevated compared to controls). The data suggest that an unusual type of B cell activation is responsible for the unique pattern of hypergammaglobulinaemia seen in this disease and that the B cell activation occurs early in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, often before development of symptoms, and continues throughout the course of infection. PMID:3498566

  13. Serum IgD elevation is an early marker of B cell activation during infection with the human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Mizuma, H; Zolla-Pazner, S; Litwin, S; el-Sadr, W; Sharpe, S; Zehr, B; Weiss, S; Saxinger, W C; Marmor, M

    1987-04-01

    Serum IgD levels in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were studied as a means of monitoring the character and timing of B cell activation in individuals with this infection. Significantly increased levels of IgD were characteristic of homosexual men who were HIV seropositive but asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The hyper IgD globulinaemia became progressively more pronounced in patients with increasingly severe infection and reached its most marked level in patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC). In ARC patients, IgD levels were increased 8.8-fold above normal which was disproportionately greater than the 2.4-fold increase in IgG, the 1.8-fold increase in IgA and the 1.6-fold increase in IgM. IgD levels declined in AIDS patients (although remained elevated compared to controls). The data suggest that an unusual type of B cell activation is responsible for the unique pattern of hypergammaglobulinaemia seen in this disease and that the B cell activation occurs early in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, often before development of symptoms, and continues throughout the course of infection.

  14. Activation of Host Defense Mechanisms by Elevated Production of H2O2 in Transgenic Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G.; Shortt, B. J.; Lawrence, E. B.; Leon, J.; Fitzsimmons, K. C.; Levine, E. B.; Raskin, I.; Shah, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Active oxygen species have been postulated to perform multiple functions in plant defense, but their exact role in plant resistance to diseases is not fully understood. We have recently demonstrated H2O2-mediated disease resistance in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing a foreign gene encoding glucose oxidase. In this study we provide further evidence that the H2O2-mediated disease resistance in potato is effective against a broad range of plant pathogens. We have investigated mechanisms underlying the H2O2-mediated disease resistance in transgenic potato plants. The constitutively elevated levels of H2O2 induced the accumulation of total salicylic acid severalfold in the leaf tissue of transgenic plants, although no significant change was detected in the level of free salicylic acid. The mRNAs of two defense-related genes encoding the anionic peroxidase and acidic chitinase were also induced. In addition, an increased accumulation of several isoforms of extracellular peroxidase, including a newly induced one, was observed. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the lignin content of stem and root tissues of the transgenic plants. The results suggest that constitutively elevated sublethal levels of H2O2 are sufficient to activate an array of host defense mechanisms, and these defense mechanisms may be a major contributing factor to the H2O2-mediated disease resistance in transgenic plants. PMID:12223817

  15. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Long-term untreated streptozotocin-diabetes leads to increased expression and elevated activity of prostaglandin H2 synthase in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Siewiera, Karolina; Kassassir, Hassan; Talar, Marcin; Wieteska, Lukasz; Watala, Cezary

    2016-01-01

    In diabetes-related states of chronic hyperglycaemia elevated concentrations of glucose may alter the functioning of platelet enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, including prostaglandin H2 synthase (cyclooxygenase) (PGHS, COX). Therefore, the principal aim of this study was to assess the effects of experimental chronic hyperglycaemia on platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) expression and activity. Blood platelet activation and reactivity were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats with the 5-month streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes. The PGHS-1 abundance in platelets was evaluated with flow cytometry and Western blotting, while its activity monitored using a high resolution respirometry and the peroxidase fluorescent assay. The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in platelets were assayed immunoenzymatically. Circulating platelets from diabetic were characterised by increased size, elevated 'priming' and altered reactivity, compared to non-diabetic animals. Both Western blot analysis and flow cytometry revealed significantly elevated expressions of platelet PGHS-1 in STZ-diabetic rats (p < 0.05). We also observed significantly elevated platelet PGHS-1-related arachidonic acid metabolism in diabetic vs. non-diabetic animals, with the use of polarographic (p < 0.05) and total activity assay (p < 0.001). Such increases were accompanied by the elevated production of PGE2 (p < 0.001) and TXB2 (p < 0.05) in diabetic animals. The increased PGHS-1-dependent oxygen consumption and the total activity of PGHS-1 in diabetic animals remained very significant (p < 0.001) also upon adjusting for blood platelet PGHS-1 abundance. Therefore, our results further contribute to the explanation of the increased metabolism of arachidonic acid observed in diabetes.

  17. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  18. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation.

  19. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 × 0.7, 61.6 × 1.2, and 41.6 × 0.9 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 × 1.1 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 × 2.0 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 × 0.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 × 4.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the

  20. Hypothesis for thermal activation of the caspase cascade in apoptotic cell death at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, John A.

    2013-02-01

    Apoptosis is an especially important process affecting disease states from HIV-AIDS to auto-immune disease to cancer. A cascade of initiator and executioner capsase functional proteins is the hallmark of apoptosis. When activated the various caspases activate other caspases or cleave structural proteins of the cytoskeleton, resulting in "blebbing" of the plasma membrane forming apoptotic bodies that completely enclose the disassembled cellular components. Containment of the cytosolic components within the apoptotic bodies differentiates apoptosis from necroptosis and necrosis, both of which release fragmented cytosol and other cellular constituents into the intracellular space. Biochemical models of caspase activation reveal the extensive feedback loops characteristic of apoptosis. They clearly explain the failure of Arrhenius models to give accurate predictions of cell survival curves in hyperthermic heating protocols. Nevertheless, each of the individual reaction velocities can reasonably be assumed to follow Arrhenius kinetics. If so, the thermal sensitivity of the reaction velocity to temperature elevation is: ∂k/∂T = Ea [k/RT2]. Particular reaction steps described by higher activation energies, Ea, are likely more thermally-sensitive than lower energy reactions and may initiate apoptosis in the absence of other stress signals. Additionally, while the classical irreversible Arrhenius formulation fails to accurately represent many cell survival and/or dye uptake curves - those that display an early stage shoulder region - an expanded reversible model of the law of mass action equation seems to prove effective and is directly based on a firm theoretical thermodynamic foundation.

  1. Elevated RNA Editing Activity Is a Major Contributor to Transcriptomic Diversity in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Paz-Yaacov, Nurit; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Porath, Hagit T; Danan-Gotthold, Miri; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Eisenberg, Eli; Levanon, Erez Y

    2015-10-13

    Genomic mutations in key genes are known to drive tumorigenesis and have been the focus of much attention in recent years. However, genetic content also may change farther downstream. RNA editing alters the mRNA sequence from its genomic blueprint in a dynamic and flexible way. A few isolated cases of editing alterations in cancer have been reported previously. Here, we provide a transcriptome-wide characterization of RNA editing across hundreds of cancer samples from multiple cancer tissues, and we show that A-to-I editing and the enzymes mediating this modification are significantly altered, usually elevated, in most cancer types. Increased editing activity is found to be associated with patient survival. As is the case with somatic mutations in DNA, most of these newly introduced RNA mutations are likely passengers, but a few may serve as drivers that may be novel candidates for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

  2. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity is elevated in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Key, N S; Slungaard, A; Dandelet, L; Nelson, S C; Moertel, C; Styles, L A; Kuypers, F A; Bach, R R

    1998-06-01

    We developed a simple assay for the measurement of tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) in whole blood samples that avoids the need for mononuclear cell isolation. This method combines convenience of sample collection and processing with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for TF. Using this method, we have determined that TF PCA is detectable in whole blood samples from normal individuals, which is itself a novel observation. Essentially all PCA could be shown to be localized in the mononuclear cell fraction of blood. Compared with controls, whole blood TF levels were significantly (P < .000001) elevated in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), regardless of the subtype of hemoglobinopathy (SS or SC disease). No significant difference in TF PCA was observed between patients in pain crisis compared with those in steady-state disease. Because TF functions as cofactor in the proteolytic conversion of FVII to FVIIa in vitro, it was expected that an increase in circulating TF PCA would lead to an increased in vivo generation of FVIIa. On the contrary, FVIIa levels were actually decreased in the plasma of patients with SCD. Plasma TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) antigen levels were normal in SCD patients, suggesting that accelerated clearance of FVIIa by the TFPI pathway was not responsible for the reduced FVIIa levels. We propose that elevated levels of circulating TF PCA may play an important role in triggering the activation of coagulation known to occur in patients with SCD. Because TF is the principal cellular ligand for FVIIa, it is possible that increased binding to TF accounts for the diminished plasma FVIIa levels.

  3. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the western English Channel: Elevations induced by high summertime rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andrew P.; Hope, Sam B.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Dixon, Joanna L.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2009-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was determined in bulk particulate material and in a single-cell (ELF) assay at station L4 in the western English Channel during the summer of 2007. Throughout this period, the UK experienced its heaviest summertime rainfall since records began in 1914; with the result that riverine run-off into coastal waters was also elevated relative to long-term averages. Between May and August 2007, three distinct periods of elevated river run-off were observed which resulted in salinity minima at L4 on days 141, 190 and 232. An extended period of high river run-off between days 170 and 210 was responsible for decreases in near-surface salinity at L4 from 35.2068 to a minimum on day 190 of 34.7422. This contributed to the development of haline stratification which supported the development of an intense bloom of the centric diatom Chaetoceros debelis, with maximum observed chlorophyll a concentration of 8.69 μg l -1. Minima in salinity, and maxima in chlorophyll concentration on day 190 were coincident with a peak in river-derived dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) of 1.9 μmol l -1 which was >5 times greater than the summertime mean and 24 times the concentrations experienced at L4 on weeks immediately before and after. There was no accompanying increase in dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and the DIN:DIP ratio increased to 49. With the inherent phosphorus stress that this caused, rates of APA increased from <4 to 42.4 nmolP l -1 h -1. ELF analysis on day 197 identified two taxa actively expressing alkaline phosphatase: the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans and ciliate Tiarana sp.

  4. Cerebral cortical neurons with activity linked to central neurogenic spontaneous and evoked elevations in cerebral blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We recorded neurons in rat cerebral cortex with activity relating to the neurogenic elevations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to stereotyped bursts of EEG activity, burst-cerebrovascular wave complexes, appearing spontaneously or evoked by electrical stimulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) or fastigial nucleus (FN). Of 333 spontaneously active neurons only 15 (5%), in layers 5-6, consistently (P < 0.05, chi-square) increased their activity during the earliest potential of the complex, approximately 1.3 s before the rise of rCBF, and during the minutes-long elevation of rCBF elicited by 10 s of stimulation of RVL or FN. The results indicate the presence of a small population of neurons in deep cortical laminae whose activity correlates with neurogenic elevations of rCBF. These neurons may function to transduce afferent neuronal signals into vasodilation.

  5. Magnesium Elevation Promotes Neuronal Differentiation While Suppressing Glial Differentiation of Primary Cultured Adult Mouse Neural Progenitor Cells through ERK/CREB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wang; Jiang, Mujun; Li, Mei; Jin, Congli; Xiao, Songhua; Fan, Shengnuo; Fang, Wenli; Zheng, Yuqiu; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the influence of magnesium elevation on fate determination of adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) and the underlying mechanism in vitro. Adult neurogenesis, which is the generation of functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted anatomical regions in mammals. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant ion in mammals, and its elevation in the brain has been shown to enhance memory and synaptic plasticity in vivo. However, the effects of magnesium on fate determination of aNPCs, which are vital processes in neurogenesis, remain unknown. NPCs isolated from the dentate gyrus of adult C57/BL6 mice were induced to differentiate in a medium with varying magnesium concentrations (0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mM) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD0325901. The proportion of cells that differentiated into neurons and glial cells was evaluated using immunofluorescence. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods were used to determine the expression of β-III tubulin (Tuj1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The activation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was examined by Western blot to reveal the underlying mechanism. Magnesium elevation increased the proportion of Tju1-positive cells and decreased the proportion of GFAP-positive cells. Also, the expression of Tuj1 was upregulated, whereas the expression of GFAP was downregulated. Moreover, magnesium elevation enhanced the activation of both ERK and CREB. Treatment with PD0325901 reversed these effects in a dose-dependent manner. Magnesium elevation promoted neural differentiation while suppressing glial cell differentiation, possibly via ERK-induced CREB activation. PMID:28280456

  6. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  7. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  8. Hyperactivated Wnt signaling induces synthetic lethal interaction with Rb inactivation by elevating TORC1 activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Liao, Yang; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Zhang, Robin; Searle, Jennifer S; Pei, Xun; Li, Xuan; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Du, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Inactivation of the Rb tumor suppressor can lead to increased cell proliferation or cell death depending on specific cellular context. Therefore, identification of the interacting pathways that modulate the effect of Rb loss will provide novel insights into the roles of Rb in cancer development and promote new therapeutic strategies. Here, we identify a novel synthetic lethal interaction between Rb inactivation and deregulated Wg/Wnt signaling through unbiased genetic screens. We show that a weak allele of axin, which deregulates Wg signaling and increases cell proliferation without obvious effects on cell fate specification, significantly alters metabolic gene expression, causes hypersensitivity to metabolic stress induced by fasting, and induces synergistic apoptosis with mutation of fly Rb ortholog, rbf. Furthermore, hyperactivation of Wg signaling by other components of the Wg pathway also induces synergistic apoptosis with rbf. We show that hyperactivated Wg signaling significantly increases TORC1 activity and induces excessive energy stress with rbf mutation. Inhibition of TORC1 activity significantly suppressed synergistic cell death induced by hyperactivated Wg signaling and rbf inactivation, which is correlated with decreased energy stress and decreased induction of apoptotic regulator expression. Finally the synthetic lethality between Rb and deregulated Wnt signaling is conserved in mammalian cells and that inactivation of Rb and APC induces synergistic cell death through a similar mechanism. These results suggest that elevated TORC1 activity and metabolic stress underpin the evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction between hyperactivated Wnt signaling and inactivated Rb tumor suppressor.

  9. Mutation of Fnip1 is associated with B-cell deficiency, cardiomyopathy, and elevated AMPK activity

    PubMed Central

    Siggs, Owen M.; Stockenhuber, Alexander; Deobagkar-Lele, Mukta; Bull, Katherine R.; Crockford, Tanya L.; Kingston, Bethany L.; Crawford, Greg; Anzilotti, Consuelo; Steeples, Violetta; Ghaffari, Sahar; Czibik, Gabor; Bellahcene, Mohamed; Watkins, Hugh; Ashrafian, Houman; Davies, Benjamin; Woods, Angela; Carling, David; Yavari, Arash; Beutler, Bruce; Cornall, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Folliculin (FLCN) is a tumor-suppressor protein mutated in the Birt–Hogg–Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which associates with two paralogous proteins, folliculin-interacting protein (FNIP)1 and FNIP2, forming a complex that interacts with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Although it is clear that this complex influences AMPK and other metabolic regulators, reports of its effects have been inconsistent. To address this issue, we created a recessive loss-of-function variant of Fnip1. Homozygous FNIP1 deficiency resulted in profound B-cell deficiency, partially restored by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2, whereas heterozygous deficiency caused a loss of marginal zone B cells. FNIP1-deficient mice developed cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and glycogen accumulation, with close parallels to mice and humans bearing gain-of-function mutations in the γ2 subunit of AMPK. Concordantly, γ2-specific AMPK activity was elevated in neonatal FNIP1-deficient myocardium, whereas AMPK-dependent unc-51–like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation and autophagy were increased in FNIP1-deficient B-cell progenitors. These data support a role for FNIP1 as a negative regulator of AMPK. PMID:27303042

  10. Multi-cellular 3D human primary liver cell culture elevates metabolic activity under fluidic flow.

    PubMed

    Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A; Applegate, Dawn R; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-05-21

    We have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop between reservoirs and the accompanying periodically changing fluidic flow (average flow rate of 650 μL min(-1), and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne cm(-2)). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures increase their metabolic activity in response to fluidic flow periodically changes direction. Since fluidic flow that changes direction periodically drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, our findings support the theory that the increase in hepatic metabolic activity associated with fluidic flow is either activated by mechanisms other than shear sensing (for example increased opportunities for gas and metabolite exchange), or that it follows a shear sensing mechanism that does not depend on the direction of shear. Our mode of device operation allows us to evaluate drugs under fluidic cell culture conditions and at low device manufacturing and operation

  11. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    PubMed

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04 Bq L(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops.

  12. Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziółkowska, A; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, K; Madry, R; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. The two peptides are secreted into the blood but circulating levels of these peptides have not been assessed in women with ovarian tumours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of active and total ghrelin and obestatin in patients with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer. The studies were conducted on 22 patients operated due to benign ovarian tumours, and 31 patients operated due to ovarian cancer. A control group consisted of 32 women, 24 to 65 years of age. Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group (active ghrelin: 90 +/- 4, 84 +/- 4 and 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, obestatin: 660 +/- 36; 630 +/- 30 and 538 +/- 31 ng/ml (x +/- SE), respectively). In contrast, total ghrelin concentrations in blood were similar in the studied groups. The alterations resulted in increased values of active to total ghrelin concentration ratio in the peripheral blood of patients with benign ovarian tumours or with ovarian cancer (0.79 +/- 0.02 and 0.93 +/- 0.05, respectively vs 0.58 +/- 0.02 in the control group). Due to the absence of any convincing proof for the presence of a functional GHS-R-1a receptor for ghrelin in human ovaries it did not seem probable that the observed elevated levels of active ghrelin and obestatin were directly linked to development of ovarian tumours.

  13. Chronic lamotrigine treatment increases rat hippocampal GABA shunt activity and elevates cerebral taurine levels.

    PubMed

    Hassel, B; Taubøll, E; Gjerstad, L

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine has previously been investigated only in acute experiments and is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. However, lamotrigine is effective against more forms of epilepsies than other antiepileptic drugs that also inhibit sodium channels. We investigated whether chronic lamotrigine treatment may affect cerebral amino acid levels. Rats received lamotrigine, 10 mg/kg/day, for 90 days. The hippocampal level of GABA increased 25%, and the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde/GABA transaminase increased 12 and 21% (p< 0.05), respectively, indicating increased GABA turnover. The uptake of GABA and glutamate into proteoliposomes remained unaltered. The level of taurine increased 27% in the hippocampus and 16% in the frontal and parietal cortices. The activities of hexokinase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, remained at control values. Serum lamotrigine was 41.7+/-1.5 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.), which is within the range seen in epileptic patients. Acute experiments with 5, 20 or 100 mg lamotrigine/kg, caused no changes in brain amino acid levels. The results suggest that chronic lamotrigine treatment increases GABAergic activity in the hippocampus. The cerebral increase in taurine, which has neuromodulatory properties, may contribute to the antiepileptic effect of lamotrigine.

  14. [What remains of arthrography?].

    PubMed

    Morvan, G

    1994-06-15

    At the time of RMI, arthrography appears sometimes old-fashioned. However this exam, which knows a second youth in relation with the supply of CT-scan (arthro-CT) remains the gold-standard in the exploration of many pathologic situations: intra-articular foreign bodies, tears of glenoid or acetabular labrum, precise assessment of chondral or ligamentous lesions (especially of the ankle), sub-scapularis tendon tears, adhesive capsulitis, complications of prosthesis, appreciation of intra-articular position of the needle's tip before injection of a therapeutic drug. Arthrography, completed or not by CT-slices gives, in this indications, excellent spatial resolution images, easy to perform, to read, to understand and to transmit at the clinicians, with a reasonable cost and a minor risk. RMI is a more and more used alternative, especially for the study of meniscus and ligaments of the knee, and rotator's cuff of the shoulder. It's sure that, with the increase of the RMI image's quality, other common indications will slip towards this technique, but nevertheless at this time (and it seams to me, for a long time) arthrography and arthro-CT will remain an excellent diagnostic tool with a very competitive advantages/inconvenience ratio.

  15. Virus infection elevates transcriptional activity of miR164a promoter in plants

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Micro RNAs (miRs) constitute a large group of endogenous small RNAs that have crucial roles in many important plant functions. Virus infection and transgenic expression of viral proteins alter accumulation and activity of miRs and so far, most of the published evidence involves post-transcriptional regulations. Results Using transgenic plants expressing a reporter gene under the promoter region of a characterized miR (P-miR164a), we monitored the reporter gene expression in different tissues and during Arabidopsis development. Strong expression was detected in both vascular tissues and hydathodes. P-miR164a activity was developmentally regulated in plants with a maximum expression at stages 1.12 to 5.1 (according to Boyes, 2001) along the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Upon quantification of P-miR164a-derived GUS activity after Tobacco mosaic virus Cg or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) infection and after hormone treatments, we demonstrated that ORMV and gibberellic acid elevated P-miR164a activity. Accordingly, total mature miR164, precursor of miR164a and CUC1 mRNA (a miR164 target) levels increased after virus infection and interestingly the most severe virus (ORMV) produced the strongest promoter induction. Conclusion This work shows for the first time that the alteration of miR pathways produced by viral infections possesses a transcriptional component. In addition, the degree of miR alteration correlates with virus severity since a more severe virus produces a stronger P-miR164a induction. PMID:20042107

  16. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  17. CSF Hypernatremia Elevates Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure via the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Sean D.; Lang, Susan M.; Simmonds, Sarah S.; Wenner, Megan M.; Farquhar, William B.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated NaCl concentrations of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a pivotal role in the regulation of SNA and receive mono- or poly-synaptic inputs from several hypothalamic structures responsive to hypernatremia. Therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of RVLM neurons to the SNA and pressor response to CSF hypernatremia. Lateral ventricle infusion of 0.15M, 0.6M, and 1.0M NaCl (5µL/10 min) produced concentration-dependent increases in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure (ABP) despite no change in splanchnic SNA and a decrease in renal SNA. Ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine or acute lesion of the lamina terminalis blocked or significantly attenuated these responses, respectively. RVLM microinjection of the GABAA agonist muscimol abolished the sympathoexcitatory response to ICV infusion of 1M NaCl. Furthermore, blockade of ionotropic glutamate, but not angiotensin II type 1, receptors significantly attenuated the increase in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and ABP. Finally, single-unit recordings of spinally-projecting RVLM neurons revealed three distinct populations based on discharge responses to ICV infusion of 1M NaCl: Type I excited (46%, 11/24), Type II inhibited (37%, 9/24), and Type III no change (17%, 4/24). All neurons with slow conduction velocities were Type I cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that acute increases in CSF NaCl concentrations selectively activate a discrete population of RVLM neurons through glutamate receptor activation to increase SNA and ABP. PMID:26416846

  18. Economic analysis for commingling effects of insect activity in the elevator boot area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model was developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects ...

  19. Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) activation elevates proinflammatory factor expression in human adipose cells and adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Mariana; Fuentes, Cecilia; Acevedo, Ingrid; Villalobos, Elisa; Hugo, Eric; Ben Jonathan, Nira; Reyes, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    We have previously established that human adipose cells and the human adipose cell line LS14 express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) and that its expression is elevated upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines that are typically elevated in obese humans. Research in recent years has established that an important part of the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity derive from a dysfunction of the tissue, one of the mechanisms being a disordered secretion pattern leading to an excess of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Given the reported association of the CaSR to inflammatory processes in other tissues, we sought to evaluate its role elevating the adipose expression of inflammatory factors. We exposed adipose tissue and in-vitro cultured LS14 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to the calcimimetic cinacalcet and evaluated the expression or production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL1β and TNFα as well as the chemoattractant factor CCL2. CaSR activation elicited an elevation in the expression of the inflammatory factors, which was in part reverted by SN50, an inhibitor of the inflammatory mediator NFκB. Our observations suggest that CaSR activation elevates cytokine and chemokine production through a signaling pathway involving activation of NFκB nuclear translocation. These findings confirm the relevance of the CaSR in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, with an interesting potential for pharmacological manipulation in the fight against obesity- associated diseases. PMID:22449852

  20. The elevation effect on water-soluble polysaccharides and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsih, C.; Apriyana, W.; Nur Hayati, S.; Taufika Rosyida, V.; Hernawan; Dewi Poeloengasih, C.

    2017-02-01

    Water soluble polysaccharide is one of the important phytochemical in Ganoderma lucidum K. Phytochemicals in the plants, microorganisms, and plants were affected by internal and external factors. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of elevation on the water-soluble polysaccharides and its DPPH radical scavenging activity. We found that the water-polysaccharides in mushroom from Godean (elevation <100 mamsl) (35.28 ± 0.31%) higher than Kaliurang (elevation 800 mamsl) (25.17 ± 1.85%). The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K from Godean (IC50 11.5 ± 0.29 mg/mL) higher than Kaliurang (IC50 14.4 ± 0.27%).

  1. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The global atmospheric CO(2) concentration is currently (2012) 393.1 μmol mol(-1), an increase of approximately 42 % over pre-industrial levels. In order to understand the responses of metabolic enzymes to elevated CO(2) concentrations, an experiment was conducted using the Free Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE )system. Two conventional japonica rice varieties (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) grown in North China, Songjing 9 and Daohuaxiang 2, were used in this study. The activities of ADPG pyrophosphorylase, soluble and granule-bound starch synthases, and soluble and granule-bound starch branching enzymes were measured in rice grains, and the effects of elevated CO(2) on the amylose and protein contents of the grains were analyzed. The results showed that elevated CO(2) levels significantly increased the activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase at day 8, 24, and 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 56.67 % for Songjing 9 and 21.31 % for Daohuaxiang 2. Similarly, the activities of starch synthesis enzymes increased significantly from the day 24 after flower to the day 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 36.81 % for Songjing 9 and 66.67 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in soluble starch synthase (SSS), and 25.00 % for Songjing 9 and 36.44 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), respectively. The elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the activity of soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE) at day 16, 32, and 40 after flower, and also significantly increased the activity of granule-bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE) at day 8, 32, and 40 after flower. The elevated CO(2) concentration increased the peak values of enzyme activity, and the timing of the activity peaks for SSS and GBSBE were earlier in Songjing 9 than in Daohuaxiang 2. There were obvious differences in developmental stages between the two varieties of rice, which indicated that the elevated CO(2) concentration increased enzyme activity expression and starch synthesis, affecting the

  2. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is currently (2012) 393.1 μmol mol-1, an increase of approximately 42 % over pre-industrial levels. In order to understand the responses of metabolic enzymes to elevated CO2 concentrations, an experiment was conducted using the Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE )system. Two conventional japonica rice varieties ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) grown in North China, Songjing 9 and Daohuaxiang 2, were used in this study. The activities of ADPG pyrophosphorylase, soluble and granule-bound starch synthases, and soluble and granule-bound starch branching enzymes were measured in rice grains, and the effects of elevated CO2 on the amylose and protein contents of the grains were analyzed. The results showed that elevated CO2 levels significantly increased the activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase at day 8, 24, and 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 56.67 % for Songjing 9 and 21.31 % for Daohuaxiang 2. Similarly, the activities of starch synthesis enzymes increased significantly from the day 24 after flower to the day 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 36.81 % for Songjing 9 and 66.67 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in soluble starch synthase (SSS), and 25.00 % for Songjing 9 and 36.44 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), respectively. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the activity of soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE) at day 16, 32, and 40 after flower, and also significantly increased the activity of granule-bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE) at day 8, 32, and 40 after flower. The elevated CO2 concentration increased the peak values of enzyme activity, and the timing of the activity peaks for SSS and GBSBE were earlier in Songjing 9 than in Daohuaxiang 2. There were obvious differences in developmental stages between the two varieties of rice, which indicated that the elevated CO2 concentration increased enzyme activity expression and starch synthesis, affecting the final contents

  3. Alternations of Structure and Functional Activity of Below Ground Microbial Communities at Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhili; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Ye; Kang, Sanghoon; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    The global atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by more than 30percent since the industrial revolution. Although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity have been well studied, its influences on belowground microbial communities are poorly understood and controversial. In this study, we showed a significant change in the structure and functional potential of soil microbial communities at eCO2 in a grassland ecosystem, the BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and Nitrogen) experimental site (http://www.biocon.umn.edu/) using a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 3.0, which contains about 28,0000 probes and covers approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles as well as other functional processes. GeoChip data indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different between ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all 5001 detected functional gene probes although no significant differences were detected in the overall microbial diversity. A further analysis of 1503 detected functional genes involved in C, N, P, and S cycles showed that a considerable portion (39percent) of them were only detected under either aCO2 (14percent) or eCO2 (25percent), indicating that the functional characteristics of the microbial community were significantly altered by eCO2. Also, for those shared genes (61percent) detected, some significantly (p<0.05) changed their abundance at eCO2. Especially, genes involved in labile C degradation, such as amyA, egl, and ara for starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses, respectively, C fixation (e.g., rbcL, pcc/acc), N fixation (nifH), and phosphorus utilization (ppx) were significantly increased under eCO2, while those involved in decomposing recalcitrant C, such as glx, lip, and mnp for lignin degradation remained unchanged. This study provides insights

  4. Elevated soft tissue activity in early but not delayed phase of bone scan in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-03-01

    Triple-phase bone scan is commonly used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Elevated bone tracer activity in early but not delayed phase of the study favors cellulitis over osteomyelitis. We reported that Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, a congenital disorder characterized by malformations of the capillary, venous, and lymphatic systems, can have images similar to cellulitis on triple-phase bone scan.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 21, assisted by elevated glucose, activates paraventricular nucleus NUCB2/Nesfatin-1 neurons to produce satiety under fed states

    PubMed Central

    Santoso, Putra; Nakata, Masanori; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Boyang, Zhang; Parmila, Kumari; Otgon-Uul, Zesemdorj; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Tetsurou; Mori, Masatomo; Kuro-o, Makoto; Yada, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), liver-derived hormone, exerts diverse metabolic effects, being considered for clinical application to treat obesity and diabetes. However, its anorexigenic effect is debatable and whether it involves the central mechanism remains unclarified. Moreover, the neuron mediating FGF21’s anorexigenic effect and the systemic energy state supporting it are unclear. We explored the target neuron and fed/fasted state dependence of FGF21’s anorexigenic action. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of FGF21 markedly suppressed food intake in fed mice with elevated blood glucose. FGF21 induced c-Fos expression preferentially in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and increased mRNA expression selectively for nucleobindin 2/nesfatin-1 (NUCB2/Nesf-1). FGF21 at elevated glucose increased [Ca2+]i in PVN NUCB2/Nesf-1 neurons. FGF21 failed to suppress food intake in PVN-preferential Sim1-Nucb2-KO mice. These findings reveal that FGF21, assisted by elevated glucose, activates PVN NUCB2/Nesf-1 neurons to suppress feeding under fed states, serving as the glycemia-monitoring messenger of liver-hypothalamic network for integrative regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. PMID:28374855

  6. Glibenclamide decreases ATP-induced intracellular calcium transient elevation via inhibiting reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo-ling; Ma, Zhi-yong; Fu, Zhi-jie; Ling, Ming-ying; Yan, Chuan-zhu; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that glibenclamide has a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unclear whether glibenclamide can affect the resting and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) handling in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In the present study, [Ca(2+)]i transient, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial activity were measured by the high-speed TILLvisION digital imaging system using the indicators of Fura 2-am, DCFDA and rhodamine-123, respectively. We found that glibenclamide, pinacidil and other unselective K(+) channel blockers had no effect on the resting [Ca(2+)]i of Raw 264.7 cells. Extracellular ATP (100 µM) induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation independent of extracellular Ca(2+). The transient elevation was inhibited by an ROS scavenger (tiron) and mitochondria inhibitor (rotenone). Glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) also decreased ATP-induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation, but pinacidil and other unselective K(+) channel blockers had no effect. Glibenclamide also decreased the peak of [Ca(2+)]i transient induced by extracellular thapsigargin (Tg, 1 µM). Furthermore, glibenclamide decreased intracellular ROS and mitochondrial activity. When pretreated with tiron and rotenone, glibenclamide could not decrease ATP, and Tg induced maximal [Ca(2+)]i transient further. We conclude that glibenclamide may inhibit ATP-induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation by blocking mitochondria KATP channels, resulting in decreased ROS generation and mitochondrial activity in Raw 264.7 macrophages.

  7. Elevated ERK/p90 ribosomal S6 kinase activity underlies audiogenic seizure susceptibility in fragile X mice.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Kirsty; Pyronneau, Alexander; Chao, Miranda; Bennett, Michael V L; Zukin, R Suzanne

    2016-10-11

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and a leading genetic form of autism. The Fmr1 KO mouse, a model of FXS, exhibits elevated translation in the hippocampus and the cortex. ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling regulate protein synthesis by activating downstream targets critical to translation initiation and elongation and are known to contribute to hippocampal defects in fragile X. Here we show that the effect of loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) on these pathways is brain region specific. In contrast to the hippocampus, ERK (but not mTOR) signaling is elevated in the neocortex of fragile X mice. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, typically a downstream target of mTOR, is elevated in the neocortex, despite normal mTOR activity. This is significant in that S6 phosphorylation facilitates translation, correlates with neuronal activation, and is altered in neurodevelopmental disorders. We show that in fragile X mice, S6 is regulated by ERK via the "alternative" S6 kinase p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), as evidenced by the site of elevated phosphorylation and the finding that ERK inhibition corrects elevated RSK and S6 activity. These findings indicate that signaling networks are altered in the neocortex of fragile X mice such that S6 phosphorylation receives aberrant input from ERK/RSK. Importantly, an RSK inhibitor reduces susceptibility to audiogenic seizures in fragile X mice. Our findings identify RSK as a therapeutic target for fragile X and suggest the therapeutic potential of drugs for the treatment of FXS may vary in a brain-region-specific manner.

  8. Elevated levels of activated NHE1 protect the myocardium and improve metabolism following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Mraiche, Fatima; Wagg, Cory S; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Fliegel, Larry

    2011-01-01

    In the myocardium, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH. Inhibition of NHE1 activity has been shown to be beneficial in cardiovascular disease. However, recent reports have suggested that elevation of NHE1 levels has beneficial effects in hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. We determined if activated and non-activated NHE1 proteins have varying cardioprotective and metabolic effects with ischemia/reperfusion in the isolated perfused working mouse heart. We used transgenic mice hearts that specifically expressed wild type NHE1 (N-line) or activated NHE1 protein (K-line). Intact hearts 10-12 weeks of age were perfused under working conditions, with fatty acids and glucose present as substrates. Hearts were subjected to 30 min of aerobic perfusion, followed by 20 min of global no-flow ischemia and 40 min of aerobic reperfusion. We examined changes in contractility and substrate use and ATP levels. K-line hearts expressing activated NHE1, recovered to a much greater extent than N-line and control hearts recovering almost 75% of their preischemic function. In addition, K-line hearts had elevated fatty acid oxidation, increased glycolysis rates and elevated ATP levels relative to N-line mice or controls. An examination of kinase activation showed that there were no differences between controls and transgenics in ERK, p38, p90(rsk) or pGSK3β levels. The results demonstrate that elevated levels of NHE1 induce cardioprotection and alter cardiac metabolism. However, in the working heart model, with glucose and fatty acid as substrates, this required an activated NHE1 protein.

  9. Effects of long-term elevated CO2, warming, and prolonged drought on Pleurozium-associated diazotrophic activity and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrnum, Kristine; Priemé, Anders; Michelsen, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is the primary natural influx of N to terrestrial ecosystems, and changes in N2 fixation may have consequences for primary productivity and thus ecosystem function. We studied the activity and abundance of diazotrophs associated with the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi in a temperate heathland, after seven years of global change manipulations, including elevated atmospheric CO2 (510 ppm), increased temperature (0.5-1.5 ° C), and prolonged pre-summer droughts (4-6 weeks /year). Acetylene reduction assay was carried out monthly to monitor N2 fixation rates throughout one year, while nif H copy abundance, serving as a diazotroph abundance estimate, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Prolonged summer droughts significantly increased both N2 fixation and nif H copy abundance, contrasting previous studies that demonstrate a direct negative correlation between N2 fixation and water availability. A shift in the relative abundance of N2-fixing bacteria from the green, upper parts of the moss stem to the lower, brown parts was observed. This shift could make diazotrophs less sensitive to desiccation, enabling N2 fixation to be upheld for longer during drought and thus causing higher abundance. Increased temperature likewise had a positive effect on the diazotroph abundance, although this did not translate into increased activity. Possibly, warming protects diazotrophs during extreme cold events, while actual N2 fixation is limited by water, disregarding a rise in potential N2 fixation caused by higher abundance. Increased CO2 caused no significant diazotroph response. Our study showed that long-term increase in temperature and recurrent drought events cause higher diazotroph abundance in Pleurozium schreberi and thus enhance the potential N2 fixations rate. Furthermore, our results indicate that diazotrophs may alter colonization patterns and thereby actively remain in the moss fraction less likely affected by

  10. Elevated glucose levels impair the WNT/β-catenin pathway via the activation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fuxing; Huo, Junwei; Liu, Yu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Gaowei; Chen, Ying; Chen, Biliang

    2016-05-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in the world. Associations between fasting glucose levels (greater than 5.6mmol/L) and the risk of cancer fatality have been reported. However, the underlying link between glucose metabolic disease and EC remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the influence of elevated glucose levels on the WNT/β-catenin pathway in EC. Previous studies have suggested that elevated concentrations of glucose can drive the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) flux, thereby enhancing the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins. Here, we cultured EC cell lines, AN3CA and HEC-1-B, with various concentrations of glucose. Results showed that when treated with high levels of glucose, both lines showed increased expression of β-catenin and O-GlcNAcylation levels; however, these effects could be abolished by the HBP inhibitors, Azaserine and 6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine, and be restored by glucosamine. Moreover the AN3CA and HEC-1-B cells that were cultured with or without PUGNAc, an inhibitor of the O-GlcNAcase, showed that PUGNAc increased β-catenin levels. The results suggest that elevated glucose levels increase β-catenin expression via the activation of the HBP in EC cells. Subcellular fractionation experiments showed that AN3CA cells had a higher expression of intranuclear β-catenin in high glucose medium. Furthermore, TOP/FOP-Flash and RT-PCR results showed that glucose-induced increased expression of β-catenin triggered the transcription of target genes. In conclusion, elevated glucose levels, via HBP, increase the O-GlcNAcylation level, thereby inducing the over expression of β-catenin and subsequent transcription of the target genes in EC cells.

  11. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Wan-Fen; Hsu, Ling-I; Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Sun, Chien-Wen; Chen, Wei J.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  12. Elevated Ground Temperatures at Crude Oil Spill Sites due to Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Crude oil near the water table at spill sites near Bemidji and Cass Lake, Minnesota, has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for decades. Because the reactions are exothermic, biodegradation of oil compounds will produce measurable temperature increases if heat is generated faster than it is transported away from the oil body. Subsurface temperatures at the two spill sites were measured with thermistors at multiple depths in groundwater monitoring wells and water-filled tubes in the vadose zone. Temperatures in selected wells were measured in the summer of 2007, 2008, and 2009. At the Bemidji site, temperatures measured in the summer ranged from a low of 6.3 oC in the background well to a high of 9.2 oC within wells in the oil-contaminated zone. From year to year, background minimum temperatures were constant within +/- 0.05 oC while maximum temperatures within the oil-contaminated zone remained within +/- 0.25 oC. Seasonal changes in temperature in the plume as measured by data loggers exceeded 4 oC, which was far greater than the year to year change in the summer measurements. Seasonal variability was greater near the water table than at depth. It is unclear whether this variability is due to subsurface hydrology or microbial activity. Temperatures in the vadose zone were warmer near and down-gradient from the oil body compared to the background indicating the heat from the oil and plume propagates up and outward into the vadose zone. At the Cass Lake site, summer temperatures in 2009 were 6.4 oC in the background and 11.5 oC in wells near the oil. Reaction rates inferred from chemical data were compared to heating required in a 3-dimension energy transport model of the subsurface. The increased temperature compared well to the expected heat production from biodegradation reactions occurring in the oil and plume. Results indicate that microbial activity in sediments contaminated with crude oil undergoing biodegradation can be detected using

  13. Elevated reward-related neural activation as a unique biological marker of bipolar disorder: assessment and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Nusslock, Robin; Young, Christina B; Damme, Katherine S F

    2014-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that risk for bipolar disorder is characterized by elevated activation in a fronto-striatal reward neural circuit involving the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, among other regions. It is proposed that individuals with abnormally elevated reward-related neural activation are at risk for experiencing an excessive increase in approach-related motivation during life events involving rewards or goal striving and attainment. In the extreme, this increase in motivation is reflected in hypomanic/manic symptoms. By contrast, unipolar depression (without a history of hypomania/mania) is characterized by decreased reward responsivity and decreased reward-related neural activation. Collectively, this suggests that risk for bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are characterized by distinct and opposite profiles of reward processing and reward-related neural activation. The objective of the present paper is threefold. First, we review the literature on reward processing and reward-related neural activation in bipolar disorder, and in particular risk for hypomania/mania. Second, we propose that reward-related neural activation reflects a biological marker of differential risk for bipolar disorder versus unipolar depression that may help facilitate psychiatric assessment and differential diagnosis. We also discuss, however, the challenges to using neuroscience techniques and biological markers in a clinical setting for assessment and diagnostic purposes. Lastly, we address the pharmacological and psychosocial treatment implications of research on reward-related neural activation in bipolar disorder.

  14. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-01-01

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19267.001 PMID:27627745

  15. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  16. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P < 0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  17. Effects of Elevated Free-Stream Turbulence on Active Control of a Separation Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, D. (Technical Monitor); Halfon, E.; Nishri, B.; Seifert, A.; Wygnanski, I.

    2004-01-01

    The Effects of elevated free-stream turbulence (FST) on the natural and periodically excited separation bubbles were studied experimentally, due to the relevance of this flow to low-pressure turbine blades at low Reynolds numbers. A bubble was formed at the leading edge of a flat plate and the FST level was altered by placing a grid across the flow at different locations upstream of the plate. The mixing across the separated shear-layer, forming the free boundary of the bubble, increased due to the elevated FST and due to nominally two-dimensional periodic excitation, both flattening and shortening the bubble. Periodic excitation at frequencies that were at least an order of magnitude lower than those associated with the initial shear-layer instability, were very effective at low FST, because the amplitudes of the excitation frequency and its harmonic were amplified over the bubble. High frequency excitation (F+ 3, based on the length of the baseline low FST bubble) had a major effect close to the separation location, while farther downstream the excited fluctuations rapidly decayed in the reattachment region. Low frequency excitation, that generated waves comparable to the length of the unperturbed bubble (F+ 1) were less effective and their magnitude decayed at a slower rate downstream of reattachment. An increase in the level of the FST reduced the net effect of the periodic excitation on the mixing enhancement and subsequent reattachment process, probably due to a destructive interference between the nominally 2D excitation and the random (in space and time) FST, reducing the spanwise coherence and therefore the effectiveness of the current control strategy. However, even at the reduced effectiveness of 2D periodic excitation at elevated FST, it accelerated the reattachment process and the recovery rate of the reattached boundary layer, enhancing the boundary layer resistance to repeat separation and reducing its momentum loss further downstream.

  18. Elevated PD-1 expression and decreased telomerase activity in memory T cells of patients with symptomatic Herpes Zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Zangeneh, Z; Golmoghaddam, H; Emad, M; Erfani, N; Doroudchi, M

    2014-11-16

    We investigated PD-1 levels on VZV-specific CD8+ T-cells of patients with zoster and the effect of PD-1 on the telomerase activity. CD3, CD8, CD137 and PD-1 expressions were analyzed on PBMCs from 9 symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic individuals. The effect of PD-1 blockade at the time of stimulation on the telomerase activity of non-senescent CD57-CD45RO+CD8+CD3+ memory T-cells was evaluated. PD-1 was elevated on CD8+ T-cells in patients. The frequency of PD-1+ and CD137- cells in total CD3+CD8+ T cells of patients was elevated compared to controls. Telomerase activity of non-senescent memory T-cells was lower than that of controls. Blockade of PD-1 at the time of stimulation increased telomerase activity of non-senescent memory T-cells, accompanied by increased CD137 expression. Low telomerase activity of the patients with reactivated zoster could be partially overcome by blocking PD-1 pathway.

  19. Elevated Expression of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3 Inhibits Epilepsy via Activation of Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Wei; Gu, Juan; Jiang, Guohui; Bian, Xiling; Wang, Kewei; Xu, Zucai; Li, Jie; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that acid-sensing ion channels may play a significant role in the termination of epilepsy. In particular, acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is expressed in the central nervous system and is most sensitive to extracellular pH. However, whether ASIC3 plays a role in epilepsy is unknown. In this study, qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence labeling, and slice recordings were used. We first detected elevated ASIC3 expression patterns in the brains of temporal lobe epilepsy patients and epileptic rats. ASIC3 was expressed in neurons and glia in both humans and in an experimental model of epilepsy, and ASIC3 was colocalized with inhibitory GABAergic interneurons. By blocking ASIC3 with its antagonist APETx2, we observed that injected APETx2 shortened the latency to seizure and increased the incidence of generalized tonic clonic seizure compared to the control group in models of both pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Additionally, blocking ASIC3 significantly decreased the frequency of action potential (AP) firing in interneurons. Moreover, APETx2 significantly reduced the amplitudes and frequencies of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) while showed no differences with the APETx2 + bicuculline group and the bicuculline group. These findings suggest that elevated levels of ASIC3 may serve as an anti-epileptic mechanism via postsynaptic mechanisms in interneurons. It could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for epilepsy treatment.

  20. Community shifts and carbon translocation within metabolically-active rhizosphere microorganisms in grasslands under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denef, K.; Bubenheim, H.; Lenhart, K.; Vermeulen, J.; van Cleemput, O.; Boeckx, P.; Müller, C.

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the microbial communities that are actively involved in the assimilation of rhizosphere-C and are most sensitive in their activity to elevated atmospheric CO2 in grassland ecosystems. For this, we analyzed 13C signatures in microbial biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from an in situ 13CO2 pulse-labeling experiment in the Gießen Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment grasslands (GiFACE, Germany) exposed to ambient and elevated (i.e. 50% above ambient) CO2 concentrations. Carbon-13 PLFA measurements at 3 h, 10 h and 11 months after the pulse-labeling indicated a much faster transfer of newly produced rhizosphere-C to fungal compared to bacterial PLFA. After 11 months, the proportion of 13C had decreased in fungal PLFA but had increased in bacterial PLFA compared to a few hours after the pulse-labeling. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of the rapidly assimilated rhizosphere-C was still present in fungal PLFA after 11 months. These results demonstrate the dominant role of fungi in the immediate assimilation of rhizodeposits in grassland ecosystems, while also suggesting a long-term retention of rhizosphere-C in the fungal mycelium as well as a possible translocation of the rhizosphere-C from the fungal to bacterial biomass. Elevated CO2 caused an increase in the relative abundance of root-derived PLFA-C in the saprotrophic fungal PLFA 18:2ω6,9 as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal PLFA 16:1ω5, but a decrease in the saprotrophic fungal biomarker PLFA 18:1ω9. This suggests enhanced rhizodeposit-C assimilation only by selected fungal communities under elevated CO2.

  1. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Laurie C.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

  2. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed.

  3. Activities of carboxylating enzymes in the CAM species Opuntia ficus-indica grown under current and elevated CO2 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Israel, A A; Nobel, P S

    1994-06-01

    Responses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were determined along with net CO2 uptake rates for the Crassulacean acid metabolism species Opuntia ficus-indica growing in open-top chambers. During the spring 13 months after planting, total daily net CO2 uptake of basal and first-order daughter cladodes was 28% higher at 720 than at 360 μl CO2 l(-1). The enhancement, caused mainly by higher CO2 assimilation during the early part of the night, was also observed during late summer (5 months after planting) and the following winter. The activities of Rubisco and PEPCase measured in vitro were both lower at the elevated CO2 concentration, particularly under the more favorable growth conditions in the spring and late summer. Enzyme activity in second-order daughter cladodes increased with cladode age, becoming maximal at 6 to 10 days. The effect ofelevated CO2 on Rubisco and PEPCase activity declined with decreasing irradiance, especially for Rubisco. Throughout the 13-month observation period, O. ficus-indica thus showed increased CO2 uptake when the atmospheric CO2 concentration was doubled despite lower activities of both carboxylating enzymes.

  4. Sonic hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of rat gastric mucosal cells through ERK activation by elevating intracellular calcium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Hirohide . E-mail: hohnishi@jichi.ac.jp; Takano, Koji; Noguti, Takasi; Mashima, Hirosato; Hoshino, Hiroko; Kita, Hiroto; Sato, Kiichi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2006-06-02

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced DNA synthesis in RGM-1 cells and elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). In addition, Shh as well as calcium ionophore A32187 rapidly activated ERK. However, Shh failed to activate ERK under calcium-free culture condition. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059 attenuated the DNA synthesis promoted by Shh. Moreover, when cells were pretreated with cyclopamine, Shh could not elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, activate ERK or promote DNA synthesis. On the other hand, although Shh induced Gli-1 nuclear accumulation in RGM-1 cells, Shh activated ERK even in cells pretreated with actinomycin D. These results indicate that Shh promotes the proliferation of RGM-1 cells through an intracellular calcium- and ERK-dependent but transcription-independent pathway via Patched/Smoothened receptor system.

  5. New Swift/XRT observation shows faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 remains active 1 year after outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, R.; Wijnands, R.; Heinke, C.; Degenaar, N.

    2012-02-01

    The faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 was discovered through the detection of two type-I bursts by BeppoSAX's WFC in 1996-1997 (in't Zand et al. 1999, NuPhS, 69, 228). Around the times of both bursts, no persistent emission was detected from the source with BeppoSAX. RXTE/ASM observations suggested that the source was active from early 1996 till late 1997 with an X-ray luminosity of ~ 1E+36 erg/s (for d=8 kpc; Cornelisse et al.

  6. mTORC1 promotes aging-related venous thrombosis in mice via elevation of platelet volume and activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan; Fan, Xiaorong; Xiao, Min; Yang, Dinghua; Liang, Bo; Dai, Meng; Shan, Lanlan; Lu, Jingbo; Lin, Zhiqi; Liu, Rong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Liping; Zhong, Mei; Jiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Platelet hyperactivation is linked to aging-related VTE. However, the mechanisms through which aging enhances platelet activation and susceptibility to VTE are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is essential for aging-related platelet hyperactivation and VTE. mTORC1 was hyperactivated in platelets and megakaryocytes (MKs) from aged mice, accompanied by elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet activation. Inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin led to a significant reduction in susceptibility to experimental deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in aged mice (P < .01). To ascertain the specific role of platelet mTORC1 activation in DVT, we generated mice with conditional ablation of the mTORC1-specific component gene Raptor in MKs and platelets (Raptor knockout). These mice developed markedly smaller and lighter thrombi, compared with wild-type littermates (P < .01) in experimental DVT. Mechanistically, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with aging induced activation of mTORC1 in MKs and platelets, which, in turn, enhanced bone marrow MK size, MPV, and platelet activation to promote aging-related VTE. ROS scavenger administration induced a significant decrease (P < .05) in MK size, MPV, and platelet activation in aged mice. Our findings collectively demonstrate that mTORC1 contributes to enhanced venous thrombotic susceptibility in aged mice via elevation of platelet size and activation. PMID:27288518

  7. Loss of a neural AMP-activated kinase mimics the effects of elevated serotonin on fat, movement, and hormonal secretions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Katherine A; Bouagnon, Aude D; Barros, Alexandre G; Lin, Lin; Malard, Leandro; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Ashrafi, Kaveh

    2014-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of metabolism and a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. As an energy sensor, AMPK activity is responsive to both metabolic inputs, for instance the ratio of AMP to ATP, and numerous hormonal cues. As in mammals, each of two genes, aak-1 and aak-2, encode for the catalytic subunit of AMPK in C. elegans. Here we show that in C. elegans loss of aak-2 mimics the effects of elevated serotonin signaling on fat reduction, slowed movement, and promoting exit from dauer arrest. Reconstitution of aak-2 in only the nervous system restored wild type fat levels and movement rate to aak-2 mutants and reconstitution in only the ASI neurons was sufficient to significantly restore dauer maintenance to the mutant animals. As in elevated serotonin signaling, inactivation of AAK-2 in the ASI neurons caused enhanced secretion of dense core vesicles from these neurons. The ASI neurons are the site of production of the DAF-7 TGF-β ligand and the DAF-28 insulin, both of which are secreted by dense core vesicles and play critical roles in whether animals stay in dauer or undergo reproductive development. These findings show that elevated levels of serotonin promote enhanced secretions of systemic regulators of pro-growth and differentiation pathways through inactivation of AAK-2. As such, AMPK is not only a recipient of hormonal signals but can also be an upstream regulator. Our data suggest that some of the physiological phenotypes previously attributed to peripheral AAK-2 activity on metabolic targets may instead be due to the role of this kinase in neural serotonin signaling.

  8. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  9. Influence of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on belowground carbon allocation and enzyme activities in tropical flooded soil planted with rice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Neogi, S; Manna, M C; Adhya, T K; Rao, K S; Nayak, A K

    2013-10-01

    Changes in the soil labile carbon fractions and soil biochemical properties to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature reflect the changes in the functional capacity of soil ecosystems. The belowground root system and root-derived carbon products are the key factors for the rhizospheric carbon dynamics under elevated CO2 condition. However, the relationship between interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on belowground soil carbon accrual is not very clear. To address this issue, a field experiment was laid out to study the changes of carbon allocation in tropical rice soil (Aeric Endoaquept) under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + elevated temperature conditions in open top chambers (OTCs). There were significant increase of root biomass by 39 and 44 % under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + temperature compared to ambient condition, respectively. A significant increase (55 %) of total organic carbon in the root exudates under elevated CO2 + temperature was noticed. Carbon dioxide enrichment associated with elevated temperature significantly increased soil labile carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and activities of carbon-transforming enzyme like β-glucosidase. Highly significant correlations were noticed among the different soil enzymes and soil labile carbon fractions.

  10. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi Ping; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yong Jun; Jia, Feng An; He, Xin Hua

    2014-03-06

    To address the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and elevated CO2 on soil microbial communities, DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles, respiration, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, loessial soils were exposed to four levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (Cd0), 1.5 (Cd1.5), 3.0 (Cd3.0) and 6.0 (Cd6.0) mg Cd kg(-1) soil, and two levels of CO2, i.e., 360 (aCO2) and 480 (eCO2) ppm. Compared to Cd0, Cd1.5 increased fungal abundance but decreased bacterial abundance under both CO2 levels, whilst Cd3.0 and Cd6.0 decreased both fungal and bacterial abundance. Profiles of DGGE revealed alteration of soil microbial communities under eCO2. Soil respiration decreased with Cd concentrations and was greater under eCO2 than under aCO2. Soil total C and N were greater under higher Cd. These results suggest eCO2 could stimulate, while Cd pollution could restrain microbial reproduction and C decomposition with the restraint effect alleviated by eCO2.

  11. Elevated blood active ghrelin and normal total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziolkowska, A; Nowinka, K; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin originate from the same peptide precursor, preproghrelin. Both peptides are secreted in the blood. We investigated serum active and total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in women with uterine myomatosis. Serum concentrations of active ghrelin in uterine leiomyoma were significantly higher compared to women in the control group (86 +/- 3 vs 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.02). On the other hand, serum concentrations of total ghrelin and obestatin in uterine leiomyoma did not differ from those in the control group. In the control group the ratio of active to total ghrelin concentrations amounted to 0.62, while in women with uterine myoma it was 0.95, pointing to a prevalence of the active form of ghrelin in women with uterine myoma. Also the ratio of active ghrelin concentration to obestatin concentration was higher in the latter group while the ratio of total circulating ghrelin to obestatin concentrations was similar in the two groups. The data may suggest a role of active ghrelin in the development of a myoma. Moreover, the results indicate that increased blood ratios of active to total ghrelin and to obestatin concentrations are not specific for cachexia.

  12. 77 FR 12607 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Elevation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB... Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will submit the information collection abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget for review...

  13. Resistance after Chronic Application of the HDAC-Inhibitor Valproic Acid Is Associated with Elevated Akt Activation in Renal Cell Carcinoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Juengel, Eva; Makarević, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drugs have significantly improved the therapeutic options for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, resistance often develops, negating the benefit of these agents. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance towards the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in a RCC in vivo model were investigated. NMRI:nu/nu mice were transplanted with Caki-1 RCC cells and then treated with VPA (200 mg/kg/day). Controls remained untreated. Based on tumor growth dynamics, the mice were divided into “responders” and “non-responders” to VPA. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation and expression of cell signaling and cell cycle regulating proteins in the RCC mouse tumors were evaluated by Western blotting. Tumor growth of VPA responders was significantly diminished, whereas that of VPA non-responders even exceeded control values. Cdk1, 2 and 4 proteins were strongly enhanced in the non-responders. Importantly, Akt expression and activity were massively up-regulated in the tumors of the VPA non-responders. Chronic application (12 weeks) of VPA to Caki-1 cells in vitro evoked a distinct elevation of Akt activity and cancer cells no longer responded with cell growth reduction, compared to the short 2 week treatment. We assume that chronic use of an HDAC-inhibitor is associated with (re)-activation of Akt, which may be involved in resistance development. Consequently, combined blockade of both HDAC and Akt may delay or prevent drug resistance in RCC. PMID:23372654

  14. Characterizing the persistent CA3 interneuronal spiking activity in elevated extracellular potassium in the young rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Damian Seung-Ho; Yu, Wilson; Fawcett, Adrian; Carlen, Peter Louis

    2010-05-17

    Seizures coincide with an increase in extracellular potassium concentrations [K(+)](e) yet little information is available regarding this phenomenon on the firing pattern, frequency and neuronal properties of inhibitory neurons responsible for modulating network excitability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of elevating [K(+)](e) from 2.5 to 12.5mM on CA3 rat hippocampal interneurons in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that the majority of interneurons (21/25) in artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) exhibited spontaneous tonic spiking activity. As the [K(+)](e) increased to 12.5mM, interneurons exhibited a tonic, irregular, burst firing activity, or a combination of these. The input resistance decreased significantly to 59+/-18% at 7.5mM K(+) and did not further change at higher [K(+)](e) while the amount of K(+)-induced depolarization significantly increased from 5 to 12.5mM K(+) perfusion; a depolarization block occurred in 4 of the 12 interneurons at 12.5mM. Also, as [K(+)](e) increased, a transition from lower (1.3+/-0.6Hz) to higher dominant peak frequency (15.0+/-5.0Hz) was observed. We found that non-fast spiking (NFS) interneurons represented the majority of cells recorded and exhibited mostly tonic firing activity in raised K(+). Fast spiking (FS) interneurons predominately had a tonic firing pattern with very few exhibiting bursting activity in elevated K(+). In conclusion, we report that raised [K(+)](e) in amounts observed during seizures increases hippocampal CA3 interneuronal activity and suggests that a loss or impairment of inhibitory function may be present during these events.

  15. Elevated Glycosyltransferase Activities in Infected or Traumatized Hosts: Nonspecific Response to Inflammation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    assayed ss, and as- fucosyltransferase have been found for Stycosylttansfensses and a2-macrofetoproteio de- in sert of cancer patients (14, 21, 27). The... fucosyltransferase to 450% of control for aid in wound healing, to modulate clotting, to sialyltransferase. The change in N-acetylglucos- activate phagocytes, to...glycosylation aj- fucosyltransferase activities were not of newly synthesized acute-phase globulins changed. within the Golgi complex of liver cells. Sandfly fever

  16. Arterial baroreflex buffering of sympathetic activation during exercise-induced elevations in arterial pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, U; Pryor, S L; Bertocci, L A; Victor, R G

    1990-01-01

    Static muscle contraction activates metabolically sensitive muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure. To determine if this contraction-induced reflex is modulated by the sinoaortic baroreflex, we performed microelectrode recordings of sympathetic nerve activity to resting leg muscle during static handgrip in humans while attempting to clamp the level of baroreflex stimulation by controlling the exercise-induced rise in blood pressure with pharmacologic agents. The principal new finding is that partial pharmacologic suppression of the rise in blood pressure during static handgrip (nitroprusside infusion) augmented the exercise-induced increases in heart rate and sympathetic activity by greater than 300%. Pharmacologic accentuation of the exercise-induced rise in blood pressure (phenylephrine infusion) attenuated these reflex increases by greater than 50%. In contrast, these pharmacologic manipulations in arterial pressure had little or no effect on: (a) forearm muscle cell pH, an index of the metabolic stimulus to skeletal muscle afferents; or (b) central venous pressure, an index of the mechanical stimulus to cardiopulmonary afferents. We conclude that in humans the sinoaortic baroreflex is much more effective than previously thought in buffering the reflex sympathetic activation caused by static muscle contraction. PMID:2254449

  17. Short term exposure to elevated levels of leptin reduces proximal tubule cell metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Jessica F; Grinfeld, Esther; McAinch, Andrew J; Poronnik, Philip; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2014-01-25

    Leptin plays a pathophysiological role in the kidney, however, its acute effects on the proximal tubule cells (PTCs) are unknown. In opossum kidney (OK) cells in vitro, Western blot analysis identified that exposure to leptin increases the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p44/42 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Importantly leptin (0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 μg/ml) significantly reduced the metabolic activity of PTCs, and significantly decreased protein content per cell. Investigation of the role of p44/42 and mTOR on metabolic activity and protein content per cell, demonstrated that in the presence of MAPK inhibitor U0126 and mTOR inhibitor Ku-63794, that the mTOR pathway is responsible for the reduction in PTC metabolic activity in response to leptin. However, p44/42 and mTOR play no role the reduced protein content per cell in OKs exposed to leptin. Therefore, leptin modulates metabolic activity in PTCs via an mTOR regulated pathway.

  18. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  19. Ozone-induced elevation of creatine kinase activity in blood plasma of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Veninga, T.S.; Fidler, V.

    1986-10-01

    Rats exposed to three different low concentrations of ozone for 2 hr show alterations in blood plasma creatinine kinase activity comparable to those previously observed in mice. The reactions are explained as compensatory, possibly being involved in the initial phase of adaptation development.

  20. Reduced Sleep Spindle Activity in Early-Onset and Elevated Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sleep disturbances are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), although polysomnographic (PSG) abnormalities are more prevalent in adults than in children and adolescents with MDD. Sleep spindle activity (SPA) is associated with neuroplasticity mechanisms during brain maturation and is more abundant in childhood and adolescence than…

  1. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments. PMID:28212288

  2. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2017-02-15

    Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments.

  3. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, p<05). Furthermore, with mediation analysis it was found that high cortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but

  4. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.

  5. Magnetically elevated accretion discs in active galactic nuclei: broad emission-line regions and associated star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Silk, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    We propose that the accretion discs fueling active galactic nuclei (AGN) are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal (φ-direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disc dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at R to large heights z ≳ 0.1R and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass - but contributing very little accretion - around the equator. We show that such a disc model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission-line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disc models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disc models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: the formation of broad emission-line regions and the suppression of fragmentation thought to inhibit accretion at the required rates. We show that the disc of stars that formed in the Galactic Center a few million years ago could have resulted from an episode of magnetically elevated accretion at ≳ 0.1 of the Eddington limit.

  6. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  7. Elevating optical activity: Efficient on-edge lithography of three-dimensional starfish metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K. Menzel, C.; Lehr, D.; Puffky, O.; Pertsch, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Kley, E.-B.; Hübner, U.

    2014-05-12

    We present an approach for extremely fast, wafer-scale fabrication of chiral starfish metamaterials based on electron beam- and on-edge lithography. A millimeter sized array of both the planar chiral and the true 3D chiral starfish is realized, and their chiroptical performances are compared by circular dichroism measurements. We find optical activity in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, where the 3D starfish clearly outperforms the planar design by almost 2 orders of magnitude, though fabrication efforts are only moderately increased. The presented approach is capable of bridging the gap between high performance optical chiral metamaterials and industrial production by nanoimprint technology.

  8. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  9. Hypersaline cyanobacterial mats as indicators of elevated tropical hurricane activity and associated climate change.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Steppe, Timothy F; Buchan, Kenneth C; Potts, Malcolm

    2003-03-01

    The Atlantic hurricanes of 1999 caused widespread environmental damage throughout the Caribbean and US mid-Atlantic coastal regions. However, these storms also proved beneficial to certain microbial habitats; specifically, cyanobacteria-dominated mats. Modern mats represent the oldest known biological communities on earth, stromatolites. Contemporary mats are dominant biological communities in the hypersaline Bahamian lakes along the Atlantic hurricane track. We examined the impacts of varying levels of hypersalinity on 2 processes controlling mat growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, in Salt Pond, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Hypersalinity (> 5 times seawater salinity) proved highly inhibitory to these processes. Freshwater input from Hurricane Floyd and other large storms alleviated this salt-inhibition. A predicted 10 to 40 year increase in Atlantic hurricane activity accompanied by more frequent "freshening" events will enhance mat productivity, CO2 sequestration and nutrient cycling. Cyanobacterial mats are sensitive short- and long-term indicators of climatic and ecological changes impacting these and other waterstressed environments.

  10. The Effectiveness of Negative Pressure Therapy in Diabetic Foot Ulcers with Elevated Protease Activity: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Giurato, Laura; Ruotolo, Valeria; Uccioli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Despite several works have described the usefulness of negative pressure therapy (NPT) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), no studies have reported its ability in the proteases modulation in DFUs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of NPT as a protease-modulating treatment in DFUs. Approach: We conducted a prospective study of a series of diabetic patients affected by chronic DFUs. Each ulcer was assessed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity with a protease status diagnostic test at the baseline and after 2 weeks of NPT. Results: Four patients were included. All patients had type 2 diabetes with a disease duration of ≈20 years. A1c was 79.5 ± 15.3 mmol/mol. Ulcer area was >5 cm2 in all cases. All wounds showed elevated protease activity (EPA) at the baseline. After 2 weeks, all patients showed a normalization of MMPs activity. Innovation: NPT showed its effectiveness in the reduction of EPA in chronic DFUs. Conclusion: This study confirms the role of NPT in the positive modulation of protease activity also in chronic DFUs. PMID:28116227

  11. Moderate physical activity correlates with elevated leptin in physically active 10-12-year-old boys with normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Stefanelli, Claudio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Purge, Priit

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relations between physical activity of differing intensity and duration with body energy-balance hormone leptin in 10-12-year-old boys (N = 94) who participated in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at least four to five times per week. The boys reported their physical activity using a questionnaire. They had normal body mass index (BMI, kg/ m2), and were at Tanner Stage 2 of development. Boys were divided into three subgroups by leptin levels: normal serum leptin (M +/- .5 SD, n = 44, 1.2-3.9 ng/ml), low leptin (< or = M - .5 SD; n = 31, < 1.2 ng/ml), and high leptin (> or = M + .5 SD; n = 19, > 3.9 ng/ml). There were significant differences between subgroups in anthropometric parameters and serum leptin levels, but not in physical activity. A significant correlation was found between leptin and moderate physical activity of at least five times per week for at least 30 minutes each time in the high leptin group (r = .61). In conclusion, the correlations between physical activity and leptin are weak; only moderate physical activity was correlated with leptin levels in the high leptin

  12. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  13. Apparent activation energy of subcritical crack growth of SiC/SiC composites at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y.S.; Stackpoole, M.M.; Bordia, R.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental effect of oxygen-containing gases on the subcritical crack growth of continuous fiber (Nicalon {open_quotes}SiC{close_quotes}) reinforced ceramic matrix (SiC) composites at elevated temperatures. This is a continuing project and the primary goal for this time period is to obtain an apparent activation energy for SiC/SiC materials with two different interfaces: carbon and boron nitride coatings. In the past six months, the authors have conducted studies of subcritical crack growth on SiC/SiC composite materials in a corrosive (O{sub 2}) as well as an inert (Ar) atmosphere for temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100{degree}C.

  14. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity

    PubMed Central

    Vacek, Thomas P; Yu, Shipeng; Rehman, Shahnaz; Grubb, Blair P; Kosinski, Daniel; Verghese, Cherian; Eltahawy, Ehab A; Shafiq, Qaiser

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%–140%) was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor VIII activity led to coronary arterial thrombosis in the presence of a small ruptured plaque. Alternatively, venous clots may have traversed the patent foramen ovale and occluded the LAD. In addition to continuing aggressive risk

  15. Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidant Chemicals for Cancer Prevention in Humans.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kedar N

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in cancer prevention, the incidence of cancer is increasing. We review studies that have identified several biochemical and genetic defects as well as potential carcinogens in the diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle-related habits. Two of the biochemical abnormalities increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, and chronic exposure to carcinogens and mutagens play a significant role in the initiation of multistage carcinogenesis. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical defects may be useful in reducing the incidence of cancer. Activation of the transcriptional factor called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which enhances the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes by complex mechanisms, may be one of the ways to reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes destroy free radicals by catalysis, whereas phase-2-detoxifying enzymes remove potential carcinogens by converting them to harmless compounds for elimination from the body. However, increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2 may not be sufficient to decrease oxidative stress and chronic inflammation optimally, because antioxidant chemicals, which are decreased in a high oxidative environment, must also be elevated. This review discusses the regulation of activation of Nrf2 and proposes a hypothesis that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and dietary and endogenous antioxidant chemicals simultaneously may reduce the incidence of cancer by decreasing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The levels of antioxidant chemicals can be increased by supplementation, but increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes requires activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Several phytochemicals and antioxidant chemicals that activate Nrf2 have been identified. This review also describes clinical studies on antioxidants in cancer

  16. Sustaining sleep spindles through enhanced SK2-channel activity consolidates sleep and elevates arousal threshold.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita

    2012-10-03

    Sleep spindles are synchronized 11-15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during nonrapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Ca(v)3.3-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K(+) channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-overexpressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared with wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow waves (<4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles.

  17. Sustaining sleep spindles through enhanced SK2 channel activity consolidates sleep and elevates arousal threshold

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Ralf D.; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T.; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P.; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Sleep spindles are synchronized 11–15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Cav3.3-type Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K+ channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-over-expressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared to wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow-waves (< 4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles. PMID:23035101

  18. Oxygen isotope activities and concentrations in aqueous salt solutions at elevated temperatures: Consequences for isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the effect of dissolved salts on the oxygen isotope activity ratio of water have been extended to 275??C. Dehydrated salts were added to water of known isotope composition and the solutions were equilibrated with CO2 which was sampled for analysis. For comparison similar studies were made using pure water. Results on water nearly coincide with earlier calculations. Salt effects diminish with increasing temperature only for solutions of MgCl2 and LiCl. Other salt solutions show complex behavior due to the temperature-dependent formation of ion pairs of changing character. Equilibrium fractionations (103 ln ??) between 1 molal solutions and pure water at 25, 100, and 275??C are: NaCl 0.0, -1.5, +1.0; KCl 0.0, -1.0, +2.0; LiCl -1.0, -0.6, -0.5; CaCl2 -0.4, -1.8, +0.8; MgCl2 -1.1, -0.7, -0.3; MgSO4 -1.1, +0.1, -; NaF (0.8 m) 0.0, -1.5, -0.3; and NH4Cl (0.55 m) 0.0, -1.2, -1.3. These effects are significant in the isotope study of hot saline fluids responsible for ore deposition and of fluids found in certain geothermal systems. Minor modification of published isotope geothermometers may be required. ?? 1974.

  19. Elevation of serum urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and liver stiffness in postoperative biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Udomsinprasert, Wanvisa; Honsawek, Sittisak; Jirathanathornnukul, Napaphat; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate serum urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and liver stiffness in biliary atresia (BA) and examine the correlation of circulating uPAR, liver stiffness, and clinical outcomes in postoperative BA children. METHODS Eighty-five postKasai BA children and 24 control subjects were registered. Circulating uPAR was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent essay. Liver stiffness was analyzed using transient elastography. RESULTS BA children had significantly greater circulating uPAR and liver stiffness scores than control subjects (P < 0.001). Circulating uPAR and liver stiffness were substantially higher in jaundiced BA children than non-jaundiced BA children (P < 0.001). In addition, circulating uPAR was positively associated with serum aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.507, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.364, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.559, P < 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.325, P < 0.001), and liver stiffness scores (r = 0.508, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Circulating uPAR and liver stiffness values were greater in BA children than healthy controls. The increased circulating uPAR was associated with liver dysfunction in BA. As a consequence, serum uPAR and liver stiffness may be used as noninvasive biomarkers indicating the progression of liver fibrosis in postKasai BA. PMID:27957246

  20. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) seem resistant to atherosclerosis despite highly elevated plasma lipids during hibernation and active state.

    PubMed

    Arinell, Karin; Sahdo, Berolla; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Baandrup, Ulrik; Fröbert, Ole

    2012-06-01

    Hibernation is an extreme physiological challenge for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in which metabolism is based mainly on lipids. The study objective was to compare plasma lipids in hibernating and active free-ranging brown bears and relate them to arterial histopathology. Blood was drawn from seven immobilized free-ranging brown bears (three females, 2-3 years old) during hibernation in February and from the same bears while active in June and analyzed by enzymatic and automated hematology methods within 48 hours of sampling. Left anterior descending coronary arteries and aortic arches from 12 bears (six females, 1.5-12 years old) killed in hunting were examined by histopathology. Total plasma cholesterol decreased from hibernation to the active period (11.08 ± 1.04 mmol/L vs. 7.89 ± 1.96 mmol/L, P= 0.0028) as did triglyceride (3.16 ± 0.62 mmol/L vs. 1.44 ± 0.27 mmol/L, P= 0.00012) and LDL cholesterol (4.30 ± 0.71 mmol/L vs. 2.02 ± 1.03 mmol/L, P= 0.0075), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. No atherosclerosis, fatty streaks, foam cell infiltration, or inflammation were seen in any arterial samples. Brown bears tolerate elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, physical inactivity, and circulatory slow flow during hibernation without signs of -atherosclerosis. This species might serve as a reverse translational model for atherosclerosis resistance.

  1. Hydroalcohol extract and fractions of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl: effects on spontaneous motor activity and elevated plus-maze behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, M; Sajjadi, S E; Jalali, A

    2005-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anxiolytic effects of four fractions of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. The aerial parts of the plant were extracted with petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), butanol (BF) and water (AF) and tested for spontaneous motor activity and elevated plus-maze (EPM) behaviour in mice. The hydroalcohol extract (HE) and different fractions of S. lavandulifolia were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice, at various doses, 30 min before the behavioural evaluation. The HE of S. lavandulifolia (at 50 mg/kg) increased the percentage of time spent (39%) and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms (53%). The HE (50 mg/kg), PF (25 and 50 mg/kg), EF (25 and 50 mg/kg) and AF (50 mg/kg) of S. lavandulifolia significantly increased the percentage of time spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms. The BF up to a dose of 50 mg/kg had no significant effects on any of the measured parameters in the EPM. The spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased in animals injected with each plant fractions, compared with that of saline. The EF and AF showed the least and the most reduction in the activity, respectively. The anxiolytic effects of EF, PF and AF could be related to their content of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids or terpenoids.

  2. Decay rates of human remains in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, A; Birkby, W H; Jones, A M; Henry, T E; Parks, B O

    1989-05-01

    The environment of southern Arizona with mild winters and hot, dry summers produces great variability in decay rates of human remains. Summer temperatures, which range well over 38 degrees C (100 degrees F), induce rapid bloating as a result of the accumulation of decompositional gases. However, in certain circumstances, the aridity can lead to extensive mummification, allowing preservation of remains for hundreds of years. A retrospective study of 189 cases, concentrating on remains found on the desert floor or in the surrounding mountains and on remains found within closed structures, outlines the time frame and sequences of the decay process. Remains can retain a fresh appearance for a considerable time in the winter, but the onset of marked decomposition is rapid in the summer months. Bloating of the body usually is present two to seven days following death. Following this, within structures, there is frequently rapid decomposition and skeletonization. With outdoor exposure, remains are more likely to pass through a long period of dehydration of outer tissues, mummification, and reduction of desiccated tissue. Exposure of large portions of the skeleton usually does not occur until four to six months after death. Bleaching and exfoliation of bone--the beginning stages of destruction of the skeletal elements--begins at about nine months' exposure. Insect activity, including that of maggot and beetle varieties, may accelerate decomposition, but this process is greatly affected by location of the body, seasonal weather, and accessibility of the soft tissues. Carnivores and other scavengers also are contributing factors, as are clothing or covering of the body, substrate, elevation, and latitude.

  3. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  4. Hereditary fructose intolerance mimicking a biochemical phenotype of mucolipidosis: A review of the literature of secondary causes of lysosomal enzyme activity elevation in serum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carlos R; Devaney, Joseph M; Hofherr, Sean E; Pollard, Laura M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    We describe a patient with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and elevation of multiple plasma lysosomal enzyme activities mimicking mucolipidosis II or III, in whom a diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) was ultimately obtained. She presented before introduction of solid foods, given her consumption of a fructose-containing infant formula. We present the most extensive panel of lysosomal enzyme activities reported to date in a patient with HFI, and propose that multiple enzyme elevations in plasma, especially when in conjunction with a normal plasma α-mannosidase activity, should elicit a differential diagnosis of HFI. We also performed a review of the literature on the different etiologies of elevated lysosomal enzyme activities in serum or plasma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

    1997-10-01

    A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

  6. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called “repeat-swap modeling” to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport

  7. The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Aschengrau, A.; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D.

    1998-10-01

    This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  8. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.

  9. Elevated Lifetime Lead Exposure Impedes Osteoclast Activity and Produces an Increase in Bone Mass in Adolescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Eric E.; Holz, Jonathan D.; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Puzas, J. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The heavy metal lead (Pb) has a deleterious effect on skeletal health. Because bone mass is maintained through a balance of bone formation and resorption, it is important to understand the effect of Pb levels on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. Pb exposure is associated with low bone mass in animal models and human populations; however, the correlation between Pb dosing and corresponding bone mass has been poorly explored. Thus, mice were exposed to increasing Pb and at higher levels (500 ppm), there was unexpectedly an increase in femur-tibial bone mass by 3 months of age. This is contrary to several studies alluded to earlier. Increased bone volume (BV) was accompanied by a significant increase in cortical thickness of the femur and trabecular bone that extended beyond the epiphyseal area into the marrow cavity. Subsequent evaluations revealed an increase in osteoclast numbers with high Pb exposure, but a deficiency in osteoclastic activity. These findings were substantiated by observed increases in levels of the resorption-altering hormones calcitonin and estrogen. In addition we found that pro-osteoclastic nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) pathway activity was dose dependently elevated with Pb, both in vivo and in vitro. However, the ability of osteoclasts to resorb bone was depressed in the presence of Pb in media and within test bone wafers. These findings indicate that exposure to high Pb levels disrupts early life bone accrual that may involve a disruption of osteoclast activity. This study accentuates the dose dependent variation in Pb exposure and consequent effects on skeletal health. PMID:26518054

  10. Response of microbial extracellular enzyme activities and r- vs. K- selected microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 depends on soil aggregate size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorodnikov, Maxim; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Increased belowground carbon (C) transfer by plant roots under elevated atmospheric CO2 and the contrasting environment in soil macro- and microaggregates could affect properties of the microbial community in the rhizosphere. We evaluated the effect of 5 years of elevated CO2 (550 ppm) on four extracellular enzymes: ß-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase along with the contribution of fast- (r-strategists) and slow-growing microorganisms (K-strategists) in soil aggregates. We fractionated the bulk soil from the ambient and elevated CO2 treatments of FACE-Hohenheim (Stuttgart) into large macro- (>2 mm), small macro- (0.25-2.00 mm), and microaggregates (<0.25 mm) using a modified dry sieving. Microbial biomass (C-mic by SIR), the maximal specific growth rate (µ), growing microbial biomass (GMB) and lag-period (t-lag) were estimated by the kinetics of CO2 emission from bulk soil and aggregates amended with glucose and nutrients. In the bulk soil and isolated aggregates before and after activation with glucose, the actual and the potential enzyme activities were measured. Although C-org and C-mic as well as the activities of ß-glucosidase, phosphatase, and sulfatase were unaffected in bulk soil and in aggregate-size classes by elevated CO2, significant changes were observed in potential enzyme production after substrate amendment. After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. In addition, µ values were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2 for bulk soil, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates. Based on changes in µ, GMB, and lag-period, we conclude that elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulated the r-selected microorganisms, especially in soil microaggregates. In contrast, significantly higher chitinase activity in bulk soil and in large macroaggregates under elevated CO2 revealed an increased contribution of fungi to turnover processes. We conclude that quantitative and

  11. Hot spots remain the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the drilling activity and petroleum activity in Africa. The areas which seem to hold the highest promise for new discoveries or increased exports are Egypt's Western Desert which seems to offer the possibility of significant oil discoveries. In addition, Nigeria has dramatically increased its exploration activity which is counter to the global trend in 1986. Areas where activity is decreasing are Cameroon, South Africa. It is pointed out that the Gabon crude oil reserves may have been raised 60% by a single on-shore discovery.

  12. Safety and feasibility of prehospital thrombolysis in combination with active rescue PCI strategy for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Firanescu, C.; Wilbers, R.; Meeder, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objectives The purpose of this observational study was to provide an impression of the outcomes of prehospital thrombolysis in combination with an active coronary angioplasty intervention (PCI) strategy for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods In a group of 151 consecutive patients the following parameters were measured: time delay, percentage of reperfusion, reocclusion, stroke, death, need for PCI and the number of protocol violations. Results The diagnosis by the ambulance paramedics was made in 8±6 minutes, followed by thrombolysis in 13±7 minutes (median±SD). In 2% (3) of the patients the thrombolytic agent was erroneously administered without complications. The elapsed time from onset of symptoms to treatment was a median of 112±77 minutes. Five percent (7) of the patients died in the first 30 days and 2% (3) suffered an intracerebral haemorrhage. Reperfusion was documented in 76% (112) of the patients, from which 18% (20) reoccluded in the following 24 hours. In patients where reperfusion was not established or reocclusion occurred, patients underwent rescue/facilitated PCI: in total 37% (55 patients). After three months 9% (13) of the patients had severly impaired (EF <40%) left ventricular function. Conclusion In our region, we successfully implemented the prehospital thrombolysis system achieving a competitive call-to-needle time and reperfusion rate. The percentage of patients who violated the protocol, suffered an intracerebral haemorrhage, died and/or had severely impaired left ventricular function was acceptable. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:25696516

  13. Elevated thrombopoietin and platelet indices confirm active thrombopoiesis but fail to predict clinical severity of puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Outi; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Lassila, Riitta; Huhtala, Heini; Vaheri, Antti; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and procoagulant changes in relation with clinical variables in a cohort of patients with acute hantavirus disease. Blood samples of 33 prospectively recruited, consecutive, hospitalized patients with acute Puumala virus–induced hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) were collected acutely and at the recovery visit (control). Serum thrombopoietin (TPO) and activity of plasma microparticles (MPs) from various cell sources were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based methods. The results were related to data on platelet indices and functions, coagulation variables, and clinical disease. Serum TPO was nearly 4-fold higher acutely compared with the control (median 207 pg/mL, range 56–1258 pg/mL vs. median 58 pg/mL, range 11–241 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and coincided with high mean platelet volume (MPV) and immature platelet fraction (IPF%). Prothrombin fragments and D-dimer were high acutely compared with the control (F1 + 2 median 704 pmol/L, range 284–1875 pmol/L vs. median 249 pmol/L, range 118–556 pmol/L, P < 0.001; d-dimer median 2.8 mg/L, range 0.6–34.0 mg/L vs. median 0.4 mg/L, range 0.2–1.1 mg/L, P < 0.001), and associated with low platelet count and severe acute kidney injury (AKI). MPs’ procoagulant activity was high acutely only among patients with mild AKI (plasma creatinine below the median at the time of the measurement). Upregulated TPO together with high MPV and IPF% confirm active thrombopoiesis, but do not predict severity of HFRS. Simultaneously, elevated prothrombin fragments and d-dimer suggest increased consumption of platelets in patients with severe AKI. Activity of platelet-derived MPs in HFRS should be studied with flow cytometry in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:28033261

  14. Admission Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Activity Is Not Associated with Long-Term Clinical Outcomes after ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Woudstra, Pier; Damman, Peter; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Grundeken, Maik J.; van Brussel, Peter M.; Stroobants, An K.; van Straalen, Jan P.; Fischer, Johan C.; Koch, Karel T.; Henriques, José P. S.; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity is a biomarker predicting cardiovascular diseases in a real-world. However, the prognostic value in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on long-term clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods Lp-PLA2 activity was measured in samples obtained prior to pPCI from consecutive STEMI patients in a high-volume intervention center from 2005 until 2007. Five years all-cause mortality was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared among tertiles of Lp-PLA2 activity during complete follow-up and with a landmark at 30 days. In a subpopulation clinical endpoints were assessed at three years. The prognostic value of Lp-PLA2, in addition to the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction or multimarker risk score, was assessed in multivariable Cox regression. Results The cohort (n = 987) was divided into tertiles (low <144, intermediate 144–179, and high >179 nmol/min/mL). Among the tertiles differences in baseline characteristics associated with long-term mortality were observed. However, no significant differences in five years mortality in association with Lp-PLA2 activity levels were found; intermediate versus low Lp-PLA2 (HR 0.97; CI 95% 0.68–1.40; p = 0.88) or high versus low Lp-PLA2 (HR 0.75; CI 95% 0.51–1.11; p = 0.15). Both in a landmark analysis and after adjustments for the established risk scores and selection of cases with biomarkers obtained, non-significant differences among the tertiles were observed. In the subpopulation no significant differences in clinical endpoints were observed among the tertiles. Conclusion Lp-PLA2 activity levels at admission prior to pPCI in STEMI patients are not associated with the incidence of short and/or long-term clinical endpoints. Lp-PLA2 as an independent and clinically useful biomarker in the risk stratification of STEMI patients still remains to be proven

  15. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  16. Effects of biochar and elevated soil temperature on soil microbial activity and abundance in an agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of Global Warming, rising surface temperatures will likely cause increased soil temperatures. Soil warming has already been shown to, at least temporarily, increase microbial activity and, therefore, the emissions of greenhouse gases like CO2 and N2O. This underlines the need for methods to stabilize soil organic matter and to prevent further boost of the greenhouse gas effect. Plant-derived biochar as a soil amendment could be a valuable tool to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestrate it in soil on the long-term. During the process of pyrolysis, plant biomass is heated in an oxygen-low atmosphere producing the highly stable solid matter biochar. Biochar is generally stable against microbial degradation due to its chemical structure and it, therefore, persists in soil for long periods. Previous experiments indicated that biochar improves or changes several physical or chemical soil traits such as water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity or soil structure, but also biotic properties like microbial activity/abundance, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth. Changes in the soil microbial abundance and community composition alter their metabolism, but likely also affect plant productivity. The interaction of biochar addition and soil temperature increase on soil microbial properties and plant growth was yet not investigated on the field scale. To investigate whether warming could change biochar effects in soil, we conducted a field experiment attached to a soil warming experiment on an agricultural experimental site near the University of Hohenheim, already running since July 2008. The biochar field experiment was set up as two-factorial randomized block design (n=4) with the factors biochar amendment (0, 30 t ha-1) and soil temperature (ambient, elevated=ambient +2.5° C) starting from August 2013. Each plot has a dimension of 1x1m and is equipped with combined soil temperature and moisture sensors. Slow pyrolysis biochar from the C

  17. Digital elevation models in 10 minute time steps - a status report on 4D monitoring of an active erosional scar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Neugirg, Fabian; Hass, Erik; Jose, Steffen; Haas, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    In erosional research a variety of processes are well understood and have been mimicked under laboratory conditions. In complex natural systems such as Alpine environments a multitude of influencing factors tend to superimpose single processes in a mixed signal which impedes a reliable interpretation. These mixed signals can already be captured by geoscientific research approaches such as sediment collectors, erosion pins or remote sensing surveys. Nevertheless, they fail to distinguish between single processes and their individual impact on slope morphology. Throughout the last two years a highly active slope of unsorted glacial deposits in the northern Alps has been monitored by repeated terrestrial laser scans roughly every three months. Resulting high resolution digital elevation models of difference were produced to identify possible seasonal patterns. By reproducing the TLS results with a physically based erosion model (EROSION 3D) ran with in situ input data from rainfall simulations and a climate station a better understanding of individual mechanism could be achieved. However, the already elaborate combination of soil science and close range remote sensing could not answer all questions concerning the slopes behaviour, especially not for freeze and thaw cycles and the winter period. Therefore, an array of three fully automatic synchronised cameras was setup to generate continuous 3D surface models. Among the main challenges faced for the system were the energy supply and durability, perspectives of the cameras to avoid shadowing and to guarantee sufficient overlap, a certain robustness to withstand rough alpine weather conditions, the scaling of each 3D model by tracked ground control points and the automatic data handling. First results show individual processes sculpting the slope's morphology but further work is required to improve automatic point cloud creation and change monitoring.

  18. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is not elevated in a songbird (Junco hyemalis) preparing for migration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Needham, Katie B; Le, Chuong N; Stewart, Emily C; Graham, Jessica L; Ketterson, Ellen D; Greives, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    During spring, increasing daylengths stimulate gonadal development in migratory birds. However, late-stage reproductive development is typically postponed until migration has been completed. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, which have been associated with pre-migratory hyperphagia and fattening. The HPA-axis is also known to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, suggesting the possibility that final transition into the breeding life history stage may be slowed by glucocorticoids. We hypothesized that greater HPA-axis activity in individuals preparing for migration may foster preparation for migration while simultaneously acting as a "brake" on the development of the HPG-axis. To test this hypothesis, we sampled baseline corticosterone (CORT), stress-induced CORT, and negative feedback efficacy of Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) in an overwintering population that included both migratory (J.h. hyemalis) and resident (J.h. carolinensis) individuals. We predicted that compared to residents, migrants would have higher baseline CORT, higher stress-induced CORT, and weaker negative feedback. Juncos were sampled in western Virginia in early March, which was about 2-4wk before migratory departure for migrants and 4-5wk before first clutch initiation for residents. Contrary to our predictions, we found that migrants had lower baseline and stress-induced CORT and similar negative feedback efficacy compared with residents, which suggests that delayed breeding in migrants is influenced by other physiological mechanisms. Our findings also suggest that baseline CORT is not elevated during pre-migratory fattening, as migrants had lower baseline CORT and were fatter than residents.

  19. Relationship between ethanol-induced activity and anxiolysis in the open field, elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and ethanol intake in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-05-15

    It is yet unclear if ethanol-induced motor stimulation in the open field (OF) merely reflects psychomotor stimulating effects of the drug or if this stimulation is driven or modulated by ethanol's antianxiety properties. In the present study, adolescent rats were administered with different ethanol doses or remained untreated. They were sequentially assessed in the OF, elevated plus maze (EPM), and light-dark box (LDB) and then assessed for ethanol intake. The aims were to assess the relationship between measures of ethanol-induced activity and anxiolysis, analyze ethanol intake as a function of prior ethanol exposure, and associate behavioral responsiveness in these apparatus with ethanol intake during adolescence. The results suggested that the enhanced exploration of the OF observed after 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg ethanol reflected a motor-stimulating effect that appeared to be relatively independent of anxiolysis. The 1.25 g/kg dose induced motor stimulation in the OF and anti-anxiety effects in the EPM, but these effects were relatively independent. The 0.5 g/kg ethanol dose exerted significant anxiolytic effects in the EPM in the absence of stimulating effects in the OF. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that adolescents with a higher frequency of rearing behavior in the OF, higher percentage of open arm entries in the EPM, and lower propensity to enter the central area of the OF exhibited greater ethanol intake. These results indicate that the OF is a valid procedure for the measurement of ethanol-induced stimulation, and provide information toward characterizing subpopulations of adolescents at risk for initiating alcohol drinking.

  20. Relationship between ethanol-induced activity and anxiolysis in the open field, elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and ethanol intake in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-01-01

    It is yet unclear if ethanol-induced motor stimulation in the open field (OF) merely reflects psychomotor stimulating effects of the drug or if this stimulation is driven or modulated by ethanol’s antianxiety properties. In the present study, adolescent rats were administered with different ethanol doses or remained untreated. They were sequentially assessed in the OF, elevated plus maze (EPM), and light-dark box (LDB) and then assessed for ethanol intake. The aims were to assess the relationship between measures of ethanol-induced activity and anxiolysis, analyze ethanol intake as a function of prior ethanol exposure, and associate behavioral responsiveness in these apparatus with ethanol intake during adolescence. The results suggested that the enhanced exploration of the OF observed after 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg ethanol reflected a motor-stimulating effect that appeared to be relatively independent of anxiolysis. The 1.25 g/kg dose induced motor stimulation in the OF and anti-anxiety effects in the EPM, but these effects were relatively independent. The 0.5 g/kg ethanol dose exerted significant anxiolytic effects in the EPM in the absence of stimulating effects in the OF. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that adolescents with a higher frequency of rearing behavior in the OF, higher percentage of open arm entries in the EPM, and lower propensity to enter the central area of the OF exhibited greater ethanol intake. These results indicate that the OF is a valid procedure for the measurement of ethanol-induced stimulation, and provide information towards characterizing subpopulations of adolescents at risk for initiating alcohol drinking. PMID:24583190

  1. Properties of nitrogen fertilization are decisive in determining the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the activity of nitrate reductase in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ranran; Du, Shaoting

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of atmospheric CO2 is predicted to double by the end of this century. The response of higher plants to an increase in atmospheric CO2 often includes a change in nitrate reductase (NR) activity. In a recent study, we showed that, under elevated CO2 levels, NR induction in low-nitrate plants and NR inhibition in high-nitrate plants are regulated by nitric oxide (NO) generated via nitric oxide synthases. This finding provides an explanation for the diverse responses of plants to elevated CO2 levels, and suggests that the use of nitrogen fertilizers on soil will have a major influence on the nitrogen assimilation capacity of plants in response to CO2 elevation.

  2. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, J; Moller, S; Schifter, S; Abrahamsen, J; Becker, U

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Static and dynamic functions of the wall of large arteries are largely unknown in cirrhosis in vivo. The present study was undertaken to determine arterial compliance (COMPart) in relation to vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems in patients with cirrhosis. In addition, vasoactivity was manipulated by inhalation of oxygen.
STUDY POPULATION AND METHODS—In 20 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 12 controls we determined COMPart (stroke volume relative to pulse pressure), cardiac output, plasma volume, systemic vascular resistance, central circulation time, plasma catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation.
RESULTS—COMPart was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; p< 0.05) and inversely related to plasma adrenaline levels (r=−0.53; p<0.02) but positively related to circulating levels of CGRP (r=0.58; p<0.01). No significant relation was found for plasma noradrenaline, renin activity, or endothelin-1. COMPart was positively related to plasma volume (r=0.50; p<0.02) and inversely to systemic vascular resistance (r=−0.69; p<0.001) and central circulation time (r=−0.49; p<0.02). During oxygen inhalation, COMPart decreased (−13%; p<0.005) and systemic vascular resistance increased (+10%; p<0.001) towards normal values without significant changes in mean arterial pressure. Plasma adrenaline (−16%; p<0.01) decreased and the relation to COMPart disappeared. The relation of COMPart to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged.
CONCLUSION—Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems (noradrenaline, renin, endothelin-1). Thus the altered static and dynamic characteristics of the wall of large arteries are intimately associated with circulatory and

  3. A high isoflavone diet decreases 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation and does not correct selenium-induced elevations in fasting blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Michael T; Cardon, Brandon R; Hardman, Jeremy M; Bliss, Tyler A; Brunson, Scott E; Hart, Chris M; Swiss, Maria D; Hepworth, Squire D; Christensen, Merrill J; Hancock, Chad R

    2014-04-01

    Selenium (Se) has been implicated as a micronutrient that decreases adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and may increase diabetes risk by reducing insulin sensitivity. Soy isoflavones (IF) are estrogen-like compounds that have been shown to attenuate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, adiposity, and increased AMPK activation. We hypothesized that a high IF (HIF) diet would prevent the poor metabolic profile associated with high Se intake. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in basal glucose metabolism and AMPK signaling in response to an HIF diet and/or supplemental Se in a mouse model. Male FVB mice were divided into groups receiving either a control diet with minimal IF (low IF) or an HIF diet. Each dietary group was further subdivided into groups receiving either water or Se at a dose of 3 mg Se/kg body weight daily, as Se-methylselenocysteine (SMSC). After 5 months, mice receiving SMSC had elevated fasting glucose (P < .05) and a tendency for glucose intolerance (P = .08). The increase in dietary IF did not result in improved fasting blood glucose. Interestingly, after 6 months, HIF-fed mice had decreased basal AMPK activation in liver and skeletal muscle tissue (P < .05). Basal glucose metabolism was changed by SMSC supplementation as evidenced by increased fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance. High dietary IF levels did not protect against aberrant blood glucose. In FVB mice, decreased basal AMPK activation is not the mechanism through which Se exerts its effect. These results suggest that more research must be done to elucidate the role of Se and IF in glucose metabolism.

  4. A seizure-induced gain-of-function in BK channels is associated with elevated firing activity in neocortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shruti, Sonal; Clem, Roger L.; Barth, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A heritable gain-of-function in BK channel activity has been associated with spontaneous seizures in both rodents and humans. We find that chemoconvulsant-induced seizures induce a gain-of-function in BK channel current that is associated with abnormal, elevated network excitability. Action potential half-width, evoked firing rate, and spontaneous network activity in vitro were all altered 24 hrs following picrotoxin-induced seizures in layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the neocortex of young mice (P13-P16). Action potential half-width and firing output could be normalized to control values by application of BK channel antagonists in vitro. Thus, both inherited and acquired BK channel gain-of-functions are linked to abnormal excitability. Because BK channel antagonists can reduce elevated firing activity in neocortical neurons, BK channels might serve as a new target for anticonvulsant therapy. PMID:18387812

  5. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  6. Sustained elevation of NF-κB activity sensitizes offspring of maternal inflammation to hypertension via impairing PGC-1α recovery

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Chen, Xianhua; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Huang, Pei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Guo, Wei; Che, Ling; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that maternal detrimental factors, including inflammation, contribute to the development of hypertension in the offspring. The current study found that offspring subjected to prenatal exposure of inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge during the second semester showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure. In addition, these offspring also displayed augmented vascular damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in thoracic aortas when challenged with deoxycorticosterone acetate and high-salt diet (DOCA-salt). Interestingly, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine markedly reversed these changes. Mechanistically, prenatal LPS exposure led to pre-existing elevated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ co-activator (PGC)-1α, a critical master of ROS metabolism, which up-regulated the ROS defense capacity and maintained the balance of ROS generation and elimination under resting state. However, continued elevation of NF-κB activity significantly suppressed the rapid recovery of PGC-1α expression response to DOCA-salt challenge in offspring that underwent prenatal inflammatory stimulation. This was further confirmed by using a NF-κB inhibitor (N-p-Tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone) that restored PGC-1α recovery and prevented blood pressure elevation induced by DOCA-salt. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation programmed proneness to NF-κB over-activation which impaired PGC-1α-mediated anti-oxidant capacity resulting in the increased sensitivity of offspring to hypertensive damage. PMID:27616627

  7. Sustained elevation of NF-κB activity sensitizes offspring of maternal inflammation to hypertension via impairing PGC-1α recovery.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Chen, Xianhua; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Huang, Pei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Guo, Wei; Che, Ling; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-09-12

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that maternal detrimental factors, including inflammation, contribute to the development of hypertension in the offspring. The current study found that offspring subjected to prenatal exposure of inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge during the second semester showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure. In addition, these offspring also displayed augmented vascular damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in thoracic aortas when challenged with deoxycorticosterone acetate and high-salt diet (DOCA-salt). Interestingly, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine markedly reversed these changes. Mechanistically, prenatal LPS exposure led to pre-existing elevated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ co-activator (PGC)-1α, a critical master of ROS metabolism, which up-regulated the ROS defense capacity and maintained the balance of ROS generation and elimination under resting state. However, continued elevation of NF-κB activity significantly suppressed the rapid recovery of PGC-1α expression response to DOCA-salt challenge in offspring that underwent prenatal inflammatory stimulation. This was further confirmed by using a NF-κB inhibitor (N-p-Tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone) that restored PGC-1α recovery and prevented blood pressure elevation induced by DOCA-salt. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation programmed proneness to NF-κB over-activation which impaired PGC-1α-mediated anti-oxidant capacity resulting in the increased sensitivity of offspring to hypertensive damage.

  8. Neural Basis of Moral Elevation Demonstrated through Inter-Subject Synchronization of Cortical Activity during Free-Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Zoë A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Morris, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust). Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two “other-praising" emotions – Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty), and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill). Methodology/Principal Findings Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion. PMID:22745745

  9. P2X7 Receptor-mediated Scavenger Activity of Mononuclear Phagocytes toward Non-opsonized Particles and Apoptotic Cells Is Inhibited by Serum Glycoproteins but Remains Active in Cerebrospinal Fluid*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ben J.; Duce, James A.; Valova, Valentina A.; Wong, Bruce; Bush, Ashley I.; Petrou, Steven; Wiley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid phagocytosis of non-opsonized particles including apoptotic cells is an important process that involves direct recognition of the target by multiple scavenger receptors including P2X7 on the phagocyte surface. Using a real-time phagocytosis assay, we studied the effect of serum proteins on this phagocytic process. Inclusion of 1–5% serum completely abolished phagocytosis of non-opsonized YG beads by human monocytes. Inhibition was reversed by pretreatment of serum with 1–10 mm tetraethylenepentamine, a copper/zinc chelator. Inhibitory proteins from the serum were determined as negatively charged glycoproteins (pI < 6) with molecular masses between 100 and 300 kDa. A glycoprotein-rich inhibitory fraction of serum not only abolished YG bead uptake but also inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes or neuronal cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Three copper- and/or zinc-containing serum glycoproteins, ceruloplasmin, serum amyloid P-component, and amyloid precursor protein, were identified, and the purified proteins were shown to inhibit the phagocytosis of beads by monocytes as well as phagocytosis of apoptotic neuronal cells by macrophages. Human adult cerebrospinal fluid, which contains very little glycoprotein, had no inhibitory effect on phagocytosis of either beads or apoptotic cells. These data suggest for the first time that metal-interacting glycoproteins present within serum are able to inhibit the scavenger activity of mononuclear phagocytes toward insoluble debris and apoptotic cells. PMID:22461619

  10. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats.

  11. UAV-based photogrammetry combination of the elevational outcrop and digital surface models: an example of Sanyi active fault in western Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Cheng-En; Huang, Wen-Jeng; Chang, Ping-Yu; Lo, Wei

    2016-04-01

    An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a digital camera is an efficient tool for geologists to investigate structure patterns in the field. By setting ground control points (GCPs), UAV-based photogrammetry provides high-quality and quantitative results such as a digital surface model (DSM) and orthomosaic and elevational images. We combine the elevational outcrop 3D model and a digital surface model together to analyze the structural characteristics of Sanyi active fault in Houli-Fengyuan area, western Taiwan. Furthermore, we collect resistivity survey profiles and drilling core data in the Fengyuan District in order to build the subsurface fault geometry. The ground sample distance (GSD) of an elevational outcrop 3D model is 3.64 cm/pixel in this study. Our preliminary result shows that 5 fault branches are distributed 500 meters wide on the elevational outcrop and the width of Sanyi fault zone is likely much great than this value. Together with our field observations, we propose a structural evolution model to demonstrate how the 5 fault branches developed. The resistivity survey profiles show that Holocene gravel was disturbed by the Sanyi fault in Fengyuan area.

  12. Microbial activity and diversity during extreme freeze-thaw cycles in periglacial soils, 5400 m elevation, Cordillera Vilcanota, Perú.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S K; Nemergut, D R; Miller, A E; Freeman, K R; King, A J; Seimon, A

    2009-09-01

    High-elevation periglacial soils are among the most extreme soil systems on Earth and may be good analogs for the polar regions of Mars where oligotrophic mineral soils abut with polar ice caps. Here we report on preliminary studies carried out during an expedition to an area where recent glacial retreat has exposed porous mineral soils to extreme, daily freeze-thaw cycles and high UV fluxes. We used in situ methods to show that inorganic nitrogen (NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+)) was being actively cycled even during a period when diurnal soil temperatures (5 cm depth) ranged from -12 to 27 degrees C and when sub-zero, soil cooling rates reached 1.8 degrees C h(-1) (the most rapid soil cooling rates recorded to date). Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of microbial phylotypes present at our highest sites (5410 m above sea level) showed the presence of nitrifying bacteria of the genus Nitrospira and newly discovered nitrite-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. These soils were overwhelmingly dominated (>70% of phylotypes) by photosynthetic bacteria that were related to novel cyanobacteria previously found almost exclusively in other plant-free, high-elevation soils. We also demonstrated that soils from our highest sites had higher potential for mineralizing glutamate and higher microbial biomass than lower elevation soils that had been more recently covered by ice. Overall, our findings indicate that a diverse and robustly functioning microbial ecosystem is present in these previously unstudied high-elevation soils.

  13. Changes in Respiratory Mitochondrial Machinery and Cytochrome and Alternative Pathway Activities in Response to Energy Demand Underlie the Acclimation of Respiration to Elevated CO2 in the Invasive Opuntia ficus-indica1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Blanc-Betes, Elena; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Azcon-Bieto, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Studies on long-term effects of plants grown at elevated CO2 are scarce and mechanisms of such responses are largely unknown. To gain mechanistic understanding on respiratory acclimation to elevated CO2, the Crassulacean acid metabolism Mediterranean invasive Opuntia ficus-indica Miller was grown at various CO2 concentrations. Respiration rates, maximum activity of cytochrome c oxidase, and active mitochondrial number consistently decreased in plants grown at elevated CO2 during the 9 months of the study when compared to ambient plants. Plant growth at elevated CO2 also reduced cytochrome pathway activity, but increased the activity of the alternative pathway. Despite all these effects seen in plants grown at high CO2, the specific oxygen uptake rate per unit of active mitochondria was the same for plants grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Although decreases in photorespiration activity have been pointed out as a factor contributing to the long-term acclimation of plant respiration to growth at elevated CO2, the homeostatic maintenance of specific respiratory rate per unit of mitochondria in response to high CO2 suggests that photorespiratory activity may play a small role on the long-term acclimation of respiration to elevated CO2. However, despite growth enhancement and as a result of the inhibition in cytochrome pathway activity by elevated CO2, total mitochondrial ATP production was decreased by plant growth at elevated CO2 when compared to ambient-grown plants. Because plant growth at elevated CO2 increased biomass but reduced respiratory machinery, activity, and ATP yields while maintaining O2 consumption rates per unit of mitochondria, we suggest that acclimation to elevated CO2 results from physiological adjustment of respiration to tissue ATP demand, which may not be entirely driven by nitrogen metabolism as previously suggested. PMID:17660349

  14. Elevation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A. S.; Marshall, G.A.; Carver, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Elevation changes, as well as horizontal displacements of the Earth's surface, are an expected consequence of dip-slip displacement on earthquake faults. the rock surrounding and overlying the fault is forced to stretch and bend to accommodate fault slip. Slip in the case of the April 25 mainshock is thought to have occurred on a gently inclined plane dipping to the northeast at a small angle (see article on preliminary seismological results in this issue).The associated fault-plane solution implies that rock overlying the fault plane (the hanging-wall block west and south of the epicenter) rose and shifted to the northeast. The map on the next page shows the location of the epicenter and approximate extent of uplift and subsidence derived from estimates of the geometry, location. and slip on the buried fault plane. 

  15. Elevated CO2 plus chronic warming reduce nitrogen uptake and levels or activities of nitrogen-uptake and -assimilatory proteins in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Dileepa M; Heckathorn, Scott A; Bista, Deepesh R; Mishra, Sasmita; Boldt, Jennifer K; Krause, Charles R

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric CO2 enrichment is expected to often benefit plant growth, despite causing global warming and nitrogen (N) dilution in plants. Most plants primarily procure N as inorganic nitrate (NO3(-) ) or ammonium (NH4(+) ), using membrane-localized transport proteins in roots, which are key targets for improving N use. Although interactive effects of elevated CO2 , chronic warming and N form on N relations are expected, these have not been studied. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were grown at two levels of CO2 (400 or 700 ppm) and two temperature regimes (30 or 37°C), with NO3(-) or NH4(+) as the N source. Elevated CO2 plus chronic warming severely inhibited plant growth, regardless of N form, while individually they had smaller effects on growth. Although %N in roots was similar among all treatments, elevated CO2 plus warming decreased (1) N-uptake rate by roots, (2) total protein concentration in roots, indicating an inhibition of N assimilation and (3) shoot %N, indicating a potential inhibition of N translocation from roots to shoots. Under elevated CO2 plus warming, reduced NO3(-) -uptake rate per g root was correlated with a decrease in the concentration of NO3(-) -uptake proteins per g root, reduced NH4(+) uptake was correlated with decreased activity of NH4(+) -uptake proteins and reduced N assimilation was correlated with decreased concentration of N-assimilatory proteins. These results indicate that elevated CO2 and chronic warming can act synergistically to decrease plant N uptake and assimilation; hence, future global warming may decrease both plant growth and food quality (%N).

  16. Effects of long-term pH elevation on the sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities of anaerobic sewer biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Oriol; Park, Donghee; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-05-01

    The dosage of alkali is often applied by the wastewater industry to reduce the transfer of hydrogen sulfide from wastewater to the sewer atmosphere. In this paper the activities of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Methanogenic Archaea (MA) under elevated pH conditions (8.6 and 9.0) were evaluated in a laboratory scale anaerobic sewer reactor. Compared to those in a control reactor without pH control (pH 7.6+/-0.1), the SRB activity was reduced by 30% and 50%, respectively, at pH 8.6 and pH 9.0. When normal pH was resumed, it took approximately 1 month for the SRB activity to fully recover. Methanogenic activities developed in the control reactor in 3 months after the reactor start-up, while no significant methanogenic activities were detected in the experimental reactor until normal pH was resumed. The results suggest that elevated pH at 8.6-9.0 suppressed the growth of methanogens. These experimental results clearly showed that, in addition to its well-known effect of reducing H(2)S transfer from the liquid to the gas phase, pH elevation considerably reduces sulfide and methane production by anaerobic sewer biofilms. These findings are significant for the optimal use of alkali addition to sewers for the control of H(2)S and CH(4) emissions. A model-based study showed that, by adding the alkali at the beginning rather than towards the end of a rising main, substantial savings in chemicals can be achieved while achieving the same level of sulfide emission control, and complete methane emission control.

  17. Inhibition of Geobacter dechlorinators at elevated trichloroethene concentrations is explained by a reduced activity rather than by an enhanced cell decay.

    PubMed

    Philips, Jo; Haest, Pieter Jan; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2013-02-05

    Microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) is inhibited at elevated TCE concentrations. A batch experiment and modeling analysis were performed to examine whether this self-inhibition is related to an enhanced cell decay or a reduced dechlorination activity at increasing TCE concentrations. The batch experiment combined four different initial TCE concentrations (1.4-3.0 mM) and three different inoculation densities (4.0 × 10(5) to 4.0 × 10(7)Geobacter cells·mL(-1)). Chlorinated ethene concentrations and Geobacter 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were measured. The time required for complete conversion of TCE to cis-DCE increased with increasing initial TCE concentration and decreasing inoculation density. Both an enhanced decay and a reduced activity model fitted the experimental results well, although the reduced activity model better described the lag phase and microbial decay in some treatments. In addition, the reduced activity model succeeded in predicting the reactivation of the dechlorination reaction in treatments in which the inhibiting TCE concentration was lowered after 80 days. In contrast, the enhanced decay model predicted a Geobacter cell density that was too low to allow recovery for these treatments. Conclusively, our results suggest that TCE self-inhibition is related to a reduced dechlorination activity rather than to an enhanced cell decay at elevated TCE concentrations.

  18. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sucking thus creating a "wink" when chewing or sucking. Is Monocular Elevation Deficiency associated with other diseases or developmental problems? There is no known association between Monocular Elevation ...

  19. Fluoxetine elevates allopregnanolone in female rat brain but inhibits a steroid microsomal dehydrogenase rather than activating an aldo-keto reductase

    PubMed Central

    Fry, J P; Li, K Y; Devall, A J; Cockcroft, S; Honour, J W; Lovick, T A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, elevates brain concentrations of the neuroactive progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone, an effect suggested to underlie its use in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. One report showed fluoxetine to activate the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) component of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), which catalyses production of allopregnanolone from 5α-dihydroprogesterone. However, this action was not observed by others. The present study sought to clarify the site of action for fluoxetine in elevating brain allopregnanolone. Experimental Approach Adult male rats and female rats in dioestrus were treated with fluoxetine and their brains assayed for allopregnanolone and its precursors, progesterone and 5α-dihydroprogesterone. Subcellular fractions of rat brain were also used to investigate the actions of fluoxetine on 3α-HSD activity in both the reductive direction, producing allopregnanolone from 5α-dihydroprogesterone, and the reverse oxidative direction. Fluoxetine was also tested on these recombinant enzyme activities expressed in HEK cells. Key Results Short-term treatment with fluoxetine increased brain allopregnanolone concentrations in female, but not male, rats. Enzyme assays on native rat brain fractions and on activities expressed in HEK cells showed fluoxetine did not affect the AKR producing allopregnanolone from 5α-dihydroprogesterone but did inhibit the microsomal dehydrogenase oxidizing allopregnanolone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone. Conclusions and Implications Fluoxetine elevated allopregnanolone in female rat brain by inhibiting its oxidation to 5α-dihydroprogesterone by a microsomal dehydrogenase. This is a novel site of action for fluoxetine, with implications for the development of new agents and/or dosing regimens to raise brain allopregnanolone. PMID:25161074

  20. Genetic variation at the delta-sarcoglycan (SGCD) locus elevates heritable sympathetic nerve activity in human twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Hightower, C Makena; Zhang, Kuixing; Miramontes-González, José P; Rao, Fangwen; Wei, Zhiyun; Schork, Andrew J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Biswas, Nilima; Mahata, Manjula; Elkelis, Nina; Taupenot, Laurent; Stridsberg, Mats; Ziegler, Michael G; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2013-12-01

    The Syrian Cardiomyopathic Hamster (BIO-14.6/53.58 strains) model of cardiac failure, resulting from naturally occurring deletion at the SGCD (delta-sarcoglycan) locus, displays widespread disturbances in catecholamine metabolism. Rare Mendelian myopathy disorders of human SGCD occur, although common naturally occurring SGCD genetic variation has not been evaluated for effects on human norepinephrine (NE) secretion. This study investigated the effect of SGCD genetic variation on control of NE secretion in healthy twin pairs. Genetic associations profiled SNPs across the SGCD locus. Trait heritability (h(2)) and genetic covariance (pleiotropy; shared h(2)) were evaluated. Sympathochromaffin exocytosis in vivo was probed in plasma by both catecholamines and Chromogranin B (CHGB). Plasma NE is substantially heritable (p = 3.19E-16, at 65.2 ± 5.0% of trait variance), sharing significant (p < 0.05) genetic determination with circulating and urinary catecholamines, CHGB, eGFR, and several cardio-metabolic traits. Participants with higher pNE showed significant (p < 0.05) differences in several traits, including increased BP and hypertension risk factors. Peak SGCD variant rs1835919 predicted elevated systemic vascular compliance, without changes in specifically myocardial traits. We used a chimeric-regulated secretory pathway photoprotein (CHGA-EAP) to evaluate the effect of SGCD on the exocytotic pathway in transfected PC12 cells; in transfected cells, expression of SGCD augmented CHGA trafficking into the exocytotic regulated secretory pathway. Thus, our investigation determined human NE secretion to be a highly heritable trait, influenced by common genetic variation within the SGCD locus. Circulating NE aggregates with BP and hypertension risk factors. In addition, coordinate NE and CHGB elevation by rs1835919 implicates exocytosis as the mechanism of release.

  1. Toxic compounds biodegradation and toxicity of high strength wastewater treated under elevated nitrogen concentration in the activated sludge and membrane bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee; Prachanurak, Pradthana; Honda, Ryo; Phanwilai, Supaporn

    2017-03-16

    This research has assessed the removal efficiencies of toxic compounds in the high strength wastewater (the leachate and agriculture wastewater mixture) using the activated sludge (AS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) technologies under two carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios (C/N 14 and 6) and two toxic compounds concentrations (8-396μg/L and 1000μg/L). In addition, the toxicity evaluations of the AS and MBR effluents to the aquatic environment were undertaken at five effluent dilution ratios (10, 20, 30, 50 and 70% v/v). The findings indicate that the AS treatment performance could be enhanced by the elevation of the nitrogen concentration. Specifically, the C/N 6 environment helps promote the bacterial growth, particularly heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria (HNB) and nitrifying bacteria (NB), which produce the enzymes crucial to the toxic compounds degradation. The improved biodegradation makes the effluents less toxic to the aquatic environment, as evidenced by the lower mortality rates of both experimental fish species raised in the nitrogen-elevated diluted AS effluents. On the other hand, the elevated nitrogen concentration minimally enhances the MBR treatment performance, given the fact that the MBR technology is in itself a biological treatment scheme with very high compounds removal capability. Despite its lower toxic compounds removal efficiency, the AS technology is simple, inexpensive and operationally-friendly, rendering the system more applicable to the treatment operation constrained by the financial, manpower and technological considerations.

  2. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL.

  3. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  4. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-alpha in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induce...

  5. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries.

  6. Defense activation triggers differential expression of phospholipase-C (PLC) genes and elevated temperature induces phosphatidic acid (PA) accumulation in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Meijer, Harold J.G.; Tameling, Wladimir I.L.; Vossen, Jack H.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we provided the first genetic evidence for the requirement of tomato PLC4 and PLC6 genes in defense activation and disease resistance. The encoded enzymes were catalytically active as they were able to degrade phosphatidylinositol (PI), thereby producing diacylglycerol (DG). Here we report differential PLC gene expression following the initiation of defense signaling by the interaction between Cladosporium fulvum resistance (R) protein Cf-4 and its matching effector Avr4 in tomato hybrid seedlings that express both Cf-4 and Avr4. Furthermore, we observed that PLC3 and PLC6 gene expression is upregulated by elevated temperature in the control seedlings. This upregulation coincides with an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and a decrease in the levels of PI and phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP). The decrease in PI and PIP levels matches with the activation of PLC. In addition, the levels of the structural phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) declined transiently during recovery after the exposure to elevated temperature., Further studies will be required to explain the mechanism causing the sustained accumulation of PA during recovery, combined with a reduction in the levels of structural phospholipids. PMID:22899083

  7. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, J.; Borchard, C.; Sperling, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175-1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The bacterioplankton communities responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity and revealed a close coupling of heterotrophic bacterial activity to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The natural extracellular enzyme assemblages showed increased activity in response to moderate acidification. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units roughly doubled rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. Activities of extracellular enzymes in the mesocosms were directly related to both seawater pH and primary production. Also primary production and bacterial protein production in the mesocosms at different pCO2 were positively correlated. Therefore, it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilization in this Arctic microbial food web had the potential to counteract increased phytoplankton production that was achieved under elevated pCO2 in this study. However, our results also show that the transfer of beneficial pCO2-related effects on the cellular bacterial metabolism to the scale of community activity and organic matter degradation can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  8. Enhanced 15-lipoxygenase activity and elevated eicosanoid production in kidney tumor microenvironment contribute to the inflammation and immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark in the majority of solid tumors. Our studies demonstrated that macrophages that infiltrate human renal cells carcinoma (RCC) display markedly enhanced expression and activity of 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX2). Obtained data suggest that enhanced lipoxygenase activity in tumor-associated macrophages stimulates cancer inflammation and causes immune dysfunction. PMID:22720260

  9. Enhanced 15-lipoxygenase activity and elevated eicosanoid production in kidney tumor microenvironment contribute to the inflammation and immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2012-03-01

    Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark in the majority of solid tumors. Our studies demonstrated that macrophages that infiltrate human renal cells carcinoma (RCC) display markedly enhanced expression and activity of 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX2). Obtained data suggest that enhanced lipoxygenase activity in tumor-associated macrophages stimulates cancer inflammation and causes immune dysfunction.

  10. Central relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) activation reduces elevated, but not basal, anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cary; Chua, Berenice E; Yang, Annie; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hossain, Mohammad Akhter; Wade, John D; Rosengren, K Johan; Smith, Craig M; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric conditions, but their precise aetiology and underlying pathophysiological processes remain poorly understood. In light of putative anatomical and functional interactions of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system with anxiety-related neural circuits, we assessed the ability of central administration of the RXFP3 agonist, RXFP3-A2, to alter anxiety-like behaviours in adult C57BL/6J mice. We assessed how RXFP3-A2 altered performance in tests measuring rodent anxiety-like behaviour (large open field (LOF), elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark (L/D) box, social interaction). We examined effects of RXFP3-A2 on low 'basal' anxiety, and on elevated anxiety induced by the anxiogenic benzodiazepine, FG-7142; and explored endogenous relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling modulation by testing effects of an RXFP3 antagonist, R3(B1-22)R, on these behaviours. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of RXFP3-A2 (1 nmol, 15 min pre-test) did not alter anxiety-like behaviour under 'basal' conditions in the LOF, EPM or L/D box, but reduced elevated indices of FG-7142-induced (30 mg/kg, ip) anxiety-like behaviour in the L/D box and a single-chamber social interaction test. Furthermore, R3(B1-22)R (4 nmol, icv, 15 min pre-test) increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM (reflected by reduced entries into the open arms), but not consistently in the LOF, L/D box or social interaction tests, suggesting endogenous signaling only weakly participates in regulating 'basal' anxiety-like behaviour, in line with previous studies of relaxin-3 and RXFP3 gene knockout mice. Overall, these data suggest exogenous RXFP3 agonists can reduce elevated (FG-7142-induced) levels of anxiety in mice; data important for gauging how conserved such effects are, with a view to modelling human pathophysiology and the likely therapeutic potential of RXFP3-targeted drugs.

  11. The elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity is associated with the occurrence and recurrence of acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lingli; Ke, Zunyu; Zhao, Yu; Cai, Zhiyou

    2017-03-07

    There is a strong association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels and atherosclerosis-related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Lp-PLA2 in the ischemic stroke and further offer clinical evidence that measuring Lp-PLA2 helps predict the risk of stroke occurrence and recurrence. A total of 328 hospitalized patients were recruited, including 179 cases of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and 149 non-ACI controls. The serum level of Lp-PLA2 in ACI was significantly higher than non-ACI. The serum level of Lp-PLA2 in the recurrence of ACI was significantly higher than the nonrecurrence. The serum levels of Lp-PLA2 in large-artery atherosclerosis subtype were the highest among the subtypes of the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment and non-ACI controls. The level of Lp-PLA2 in large-artery atherosclerosis and the cardioembolism group was statistically significantly higher than that of the control cases. There was no statistically significant difference between the small-vessel occlusion group and the control cases. The present study confirmed that the elevated Lp-PLA2 level can be a risk factor for ischemic stroke in the Chinese population. The serum level of Lp-PLA2 may be a predictive factor for the recurrence of ACI.

  12. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  13. AMPK activation protects cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence via autophagic flux restoration and intracellular NAD(+) elevation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojuan; Tai, Haoran; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jiao; Wei, Xiawei; Ding, Yi; Gong, Hui; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Qin, Jianqiong; Ma, Yuanji; Huang, Ning; Xiang, Rong; Xiao, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress-induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP-RFP-LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD(+) levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD(+) synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD(+) synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD(+) homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD(+) homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging.

  14. Regional Patterns of Elevated Alpha and High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity during Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep in Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riedner, Brady A.; Goldstein, Michael R.; Plante, David T.; Rumble, Meredith E.; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). Methods: All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. Results: The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. Citation: Riedner BA, Goldstein MR, Plante DT, Rumble ME, Ferrarelli F, Tononi G, Benca RM. Regional patterns of elevated alpha and high-frequency electroencephalographic activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep in chronic insomnia: a pilot study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):801–812. PMID:26943465

  15. β-catenin nuclear translocation in colorectal cancer cells is suppressed by PDE10A inhibition, cGMP elevation, and activation of PKG

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kevin; Lindsey, Ashley S.; Li, Nan; Gary, Bernard; Andrews, Joel; Keeton, Adam B.; Piazza, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) is a cGMP and cAMP degrading PDE isozyme that is highly expressed in the brain striatum where it appears to play an important role in cognition and psychomotor activity. PDE10 inhibitors are being developed for the treatment of schizophrenia and Huntington's disease and are generally well tolerated, possibly because of low expression levels in most peripheral tissues. We recently reported high levels of PDE10 in colon tumors and that genetic silencing of PDE10 by siRNA or inhibition with small molecule inhibitors can suppress colon tumor cell growth with a high degree of selectivity over normal colonocytes (Li et al., Oncogene 2015). These observations suggest PDE10 may have an unrecognized role in tumorigenesis. Here we report that the concentration range by which the highly specific PDE10 inhibitor, Pf-2545920 (MP-10), inhibits colon tumor cell growth parallels the concentration range required to increase cGMP and cAMP levels, and activates PKG and PKA, respectively. Moreover, PDE10 knockdown by shRNA reduces the sensitivity of colon tumor cells to the growth inhibitory activity of Pf-2545920. Pf-2545920 also inhibits the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus, thereby reducing β-catenin mediated transcription of survivin, resulting in caspase activation and apoptosis. PDE10 mRNA was also found to be elevated in colon tumors compared with normal tissues. These findings suggest that PDE10 can be targeted for cancer therapy or prevention whereby inhibition results in cGMP elevation and PKG activation to reduce β-catenin-mediated transcription of survival proteins leading to the selective apoptosis of cancer cells. PMID:26713600

  16. β-catenin nuclear translocation in colorectal cancer cells is suppressed by PDE10A inhibition, cGMP elevation, and activation of PKG.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin; Lindsey, Ashley S; Li, Nan; Gary, Bernard; Andrews, Joel; Keeton, Adam B; Piazza, Gary A

    2016-02-02

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) is a cGMP and cAMP degrading PDE isozyme that is highly expressed in the brain striatum where it appears to play an important role in cognition and psychomotor activity. PDE10 inhibitors are being developed for the treatment of schizophrenia and Huntington's disease and are generally well tolerated, possibly because of low expression levels in most peripheral tissues. We recently reported high levels of PDE10 in colon tumors and that genetic silencing of PDE10 by siRNA or inhibition with small molecule inhibitors can suppress colon tumor cell growth with a high degree of selectivity over normal colonocytes (Li et al., Oncogene 2015). These observations suggest PDE10 may have an unrecognized role in tumorigenesis. Here we report that the concentration range by which the highly specific PDE10 inhibitor, Pf-2545920 (MP-10), inhibits colon tumor cell growth parallels the concentration range required to increase cGMP and cAMP levels, and activates PKG and PKA, respectively. Moreover, PDE10 knockdown by shRNA reduces the sensitivity of colon tumor cells to the growth inhibitory activity of Pf-2545920. Pf-2545920 also inhibits the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus, thereby reducing β-catenin mediated transcription of survivin, resulting in caspase activation and apoptosis. PDE10 mRNA was also found to be elevated in colon tumors compared with normal tissues. These findings suggest that PDE10 can be targeted for cancer therapy or prevention whereby inhibition results in cGMP elevation and PKG activation to reduce β-catenin-mediated transcription of survival proteins leading to the selective apoptosis of cancer cells.

  17. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors is required for elevated α1A-adrenoreceptors expression and signaling in mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A.; Fadeeva, Julia I.; Kanareikina, Margarita A.; Kalinina, Natalia I.; Sysoeva, Veronika Yu.; Dyikanov, Daniyar T.; Stambolsky, Dmitriy V.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons are important components of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) niche and noradrenaline regulates biological activities of these cells. Here we examined the mechanisms of regulation of MSCs responsiveness to noradrenaline. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that α1A adrenergic receptors isoform was the most abundant in adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Using calcium imaging in single cells, we demonstrated that only 6.9 ± 0.8% of MSCs responded to noradrenaline by intracellular calcium release. Noradrenaline increases MSCs sensitivity to catecholamines in a transitory mode. Within 6 hrs after incubation with noradrenaline the proportion of cells responding by Ca2+ release to the fresh noradrenaline addition has doubled but declined to the baseline after 24 hrs. Increased sensitivity was due to the elevated quantities of α1A-adrenergic receptors on MSCs. Such elevation depended on the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activation. The data for the first time clarify mechanisms of regulation of MSCs sensitivity to noradrenaline. PMID:27596381

  18. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  19. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Duncan, Robin E; Bazinet, Richard P; Archer, Michael C

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from (14)C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as (14)C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2-3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells.

  20. Phosphoserine phosphatase activity is elevated and correlates negatively with plasma d-serine concentration in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Yuji; Sekine, Masae; Fujii, Kumiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Aoki, Akiko; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Homma, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2016-03-30

    The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. D-3serine and glycine are endogenous l-serine-derived NMDAR co-agonists. We hypothesized that the l-serine synthesis pathway could be involved in schizophrenia. We measured the activity of phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), a rate-limiting enzyme in l-serine synthesis, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 49 normal control subjects. Plasma amino acid (l-serine, d-serine, glycine, glutamine, and glutamate) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral blood mRNA expression levels of PHGDH, PSAT1, PSP, and SR, determined by quantitative real-time PCR were compared between patients and controls. PSP activity was higher in patients than in controls, especially in male patients. In male patients, the plasma l-serine concentration was higher than that in controls. In patients, PSP activity was negatively correlated with plasma d-serine and glycine levels. Furthermore, PSP activity was positively correlated with plasma l-serine concentration. These results were statistically significant only in male patients. PSP, PSAT1, and PHGDH mRNA levels were lower in patients than in controls, except when the PHGDH expression level was compared with ACTB expression. In summary, we found the l-serine synthesis system to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, especially in male patients.

  1. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  2. BDE-47 induces oxidative stress, activates MAPK signaling pathway, and elevates de novo lipogenesis in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Chul; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Seung-Hwi; Kang, Hye-Min; Park, Jun Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Om, Ae-Son; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-12-01

    Brominated flame retardant, 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), has received grave concerns as a persistent organic pollutant, which is toxic to marine organisms, and a suspected link to endocrine abnormalities. Despite the wide distribution in the marine ecosystem, very little is known about the toxic impairments on marine organisms, particularly on invertebrates. Thus, we examined the adverse effects of BDE-47 on life history trait (development), oxidative markers, fatty acid composition, and lipid accumulation in response to BDE-47-induced stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Also, activation level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the gene expression profile of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathways were addressed. As a result, BDE-47 induced oxidative stress (e.g. reactive oxygen species, ROS) mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in MAPK pathways. Activated MAPK pathways, in turn, induced signal molecules that bind to the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for lipogenesis to EcR, SREBP, ChREBP promoters. Also, the stress stimulated the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a preparedness of the organism to adapt the observed stress, which could be correlated with the elongase and desaturase gene (e.g. ELO3, Δ5-DES, Δ9-DES) expressions, and then extended to the delayed early post-embryonic development and increased accumulation of lipid droplets in P. nana. This study will provide a better understanding of how BDE-47 effects on marine invertebrates particularly on the copepods, an important link in the marine food chain.

  3. Elevated glucose and angiotensin II increase 12-lipoxygenase activity and expression in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, R; Gu, J L; Rossi, J; Gonzales, N; Lanting, L; Xu, L; Nadler, J

    1993-01-01

    The lipoxygenase (LO) pathway of arachidonate metabolism has been suggested to play a key role in atherosclerosis and in mediating several actions of angiotensin II (AII). However, the relationship between LO activation and factors linked to accelerated diabetic vascular disease such as hyperglycemia and AII is not known. We have investigated the effect of high glucose (HG; 25 mM) and AII on LO activity as well as LO protein and mRNA expression in porcine aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs). We observed that cells cultured in HG had significantly higher levels of the cell-associated LO products 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). AII added to cells grown in HG specifically further increased only cell-associated 12-HETE levels. Using immunoblot analysis and reverse transcriptase PCRs, we demonstrated the presence in PVSMCs of porcine leukocyte-type 12-LO protein and mRNA, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of both were markedly upregulated by AII as well as by HG. These studies suggest that enhanced 12-LO activity and expression are mechanisms for accelerated vascular disease produced by HG and AII in diabetes mellitus. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8506339

  4. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, J.; Borchard, C.; Sperling, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175-1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase increased along the gradient of mesocosm pCO2. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units almost doubled rates of both enzymes. Heterotrophic bacterial activity was closely coupled to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The bacterioplankton community responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity. Time-integrated primary production and bacterial protein production were positively correlated, strongly suggesting that higher amounts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter were assimilated by heterotrophic bacteria at increased primary production. Primary production increased under high pCO2 in this study, and it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilisation had the potential to counteract the enhanced autotrophic CO2 fixation. However, our results also show that beneficial pCO2-related effects on bacterial activity can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  5. Risk for Clostridium difficile Infection After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Remains Elevated in the Postengraftment Period

    PubMed Central

    Dubberke, Erik R.; Reske, Kimberly A.; Olsen, Margaret A.; Bommarito, Kerry M.; Seiler, Sondra; Silveira, Fernanda P.; Chiller, Tom M.; DiPersio, John; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent cause of diarrhea among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. It is unknown whether risk factors for CDI vary by time posttransplant. Methods We performed a 3-year prospective cohort study of CDI in allogeneic HCT recipients. Participants were enrolled during their transplant hospitalizations. Clinical assessments were performed weekly during hospitalizations and for 12 weeks posttransplant, and monthly for 30 months thereafter. Data were collected through patient interviews and chart review, and included CDI diagnosis, demographics, transplant characteristics, medications, infections, and outcomes. CDI cases were included if they occurred within 1 year of HCT and were stratified by time from transplant. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for CDI. Results One hundred eighty-seven allogeneic HCT recipients were enrolled, including 63 (34%) patients who developed CDI. 38 (60%) CDI cases occurred during the preengraftment period (days 0-30 post-HCT) and 25 (40%) postengraftment (day >30). Lack of any preexisting comorbid disease was significantly associated with lower risk of CDI preengraftment (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.9). Relapsed underlying disease (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.3-33.1), receipt of any high-risk antimicrobials (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 2.9-47.8), and graft-versus-host disease (OR, 7.8; 95% CI, 2.0-30.2) were significant independent risk factors for CDI postengraftment. Conclusions A large portion of CDI cases occurred during the postengraftment period in allogeneic HCT recipients, suggesting that surveillance for CDI should continue beyond the transplant hospitalization and preengraftment period. Patients with continued high underlying severity of illness were at increased risk of CDI postengraftment.

  6. Carbachol- and elevated Ca(2+)-induced translocation of functionally active protein kinase C to the brush border of rabbit ileal Na+ absorbing cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, M E; Wesolek, J; McCullen, J; Rys-Sikora, K; Pandol, S; Rood, R P; Sharp, G W; Donowitz, M

    1991-01-01

    Protein kinase C is involved in mediating the effects of elevated Ca2+ in ileal villus Na+ absorbing cells to inhibit NaCl absorption. The present studies were undertaken to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. The effects of carbachol and the calcium ionophore A23187, agents which elevate intracellular Ca2+ and inhibit NaCl absorption in ileal villus cells, were studied. Carbachol treatment of villus cells caused a rapid decrease in protein kinase C activity in cytosol, with an accompanying increase in microvillus membrane C kinase. Exposure of the villus cells to calcium ionophore also caused a quantitatively similar decrease in cytosol C kinase and increase in C kinase activity in the microvillus membrane. This increase caused by carbachol and Ca2+ ionophore was specific for the microvillus membrane. In fact, 30 s and 10 min after exposure of the cells to carbachol, basolateral membrane protein kinase C decreased, in a time-dependent manner; whereas 10 min of Ca2+ ionophore exposure did not alter basolateral C kinase. Exposure of villus cells to Ca2+ ionophore or carbachol caused similar increases in microvillus membrane diacylglycerol content. As judged by the ability to inhibit Na+/H+ exchange measured in ileal villus cell brush border membrane vesicles, the protein kinase C which translocated to the microvillus membrane was functionally significant. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange required ATP and was reversed by the protein kinase C antagonist H-7. In conclusion, the effect of carbachol and Ca2+ ionophore in regulation of ileal NaCl absorption is associated with an increase in microvillus membrane diacylglycerol content and functionally active protein kinase C. The effects of both carbachol and Ca2+ ionophore are different on brush border and basolateral membrane distribution of protein kinase C. Images PMID:1885773

  7. Lactic Acid is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Induces Myofibroblast Differentiation Via pH-Dependent Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-β

    SciTech Connect

    Kottman, R. M.; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Smolnycki, Katie A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Dahanayake, Thinesh; Salibi, Rami; Honnons, Sylvie; Jones, Carolyn; Isern, Nancy G.; Hu, Jian Z.; Nathan, Steven D.; Grant, Geraldine; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2012-10-15

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods:We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissuefrom patients with IPFanddeterminedthe effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b activation in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; a-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-b. TGF-b induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1a and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low dose TGF-b to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1a and LDH5 inhibited TGF-b–induced myofibroblast differentiation. Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pHdependent activation of TGF-b. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders.

  8. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated, but not essential, in the development of bleomycin-induced murine scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, M; Yamamoto, T; Nishioka, K

    2005-01-01

    Accumulative data have demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in the extracellular matrix metabolism; however, the involvement of PAI-1 in scleroderma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of PAI-1 in bleomycin-induced murine scleroderma. 100 µg of bleomycin was injected subcutaneously to the back skin of C3H/HeJ mice on alternate day for 4 weeks. Histopathological findings revealed that PAI-1 was positive in macrophage-like cells and fibroblastic cells in the dermis, in parallel with the induction of dermal sclerosis. PAI-1 mRNA expression in the whole skin was up-regulated at 1 and 4 weeks. The production of active PAI-1 protein in the lesional skin was significantly increased 3 and 4 weeks after bleomycin treatment. Next, we examined whether dermal sclerosis is induced by bleomycin in PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1–/–) mice. 10 µg of bleomycin was subcutaneously injected to PAI-1–/– and wild type (WT) mice 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed that dermal sclerosis was similarly induced even in PAI-1–/– as well as WT mice. Dermal thickness and collagen contents in the skin were significantly increased by bleomycin injection in both PAI-1–/– and WT mice, and the rate of increase was similar. These data suggest that PAI-1 plays an important role, possibly via TGF-β pathway activation. However, the fact that PAI-1 deficiency did not ameliorate skin sclerosis suggest that PAI-1 is not the essential factor in the development of bleomycin-induced scleroderma, and more complex biochemical effects other than PA/plasmin system are greatly suspected. PMID:15730388

  9. Resveratrol Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Elevated Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Activity in Diabetic Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Kang, Sang-Soo; Cho, Gyeong-Jae; Choi, Wan-Sung

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the effects of resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with neuroprotective properties, on retinal neuronal cell death mediated by diabetes-induced activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice by five consecutive intraperitoneal injections of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Control mice received buffer. All mice were killed 2 months after the injections, and the extent of neuronal cell death, CaMKII, and phospho-CaMKII protein expression levels and CaMKII kinase activity were examined in the retinas. To assess the role of CaMKII in the death of retinal neurons, a small-interfering RNA (siRNA) or specific inhibitor of CaMKII was injected into the right vitreous humor, and vehicle only was injected into the left vitreous humor, 2 days before death. Resveratrol (20 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage daily for 4 weeks, beginning 1 month after the fifth injection of either STZ or buffer. RESULTS The death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), CaMKII, phospho-CaMKII protein levels, and CaMKII activity were all greatly increased in the retinas of diabetic mice compared with controls, 2 months after induction of diabetes. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive signals co-localized with CaMKII- and phospho-CaMKII immunoreactive RGCs. However, in addition to CaMKII knockdown and inhibition by siRNA or a specific inhibitor, respectively, resveratrol provided complete protection from diabetes-induced retinal cell death. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, resveratrol prevented diabetes-induced RGC death via CaMKII downregulation, implying that resveratrol may have potential therapeutic applications for prevention of diabetes-induced visual dysfunction. PMID:20424226

  10. True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tom; Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-11-01

    Adrenal stress hormones released in response to acute stress may yield memory-enhancing effects when released post-learning and impairing effects at memory retrieval, especially for emotional memory material. However, so far these differential effects of stress hormones on the various memory phases for neutral and emotional memory material have not been demonstrated within one experiment. This study investigated whether, in line with their effects on true memory, stress and stress-induced adrenal stress hormones affect the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of emotional and neutral false memories. Participants (N=90) were exposed to a stressor before encoding, during consolidation, before retrieval, or were not stressed and then were subjected to neutral and emotional versions of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott word list learning paradigm. Twenty-four hours later, recall of presented words (true recall) and non-presented critical lure words (false recall) was assessed. Results show that stress exposure resulted in superior true memory performance in the consolidation stress group and reduced true memory performance in the retrieval stress group compared to the other groups, predominantly for emotional words. These memory-enhancing and memory-impairing effects were strongly related to stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity measured via salivary alpha-amylase levels. Neutral and emotional false recall, on the other hand, was neither affected by stress exposure, nor related to cortisol and sympathetic activity following stress. These results demonstrate the importance of stress-induced hormone-related activity in enhancing memory consolidation and in impairing memory retrieval, in particular for emotional memory material.

  11. Posttranslational elevation of cell wall invertase activity by silencing its inhibitor in tomato delays leaf senescence and increases seed weight and fruit hexose level.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye; Ni, Di-An; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Invertase plays multiple pivotal roles in plant development. Thus, its activity must be tightly regulated in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that a group of small proteins that inhibit invertase activity in vitro appears to exist in a wide variety of plants. However, little is known regarding their roles in planta. Here, we examined the function of INVINH1, a putative invertase inhibitor, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of a INVINH1:green fluorescent protein fusion revealed its apoplasmic localization. Ectopic overexpression of INVINH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana specifically reduced cell wall invertase activity. By contrast, silencing its expression in tomato significantly increased the activity of cell wall invertase without altering activities of cytoplasmic and vacuolar invertases. Elevation of cell wall invertase activity in RNA interference transgenic tomato led to (1) a prolonged leaf life span involving in a blockage of abscisic acid-induced senescence and (2) an increase in seed weight and fruit hexose level, which is likely achieved through enhanced sucrose hydrolysis in the apoplasm of the fruit vasculature. This assertion is based on (1) coexpression of INVINH1 and a fruit-specific cell wall invertase Lin5 in phloem parenchyma cells of young fruit, including the placenta regions connecting developing seeds; (2) a physical interaction between INVINH1 and Lin5 in vivo; and (3) a symplasmic discontinuity at the interface between placenta and seeds. Together, the results demonstrate that INVINH1 encodes a protein that specifically inhibits the activity of cell wall invertase and regulates leaf senescence and seed and fruit development in tomato by limiting the invertase activity in planta.

  12. Osteopontin That Is Elevated in the Airways during COPD Impairs the Antibacterial Activity of Common Innate Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Gela, Anele; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mori, Michiko; Keenan, Paul; Mörgelin, Matthias; Erjefält, Jonas S; Herwald, Heiko; Egesten, Arne; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the respiratory tract contribute to exacerbations and disease progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is also an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in COPD. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood but include impaired mucociliary clearance and structural remodeling of the airways. In addition, antimicrobial proteins that are constitutively expressed or induced during inflammatory conditions are an important part of the airway innate host defense. In the present study, we show that osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein that is highly upregulated in the airways of COPD patients co-localizes with several antimicrobial proteins expressed in the airways. In vitro, OPN bound lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), midkine, human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) but showed low or no affinity for lysozyme and LL-37. Binding of OPN impaired the antibacterial activity against the important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, OPN reduced lysozyme-induced killing of S. pneumoniae, a finding that could be explained by binding of OPN to the bacterial surface, thereby shielding the bacteria. A fragment of OPN generated by elastase of P. aeruginosa retained some inhibitory effect. Some antimicrobial proteins have additional functions. However, the muramidase-activity of lysozyme and the protease inhibitory function of SLPI were not affected by OPN. Taken together, OPN can contribute to the impairment of innate host defense by interfering with the function of antimicrobial proteins, thus increasing the vulnerability to acquire infections during COPD.

  13. Osteopontin That Is Elevated in the Airways during COPD Impairs the Antibacterial Activity of Common Innate Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Michiko; Keenan, Paul; Mörgelin, Matthias; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Herwald, Heiko; Egesten, Arne; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the respiratory tract contribute to exacerbations and disease progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is also an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in COPD. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood but include impaired mucociliary clearance and structural remodeling of the airways. In addition, antimicrobial proteins that are constitutively expressed or induced during inflammatory conditions are an important part of the airway innate host defense. In the present study, we show that osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein that is highly upregulated in the airways of COPD patients co-localizes with several antimicrobial proteins expressed in the airways. In vitro, OPN bound lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), midkine, human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) but showed low or no affinity for lysozyme and LL-37. Binding of OPN impaired the antibacterial activity against the important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, OPN reduced lysozyme-induced killing of S. pneumoniae, a finding that could be explained by binding of OPN to the bacterial surface, thereby shielding the bacteria. A fragment of OPN generated by elastase of P. aeruginosa retained some inhibitory effect. Some antimicrobial proteins have additional functions. However, the muramidase-activity of lysozyme and the protease inhibitory function of SLPI were not affected by OPN. Taken together, OPN can contribute to the impairment of innate host defense by interfering with the function of antimicrobial proteins, thus increasing the vulnerability to acquire infections during COPD. PMID:26731746

  14. N-Acetylglucosamine-dependent biofilm formation in Pectobacterium atrosepticum is cryptic and activated by elevated c-di-GMP levels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Coulthurst, Sarah J; Sanjuán, Juan; Salmond, George P C

    2011-12-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba) strain SCRI1043 does not exhibit appreciable biofilm formation under standard laboratory conditions. Here we show that a biofilm-forming phenotype in this strain could be activated from a cryptic state by increasing intracellular levels of c-di-GMP, through overexpression of a constitutively active diguanylate cyclase (PleD*) from Caulobacter crescentus. Randomly obtained Pba transposon mutants defective in the pga operon, involved in synthesis and translocation of poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), were all impaired in this biofilm formation. The presence of the PGA-degrading enzyme dispersin B in the growth media prevented biofilm formation by Pba overexpressing PleD*, further supporting the importance of PGA for biofilm formation by Pba. Importantly, a pga mutant exhibited a reduction in root binding to the host plant under conditions of high intracellular c-di-GMP levels. A modest but consistent increase in pga transcript levels was associated with high intracellular levels of c-di-GMP. Our results indicate tight control of PGA-dependent biofilm formation by c-di-GMP in Pba.

  15. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  16. Elevated K+ channel activity opposes vasoconstrictor response to serotonin in cerebral arteries of the Fawn Hooded Hypertensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) rats exhibit impaired myogenic response and introgression of a small region of Brown Norway chromosome 1 containing 15 genes restored the response in FHH.1BN congenic rat. The impaired myogenic response in FHH rats is associated with an increase in the activity of the large conductance potassium (BK) channel in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The present study examined whether the increased BK channel function in FHH rat alters vasoconstrictor response to serotonin (5-HT). Basal myogenic tone and spontaneous myogenic response of the MCA was attenuated by about twofold and about fivefold, respectively in FHH compared with FHH.1BN rats. 5-HT (0.1 μM)-mediated vasoconstriction was about twofold lower, and inhibition of the BK channel increased the vasoconstrictor response by about threefold in FHH compared with FHH.1BN rats. 5-HT (3 μM) decreased BK channel and spontaneous transient outward currents in VSMCs isolated from FHH.1BN but had no effect in FHH rats. 5-HT significantly depolarized the membrane potential in MCAs of FHH.1BN than FHH rats. Blockade of the BK channel normalized 5-HT-induced depolarization in MCAs of FHH rats. The 5-HT-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium concentration was significantly reduced in plateau phase in the VSMCs of FHH relative to FHH.1BN rats. These findings suggest that sequence variants in the genes located in the small region of FHH rat chromosome 1 impairs 5-HT-mediated vasoconstriction by decreasing its ability to inhibit BK channel activity, depolarize the membrane and blunt the rise in cytosolic calcium concentration. PMID:27789734

  17. Exposure to a high-fat diet alters leptin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Prior, Larissa J; Eikelis, Nina; Armitage, James A; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Barzel, Benjamin; Head, Geoffrey A

    2010-04-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system through the central actions of the adipokine leptin has been suggested as a major mechanism by which obesity contributes to the development of hypertension. However, direct evidence for elevated sympathetic activity in obesity has been limited to muscle. The present study examined the renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), as well as the changes in the sensitivity to intracerebroventricular leptin. New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13.5% HFD for 4 weeks showed modest weight gain but a 2- to 3-fold greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with control rabbits. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine concentration increased by 8%, 26%, and 87%, respectively (P<0.05), after 3 weeks of HFD. Renal sympathetic nerve activity was 48% higher (P<0.05) in HFD compared with control diet rabbits and was correlated to plasma leptin (r=0.87; P<0.01). Intracerebroventricular leptin administration (5 to 100 microg) increased mean arterial pressure similarly in both groups, but renal sympathetic nerve activity increased more in HFD-fed rabbits. By contrast, intracerebroventricular leptin produced less neurons expressing c-Fos in HFD compared with control rabbits in regions important for appetite and sympathetic actions of leptin (arcuate: -54%, paraventricular: -69%, and dorsomedial hypothalamus: -65%). These results suggest that visceral fat accumulation through consumption of a HFD leads to marked sympathetic activation, which is related to increased responsiveness to central sympathoexcitatory effects of leptin. The paradoxical reduction in hypothalamic neuronal activation by leptin suggests a marked "selective leptin resistance" in these animals.

  18. Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities.

    PubMed

    Drollette, Brian D; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Warner, Nathaniel R; Darrah, Thomas H; Karatum, Osman; O'Connor, Megan P; Nelson, Robert K; Fernandez, Loretta A; Reddy, Christopher M; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2015-10-27

    Hundreds of organic chemicals are used during natural gas extraction via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). However, it is unclear whether these chemicals, injected into deep shale horizons, reach shallow groundwater aquifers and affect local water quality, either from those deep HVHF injection sites or from the surface or shallow subsurface. Here, we report detectable levels of organic compounds in shallow groundwater samples from private residential wells overlying the Marcellus Shale in northeastern Pennsylvania. Analyses of purgeable and extractable organic compounds from 64 groundwater samples revealed trace levels of volatile organic compounds, well below the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels, and low levels of both gasoline range (0-8 ppb) and diesel range organic compounds (DRO; 0-157 ppb). A compound-specific analysis revealed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is a disclosed HVHF additive, that was notably absent in a representative geogenic water sample and field blanks. Pairing these analyses with (i) inorganic chemical fingerprinting of deep saline groundwater, (ii) characteristic noble gas isotopes, and (iii) spatial relationships between active shale gas extraction wells and wells with disclosed environmental health and safety violations, we differentiate between a chemical signature associated with naturally occurring saline groundwater and one associated with alternative anthropogenic routes from the surface (e.g., accidental spills or leaks). The data support a transport mechanism of DRO to groundwater via accidental release of fracturing fluid chemicals derived from the surface rather than subsurface flow of these fluids from the underlying shale formation.

  19. Plasma corticosterone elevation inhibits the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in the Syrian hamster pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Z S; Bothorel, B; Markus, R P; Simonneaux, V

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated how the mild stress-induced increase in endogenous corticosterone affected the pineal gland in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The animals were maintained under constant light for 1 day, instead of a cycle of 14:10-h, to increase the circulating corticosterone levels during the daytime. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB), which is the pivotal transcription factor for stress and injury, presented a daily rhythm in normal animals. NFKB nuclear content increased linearly from the onset of light [Zeitgeber Time 0 (ZT0)] until ZT11 and decreased after ZT12 when the plasma corticosterone peak was detected in normal animals. However, the 24-h profiles of the two curves were different, and they did not clearly support an exclusive relationship between corticosterone levels and NFKB content. Therefore, we tested the effect of increased endogenous corticosterone through inducing mild stress by maintaining daytime illumination for one night. This stressful condition, which increased daytime corticosterone levels, resulted in a daytime decrease in NFKB nuclear content, and this was inhibited by mifepristone. Overall, this study shows that NFKB has a daily rhythm in Syrian hamster pineal glands and, by increasing endogenous corticosterone with a stressful condition, NFKB activity is regulated. Therefore, this study suggests that the pineal gland in the Syrian hamster is a sensor of stressful conditions.

  20. Vascular smooth muscle cells from injured rat aortas display elevated matrix production associated with transforming growth factor-beta activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, L. M.; Wolf, Y. G.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1995-01-01

    The arterial response to injury is characterized by a short period of increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, followed by an extended period of extracellular matrix accumulation in the intima. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated as a causative factor in the formation of extracellular matrix in this process, which leads to progressive thickening of the intima, known as intimal hyperplasia. In vitro analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells harvested from normal rat aortas and from aortas injured 14 days earlier showed that both types of cells attached equally well to culture dishes but that the initial spreading of the cells was increased in cells derived from injured vessels. Cells from the injured arteries produced more fibronectin and proteoglycans into the culture medium than the cells from normal arteries and contained more TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 increased proteoglycan synthesis by normal smooth muscle cells, and the presence of a neutralizing anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody reduced proteoglycan synthesis by the cells from injured arteries in culture. Fibronectin synthesis was not altered by these treatments. These results indicate that the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in neointimal lesions is at least partially caused by autocrine TGF-beta activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7573349

  1. Elevated Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level, Association Between Depression and Disease Activity, and Stress as a Predictor of Disease Flare in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Psychological stress has been shown to trigger systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, objective evidence of symptom aggravation due to mental stress is difficult to identify. We aimed to investigate the relationship between SLE disease activity and mental stress, and the usefulness of saliva as an assessment index for stress in patients with SLE. We prospectively assessed the salivary stress hormone and disease-related biomarkers, and questionnaire data regarding stress and depression in 100 patients with SLE and 49 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs). Patients with SLE had higher mean salivary α-amylase levels (5.7 ± 4.6 U/mL vs 2.7 ± 2.5 U/mL, P < 0.001), anti-chromatin antibody levels (25.3 ± 22.9 U/mL vs 15.9 ± 10.9 U/mL, P < 0.001), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) scores (11.1 ± 9.2 vs 5.3 ± 5.1, P < 0.001) than NCs. However, salivary cortisol levels and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores did not differ between the groups. The BDI scores correlated with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.253, P = 0.011) and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (r = 0.234, P = 0.019). SLE patients with the highest-quartile PSS scores had significantly increased SLEDAI scores compared to those with the lowest-quartile PSS scores after 4 to 5 months’ follow-up. Moreover, SLE patients with elevated SLEDAI scores had higher baseline PSS scores. Patients with SLE showed uncoupling of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; higher salivary α-amylase and no different cortisol levels compared with NCs. Also, patients with SLE were more depressed, which correlated with disease activity. Furthermore, perceived stress was not correlated with disease activity; however, disease activity worsened several months later with elevated perceived stress levels. PMID:26222848

  2. Reduced sleep spindle activity in early-onset and elevated risk for depression Running head: Sleep Spindles and Adolescent MDD

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective Sleep disturbances are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), although polysomnographic (PSG) abnormalities are more prevalent in adults than in children and adolescents with MDD. Sleep spindle activity (SPA) is associated with neuroplasticity mechanisms during brain maturation and is more abundant in childhood and adolescence than in adulthood, and as such, may be a more sensitive measure of sleep alteration than PSG in early-onset depression. This study investigated SPA changes related to early-onset MDD, comparing those already ill and those at high-risk for MDD to healthy non-depressed controls. Method The study included 63 participants (8-15 year-olds): 21 currently depressed, 21 at high-risk for MDD based on positive family history of MDD, and 21 healthy controls with no personal or family history of psychiatric illness. All participants maintained a regular sleep/wake schedule for 5 days, followed by 2 nights in the lab. SPA was analyzed in Stage 2 of non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. Results SPA differed significantly between groups, particularly in the late part of the night (F2,62=7.3 p=0.001). Although, the difference was greatest between MDD and healthy controls, both the MDD (p=0.0004) and at high-risk groups (p=0.02) had significantly lower SPA compared to healthy controls. SPA deficit was more prominent in females than males (F5,62=5.19 p=0.005). Conclusions Low SPA characterizes youths with MDD and those at high-risk, particularly among girls, suggesting that early-onset depression and risk for the illness are associated with decreased neuroplasticity. PMID:20732629

  3. Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities

    PubMed Central

    Drollette, Brian D.; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Karatum, Osman; O’Connor, Megan P.; Nelson, Robert K.; Fernandez, Loretta A.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of organic chemicals are used during natural gas extraction via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). However, it is unclear whether these chemicals, injected into deep shale horizons, reach shallow groundwater aquifers and affect local water quality, either from those deep HVHF injection sites or from the surface or shallow subsurface. Here, we report detectable levels of organic compounds in shallow groundwater samples from private residential wells overlying the Marcellus Shale in northeastern Pennsylvania. Analyses of purgeable and extractable organic compounds from 64 groundwater samples revealed trace levels of volatile organic compounds, well below the Environmental Protection Agency’s maximum contaminant levels, and low levels of both gasoline range (0–8 ppb) and diesel range organic compounds (DRO; 0–157 ppb). A compound-specific analysis revealed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is a disclosed HVHF additive, that was notably absent in a representative geogenic water sample and field blanks. Pairing these analyses with (i) inorganic chemical fingerprinting of deep saline groundwater, (ii) characteristic noble gas isotopes, and (iii) spatial relationships between active shale gas extraction wells and wells with disclosed environmental health and safety violations, we differentiate between a chemical signature associated with naturally occurring saline groundwater and one associated with alternative anthropogenic routes from the surface (e.g., accidental spills or leaks). The data support a transport mechanism of DRO to groundwater via accidental release of fracturing fluid chemicals derived from the surface rather than subsurface flow of these fluids from the underlying shale formation. PMID:26460018

  4. Interferon-resistant Daudi cells are deficient in interferon-alpha-induced ISGF3 alpha activation, but remain sensitive to the interferon-alpha-induced increase in ISGF3 gamma content.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Tovey, M G

    1993-10-01

    Low levels of the transcription factor ISGF3 alpha were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of untreated Daudi cells, which increased markedly following interferon (IFN) treatment. In contrast no ISGF3 alpha was detected in an IFN-resistant clone of Daudi cells, DIF8, and only low levels were detected in these cells after IFN-alpha treatment. High levels of ISGF3 were produced in vitro, however, by the addition of ISGF3 alpha to extracts of IFN-treated DIF8 cells, indicating that IFN is unable to produce substantial amounts of functional ISGF3 alpha in DIF8 cells. A second clone of IFN-resistant Daudi cells, DIF3, also exhibited defective ISGF3 alpha production, which was restored to normal in the subclone DIF3REV5 that had reverted to high IFN sensitivity. Thus, the antiproliferative effect of IFN on Daudi cells and derived clones is closely related to the level of ISGF3 present in the nucleus of these cells. IFN-alpha, however, also enhances the content of ISGF3 gamma in IFN-resistant cells as well as certain proteins of unknown function, raising the possibility that a second pathway of IFN-alpha signal transduction, distinct from the ISGF3 pathway, remains functional in both DIF8 and DIF3 cells.

  5. Pharmacological Inhibition of mTORC1 Prevents Over-Activation of the Primordial Follicle Pool in Response to Elevated PI3K Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Deepak; Risal, Sanjiv; Liu, Kui; Shen, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The majority of ovarian primordial follicles must be preserved in a quiescent state to allow for the regular production of gametes over the female reproductive lifespan. However, the molecular mechanism that maintains the long quiescence of primordial follicles is poorly understood. Under certain pathological conditions, the entire pool of primordial follicles matures simultaneously leading to an accelerated loss of primordial follicles and to premature ovarian failure (POF). We have previously shown that loss of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) in mouse oocytes leads to premature activation of the entire pool of primordial follicles, subsequent follicular depletion in early adulthood, and the onset of POF. Lack of PTEN leads to increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the oocytes. To study the functional and pathological roles of elevated mTORC1 signaling in the oocytes, we treated the Pten-mutant mice with the specific mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. When administered to Pten-deficient mice prior to the activation of the primordial follicles, rapamycin effectively prevented global follicular activation and preserved the ovarian reserve. These results provide a rationale for exploring the possible use of rapamycin as a drug for the preservation of the primordial follicle pool, and the possible prevention of POF. PMID:23326514

  6. Elevated B-cell activating factor BAFF, but not APRIL, correlates with CSF cerebellar autoantibodies in pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fühlhuber, V; Bick, S; Kirsten, A; Hahn, A; Gerriets, T; Tschernatsch, M; Kaps, M; Preissner, K T; Blaes, F; Altenkämper, S

    2009-05-29

    Childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) occurs idiopathic or, in association with a neuroblastoma, as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Since autoantibodies were identified in some patients, an autoimmune pathogenesis has been suspected. While the newly discovered B-cell activating factors BAFF and APRIL are involved in systemic autoimmune diseases, their association with neuroimmunological diseases is hardly understood. We here investigated the BAFF and APRIL levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of OMS patients and their correlation with surface-binding autoantibodies. BAFF and APRIL were both determined by ELISA, and autoantibodies to cerebellar granular neurons (CGN) have been investigated by flow cytometry in 17 OMS patients, 16 neuroblastoma (NB) patients, 13 controls and 11 children with inflammatory neurological diseases (IND). BAFF, but no APRIL, was elevated in the CSF of OMS children and IND children. However, in contrast to IND patients, OMS patients did not have a blood-brain-barrier disturbance, indicating that BAFF was produced intrathecally in OMS patients, but not in IND patients. CSF BAFF levels showed a correlation with CSF CGN autoantibodies (r(2)=0.58, p<0.05). These data indicate that an activated B-cell system in the cerebrospinal fluid is involved in the pathogenesis of OMS, and BAFF may be a candidate parameter for the activation of B-cell immune system.

  7. Effects of tirofiban on platelet activation and endothelial function in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuan; Zuo, Guoxing; Zheng, Liuying; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Dong; Cao, Zhongnan; Hu, Sheng; Du, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined, for the first time, the effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, on platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with ST-segment-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 119 STEMI patients were randomized into either tirofiban group (n = 72, intracoronary injection of 10 μg/kg tirofiban prior to PCI, followed by intravenous infusion at 0.15 μg/kg min) or a control group (n = 47), which did not receive tirofiban. Periprocedural administration of tirofiban was associated with significantly reduced levels of platelet activation (lower levels of CD62P and PAC-1) and endothelial dysfunction (reduced levels of endothelial microparticles, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) 48 h after PCI. At 10 days after PCI, patients in the tirofiban group had a higher incidence of complete STR (78.7 vs. 65.0%) and higher left ventricular ejection fractions (47.8 vs. 44.2) compared to those in the control group. The clinical outcomes between two groups did not differ significantly two weeks after treatment. The results demonstrated that periprocedural administration of tirofiban is associated with significantly attenuated platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. This may have contributed to the improved myocardial reperfusion and preservation of left ventricular systolic function in these patients.

  8. Exposure to a high-fat diet during development alters leptin and ghrelin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Prior, Larissa J; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Lim, Kyungjoon; Armitage, James A; Head, Geoffrey A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to maternal obesity or a maternal diet rich in fat during development may have adverse outcomes in offspring, such as the development of obesity and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of a maternal high-fat diet (m-HFD) on offspring blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, responses to stress, and sensitivity to central administration of leptin and ghrelin. Offspring of New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13% HFD were slightly heavier than offspring from mothers fed a 4% maternal normal fat diet (P<0.05) but had 64% greater fat pad mass (P=0.015). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity at 4 months of age were 7%, 7%, and 24% greater, respectively (P<0.001), in m-HFD compared with maternal normal fat diet rabbits, and the renal sympathetic nerve activity response to airjet stress was enhanced in the m-HFD group. m-HFD offspring had markedly elevated pressor and renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to intracerebroventricular leptin (5-100 µg) and enhanced sympathetic responses to intracerebroventricular ghrelin (1-5 nmol). In contrast, there was resistance to the anorexic effects of intracerebroventricular leptin and less neuronal activation as detected by Fos immunohistochemistry in the arcuate (-57%; P<0.001) and paraventricular (-37%; P<0.05) nuclei of the hypothalamus in m-HFD offspring compared with maternal normal fat diet rabbits. We conclude that offspring from mothers consuming an HFD exhibit an adverse cardiovascular profile in adulthood because of altered central hypothalamic sensitivity to leptin and ghrelin.

  9. Elevation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in Holocaust survivor offspring: evidence for an intergenerational effect of maternal trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bierer, Linda M.; Bader, Heather N.; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult offspring of Holocaust survivors comprise an informative cohort in which to study intergenerational transmission of the effects of trauma exposure. Lower cortisol and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity have been previously demonstrated in Holocaust survivors with PTSD, and in offspring of Holocaust survivors in association with maternal PTSD. In other work, reduction in the activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD-2), which inactivates cortisol, was identified in Holocaust survivors in comparison to age-matched, unexposed Jewish controls. Therefore, we investigated glucocorticoid metabolism in offspring of Holocaust survivors to evaluate if similar enzymatic decrements would be observed that might help to explain glucocorticoid alterations previously shown for Holocaust offspring. Methods Holocaust offspring (n=85) and comparison subjects (n=27) were evaluated with clinical diagnostic interview and self-rating scales, and asked to collect a 24-hr urine sample from which concentrations of cortisol and glucocorticoid metabolites were assayed by GCMS. 11β-HSD-2 activity was determined as the ratio of urinary cortisone to cortisol. Results Significantly reduced cortisol excretion was observed in Holocaust offspring compared to controls (p=.046), as had been shown for Holocaust survivors. However, 11β-HSD-2 activity was elevated for offspring compared to controls (p=.008), particularly among those whose mothers had been children, rather than adolescents or adults, during World War II (p=.032). The effect of paternal Holocaust exposure could not be reliably investigated in the current sample. Conclusions The association of offspring 11β-HSD-2 activity with maternal age at Holocaust exposure is consistent with the influence of glucocorticoid programming. Whereas a long standing reduction in 11β-HSD-2 activity among survivors is readily interpreted in the context of Holocaust related deprivation, understanding the

  10. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  11. Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Differ in Gene Expression and Activity of Inorganic Carbon Uptake Systems at Elevated CO2 Levels.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Jakupovic, Dennis; Matthijs, Hans C P; Huisman, Jef

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are generally assumed to be effective competitors at low CO2 levels because of their efficient CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and yet how bloom-forming cyanobacteria respond to rising CO2 concentrations is less clear. Here, we investigate changes in CCM gene expression at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (1,100 ppm) in six strains of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis. All strains downregulated cmpA encoding the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, whereas both the low- and high-affinity CO2 uptake genes were expressed constitutively. Four strains downregulated the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and/or sbtA, whereas two strains showed constitutive expression of the bicA-sbtA operon. In one of the latter strains, a transposon insert in bicA caused low bicA and sbtA transcript levels, which made this strain solely dependent on BCT1 for bicarbonate uptake. Activity measurements of the inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems confirmed the CCM gene expression results. Interestingly, genes encoding the RuBisCO enzyme, structural carboxysome components, and carbonic anhydrases were not regulated. Hence, Microcystis mainly regulates the initial uptake of inorganic carbon, which might be an effective strategy for a species experiencing strongly fluctuating Ci concentrations. Our results show that CCM gene regulation of Microcystis varies among strains. The observed genetic and phenotypic variation in CCM responses may offer an important template for natural selection, leading to major changes in the genetic composition of harmful cyanobacterial blooms at elevated CO2.

  12. Serum Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is Associated with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Elevated Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shu-ichi; Tanaka, Suguru; Maeda, Daichi; Morita, Hideaki; Fujisaka, Tomohiro; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Takahide; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a biomarker of subclinical levels of inflammation, is significantly correlated with cardiovascular events. Purpose We investigated the association between suPAR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) among cardiac inpatients. Methods and Results In total, 242 patients (mean age 71.3 ± 9.8 years; 70 women) admitted to the cardiology department were enrolled in the study. suPAR was significantly correlated with LVEF (R = -0.24, P<0.001), LVMI (R = 0.16, P = 0.014) and BNP (R = 0.46, P<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the highest suPAR tertile (> 3236 pg/mL) was associated with low LVEF (< 50%) and elevated BNP (> 300 pg/mL) with an odds ratio of 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22–12.1) and 5.36 (95% CI, 1.32–21.8), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, log-transformed estimated glomerular filtration rate (log(eGFR)), C-reactive protein, and diuretic use. The association between suPAR and LVMI was not statistically significant. In multivariate receiver operating characteristic analysis, addition of log(suPAR) to the combination of age, sex, log(eGFR) and CRP incrementally improved the prediction of low LVEF (area under the curve [AUC], 0.827 to 0.852, P = 0.046) and BNP ≥ 300 pg/mL (AUC, 0.869 to 0.906; P = 0.029). Conclusions suPAR was associated with low LVEF and elevated BNP, but not with left ventricular hypertrophy, independent of CRP, renal function, and diuretic use among cardiac inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis. PMID:28135310

  13. Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Differ in Gene Expression and Activity of Inorganic Carbon Uptake Systems at Elevated CO2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Jakupovic, Dennis; Matthijs, Hans C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are generally assumed to be effective competitors at low CO2 levels because of their efficient CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and yet how bloom-forming cyanobacteria respond to rising CO2 concentrations is less clear. Here, we investigate changes in CCM gene expression at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (1,100 ppm) in six strains of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis. All strains downregulated cmpA encoding the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, whereas both the low- and high-affinity CO2 uptake genes were expressed constitutively. Four strains downregulated the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and/or sbtA, whereas two strains showed constitutive expression of the bicA-sbtA operon. In one of the latter strains, a transposon insert in bicA caused low bicA and sbtA transcript levels, which made this strain solely dependent on BCT1 for bicarbonate uptake. Activity measurements of the inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems confirmed the CCM gene expression results. Interestingly, genes encoding the RuBisCO enzyme, structural carboxysome components, and carbonic anhydrases were not regulated. Hence, Microcystis mainly regulates the initial uptake of inorganic carbon, which might be an effective strategy for a species experiencing strongly fluctuating Ci concentrations. Our results show that CCM gene regulation of Microcystis varies among strains. The observed genetic and phenotypic variation in CCM responses may offer an important template for natural selection, leading to major changes in the genetic composition of harmful cyanobacterial blooms at elevated CO2. PMID:26319871

  14. Elevated YAP and its downstream targets CCN1 and CCN2 in basal cell carcinoma: impact on keratinocyte proliferation and stromal cell activation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Xu, Yiru; Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; Betcher, Stephanie; Calderone, Ken; He, Tianyuan; Johnson, Timothy M; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2014-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator of hippo signaling pathway, which plays an important role in organ size control and tumorigenesis. Here we report that YAP and its downstream transcriptional targets CCN1 and CCN2 are markedly elevated in keratinocytes in human skin basal cell carcinoma tumor islands. In human keratinocytes, knockdown of YAP significantly reduced expression of CCN1 and CCN2, and repressed proliferation and survival. This inhibition of proliferation and survival was rescued by restoration of CCN1 expression, but not by CCN2 expression. In basal cell carcinoma stroma, CCN2-regulated genes type I collagen, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were highly expressed. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy revealed increased tissue stiffness in basal cell carcinoma stroma compared to normal dermis. These data provide evidence that up-regulation of YAP in basal cell carcinoma impacts both aberrant keratinocyte proliferation, via CCN1, and tumor stroma cell activation and stroma remodeling, via CCN2. Targeting YAP and/or CCN1 and CCN2 may provide clinical benefit in basal cell carcinoma.

  15. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity.

  16. Elevated Expression of Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Inhibitory Motif (TIGIT) on T Lymphocytes is Correlated with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qing; Deng, Zhen; Xu, Chuxin; Zeng, Lulu; Ye, Jianqing; Li, Xue; Guo, Yang; Huang, Zikun; Li, Junming

    2017-01-01

    Background It is well known that lymphocytes play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). T cell immunoreceptors with immunoglobulin (Ig) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (TIGIT) have immunosuppressive co-stimulatory molecules that mediate inhibitory effects, but their roles in RA are poorly understood. Material/Methods Were recruited 76 patients with RA and 33 healthy controls (HC). Clinical manifestations, laboratory measurements, physical examination, and medical history of RA patients were recorded. The expression of TIGIT on CD3+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes, and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes was determined using flow cytometry. The expression of TIGIT on T lymphocytes in patients with RA was further analyzed to investigate its correlations with markers of autoimmune response, inflammation, and disease activity in RA. Results Compared with HC, the expression levels of TIGIT on CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased in patients with RA (P < 0.01). The frequency of TIGIT-expressing CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes was positively correlated with RF, increased ACPA, ESR, and CRP levels. The frequency of TIGIT-expressing CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes was positively correlated with RF and ESR levels. Furthermore, the expression level of TIGIT on CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes was positively correlated with the DAS28 score in RA. Conclusions The expression levels of TIGIT on T lymphocytes were elevated and correlated with disease activity in RA. PMID:28282368

  17. Elevated level of Interleukin-35 in colorectal cancer induces conversion of T cells into iTr35 by activating STAT1/STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guohua; Zhou, Yunlan; Yue, Chaoyan; Yuan, Xiangliang; Zheng, Yingxia; Wang, Weiwei; Deng, Lin; Shen, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    IL-35 is a novel heterodimeric and inhibitory cytokine, composed of interleukin-12 subunit alpha (P35) and Epstein-Barr virus -induced gene 3 (EBI3). IL-35 has been reported to be produced by a range of cell types, especially regulatory T cells, and to exert immunosuppressive effects via the STATx signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-35 expression was elevated in both serum and tumors in patients with colorectal cancer. IL-35 mainly expressed in CD4+ T cells in human colorectal cancer tumors and adjacent tissues. Increased IL-35 expression in tumor-adjacent tissues was significantly associated with tumor metastasis. IL-35 inhibited the proliferation of CD4+CD25− T effector cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and its suppression was partially reversed by applying IL-35-neutralizing antibodies. IL-35 treatment activated the phosphorylation of both STAT1 and STAT3 in human CD4+ T cells. Meanwhile, IL-35 induced a positive feedback loop to promote its own production. We observed that Tregs obtained from colorectal cancer patients were capable of inducing more IL-35 production. In addition, EBI3 promoter-driven luciferase activity was higher than that of the mock plasmid after IL-35stimulation. Thus, our study indicates that the high level of IL-35 in colorectal cancer promotes the production of IL-35 via STAT1 and STAT3, which suppresses T cell proliferation and may participate in tumor immunotolerance. PMID:27682874

  18. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-02-23

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  19. Activity of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala underlies one-trial tolerance of rats in the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Borelli, Karina G; Brandão, Marcus L

    2008-03-30

    The anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines are reduced after a single exposure of rats to elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Midazolam showed an anxioselective profile in animals submitted to one session (T1) but did not change the usual exploratory behavior of rats exposed twice (T2) to the EPM. In this study we examined further the one-trial tolerance by performing a factor analysis of the exploratory behavior of rats injected with saline before both trials as well as an immunohistochemistry study for quantification of Fos expression in encephalic structures after these sessions. Factor analysis of all behavioral categories revealed that factor 1 consisted of anxiety-related categories in T1 whereas these same behavioral categories loaded on factor 2 in T2. Risk assessment was also dissociated as it loaded stronger on T2 (factor 3) than on T1 (factor 4). Locomotor activity in T1 loaded on factor 5. Immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Fos expression predominated in limbic structures in T1 group. The medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala were the main areas activated in T2 group. These data suggest that anxiety and risk assessment behaviors change their valence across the EPM sessions. T2 is characterized by the emergence of a fear factor, more powerful risk assessment and medial prefrontal cortex activation. The amygdala functions as a switch between the anxiety-like patterns of T1 to the cognitive control of fear prevalent in T2. The EPM retest session is proposed as a tool for assessing the cognitive activity of rodents in the control of fear.

  20. Activity-dependent release of endogenous BDNF from mossy fibers evokes a TRPC3 current and Ca2+ elevations in CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Calfa, Gaston; Inoue, Takafumi; Amaral, Michelle D; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent modulator of neuronal structure and function in the hippocampus. However, the majority of studies to date have relied on the application of recombinant BDNF. We herein report that endogenous BDNF, released via theta burst stimulation of mossy fibers (MF), elicits a slowly developing cationic current and intracellular Ca(2+) elevations in CA3 pyramidal neurons with the same pharmacological profile of the transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3)-mediated I(BDNF) activated in CA1 neurons by brief localized applications of recombinant BDNF. Indeed, sensitivity to both the extracellular BDNF scavenger tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)-IgG and small hairpin interference RNA-mediated TRPC3 channel knockdown confirms the identity of this conductance as such, henceforth-denoted MF-I(BDNF). Consistent with such activity-dependent release of BDNF, these MF-I(BDNF) responses were insensitive to manipulations of extracellular Zn(2+) concentration. Brief theta burst stimulation of MFs induced a long-lasting depression in the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) mediated by both AMPA and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors without changes in the NMDA receptor/AMPA receptor ratio, suggesting a reduction in neurotransmitter release. This depression of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs required activity-dependent release of endogenous BDNF from MFs and activation of Trk receptors, as it was sensitive to the extracellular BDNF scavenger TrkB-IgG and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor k-252b. These results uncovered the most immediate response to endogenously released--native--BDNF in hippocampal neurons and lend further credence to the relevance of BDNF signaling for synaptic function in the hippocampus.

  1. Activity-Dependent Release of Endogenous BDNF From Mossy Fibers Evokes a TRPC3 Current and Ca2+ Elevations in CA3 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Calfa, Gaston; Inoue, Takafumi; Amaral, Michelle D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent modulator of neuronal structure and function in the hippocampus. However, the majority of studies to date have relied on the application of recombinant BDNF. We herein report that endogenous BDNF, released via theta burst stimulation of mossy fibers (MF), elicits a slowly developing cationic current and intracellular Ca2+ elevations in CA3 pyramidal neurons with the same pharmacological profile of the transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3)-mediated IBDNF activated in CA1 neurons by brief localized applications of recombinant BDNF. Indeed, sensitivity to both the extracellular BDNF scavenger tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)-IgG and small hairpin interference RNA-mediated TRPC3 channel knockdown confirms the identity of this conductance as such, henceforth-denoted MF-IBDNF. Consistent with such activity-dependent release of BDNF, these MF-IBDNF responses were insensitive to manipulations of extracellular Zn2+ concentration. Brief theta burst stimulation of MFs induced a long-lasting depression in the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) mediated by both AMPA and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors without changes in the NMDA receptor/AMPA receptor ratio, suggesting a reduction in neurotransmitter release. This depression of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs required activity-dependent release of endogenous BDNF from MFs and activation of Trk receptors, as it was sensitive to the extracellular BDNF scavenger TrkB-IgG and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor k-252b. These results uncovered the most immediate response to endogenously released—native—BDNF in hippocampal neurons and lend further credence to the relevance of BDNF signaling for synaptic function in the hippocampus. PMID:20220070

  2. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  3. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  4. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  5. The case for fencing remains intact.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  6. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  7. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains.

    PubMed

    Vass, Arpad A; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the "odor signatures" unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  8. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  9. L5-LDL from ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients induces IL-1β production via LOX-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lu, Shao-Chun

    2017-02-01

    L5-LDL, the most electronegative LDL associated with major cardiovascular risks, significantly rises in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The inflammatory nature of atherosclerotic vascular diseases has prompted us to investigate whether L5-LDL induces the production of inflammatory cytokines, especially vascular ischemia-related interleukin (IL)-1β, in the pathogenesis of STEMI. Clinical data showed that plasma levels of L5-LDL and IL-1β were higher in the STEMI patients than in the controls (P < 0.05). In THP-1-derived human macrophages, L5-LDL significantly increased the levels of both IL-1β and cleaved caspase-1, indicating the activation of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes by L5-LDL. Knockdown of NLRP3 and its adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) resulted in decreased L5-LDL-induced IL-1β. Furthermore, knock down of the lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) in THP-1 cells attenuated L5-LDL-induced activation of NF-κB and caspase-1, leading to subsequent inhibition of IL-1β in macrophages. Furthermore, blockade LOX-1 with neutralizing antibody also inhibited L5-LDL-induced IL-1β in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived macrophages. In conclusion, L5-LDL induces IL-1β production in macrophages by activation of NF-κB and caspase-1 through the LOX-1-dependent pathway. This study represents the evidence linking L5-LDL and the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in STEMI, and identifies L5-LDL as a novel therapeutic target in acute myocardial infarction.

  10. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Induces the Voltage-Independent Activation of Inward Membrane Currents and Elevation of Intracellular Calcium in HIT-T15 Insulinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    LEECH, COLIN A.; HOLZ, GEORGE G.; HABENER, JOEL F.

    2010-01-01

    The secretion of insulin by pancreatic β-cells is controlled by synergistic interactions of glucose and hormones of the glucagon-related peptide family, of which pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member. Here we show by simultaneous recording of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) and membrane potential that both PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 depolarize HIT-T15 cells and raise [Ca2+]i. PACAP stimulation can result in membrane depolarization by two distinct mechanisms: 1) PACAP reduces the membrane conductance and increases membrane excitability; and 2) PACAP activates a pronounced inward current that is predominantly a Na+ current, blockable by La3+, and which exhibits a reversal potential of about −28 mV. Activation of this current does not require membrane depolarization, because the response is observed when cells are held under voltage clamp at −70 mV. This current may result from the cAMP-dependent activation of nonspecific cation channels because the current is also observed in response to forskolin or membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP. We also suggest that PACAP raises [Ca2+]i and stimulates insulin secretion by three distinct mechanisms: 1) depolarization activates Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, 2) mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores, and 3) entry of Ca2+ via voltage-independent Ca2+ channels. These effects of PACAP may play an important role in a neuro-entero-endocrine loop regulating insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells during the transition period from fasting to feeding. PMID:7895663

  11. Prior heavy exercise elevates pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and speeds O2 uptake kinetics during subsequent moderate-intensity exercise in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gurd, B J; Peters, S J; Heigenhauser, G J F; LeBlanc, P J; Doherty, T J; Paterson, D H; Kowalchuk, J M

    2006-01-01

    The adaptation of pulmonary oxygen uptake V˙O2 during the transition to moderate-intensity exercise (Mod) is faster following a prior bout of heavy-intensity exercise. In the present study we examined the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHa) during Mod both with and without prior heavy-intensity exercise. Subjects (n = 9) performed a Mod1–heavy-intensity–Mod2 exercise protocol preceded by 20 W baseline. Breath-by-breath V˙O2 kinetics and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle oxygenation were measured continuously, and muscle biopsy samples were taken at specific times during the transition to Mod. In Mod1, PDHa increased from baseline (1.08 ± 0.2 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1) to 30 s (2.05 ± 0.2 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1), with no additional change at 6 min exercise (2.07 ± 0.3 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1). In Mod2, PDHa was already elevated at baseline (1.88 ± 0.3 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1) and was greater than in Mod1, and did not change at 30 s (1.96 ± 0.2 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1) but increased at 6 min exercise (2.70 ± 0.3 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1). The time constant of V˙O2 was lower in Mod2 (19 ± 2 s) than Mod1 (24 ± 3 s). Phosphocreatine (PCr) breakdown from baseline to 30 s was greater (P < 0.05) in Mod1 (13.6 ± 6.7 mmol (kg dry wt)−1) than Mod2 (6.5 ± 6.2 mmol (kg dry wt)−1) but total PCr breakdown was similar between conditions (Mod1, 14.8 ± 7.4 mmol (kg dry wt)−1; Mod2, 20.1 ± 8.0 mmol (kg dry wt)−1). Both oxyhaemoglobin and total haemoglobin were elevated prior to and throughout Mod2 compared with Mod1. In conclusion, the greater PDHa at baseline prior to Mod2 compared with Mod1 may have contributed in part to the faster V˙O2 kinetics in Mod2. That oxyhaemoglobin and total haemoglobin were elevated prior to Mod2 suggests that greater muscle perfusion may also have contributed to the observed faster V˙O2 kinetics. These findings are consistent with metabolic inertia, via delayed activation of PDH

  12. Formation of chloroplast protrusions and catalase activity in alpine Ranunculus glacialis under elevated temperature and different CO2/O2 ratios.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Moser, Tim; Karadar, Matthias; Roach, Thomas; Kranner, Ilse; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Chloroplast protrusions (CPs) have frequently been observed in plants, but their significance to plant metabolism remains largely unknown. We investigated in the alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis L. treated under various CO2 concentrations if CP formation is related to photorespiration, specifically focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism. Immediately after exposure to different CO2 concentrations, the formation of CPs in leaf mesophyll cells was assessed and correlated to catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Under natural irradiation, the relative proportion of chloroplasts with protrusions (rCP) was highest (58.7 %) after exposure to low CO2 (38 ppm) and was lowest (3.0 %) at high CO2 (10,000 ppm). The same relationship was found for CAT activity, which decreased from 34.7 nkat mg(-1) DW under low CO2 to 18.4 nkat mg(-1) DW under high CO2, while APX activity did not change significantly. When exposed to natural CO2 concentration (380 ppm) in darkness, CP formation was significantly lower (18.2 %) compared to natural solar irradiation (41.3 %). In summary, CP formation and CAT activity are significantly increased under conditions that favour photorespiration, while in darkness or at high CO2 concentration under light, CP formation is significantly lower, providing evidence for an association between CPs and photorespiration.

  13. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  14. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  15. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  16. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    PubMed

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  17. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  18. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  19. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  20. Protein turnover and proliferation. Turnover kinetics associated with the elevation of 3T3-cell acid-proteinase activity and cessation of net protein gain.

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, T D; Minassian, I A; Roux, L

    1982-01-01

    1. At least 95% of the total protein of A31-3T3 cell cultures undergoes turnover. 2. First-order exponential kinetics were used to provide a crude approximation of averaged protein synthesis, Ks, degradation, Kd, and net accumulation, Ka, as cells ceased growth at near-confluent density in unchanged Dulbecco's medium containing 10% serum. The values of the relationship Ka = Ks - Kd were : 5%/h = 6%/h - 1%/h in growing cells, and 0%/h = 3%/h - 3%/h in steady-state resting cells. 3. As determined by comparison of the progress of protein synthesis and net protein accumulation, the time course of increase in protein degradation coincided with the onset of an increase in lysosomal proteinase activity and decrease in thymidine incorporation after approx. 2 days of exponential growth. 4. After acute serum deprivation, rapid increases in protein degradation of less than 1%/h could be superimposed on the prevailing degradation rate in either growing or resting cells. The results indicate that two proteolytic mechanisms can be distinguished on the basis of the kinetics of their alterations. A slow mechanism changes in relation to proliferative status and lysosomal enzyme elevation. A prompt mechanism, previously described by others, changes before changes in cell-cycle distribution or lysosomal proteinase activity. 5. When the serum concentration of growing cultures was decreased to 1% or 0.25%, then cessation of growth was accompanied by a lower steady-state protein turnover rate of 2.0%/h or 1.5%/h respectively. When growth ceased under conditions of overcrowded cultures, or severe nutrient insufficiency, protein turnover did not attain a final steady state, but declined continually into the death of the culture. PMID:6756389

  1. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway by adiponectin and insulin in mouse adipocytes: requirement of acyl-CoA synthetases FATP1 and Acsl1 and association with an elevation in AMP/ATP ratio.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Sun, Lei; Ruderman, Neil; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-11-01

    Adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipocytes, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that AMP, generated in activating fatty acids to their CoA derivatives, catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetases, is involved in AMPK activation by adiponectin. Moreover, in adipocytes, insulin affects the subcellular localization of acyl-CoA synthetase FATP1. Thus, we also tested whether insulin activates AMPK in these cells and, if so, whether it activates through a similar mechanism. We examined these hypotheses by measuring the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPK activation on adiponectin and insulin stimulation and after knocking down acyl-CoA synthetases in adipocytes. We show that adiponectin activation of AMPK is accompanied by an ∼2-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Moreover, FATP1 and Acsl1, the 2 major acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms in adipocytes, are essential for AMPK activation by adiponectin. We also show that after 40 min. insulin activated AMPK in adipocytes, which was coupled with a 5-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Knockdown studies show that FATP1 and Acsl1 are required for these processes, as well as for stimulation of long-chain fatty acid uptake by adiponection and insulin. These studies demonstrate that a change in cellular energy state is associated with AMPK activation by both adiponectin and insulin, which requires the activity of FATP1 and Acsl1.

  2. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  3. 51-L Challenger Crew Remains Transferred

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Challenger crewmember remains are being transferred from 7 hearse vehicles to a MAC C-141 transport plane at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility for transport to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The STS-51L crew consisted of: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis and Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee and Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.

  4. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  5. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  6. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes.

  7. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  8. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  9. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  10. Cytoskeletal protein Flightless (Flii) is elevated in chronic and acute human wounds and wound fluid: neutralizing its activity in chronic but not acute wound fluid improves cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ruzehaji, Nadira; Grose, Randall; Krumbiegel, Doreen; Zola, Heddy; Dasari, Pallave; Wallace, Hilary; Stacey, Michael; Fitridge, Robert; Cowin, Allison J

    2012-01-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds form a medical need which will expand as the population ages and the obesity epidemic grows. Whilst the complex mechanisms underlying wound repair are not fully understood, remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. Elevated expression of the actin cytoskeletal protein Flightless I (Flii) is known to impair wound outcomes. To determine if Flii is involved in the impaired healing observed in chronic wounds, its expression in non-healing human wounds from patients with venous leg ulcers was determined and compared to its expression in acute wounds and unwounded skin. Increased expression of Flii was observed in both chronic and acute wounds with wound fluid and plasma also containing secreted Flii protein. Inflammation is a key aspect of wound repair and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed Flii was located in neutrophils within the blood and that it co-localised with CD16+ neutrophils in chronic wounds. The function of secreted Flii was investigated as both chronic wound fluid and Flii have previously been shown to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. To determine if the inhibitory effect of wound fluid was due in part to the presence of Flii, wound fluids were depleted of Flii using Flii-specific neutralizing antibodies (FnAb). Flii depleted chronic wound fluid no longer inhibited fibroblast proliferation, suggesting that Flii may contribute to the inhibitory effect of chronic wound fluid on fibroblast function. Application of FnAbs to chronic wounds may therefore be a novel approach used to improve the local environment of non-healing wounds and potentially improve healing outcomes.

  11. 72. View of elevated Mainline structure looking North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of elevated Mainline structure - looking North - along Washington Street at juncture of Section F-5 and Section F-6 (the concrete enclosed portion of structure). Remaining stub of the former incline that led down to the Arborway storage yards is at the right. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  13. Active duty service members who sustain a traumatic brain injury have chronically elevated peripheral concentrations of Aβ40 and lower ratios of Aβ42/40

    PubMed Central

    Lejbman, Natasha; Olivera, Anlys; Heinzelmann, Morgan; Feng, Rebekah; Yun, Sijung; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Gill, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary objective: Excessive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau have been observed in older individuals with chronic neurological symptoms related to a traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet little is known about the possible role of Aβ in younger active duty service members following a TBI. The purpose of the study was to determine if Aβ 40 or 42 related to sustaining a TBI or to chronic neurological symptoms in a young cohort of military personnel. Research design: This was a cross-sectional study of active duty service members who reported sustaining a TBI and provided self-report of neurological and psychological symptoms and provided blood. Methods and procedures: An ultrasensitive single-molecule enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to compare concentrations of Aβ in active duty service members with (TBI+; n = 53) and without (TBI–; n = 18) a history of TBI. Self-report and medical history were used to measure TBI occurrence and approximate the number of total TBIs and the severity of TBIs sustained during deployment. Main outcomes and results: This study reports that TBI is associated with higher concentrations of Aβ40 (F 1,68 = 6.948, p = 0.009) and a lower ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40 (F 1,62 = 5.671, p = 0.020). These differences remained significant after controlling for co-morbid symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest that alterations in Aβ relate to TBIs and may contribute to chronic neurological symptoms. PMID:27834544

  14. Organic Remains in Finnish Subglacial Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkari, Mikko; Forsström, Lars

    1995-05-01

    Many sites in Fennoscandia contain pre-Late Weichselian beds of organic matter, located mostly in the flanks of eskers. It is a matter of debate whether these fragmentary beds were deposited in situ, or whether they were deposited elsewhere and then picked up and moved by glacial ice. The till-mantled esker of Harrinkangas includes a shallow depression filled with sand and silt containing, for example, several tightly packed laminar sheets of brown moss ( Bryales) remains. It is argued that these thin peat sheets were transported at the base of the ice sheet, or englacially, and were deposited together with the silt and sand on the side of a subglacial meltwater tunnel. Subglacial meltout till subsequently covered the flanks of the esker near the receding ice margin. Information about the depositional and climatic environments was obtained from biostratigraphic analysis of the organic matter. Pollen spectra for the peat represent an open birch forest close to the tundra zone. A thin diamicton beneath the peat contains charred pine wood, recording the former presence of pine forests in western Finland. The unhumified, extremely well-preserved peat evidently originated during the final phase of an ice-free period, most probably the end of the Eemian Interglaciation. It was redeposited in the esker by the last ice sheet. Reconstructions of the Pleistocene chronology and stratigraphy of central Fennoscandia that rely on such redeposited organic matter should be viewed with caution.

  15. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  16. Soil microbial responses to elevated CO₂ and O₃ in a nitrogen-aggrading agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Booker, Fitzgerald L; Burkey, Kent O; Tu, Cong; Shew, H David; Rufty, Thomas W; Fiscus, Edwin L; Deforest, Jared L; Hu, Shuijin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) and ozone (O₃) can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and the ecosystem level processes they mediate. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis, which states that CO₂- or O₃-induced changes in carbon (C) availability dominate microbial responses, is primarily based on results from nitrogen (N)-limiting forests and grasslands. It remains largely unexplored how soil microbes respond to elevated CO₂ and O₃ in N-rich or N-aggrading systems, which severely hinders our ability to predict the long-term soil C dynamics in agroecosystems. Using a long-term field study conducted in a no-till wheat-soybean rotation system with open-top chambers, we showed that elevated CO₂ but not O₃ had a potent influence on soil microbes. Elevated CO₂(1.5×ambient) significantly increased, while O₃ (1.4×ambient) reduced, aboveground (and presumably belowground) plant residue C and N inputs to soil. However, only elevated CO₂ significantly affected soil microbial biomass, activities (namely heterotrophic respiration) and community composition. The enhancement of microbial biomass and activities by elevated CO₂ largely occurred in the third and fourth years of the experiment and coincided with increased soil N availability, likely due to CO₂-stimulation of symbiotic N₂ fixation in soybean. Fungal biomass and the fungi∶bacteria ratio decreased under both ambient and elevated CO₂ by the third year and also coincided with increased soil N availability; but they were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO₂. These results suggest that more attention should be directed towards assessing the impact of N availability on microbial activities and decomposition in projections of soil organic C balance in N-rich systems under future CO₂ scenarios.

  17. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH.

  18. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  19. The National Map - Elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean; Evans, Gayla; Mauck, James; Hutchinson, John; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the USGS. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the island territories. The NED is derived from diverse source data sets that are processed to a specification with a consistent resolution, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED is the logical result of the maturation of the long-standing USGS elevation program, which for many years concentrated on production of topographic map quadrangle-based digital elevation models. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States. The NED is a multi-resolution dataset that is updated bimonthly to integrate newly available, improved elevation source data. NED data are available nationally at grid spacings of 1 arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, and at 1/3 and 1/9 arc-seconds (approximately 10 and 3 meters, respectively) for parts of the United States. Most of the NED for Alaska is available at 2-arc-second (about 60 meters) grid spacing, where only lower resolution source data exist. Part of Alaska is available at the 1/3-arc-second resolution, and plans are in development for a significant upgrade in elevation data coverage of the State over the next 5 years. Specifications for the NED include the following: *Coordinate system: Geographic (decimal degrees of latitude and longitude), *Horizontal datum: North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), *Vertical datum: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) over the conterminous United States and varies in other areas, and *Elevation units: Decimal meters.

  20. House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House Plan - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  1. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  2. Downregulation of protease-activated receptor-1 in human lung fibroblasts is specifically mediated by the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 through cAMP elevation and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Elena; Hartig, Roland; Reiser, Georg

    2008-07-01

    Many cellular functions of lung fibroblasts are controlled by protease-activated receptors (PARs). In fibrotic diseases, PAR-1 plays a major role in controlling fibroproliferative and inflammatory responses. Therefore, in these diseases, regulation of PAR-1 expression plays an important role. Using the selective prostaglandin EP2 receptor agonist butaprost and cAMP-elevating agents, we show here that prostaglandin (PG)E(2), via the prostanoid receptor EP2 and subsequent cAMP elevation, downregulates mRNA and protein levels of PAR-1 in human lung fibroblasts. Under these conditions, the functional response of PAR-1 in fibroblasts is reduced. These effects are specific for PGE(2). Activation of other receptors coupled to cAMP elevation, such as beta-adrenergic and adenosine receptors, does not reproduce the effects of PGE(2). PGE(2)-mediated downregulation of PAR-1 depends mainly on protein kinase A activity, but does not depend on another cAMP effector, the exchange protein activated by cAMP. PGE(2)-induced reduction of PAR-1 level is not due to a decrease of PAR-1 mRNA stability, but rather to transcriptional regulation. The present results provide further insights into the therapeutic potential of PGE(2) to specifically control fibroblast function in fibrotic diseases.

  3. Amphotericin B-Induced Renal Tubular Cell Injury Is Mediated by Na+ Influx through Ion-Permeable Pores and Subsequent Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Elevation of Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration▿

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Takahisa; Itoh, Yoshinori; Kawamura, Eiko; Maeda, Asuka; Egashira, Nobuaki; Nishida, Motohiro; Kurose, Hitoshi; Oishi, Ryozo

    2009-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) is one of the most effective antifungal agents; however, its use is often limited by the occurrence of adverse events, especially nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the nephrotoxic action of AMB. The exposure of a porcine proximal renal tubular cell line (LLC-PK1 cells) to AMB caused cell injury, as assessed by mitochondrial enzyme activity, the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, and tissue ATP depletion. Propidium iodide uptake was enhanced, while terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling was not affected by AMB, suggesting a lack of involvement of apoptosis in AMB-induced cell injury. The cell injury was inhibited by the depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which lowered the extracellular Na+ concentration or the chelation of intracellular Ca2+. The rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration may be mediated through the activation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) on the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, since cell injury was attenuated by dantrolene (an RyR antagonist) and CGP37157 (an Na+-Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor). Moreover, AMB-induced cell injury was reversed by PD169316 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase inhibitor), c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor II, and PD98059 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor). The phosphorylations of these MAP kinases were enhanced by AMB in a calcium-independent manner, suggesting the involvement of MAP kinases in AMB-induced cell injury. These findings suggest that Na+ entry through membrane pores formed by the association of AMB with membrane cholesterol leads to the activation of MAP kinases and the elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, leading to renal tubular cell injury. PMID:19139282

  4. Science on a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane through that region

  5. Remaining Pain in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated With Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Altawil, Reem; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Wedrén, Sara; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency of remaining pain in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 months of treatment with methotrexate as the only disease modifying antirheumatic drug, with a special focus on patients with a good clinical response. Methods The study base was cases reported to a population‐based early RA cohort who had followup data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (n = 1,241). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were used to evaluate clinical response to treatment as good, moderate, and no response. The primary end point was remaining pain at the 3‐months followup visit, defined as pain >20 mm on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results Remaining pain in spite of a EULAR good response at followup was associated with higher baseline disability, using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4–3.4] per unit increase), and less baseline inflammation, using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70–0.93] per 10‐mm increase). Similar associations were detected for remaining pain at followup in spite of low inflammatory activity, defined as a C‐reactive protein level <10. Increase in VAS pain during the treatment period was observed in 19% of the whole cohort, with frequencies in the EULAR response groups of 9% (good response), 15% (moderate response), and 45% (no response). Conclusion These results are in line with the hypothesis that a subgroup of early RA patients exhibits pain that is not inflammatory mediated, where alternative treatment strategies to traditional antiinflammatory medications need to be considered. PMID:26784398

  6. 76 FR 3531 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  7. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  8. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  9. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  10. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  11. Activation of the canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway is involved in isoflurane-induced hippocampal interleukin-1β elevation and the resultant cognitive deficits in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zheng-Qian; Rong, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ya-Jie; Ni, Cheng; Tian, Xiao-Sheng; Mo, Na; Chui, De-Hua; Guo, Xiang-Yang

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Isoflurane induces hippocampal IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits in aged rats. •Isoflurane transiently activates the canonical NF-κB pathway in aged rat hippocampus. •NF-κB inhibitor mitigates isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits. •We report a linkage between NF-κB signaling, IL-1β expression, and cognitive changes. -- Abstract: Although much recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation contributes to volatile anesthetic-induced cognitive deficits, there are few existing mechanistic explanations for this inflammatory process. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane on canonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, and to explore its association with hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β levels and anesthetic-related cognitive changes in aged rats. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in IκB kinase and IκB phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα), were observed in the hippocampi of isoflurane-exposed rats compared with control rats. These events were accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation at 6 h after isoflurane exposure and hippocampal IL-1β elevation from 1 to 6 h after isoflurane exposure. Nevertheless, no significant neuroglia activation was observed. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed the IL-1β increase and NF-κB signaling, and also mitigated the severity of cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze task. Overall, our results demonstrate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may stem from upregulation of hippocampal IL-1β, partially via activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, in aged rats.

  12. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  13. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP--defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit--during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization.

  14. Elevated BP after AKI

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Raymond K.; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D.; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP—defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit—during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  15. Acute management of unstable angina and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernando Morita Fernandes; Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo Pereira; Franken, Marcelo; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Non-ST segment elevation coronary syndrome usually results from instability of an atherosclerotic plaque, with subsequent activation of platelets and several coagulation factors. Its treatment aims to reduce the ischemic pain, limiting myocardial damage and decreasing mortality. Several antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents have been proven useful, and new drugs have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium in the search for higher anti-ischemic efficacy and lower bleeding rates. Despite the advances, the mortality, infarction and readmission rates remain high. PMID:26466065

  16. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  17. Quantifying the behavioral response of spawning chum salmon to elevated discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Haskell, C.A.; Kock, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta that spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, USA, are periodically subjected to elevated discharges that may alter spawning behaviour. We investigated behavioural responses of spawning chum salmon to increased water velocities associated with experimental increases in tailwater elevation using acoustic telemetry and a dual-frequency identification sonar. Chum salmon primarily remained near their redds at base tailwater elevations (3.5 m above mean sea level), but displayed different movement and behavioural responses as elevations were increased to either 4.1 or 4.7m for 8-h periods. When velocities remained suitable (<0.8m s-1) during elevated-tailwater tests, female chum salmon remained near their redds but exhibited reduced digging activity as water velocities increased. However, when velocities exceeded 0.8m s-1, the females that remained on their redds exhibited increased swimming activity and digging virtually ceased. Female and male chum salmon that left their redds when velocities became unsuitable moved mean distances ranging from 32 to 58 m to occupy suitable velocities, but returned to their redds after tailwaters returned to base levels. Spawning events (i.e. egg deposition) were observed for five of nine pairs of chum salmon following tests indicating any disruptions to normal behaviour caused by elevated tailwaters were likely temporary. We believe a chum salmon's decision to either remain on, or leave, its redd during periods of unsuitably high water velocities reflects time invested in the redd and the associated energetic costs it is willing to incur. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  19. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  20. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  1. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  2. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Carboxyhemoglobin elevation due to hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2007-07-01

    A critically ill man with drug-induced hemolytic anemia and hepatic failure was hospitalized at a private academic medical center in Seattle, Washington. Intravascular hemolysis with associated endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) production resulted in elevation of the patient's carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level to as high as 9.7%. Serial measurements of the patient's COHb level were obtained and compared with other conventional measures of hemolytic activity. With the availability of new non-invasive measurement technology to detect COHb elevations, emergency clinicians are likely to see COHb elevation as a manifestation of hemolytic anemia.

  4. A non-ischaemic cause of elevated troponin.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Guy; D'Antonio, Claude; Caffery, Terrell

    2014-04-04

    A 27-year-old woman with chest pain was admitted for elevated troponin levels. Troponin remained mildly elevated upon repeat testing, and a review of the medical record revealed that she had had an elevated troponin level in the past. She had a cardiac catheterisation that revealed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Repeat troponin testing with and without ethylene glycol revealed a negative troponin level after addition of ethylene glycol, suggesting antibodies were interfering with the assay.

  5. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  6. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST STAND REMNANTS OF BUILDING-BLANK WHITE WALL ONLY ORIGINAL REMAINS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. Low electric fields induce ligand-independent activation of EGF receptor and ERK via electrochemical elevation of H(+) and ROS concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Goldberg, Tami; Barbul, Alexander; Ben-Dov, Nadav; Korenstein, Rafi

    2013-06-01

    Physiological electric fields are involved in many biological processes and known to elicit their effects during long exposures ranging from a few hours to days. Following exposure to electric fields of physiological amplitude, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was demonstrated to be redistributed and upregulated with further intracellular signaling such as the MAPK signaling cascade. In our study we demonstrated EGFR activation and signaling induced by short train of pulsed low electric field (LEF) (10V/cm, pulse-width 180μs, 500Hz, 2min) in serum-free medium, following 24-hour starvation, and in the absence of exogenous EGF ligand, suggesting a ligand-independent pathway for EGFR activation. This ligandless activation was further confirmed by using neutralizing antibodies (LA1) that block the EGFR ligand-binding site. EGFR activation was found to be EGFR kinase dependent, yet with no dimerization following exposure to LEF. ERK activation was found to be mainly a result of EGFR downstream signaling though it partially occurred via EGFR-independent way. We demonstrate that reactive oxygen species and especially decrease in pH generated during exposure to LEF are involved in EGFR ligandless activation. We propose a possible mechanism for the LEF-induced EGFR ligand-independent activation and show activation of other receptor tyrosine kinases following exposure to LEF.

  8. Direct Raman measurement of an elevated base pKa in the active site of a small ribozyme in a precatalytic conformation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Spitale, Robert C; Volpini, Rosaria; Krucinska, Jolanta; Cristalli, Gloria; Carey, Paul R; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2009-09-16

    Catalytic RNA molecules can achieve rate acceleration by shifting base pK(a) values toward neutrality. Prior evidence has suggested that base A38 of the hairpin ribozyme plays an important role in phosphoryl transfer, possibly functioning as a general acid, or by orienting a specific water molecule for proton transfer. To address the role of A38, we used Raman spectroscopy to measure directly the pK(a) of the N1-imino moiety in the context of hairpin ribozyme crystals representative of a "precatalytic" conformation. The results revealed that the pK(a) of A38 is shifted to 5.46 +/- 0.05 relative to 3.68 +/- 0.06 derived from a reference solution of the nucleotide AMP. The elevated pK(a) correlates well with the first titration point of the macroscopic pH-rate profile of the hairpin ribozyme in solution and strongly supports A38 as a general acid catalyst in bond scission. The results confirm that A38 is protonated before the transition state, which would promote phosphorane development. Overall, the results establish a cogent structure-function paradigm that expands our understanding of how RNA structure can enhance nucleobase reactivity to catalyze biological reactions.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide-mediated stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport involves inhibition of the mitochondrial phosphodiesterase 2A, elevation of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Panopoulos, Panagiotis; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is generally known as a mitochondrial poison, recent studies show that lower concentrations of H₂S play a physiological role in the stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport and cellular bioenergetics. This effect involves electron donation at Complex II. Other lines of recent studies demonstrated that one of the biological actions of H₂S involves inhibition of cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Given the emerging functional role of the mitochondrial isoform of cAMP PDE (PDE2A) in the regulation of mitochondrial function the current study investigated whether cAMP-dependent mechanisms participate in the stimulatory effect of NaHS on mitochondrial function. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, partial digestion studies localized PDE2A into the mitochondrial matrix. NaHS exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on recombinant PDE2A enzyme in vitro. Moreover, NaHS induced an elevation of cAMP levels when added to isolated mitochondria and stimulated the mitochondrial electron transport. The latter effect was inhibited by Rp-cAMP, an inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The current findings suggest that the direct electron donating effect of NaHS is amplified by an intramitochondrial cAMP system, which may involve the inhibition of PDE2A and subsequent, cAMP-mediated stimulation of PKA.

  10. Elevations of intracellular calcium reflect normal voltage-dependent behavior, and not constitutive activity, of voltage-dependent calcium channels in gastrointestinal and vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    McCarron, John G; Olson, Marnie L; Currie, Susan; Wright, Amanda J; Anderson, Kurt I; Girkin, John M

    2009-04-01

    In smooth muscle, the gating of dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels may either be stochastic and voltage dependent or coordinated among channels and constitutively active. Each form of gating has been proposed to be largely responsible for Ca(2+) influx and determining the bulk average cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. Here, the contribution of voltage-dependent and constitutively active channel behavior to Ca(2+) signaling has been studied in voltage-clamped single vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells using wide-field epifluorescence with near simultaneous total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Depolarization (-70 to +10 mV) activated a dihydropyridine-sensitive voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) and evoked a rise in [Ca(2+)] in each of the subplasma membrane space and bulk cytoplasm. In various regions of the bulk cytoplasm the [Ca(2+)] increase ([Ca(2+)](c)) was approximately uniform, whereas that of the subplasma membrane space ([Ca(2+)](PM)) had a wide range of amplitudes and time courses. The variations that occurred in the subplasma membrane space presumably reflected an uneven distribution of active Ca(2+) channels (clusters) across the sarcolemma, and their activation appeared consistent with normal voltage-dependent behavior. Indeed, in the present study, dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels were not normally constitutively active. The repetitive localized [Ca(2+)](PM) rises ("persistent Ca(2+) sparklets") that characterize constitutively active channels were observed rarely (2 of 306 cells). Neither did dihydropyridine-sensitive constitutively active Ca(2+) channels regulate the bulk average [Ca(2+)](c). A dihydropyridine blocker of Ca(2+) channels, nimodipine, which blocked I(Ca) and accompanying [Ca(2+)](c) rise, reduced neither the resting bulk average [Ca(2+)](c) (at -70 mV) nor the rise in [Ca(2+)](c), which accompanied an increased electrochemical driving force on the ion by hyperpolarization (-130 m

  11. Elevation of Alanine Aminotransferase Activity Occurs after Activation of the Cell-Death Signaling Initiated by Pattern-Recognition Receptors ‎but before Activation of Cytolytic Effectors in NK or CD8+ T Cells in the Liver During Acute HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youkyung H.; Jin, Nancy; Kelly, Fiona; Sakthivel, SenthilKumar K.; Yu, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) promote host defenses against HCV infection by binding to their corresponding adapter molecules leading to the initiation of innate immune responses including cell death. We investigated the expression of PRR genes, biomarkers of liver cell-death, and T cell and NK cell activation/inhibition-related genes in liver and serum obtained from three experimentally infected chimpanzees with acute HCV infection, and analyzed the correlation between gene expression levels and clinical profiles. Our results showed that expression of hepatic RIG-I, TLR3, TLR7, 2OAS1, and CXCL10 mRNAs was upregulated as early as 7 days post-inoculation and peaked 12 to 83 days post-inoculation. All of the three HCV infected chimpanzees exhibited significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity between 70 and 95 days after inoculation. Elevated levels of serum cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) and caspases 3 and 7 activity coincided closely with the rise of ALT activity, and were preceded by significant increases in levels of caspase 3 and caspase 7 mRNAs in the liver. Particularly we found that significant positive auto-correlations were observed between RIG-I, TLR3, CXCL10, 2OAS1, and PD-L1 mRNA and ALT activity at 3 to 12 days before the peak of ALT activity. However, we observed substantial negative auto-correlations between T cell and NK cell activation/inhibition-related genes and ALT activity at 5 to 32 days after the peak of ALT activity. Our results indicated cell death signaling is preceded by early induction of RIG-I, TLR3, 2OAS1, and CXCL10 mRNAs which leads to elevation of ALT activity and this signaling pathway occurs before the activation of NK and T cells during acute HCV infection. Our study suggests that PRRs and type I IFN response may play a critical role in development of liver cell injury related to viral clearance during acute HCV infection. PMID:27788241

  12. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Micallef, Malgre C.; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C.; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065

  13. Protein glycosylation in pmt mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Influence of heterologously expressed cellobiohydrolase II of Trichoderma reesei and elevated levels of GDP-mannose and cis-prenyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Górka-Nieć, Wioletta; Bańkowska, Renata; Palamarczyk, Grazyna; Krotkiewski, Hubert; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2007-05-01

    Protein O-mannosylation has been postulated to be critical for production and secretion of glycoproteins in fungi. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this process and the influence of heterologous expression of glycoproteins on the activity of enzymes engaged in O-glycosylation are of considerable interest. In this study we expressed cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII) of T. reesei, which is normally highly O-mannosylated, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae pmt mutants partially blocked in O-mannosylation. We found that the lack of Pmt1 or Pmt2 protein O-mannosyltransferase activity limited the glycosylation of CBHII, but it did not affect its secretion. The S. cerevisiae pmt1Delta and pmt2Delta mutants expressing T. reesei cbh2 gene showed a decrease of GDP-mannose level and a very high activity of cis-prenyltransferase compared to untransformed strains. On the other hand, elevation of cis-prenyltransferase activity by overexpression of the S. cerevisiae RER2 gene in these mutants led to an increase of dolichyl phosphate mannose synthase activity, but it did not influence the activity of O-mannosyltransferases. Overexpression of the MPG1 gene increased the level of GDP-mannose and stimulated the activity of mannosyltransferases elongating O-linked sugar chains, leading to partial restoration of CBHII glycosylation.

  14. Elevated TAK1 augments tumor growth and metastatic capacities of ovarian cancer cells through activation of NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Patty C.H.; Shi, Lei; Liu, Vincent W.S.; Tang, Hermit W.M.; Liu, Iris J.; Leung, Thomas H.Y.; Chan, Karen K.L.; Yam, Judy W.P.; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Ngan, Hextan Y.S.; Chan, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1) is a serine/threonine kinase which is frequently associated with human cancer progression. However, its functional role in tumorigenesis is still controversial. Here, we report that TAK1 enhances the oncogenic capacity of ovarian cancer cells through the activation of NF-κB signaling. We found that TAK1 is frequently upregulated and significantly associated with high-grade and metastatic ovarian cancers. Mechanistic studies showed that Ser412 phosphorylation is required for TAK1 in activating NF-κB signaling and promotes aggressiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, suppression of TAK1 activity by point mutation at Ser412, RNAi mediated gene knockdown or TAK1 specific inhibitor ((5Z) -7-Oxozeaenol) remarkably impairs tumor growth and metastasis in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Our study underscores the importance of targeting TAK1 as a promising therapeutic approach to counteract the ovarian cancer progression. PMID:25277189

  15. Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri Leaves Displays In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Prevents the Elevation of Oxidative Stress in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Giribabu, Nelli; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Kumar, Korla Praveen; Muniandy, Sekaran; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    P. niruri has been reported to possess antidiabetic and kidney protective effects. In the present study, the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. niruri leaf aqueous extract were investigated together with its effect on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rat kidney. Results. Treatment of diabetic male rats with P. niruri leaf aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days prevents the increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, malondialdehyde (MDA), and the diminution of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity levels in the kidney of diabetic rats. The amount of LPO showed strong negative correlation with SOD, CAT, and GPx activity levels. P. niruri leaf aqueous extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity with IC50 slightly lower than ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening of plant extract indicates the presence of polyphenols. Conclusion. P. niruri leaf extract protects the kidney from oxidative stress induced by diabetes. PMID:24991228

  16. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  17. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  18. Anxiogenic effects of activation of NK-1 receptors of the dorsal periaqueductal gray as assessed by the elevated plus-maze, ultrasound vocalizations and tail-flick tests.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Gabriel S; Nobre, Manoel J; de Araújo, João E; Brandão, Marcus L

    2007-12-01

    Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) known as 22kHz are usual components of the defensive responses of rats exposed to threatening conditions. The amount of emission of 22kHz USVs depends on the intensity of the aversive stimuli. While moderate fear causes an anxiolytic-sensitive enhancement of the defensive responses, high fear tended to reduce the defensive performance of the animals to aversive stimuli. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) is an important vocal center and a crucial structure for the expression of defensive responses. Substance P (SP) is involved in the modulation of the defensive response at this midbrain level, but the type of neurokinin receptors involved in this action is not completely understood. In this study we examined whether local injections of the selective NK-1 agonist SAR-MET-SP (10-100 pmol/0.2microL) into the dPAG (i) cause anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) (Exp. I), (ii) influence the novelty-induced 22kHz USVs recorded within the frequency range of 20-26kHz (Exp. II) and (iii) change the nociceptive reactivity to heat applied to the rat's tail (Exp III). The data obtained showed that SAR-MET-SP elicited significant "anxiety-like" behaviors, as revealed by the decrease in the number of entries into and time spent onto the open arms of the EPM. These anxiogenic effects were accompanied with antinociception and disruption of the novelty-induced increase in the number and duration of 22kHz USVs. These findings are in agreement with the notion that NK-1 receptors of the dPAG may be an important neurochemical target for new selective drugs aimed at the control of pathological anxiety states.

  19. Interleukin-15-transferred cytokine-induced killer cells elevated anti-tumor activity in a gastric tumor-bearing nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zheng; Liang, Wentao; Li, Zexue; Xu, Yingxin; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for gastric cancer is a novel therapy modality. However, the therapeutic effectiveness in vivo is still limited. The objective of this study was to assess the value of interleukin-15 (IL-15)-transferred cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in ACT for gastric cancer. IL-15-IRES-TK retroviral vector was constructed and transferred into the CIK cells. A gastric tumor-bearing nude mice model was constructed by subcutaneously injecting gastric cancer cells, BGC-823. Gastric tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly divided into three groups (five mice each group) and injected with physiological saline, CIK cells, and IL-15-IRES-TK-transfected CIK cells for 2 weeks, respectively. IL-15-IRES-TK-transferred CIK cells were prepared successfully and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis indicated that the transfection rate reached 85.7% after 5 days culture. In vivo experiment, we found that CIK cells retarded tumor growth by reducing tumor volume and tumor weight, as well as increasing tumor inhibition rate. Furthermore, IL-15-IRES-TK-transferred CIK cells showed a much stronger inhibition on tumor growth than CIK cells alone. Tumor morphology observation and growth indexes also showed that IL-15-transfected CIK cells had stronger cytotoxicity to tumor tissue than CIK cells. IL-15-IRES-TK transfection could elevate the effects of CIK cells to gastric carcinoma. The engineered CIK cells carrying IL-15-IRES-TK may be used in the ACT for gastric carcinoma, but prudent clinical trial is still indispensable.

  20. Elevated CO2 further lengthens growing season under warming conditions.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Fox, Melissa; Steltzer, Heidi; Trlica, M J; McMaster, Gregory S; Andales, Allan A; LeCain, Dan R; Morgan, Jack A

    2014-06-12

    Observations of a longer growing season through earlier plant growth in temperate to polar regions have been thought to be a response to climate warming. However, data from experimental warming studies indicate that many species that initiate leaf growth and flowering earlier also reach seed maturation and senesce earlier, shortening their active and reproductive periods. A conceptual model to explain this apparent contradiction, and an analysis of the effect of elevated CO2--which can delay annual life cycle events--on changing season length, have not been tested. Here we show that experimental warming in a temperate grassland led to a longer growing season through earlier leaf emergence by the first species to leaf, often a grass, and constant or delayed senescence by other species that were the last to senesce, supporting the conceptual model. Elevated CO2 further extended growing, but not reproductive, season length in the warmed grassland by conserving water, which enabled most species to remain active longer. Our results suggest that a longer growing season, especially in years or biomes where water is a limiting factor, is not due to warming alone, but also to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations that extend the active period of plant annual life cycles.

  1. Ethanol stimulates epithelial sodium channels by elevating reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hui-Fang; Song, John Z; Duke, Billie J; Ma, He-Ping; Denson, Donald D; Eaton, Douglas C

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol affects total body sodium balance, but the molecular mechanism of its effect remains unclear. We used single-channel methods to examine how ethanol affects epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells. The data showed that ethanol significantly increased both ENaC open probability (P(o)) and the number of active ENaC in patches (N). 1-Propanol and 1-butanol also increased ENaC activity, but iso-alcohols did not. The effects of ethanol were mimicked by acetaldehyde, the first metabolic product of ethanol, but not by acetone, the metabolic product of 2-propanol. Besides increasing open probability and apparent density of active channels, confocal microscopy and surface biotinylation showed that ethanol significantly increased α-ENaC protein in the apical membrane. The effects of ethanol on ENaC P(o) and N were abolished by a superoxide scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) and blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Consistent with an effect of ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on ENaC, primary alcohols and acetaldehyde elevated intracellular ROS, but secondary alcohols did not. Taken together with our previous finding that ROS stimulate ENaC, the current results suggest that ethanol stimulates ENaC by elevating intracellular ROS probably via its metabolic product acetaldehyde.

  2. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  3. Activation of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase is associated with elevated ketone body levels in the elasmobranch Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Treberg, Jason R; Crockett, Elizabeth L; Driedzic, William R

    2006-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes are an ancient group of vertebrates that have unusual lipid metabolism whereby storage lipids are mobilized from the liver for peripheral oxidation largely as ketone bodies rather than as nonesterified fatty acids under normal conditions. This reliance on ketones, even when feeding, implies that elasmobranchs are chronically ketogenic. Compared to specimens sampled within 2 d of capture (recently captured), spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias that were held for 16-33 d without apparent feeding displayed a 4.5-fold increase in plasma concentration of d- beta -hydroxybutyrate (from 0.71 to 3.2 mM) and were considered ketotic. Overt activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in liver mitochondria from ketotic dogfish was characterized by an increased apparent maximal activity, a trend of increasing affinity (reduced apparent K(m); P=0.09) for l-carnitine, and desensitization to the inhibitor malonyl-CoA relative to recently captured animals. Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (ACoAT) activity in isolated liver mitochondria was also markedly increased in the ketotic dogfish compared to recently captured fish, whereas no difference in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity was found between these groups, suggesting that ACoAT plays a more important role in the activation of ketogenesis in spiny dogfish than in mammals and birds.

  4. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Pinus mugo needles growing at elevated stands in the mountains, and their photochemical efficiency of PSII.

    PubMed

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Libik, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2005-08-01

    Pinus mugo needles were sampled at different altitudes (1420, 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l.) to analyse levels of oxidative stress and changes in maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that almost all superoxide dismutase activity represented Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and only 4-6% represents Mn superoxide dismutase. In extracts from plants sampled at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., lower activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was found. Comparing these data with immunoblots, it can be concluded that the differences in superoxide dismutase activity was related to protein amount. In needles from higher altitudes, a decrease in catalase activity was detected, as opposed to the protein amount, which was higher in needles from the higher stands. Considering the decrease in catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities in needles collected at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., we suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress may induce changes in photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  5. Elevated thymidine phosphorylase activity in psoriatic lesions accounts for the apparent presence of an epidermal growth inhibitor, but is not in itself growth inhibitory

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, C.; Fisher, G.J.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-08-01

    An apparent tissue-specific growth inhibitor, or chalone, obtained from psoriatic lesions was tentatively identified in the 100-kDa fraction based upon inhibition of DNA synthesis, as measured by (3H)-thymidine uptake by a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC 38. This fraction, however, failed to inhibit SCC 38 cell growth when assessed directly in a neutral red uptake assay. Characterization of the inhibitor of (3H)-thymidine uptake revealed it to have biochemical properties identical to thymidine phosphorylase: (1) molecular weight close to 100 kDa, (2) isoelectric point of 4.2, and (3) thymidine phosphorylase enzyme activity. Thus, the authors conclude that its ability to inhibit (3H)-thymidine uptake was due to thymidine catabolism rather than inhibition of DNA synthesis or growth inhibition. Examination of thymidine phosphorylase activity in keratome biopsies from psoriatic and normal skin demonstrated a twentyfold increase in activity in psoriatic lesions relative to non-lesional or normal skin. This increase in metabolism of thymidine was due to thymidine phosphorylase rather than uridine phosphorylase activity. The correlation between increased thymidine phosphorylase activity and increased keratinocyte proliferation in vitro (cultured) and in vivo (psoriasis), suggests that this enzyme may play a critical role in providing the thymidine necessary for keratinocyte proliferation.

  6. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T.; He Shiping; Jan, C.-R. . E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

  7. Risk remaining from fine particle contaminants after vacuum cleaning of hard floor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew; Johnson, David L; Brooks, J; Griffith, Daniel A

    2008-12-01

    In the indoor environment, settled surface dust often functions as a reservoir of hazardous particulate contaminants. In many circumstances, a major contributing source to the dust pool is exterior soil. Young children are particularly susceptible to exposure to both outdoor derived soil and indoor derived dust present in the indoor dust pool. This is because early in life the exploratory activities of the infant are dominated by touching and mouthing behavior. Inadvertent exposure to dust through mouth contact and hand-to-mouth activity is an inevitable consequence of infant development. Clean-up of indoor dust is, in many circumstances, critically important in efforts to minimize pediatric exposure. In this study, we examine the efficiency of vacuum cleaner removal of footwear-deposited soil on vinyl floor tiles. The study utilized a 5 x 10 foot (c. 152.5 x 305 cm) test surface composed of 1-foot-square (c. 30.5 x 30.5 cm) vinyl floor tiles. A composite test soil with moderately elevated levels of certain elements (e.g., Pb) was repeatedly introduced onto the floor surface by footwear track-on. The deposited soil was subsequently periodically removed from randomly selected tiles using a domestic vacuum cleaner. The mass and loading of soil elements on the tiles following vacuuming were determined both by wet wipe collection and by subsequent chemical analysis. It was found that vacuum cleaner removal eliminated much of the soil mass from the floor tiles. However, a small percentage of the mass was not removed and a portion of this residual mass could be picked up by moistened hand-lifts. Furthermore, although the post-vacuuming tile soil mass was sizably reduced, for some elements (notably Pb) the concentration in the residual soil was increased. We interpret this increased metal concentration to be a particle size effect with smaller particles (with a proportionately higher metal content) remaining in situ after vacuuming.

  8. Activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray increases antinociception in mice exposed to the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Daniela; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Canto-de-Souza, Azair

    2012-11-01

    Several findings have pointed to the role of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A-C) receptor subtypes in the modulation of defensive behavior in animals exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Besides displaying anxiety-like behavior, rodents also exhibit antinociception in the EPM. This study investigated the effects of intra-dPAG injections of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor ligands on EPM-induced antinociception in mice. Male Swiss mice received 0.1 μl intra-dPAG injections of vehicle, 5.6 and 10 nmol of 8-OHDPAT, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (Experiment 1), or 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 nmol of mCPP, a 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor agonist (Experiment 2). Five minutes later, each mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g body weight; nociceptive stimulus) and was individually confined in the open (OA) or enclosed (EA) arms of the EPM for 5 min, during which the number of abdominal writhes induced by the acetic acid was recorded. While intra-dPAG injection of 8-OHDPAT did not change open-arm antinociception (OAA), mCPP (0.01 nmol) enhanced it. Combined injections of ketanserin (10 nmol/0.1 μl), a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist, and 0.01 nmol of mCPP (Experiment 3), selectively and completely blocked the OAA enhancement induced by mCPP. Although intra-dPAG injection of mCPP (0.01 nmol) also produced antinociception in EA-confined mice (Experiment 2), this effect was not confirmed in Experiment 3. Moreover, no other compound changed the nociceptive response in EA-confined animals. These results suggest that the 5-HT(2C) receptors located within the PAG play a role in this type of environmentally induced pain inhibition in mice.

  9. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  10. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus.

  11. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in human SCM1 gastric cancer cells: activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca2+]i elevation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Huang, Chorng-Chih; Huang, Chun-Jen; Wang, Being-Whey; Chang, Po-Min; Fang, Yi-Chien; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Jue-Long; Lu, Yih-Chau; Chu, Sau-Tung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2007-11-01

    Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative in some vaccines. The effect of thimerosal on human gastric cancer cells is unknown. This study shows that in cultured human gastric cancer cells (SCM1), thimerosal reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Thimerosal caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that thimerosal could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Thimerosal also induced [Ca2+](i) increases via Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. However, pretreatment with (bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate)/AM, a Ca2+ chelator, to prevent thimerosal-induced [Ca2+](i) increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in SCM1 cells, thimerosal caused Ca2+-independent apoptosis via phosphorylating p38 MAPK resulting in caspase-3 activation.

  12. Elevated SP-1 Transcription Factor Expression and Activity Drives Basal and Hypoxia-induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Karl; Onion, David; Kumari, Rajendra; Watson, Susan A.; Knox, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    VEGF plays a central role in angiogenesis in cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors have increased microvascular density, localized hypoxia, and high VEGF expression levels; however, there is a lack of understanding of how oncogenic and tumor microenvironment changes such as hypoxia lead to greater VEGF expression in lung and other cancers. We show that NSCLC cells secreted higher levels of VEGF than normal airway epithelial cells. Actinomycin D inhibited all NSCLC VEGF secretion, and VEGF minimal promoter-luciferase reporter constructs were constitutively active until the last 85 base pairs before the transcription start site containing three SP-1 transcription factor-binding sites; mutation of these VEGF promoter SP-1-binding sites eliminated VEGF promoter activity. Furthermore, dominant negative SP-1, mithramycin A, and SP-1 shRNA decreased VEGF promoter activity, whereas overexpression of SP-1 increased VEGF promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated SP-1, p300, and PCA/F histone acetyltransferase binding and histone H4 hyperacetylation at the VEGF promoter in NSCLC cells. Cultured NSCLC cells expressed higher levels of SP-1 protein than normal airway epithelial cells, and double-fluorescence immunohistochemistry showed a strong correlation between SP-1 and VEGF in human NSCLC tumors. In addition, hypoxia-driven VEGF expression in NSCLC cells was SP-1-dependent, with hypoxia increasing SP-1 activity and binding to the VEGF promoter. These studies are the first to demonstrate that overexpression of SP-1 plays a central role in hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion. PMID:22992725

  13. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN REAR NOTE ROD LINES IN FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  14. 21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  15. location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  16. first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard profile, crown molding profile, window and door details - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 22, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Service Building, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  18. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  19. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  20. 3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator and Silo Complex C, commonly known as the 'Landmark' (1940). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  1. Public health significance of elevated homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob

    2008-06-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism stands at the intersection of two pathways: remethylation, which requires folic acid and vitamin B12 coenzymes; and transsulfuration, which requires pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, the vitamin B6 coenzyme. Data from a number of laboratories suggest that mild elevations of homocysteine in plasma are a risk factor for occlusive vascular disease. In the Framingham studies, we have shown that plasma homocysteine concentration is inversely related to the intake and plasma levels of folate and vitamin B6 as well as vitamin B12 plasma levels. Almost two-thirds of the prevalence of high homocysteine is attributable to low vitamin status or intake. Elevated homocysteine concentrations in plasma are a risk factor for prevalence of extracranial carotid-artery stenosis > or = 25% in both men and women. Prospectively elevated plasma homocysteine is associated with increased total and cardiovascular mortality, increased incidence of stroke, increased incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, increased incidence of bone fracture, and higher prevalence of chronic heart failure. It was also shown that elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for preeclampsia and maybe neural tube defects (NTD). This multitude of relationships between elevated plasma homocysteine and diseases that afflict the elderly, pregnant women, and the embryo points to the existence ofa common denominator which may be responsible for these diseases. Whether this denominator is homocysteine itself or homocysteine is merely a marker, remains to be determined.

  2. Out-of-body-like experiences are more probable in people with elevated complex partial epileptic-like signs during periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity: a nonlinear effect.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A

    1995-04-01

    The ratings of subjective experiences of the self "leaving" or of being detached from the body were obtained (over a 3-yr. period) for a total of 128 men and women who had been exposed only once to an experimental setting which enhances the awareness of cognitive processes. As hypothesized, the individuals who exhibited the greatest proportion of complex partial epileptic-like signs also reported the most intense experiences of detachment from the body; however, these occurred primarily when the geomagnetic activity on the day of the experiment exceeded about 15 nT but was less than about 45 nT. Geomagnetic activity for the day after or the three days before the experiment was not associated with these experiences. The effect was equivalent to a correlation coefficient (eta) of .38.

  3. 17-DMAG Diminishes Hemorrhage-Induced Small Intestine Injury by Elevating Bcl-2 Protein and Inhibiting iNOS Pathway, TNF-alpha Increase, and Caspase-3 Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-03

    Hemorrhagic shock has been shown to cause systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and multiple organ...available to tissues and results in an accumulation of carbon dioxide and metabolic waste , leading to activation of signal transduction pathways and...for each specimen was graded using a six-tiered scale [3]. Western blots. Jejunal tissue was minced in 100 µl Hanks’ balanced salt solution

  4. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  5. Evaluating the Effect of Intracoronary N-Acetylcysteine on Platelet Activation Markers After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Azadeh; Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Pourhosseini, Hamidreza; Nozari, Yones; Bahremand, Mostafa; Jalali, Arash; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    During percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), trauma occurs in the arterial endothelium, resulting in platelet activation and aggregation. As platelet aggregation may lead to coronary thrombosis, antiplatelet agents are essential adjunctive therapies in patients undergoing PCI. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the intracoronary administration of high-dose N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the evaluation of its antiplatelet effects in human subjects. In this triple-blind trial, 147 patients undergoing primary PCI were enrolled. Finally, 100 patients were randomized to receive high-dose intracoronary NAC (100 mg/kg bolus, followed by 10 mg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹ intracoronary continued intravenously for 12 hours) (n = 50) or dextrose solution (n = 50). Platelet activation biomarkers were measured before and 24 hours after the procedure. Secondary end points, comprising all-cause death, reinfarction, and target-vessel revascularization, were assessed at 30 days and 2 years. In comparison with the placebo, NAC could not reduce the level of platelet activation biomarkers within a 24-hour period after its prescription. Major adverse clinical events at 30 days and 2 years were infrequent and not statistically different between the 2 groups. Our results revealed that NAC, compared with the placebo, did not provide an additional clinical benefit as an effective antiplatelet agent after PCI.

  6. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    PubMed

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  7. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  8. Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  10. Treating to Protect: Current Cardiovascular Treatment Approaches and Remaining Needs

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Michael; Werner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Current best practice to reduce cardiovascular disease involves evaluating patients' global cardiovascular risk profiles and devising treatment strategies accordingly. Despite the proven efficacy of this approach, very few physicians are adequately assessing risk, and consequently patients are failing to achieve desired treatment targets. Modifying lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, and cessation of smoking, remains one of the simplest and most potent means of reducing risk. Newly emerging evidence suggests that moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking for 30 minutes a day), eg, by raising levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, improves endothelial function and enhances vascular repair. However, patients remain remarkably reluctant to lifestyle changes, even in the face of overt, life-threatening disease. Statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and death in both primary and secondary prevention studies. However, over 90% of adults at high risk for coronary heart disease fail to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in spite of statin therapy. Similarly, only about 37% of patients with hypertension meet blood pressure targets. Antihypertensive drugs achieve different levels of cardioprotection. Mounting evidence links regimens containing beta-blockers or diuretics with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers appear to confer extra protection on target organs on top of blood pressure reduction. The ONTARGET Trial Program is designed to clarify the importance of this effect. Educating patients, raising physicians' awareness, and implementing effective and safe treatment regimens are all necessary steps to bring about the much-needed improvements in cardiac health outcomes. PMID:18449384

  11. Ciliary transport regulates PDGF-AA/αα signaling via elevated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and diminished PP2A activity.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Nicole L; Caspary, Tamara

    2015-01-15

    Primary cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), whereby the two IFT complexes, IFTA and IFTB, carry cargo via kinesin and dynein motors for anterograde and retrograde transport, respectively. Many signaling pathways, including platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/αα, are linked to primary cilia. Active PDGF-AA/αα signaling results in phosphorylation of Akt at two residues: P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473), and previous work showed decreased P-Akt(S473) in response to PDGF-AA upon anterograde transport disruption. In this study, we investigated PDGF-AA/αα signaling via P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473) in distinct ciliary transport mutants. We found increased Akt phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF-AA stimulation, which we show is due to impaired dephosphorylation resulting from diminished PP2A activity toward P-Akt(T308). Anterograde transport mutants display low platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α levels, whereas retrograde mutants exhibit normal PDGFRα levels. Despite this, neither shows an increase in P-Akt(S473) or P-Akt(T308) upon PDGF-AA stimulation. Because mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is increased in ciliary transport mutant cells and mTOR signaling inhibits PDGFRα levels, we demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1 rescues PDGFRα levels as well as PDGF-AA-dependent phosphorylation of Akt(S473) and Akt(T308) in ciliary transport mutant MEFs. Taken together, our data indicate that the regulation of mTORC1 signaling and PP2A activity by ciliary transport plays key roles in PDGF-AA/αα signaling.

  12. Intrarenal dopamine attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate/high salt-induced blood pressure elevation in part through activation of a medullary cyclooxygenase 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bing; Harris, Raymond C; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2009-11-01

    Locally produced dopamine in the renal proximal tubule inhibits salt and fluid reabsorption, and a dysfunctional intrarenal dopaminergic system has been reported in essential hypertension and experimental hypertension models. Using catechol-O-methyl-transferase knockout (COMT(-/-)) mice, which have increased renal dopamine because of deletion of the major renal dopamine-metabolizing enzyme, we investigated the effect of intrarenal dopamine on the development of hypertension in the deoxycorticosterone acetate/high-salt (DOCA/HS) model. DOCA/HS led to significant increases in systolic blood pressure in wild-type mice (from 115+/-2 to 153+/-4 mm Hg), which was significantly attenuated in COMT(-/-) mice (from 114+/-2 to 135+/-3 mm Hg). In DOCA/HS COMT(-/-) mice, the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 increased systolic blood pressure (156+/-2 mm Hg). DOCA/HS COMT(-/-) mice also exhibited more urinary sodium excretion (COMT(-/-) versus wild-type: 3038+/-430 versus 659+/-102 micromol/L per 24 hours; P<0.01). Furthermore, DOCA/HS-induced renal oxidative stress was significantly attenuated in COMT(-/-) mice. COX-2-derived prostaglandins in the renal medulla promote sodium excretion, and dopamine stimulates medullary prostaglandin production. Renal medullary COX-2 expression and urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion were significantly higher in COMT(-/-) than in wild-type mice after DOCA/HS treatment. In DOCA/HS-treated COMT(-/-) mice, the COX-2 inhibitor SC-58236 reduced urinary sodium and prostaglandin E(2) excretion and increased systolic blood pressure (153+/-2 mm Hg). These studies indicate that an activated renal dopaminergic system attenuates the development of hypertension, at least in large part through activating medullary COX-2 expression/activity, and also decreases oxidative stress resulting from DOCA/HS.

  13. Pre-cART Elevation of CRP and CD4+ T-cell Immune Activation Associated with HIV Clinical Progression in a Multinational Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Balagopal, Ashwin; Asmuth, David M.; Yang, Wei-Teng; Campbell, Thomas B.; Gupte, Nikhil; Smeaton, Laura; Kanyama, Cecilia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Santos, Breno; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Lama, Javier R.; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Zulu, Fatima; Pawar, Jyoti S; Riviere, Cynthia; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James; Li, Xiao-Dong; Pollard, Richard B.; Semba, Richard D.; Thomas, David L.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Gupta, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a subset of HIV-infected patients who initiate cART develop early clinical progression to AIDS; therefore some cART initiators are not fully benefitted by cART. Immune activation pre-cART may predict clinical progression in cART initiators. Methods A case-cohort study (n=470) within the multinational Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS) clinical trial (1571 HIV treatment-naïve adults who initiated cART; CD4+ T cell count <300 cells/mm3; nine countries) was conducted. A subcohort of 30 participants/country was randomly selected; additional cases were added from the main cohort. Cases (n=236 [random subcohort–36; main cohort–200]) had clinical progression (incident WHO Stage 3/4 event or death) within 96 weeks following cART initiation. Immune activation biomarkers were quantified pre-cART. Associations between biomarkers and clinical progression were examined using weighted multivariable Cox-proportional hazards models. Results Median age was 35 years, 45% were women, 49% black, 31% Asian, and 9% white. Median CD4+ T-cell count was 167 cells/mm3. In multivariate analysis, highest quartile CRP concentration (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] 2.53, 95%CI 1.02-6.28) and CD4+ T-cell activation (aHR 5.18, 95CI 1.09-24.47) were associated with primary outcomes, compared to lowest quartiles. sCD14 had a trend towards association with clinical failure (aHR 2.24, 95%CI 0.96–5.21). Conclusions Measuring CRP and CD4+ T-cell activation may identify patients with CD4+ T cell counts < 300 cells/mm3 at risk for early clinical progression when initiating cART. Additional vigilance and symptom-based screening may be required in this subset of patients even after beginning cART. PMID:26017661

  14. Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  15. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Alloy 718 crack growth experiments were conducted to assess the ability of the selected path-independent (P-I) integrals to describe the elevated temperature crack growth behavior. These tests were performed on single edge notch (SEN) specimens under displacement control with multiple extensometers to monitor the specimen and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The displacements in these tests were sufficiently high to induce bulk cyclic inelastic deformation of the specimen. Under these conditions, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter K does not correlate the crack growth data. The experimentally measured displacement gradients at the end of specimen gage length were used as the boundary conditions in elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM) analyses. These analyses were performed with a node release approach using CYANIDE, a GEAE FEM code, which included a gap element which is capable of efficiently simulating crack closure. Excellent correlation was obtained between the experimentally measured and predicted variation of stress and CMOD with crack length and the stress-CMOD loops for Alloy 718 tests conducted at 538 C. This confirmed the accuracy of the FEM crack growth simulation approach. The experimentally measured crack growth rate data correlated well the selected P-I integrals. These investigations have produced significant progress in developing P-I integrals as non-linear fracture mechanics parameters. The results suggest that this methodology has the potential of accurately describing elevated temperature crack growth behavior under the combined influence of thermal cycling and bulk elastic-inelastic deformation states.

  16. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  17. Clutch size declines with elevation in tropical birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyce, A.J.; Freeman, Benjamin G.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Clutch size commonly decreases with increasing elevation among temperate-zone and subtropical songbird species. Tropical songbirds typically lay small clutches, thus the ability to evolve even smaller clutch sizes at higher elevations is unclear and untested. We conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis using data gathered from the literature to test whether clutch size varied with elevation among forest passerines from three tropical biogeographic regions—the Venezuelan Andes and adjacent lowlands, Malaysian Borneo, and New Guinea. We found a significant negative effect of elevation on variation in clutch size among species. We found the same pattern using field data sampled across elevational gradients in Venezuela and Malaysian Borneo. Field data were not available for New Guinea. Both sets of results demonstrate that tropical montane species across disparate biogeographic realms lay smaller clutches than closely related low-elevation species. The environmental sources of selection underlying this pattern remain uncertain and merit further investigation.

  18. Endogenous β-glucocerebrosidase activity in Abca12⁻/⁻epidermis elevates ceramide levels after topical lipid application but does not restore barrier function.

    PubMed

    Haller, Jorge F; Cavallaro, Paul; Hernandez, Nicholas J; Dolat, Lee; Soscia, Stephanie J; Welti, Ruth; Grabowski, Gregory A; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Freeman, Mason W

    2014-03-01

    ABCA12 mutations disrupt the skin barrier and cause harlequin ichthyosis. We previously showed Abca12(-/-) skin has increased glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and correspondingly lower amounts of ceramide (Cer). To examine why loss of ABCA12 leads to accumulation of GlcCer, de novo sphingolipid synthesis was assayed using [(14)C]serine labeling in ex vivo skin cultures. A defect was found in β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) processing of newly synthesized GlcCer species. This was not due to a decline in GCase function. Abca12(-/-) epidermis had 5-fold more GCase protein (n = 4, P < 0.01), and a 5-fold increase in GCase activity (n = 3, P < 0.05). As with Abca12(+/+) epidermis, immunostaining in null skin showed a typical interstitial distribution of the GCase protein in the Abca12(-/-) stratum corneum. Hence, we tested whether the block in GlcCer conversion could be circumvented by topically providing GlcCer. This approach restored up to 15% of the lost Cer products of GCase activity in the Abca12(-/-) epidermis. However, this level of barrier ceramide replacement did not significantly reduce trans-epidermal water loss function. Our results indicate loss of ABCA12 function results in a failure of precursor GlcCer substrate to productively interact with an intact GCase enzyme, and they support a model of ABCA12 function that is critical for transporting GlcCer into lamellar bodies.

  19. Synergistic triggering of superoxide flashes by mitochondrial Ca2+ uniport and basal reactive oxygen species elevation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingting; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Jiejia; Jian, Chongshu; Huang, Zhanglong; Ye, Tao; Hu, Keping; Zheng, Ming; Gao, Feng; Wang, Xianhua; Cheng, Heping

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial superoxide flashes reflect a quantal, bursting mode of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that arises from stochastic, transient opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in many types of cells and in living animals. However, the regulatory mechanisms and the exact nature of the flash-coupled mPTP remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a profound synergistic effect between mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniport and elevated basal ROS production in triggering superoxide flashes in intact cells. Hyperosmotic stress potently augmented the flash activity while simultaneously elevating mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS. Blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport by knockdown of MICU1 or MCU, newly identified components of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, or scavenging mitochondrial basal ROS markedly diminished the flash response. More importantly, whereas elevating Ca(2+) or ROS production alone was inefficacious in triggering the flashes, concurrent physiological Ca(2+) and ROS elevation served as the most powerful flash activator, increasing the flash incidence by an order of magnitude. Functionally, superoxide flashes in response to hyperosmotic stress participated in the activation of JNK and p38. Thus, physiological levels of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS synergistically regulate stochastic mPTP opening and quantal ROS production in intact cells, marking the flash as a coincidence detector of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS signals.

  20. Concomitant Interferon Alpha Stimulation and TLR3 Activation Induces Neuronal Expression of Depression-Related Genes That Are Elevated in the Brain of Suicidal Persons

    PubMed Central

    Trippler, Martin; Lutterbeck, Melanie; Liu, Zijian J.; Truebner, Kurt; Bajanowski, Thomas; Gerken, Guido; Hermann, Dirk M.; Schlaak, Joerg F.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified 15 genes that are associated with the development of severe depressive side effects during the standard therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin in the peripheral blood of hepatitis C virus infected patients. An enhanced expression of these genes was also found in the blood of psychiatric patients suffering severe depressive episode. Herein, we demonstrate that the same depression-related interferon-inducible genes (DRIIs) are also upregulated in post-mortem brains of suicidal individuals. Using cultured mouse hippocampal and prefrontal neurons we show that costimulation with murine IFN (mIFN) and the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) promotes the expression of the described DRIIs, at the same time inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression through Stat1 and Stat3 activation, promoting neuronal apoptosis. Consequently, the upregulation of selective DRIIs, production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of neuronal plasticity may be involved in the pathogenesis of IFN-associated depression. PMID:24391741

  1. Activation of the gut calcium-sensing receptor by peptide agonists reduces rapid elevation of plasma glucose in response to oral glucose load in rats.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Maya; Hira, Tohru; Mitsunaga, Arimi; Sato, Eri; Nakajima, Shingo; Kitahara, Yoshiro; Eto, Yuzuru; Hara, Hiroshi

    2014-06-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the role of gut CaSR on glycemic control, we examined whether single oral administration of CaSR agonist peptides affected the glycemic response in rats. Glucose tolerance tests were performed under oral or duodenal administration of various CaSR agonist peptides (γGlu-Cys, protamine, and poly-d-lysine hydrobromide) in conscious rats. Involvement of CaSR was determined by using a CaSR antagonist. Signaling pathways underlying CaSR agonist-modified glycemia were investigated using gut hormone receptor antagonists. The gastric emptying rate after the administration of CaSR agonist peptides was measured by the phenol red recovery method. Oral and duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides attenuated glycemic responses under the oral glucose tolerance test, but the administration of casein did not. The promotive effect on glucose tolerance was weakened by luminal pretreatment with a CaSR antagonist. Treatment with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist partially diminished the glucose-lowering effect of peptides. Furthermore, the gastric emptying rate was decreased by duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides. These results demonstrate that activation of the gut CaSR by peptide agonists promotes glucose tolerance in conscious rats. 5-HT3 receptor and the delayed gastric emptying rate appear to be involved in the glucose-lowering effect of CaSR agonist peptides. Thus, activation of gut CaSR by dietary peptides reduces glycemic responses so that gut CaSR may be a potential target for the improvement of postprandial glycemia.

  2. Elevated serum CXCL16 is an independent predictor of poor survival in ovarian cancer and may reflect pro-metastatic ADAM protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Gooden, M J M; Wiersma, V R; Boerma, A; Leffers, N; Boezen, H M; ten Hoor, K A; Hollema, H; Walenkamp, A M E; Daemen, T; Nijman, H W; Bremer, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: In certain cancers, expression of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 associate with lymphocyte infiltration, possibly aiding anti-tumour immune response. In other cancers, CXCL16 and CXCR6 associate with pro-metastatic activity. In the current study, we aimed to characterise the role of CXCL16, sCXCL16, and CXCR6 in ovarian cancer (OC). Methods: CXCL16/CXCR6 expression was analysed on tissue microarray containing 306 OC patient samples. Pre-treatment serum sCXCL16 was determined in 118 patients using ELISA. In vitro, (primary) OC cells were treated with an ADAM-10/ADAM-17 inhibitor (TAPI-2) and an ADAM-10-specific inhibitor (GI254023x), whereupon CXCL16 levels were evaluated on the cell membrane (immunofluorescent analysis, western blots) and in culture supernatants (ELISA). In addition, cell migration was assessed using scratch assays. Results: sCXCL16 independently predicted for poor survival (hazard ratio=2.28, 95% confidence interval=1.29–4.02, P=0.005), whereas neither CXCL16 nor CXCR6 expression correlated with survival. Further, CXCL16/CXCR6 expression and serum sCXCL16 levels did not associate with lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro inhibition of both ADAM-17 and ADAM-10, but especially the latter, decreased CXCL16 membrane shedding and strongly reduced cell migration of A2780 and cultured primary OC-derived malignant cells. Conclusions: High serum sCXCL16 is a prognostic marker for poor survival of OC patients, possibly reflecting ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 pro-metastatic activity. Therefore, serum sCXCL16 levels may be a pseudomarker that identifies patients with highly metastatic tumours. PMID:24518602

  3. National Enhanced Elevation Assessment at a glance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation data are essential for hazards mitigation, conservation, infrastructure development, national security, and many other applications. Under the leadership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the member States of the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), Federal agencies, State agencies, and others work together to acquire high-quality elevation data for the United States and its territories. New elevation data are acquired using modern technology to replace elevation data that are, on average, more than 30 years old. Through the efforts of the NDEP, a project-by-project data acquisition approach resulted in improved, publicly available data for 28 percent of the conterminous United States and 15 percent of Alaska over the past 15 years. Although the program operates efficiently, the rate of data collection and the typical project specifications are currently insufficient to address the needs of government, the private sector, and other organizations. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment was conducted to (1) document national-level requirements for improved elevation data, (2) estimate the benefits and costs of meeting those requirements, and (3) evaluate multiple national-level program-implementation scenarios. The assessment was sponsored by the NDEP's member agencies. The study participants came from 34 Federal agencies, agencies from all 50 States, selected local government and Tribal offices, and private and not-for-profit organizations. A total of 602 mission-critical activities were identified that need significantly more accurate data than are currently available. The results of the assessment indicate that a national-level enhanced-elevation-data program has the potential to generate from $1.2 billion to $13 billion in new benefits annually.

  4. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  5. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  6. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  7. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  8. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  9. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Langley, J Adam; McKee, Karen L; Cahoon, Donald R; Cherry, Julia A; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2009-04-14

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO(2) (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr(-1) in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO(2) effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO(2), may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  10. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  11. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  12. Reproductive success, early life stage development, and survival of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) exposed to elevated selenium in an area of active coal mining.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Barri-Lynn; Andreller, Iisak; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2008-04-15

    The effects of accumulated Se on the reproductive success and larval development of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewis,) collected from a site of active coal mining in British Columbia were assessed. Eggs from 12 fish from an exposed site (Clode Pond) and 16 from a reference site (O'Rourke Lake) were field-collected and reared in the laboratory. Egg Se concentrations ranged from 12.3 to 16.7 and 11.8 to 140.0 microg/g dry weight (dw) from fish collected at the reference and exposed sites, respectively. Other studies, including those with this species, have not shown Se to affect egg viability; however, in the present study, eggs with Se concentrations > 86.3 microg/g dw were not successfully fertilized or were nonviable at fertilization, while eggs with concentrations > 46.8 and < 75.4 microg/g dw were fertilized (96% reached the eyed stage) but did not produce viable fry. A significant positive relationship between egg Se concentration and alevin mortality was observed. Deformities were analyzed in surviving fry which developed from eggs with Se concentrations between 11.8 and 20.6 microg/g dw. No relationship between Se concentration in eggs and deformities or edema was found in this range, suggesting that the no-effect threshold for deformity is > 20.6 microg/g dw. The present data, in conjunction with the data from several other studies in temperate fish, suggest that current Se thresholds are conservative for cold-water fish.

  13. Reproductive success, early life stage development, and survival of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) exposed to elevated selenium in an area of active coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Barri-Lynn Rudolph; Iisak Andreller; Christopher J. Kennedy

    2008-04-15

    The effects of accumulated Se on the reproductive success and larval development of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) collected from a site of active coal mining in British Columbia were assessed. Eggs from 12 fish from an exposed site (Clode Pond) and 16 from a reference site (O'Rourke Lake) were field-collected and reared in the laboratory. Egg Se concentrations ranged from 12.3 to 16.7 and 11.8 to 140.0 {mu}g/g dry weight (dw) from fish collected at the reference and exposed sites, respectively. Other studies, including those with this species, have not shown Se to affect egg viability. However, in the present study, eggs with Se concentrations >86.3 {mu}g/g dw were not successfully fertilized or were nonviable at fertilization, while eggs with concentrations >46.8 and <75.4 {mu}g/g dw were fertilized (96% reached the eyed stage) but did not produce viable fry. A significant positive relationship between egg Se concentration and alevin mortality was observed. Deformities were analyzed in surviving fry which developed from eggs with Se concentrations between 11.8 and 20.6 {mu}g/g dw. No relationship between Se concentration in eggs and deformities or edema was found in this range, suggesting that the no-effect threshold for deformity is >20.6 {mu}g/g dw. The present data, in conjunction with the data from several other studies in temperate fish, suggest that current Se thresholds are conservative for cold-water fish. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Glucose elevates NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 protein levels and nitrate transport activity independently of its HEXOKINASE1-mediated stimulation of NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 expression.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Thodey, Kate; Lejay, Laurence V; Bevan, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Mineral nutrient uptake and assimilation is closely coordinated with the production of photosynthate to supply nutrients for growth. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), nitrate uptake from the soil is mediated by genes encoding high- and low-affinity transporters that are transcriptionally regulated by both nitrate and photosynthate availability. In this study, we have studied the interactions of nitrate and glucose (Glc) on gene expression, nitrate transport, and growth using glucose-insensitive2-1 (gin2-1), which is defective in sugar responses. We confirm and extend previous work by showing that HEXOKINASE1-mediated oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) metabolism is required for Glc-mediated NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 (NRT2.1) expression. Treatment with pyruvate and shikimate, two products derived from intermediates of the OPPP that are destined for amino acid production, restores wild-type levels of NRT2.1 expression, suggesting that metabolites derived from OPPP metabolism can, together with Glc, directly stimulate high levels of NRT2.1 expression. Nitrate-mediated NRT2.1 expression is not influenced by gin2-1, showing that Glc does not influence NRT2.1 expression through nitrate-mediated mechanisms. We also show that Glc stimulates NRT2.1 protein levels and transport activity independently of its HEXOKINASE1-mediated stimulation of NRT2.1 expression, demonstrating another possible posttranscriptional mechanism influencing nitrate uptake. In gin2-1 plants, nitrate-responsive biomass growth was strongly reduced, showing that the supply of OPPP metabolites is essential for assimilating nitrate for growth.

  15. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi Najafabadi, Bent-al-hoda; Abnosi, Mohammad Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Boron (B) is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA) on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rdpassage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 µg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results Although 6 µg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture. PMID:27054120

  16. Excitatory synapses on dendritic shafts of the caudal basal amygdala exhibit elevated levels of GABAA receptor α4 subunits following the induction of activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Wable, Gauri S; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Chowdhury, Tara G; Sabaliauskas, Nicole A; Farb, Claudia R; Aoki, Chiye

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed severe starvation, excessive exercise, and anxiety. The onset of AN is most often at puberty, suggesting that gonadal hormonal fluctuations may contribute to AN vulnerability. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model that reproduces some of the behavioral phenotypes of AN, including the paradoxical increase in voluntary exercise following food restriction. The basal amygdala as well as the GABAergic system regulate trait anxiety. We therefore examined the subcellular distribution of GABA receptors (GABARs) in the basal amygdala of female pubertal rats and specifically of their α4 subunits, because expression of α4-containing GABARs is regulated by gonadal hormone fluctuations. Moreover, because these GABARs reduce neuronal excitability through shunting of EPSPs, we quantified the frequency of occurrence of these GABARs adjacent to excitatory synapses. Electron microscopic immunoctychemistry revealed no change in the frequency of association of α4 subunits with excitatory synapses on dendritic spines, whether in the anterior (Bregma -2.8 mm) or caudal (Bregma -3.8 mm) portion of the basal amygdala. Sholl analysis of golgi-stained neurons also revealed no change in the extent of dendritic branching by these densely spiny, pyramidal-like neurons. However, there was an increase of membranous α4 subunits near excitatory synapses on dendritic shafts, specifically in the caudal basal amygdala, and this was accompanied by a rise of α4 subunits intracellularly. Because most dendritic shafts exhibiting excitatory synapses are GABAergic interneurons, the results predict disinhibition, which would increase excitability of the amygdaloid network, in turn augmenting ABA animals' anxiety.

  17. Elevated expression of activated forms of Neu/ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 are involved in the induction of mammary tumors in transgenic mice: implications for human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, P M; Ryan, E D; Cardiff, R D; Muller, W J

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of Neu activation during mammary tumorigenesis, altered receptors harboring in-frame deletions within the extracellular domain were expressed in transgenic mice. Females from several independent lines develop multiple mammary tumors that frequently metastasize to the lung. Tumor progression in these strains was associated with elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated Neu and ErbB-3. Consistent with these observations, a survey of primary human breast tumors revealed frequent co-expression of both erbB-2 and erbB-3 transcripts. The ability of altered Neu receptors to induce mammary tumorigenesis in transgenic mice prompted us to examine whether similar mutations occurred in ErbB-2 during human breast cancer progression. Interestingly, an alternatively spliced form of erbB-2, closely resembling spontaneous activated forms of neu, was detected in human breast tumors. The ErbB-2 receptor encoded by this novel transcript harbors an in-frame deletion of 16 amino acids in the extracellular domain and can transform Rat-1 fibroblasts. Together, these observations argue that co-expression of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 may play a critical role in the induction of human breast tumors, and raise the possibility that activating mutations in the ErbB-2 receptor may also contribute to this process. PMID:10205169

  18. Individual and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with special emphasis on ROS generation and activation of antioxidant defence system.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Rai, Richa; Agrawal, S B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and O3, singly and in combination were investigated on various physiological, biochemical and yield parameters of two locally grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (HUW-37 and K-9107) in open top chambers (OTCs). Elevated CO2 stimulated photosynthetic rate (Ps) and Fv/Fm ratio and reduced the stomatal conductance (gs). Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidative enzymes, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were higher, whereas Ps, gs, Fv/Fm, protein and photosynthetic pigments were reduced in elevated O3 exposure, as compared to their controls. Under elevated CO2 + O3, elevated levels of CO2 modified the plant performance against O3 in both the cultivars. Elevated CO2 caused significant increase in economic yield. Exposure to elevated O3 caused significant reduction in yield and the effect was cultivar-specific. The study concluded that elevated CO2 ameliorated the negative impact of elevated O3 and cultivar HUW-37 was more sensitive to elevated O3 than K-9107.

  19. Increased apolipoprotein E and c-fms gene expression without elevated interleukin 1 or 6 mRNA levels indicates selective activation of macrophage functions in advanced human atheroma.

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, R N; Underwood, R; Doyle, M V; Wang, A; Libby, P

    1992-01-01

    human atheroma appear to exhibit a selective program of activation as they express high levels of apoE, whereas overall levels of interleukin 1 or 6 mRNAs in plaques are not elevated. Images PMID:1557388

  20. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  1. Incidence and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation during highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: results from the Italian EPOKA-MASTER Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torti, Carlo; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Casari, Salvatore; Puoti, Massimo; Nelson, Mark; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Bella, Daniele; Pastore, Giuseppe; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Minoli, Lorenzo; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Francesco; Caputo, Sergio Lo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Filice, Gaetano; Tinelli, Carmine; Carosi, Giampiero

    2005-01-01

    Background The risk of hepatotoxicity associated with different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens (containing multiple-protease inhibitors, single-protease inhibitors or non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) in HIV-HCV co-infected patients has not been fully assessed. Methods Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of 1,038 HIV-HCV co-infected patients who commenced a new HAART in the Italian MASTER database. Patients were stratified into naïve and experienced to antiretroviral therapy before starting the study regimens. Time to grade ≥III hepatotoxicity (as by ACTG classification) was the primary outcome. Secondary outcome was time to grade IV hepatotoxicity. Results Incidence of grade ≥III hepatotoxicity was 17.71 per 100 patient-years (p-yr) of follow up in naïve patient group and 8.22 per 100 p-yrs in experienced group (grade IV: 4.13 per 100 p-yrs and 1.08 per 100 p-yrs, respectively). In the latter group, the only independent factors associated with shorter time to the event at proportional hazards regression model were: previous liver transaminase elevations to grade ≥III, higher baseline alanine amino-transferase values, and use of a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based regimen. In the naive group, baseline aspartate transaminase level was associated with the primary outcome. Conclusion Use of a single or multiple protease inhibitor based regimen was not associated with risk of hepatotoxicity in either naïve or experienced patient groups to a statistically significant extent. A cautious approach with strict monitoring should be applied in HIV-HCV co-infected experienced patients with previous liver transaminase elevations, higher baseline alanine amino-transferase values and who receive regimens containing non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PMID:16018804

  2. Scientific return of a lunar elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  3. [Chronic elevation of enzymes of pancreatic origin in asymptomatic patients].

    PubMed

    Quílez, C; Martínez, J; Gómez, A; Trigo, C; Palazón, J M; Belda, G; Pérez-Mateo, M

    1998-05-01

    Chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is a well known entity although little has been reported. In most cases chronic asymptomatic elevation of amylase is due to a salival isoamylase increase or macroamylasemia. However, we have studied 10 cases with an increase in amylases due to pancreatic isoamylase and an increase in the remaining pancreatic enzymes which remained elevated during the follow up period ranging from 2 to 60 months. The amylase values ranged from 186 to 1,600; the lipase from 176 to 3,989, trypsin from 476 to 2,430 and pancreatic isoamylase from 122 to 1,263. In all patients CT and echography were carried out, which discarded structural damage. Nonetheless, an indirect test of pancreatic function presented unexplained pathologic values in 4 out of 10 patients. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is of unknown etiology with no associated structural pancreatic pathology demonstrable by the usual study methods.

  4. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  5. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  6. Short-Term Moderately Elevated Intraocular Pressure Is Associated With Elevated Scotopic Electroretinogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Choh, Vivian; Gurdita, Akshay; Tan, Bingyao; Prasad, Ratna C.; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Joos, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma. Some patients suffer glaucoma despite clinically measured normal IOPs. Fluctuations in IOP may have a significant role since IOPs are higher during sleep and inversion activities. Controlled transient elevations of IOPs in rats over time lead to optic nerve structural changes that are similar to the early changes observed in constant chronic models of glaucoma. Because early intervention decreases glaucoma progression, this study was done to determine if early physiological changes to the retina could be detected with noninvasive electrophysiological and optical imaging tests during moderately elevated IOP. Methods Intraocular pressures were raised to moderately high levels (35 mm Hg) in one eye of Sprague-Dawley rats while the other (control) eye was untreated. One group of rats underwent scotopic threshold response (STR) and electroretinogram (ERG) testing, while another 3 groups underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, Western blot, or histologic evaluation. Results The amplitudes of the STR and ERG responses in eyes with moderately elevated IOPs were enhanced compared to the values before IOP elevation, and compared to untreated contralateral eyes. Structural changes to the optic nerve also occurred during IOP elevation. Conclusions Although ischemic IOP elevations are well-known to globally reduce components of the scotopic ERG, acute elevation in rats to levels often observed in untreated glaucoma patients caused an increase in these parameters. Further exploration of these phenomena may be helpful in better understanding the mechanisms mediating early retinal changes during fluctuating or chronically elevated IOP. PMID:27100161

  7. Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  8. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents.

  9. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  10. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  11. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  12. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  13. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  14. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  15. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  16. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  17. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  19. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  20. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  1. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  2. 20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  3. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often resorted to violent means, while women turned to poisoning, drowning, study ... likely to attempt suicide, but males used more violent methods. And all attempts were most common in ...

  5. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  6. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  7. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  8. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  9. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  12. 15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ON NORTH SIDE, STONE WALL AND METAL RAILING ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Lake Street Bridge, Spanning Ruddiman Creek at Lake Shore Drive, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  13. Significantly Elevated Liver Alkaline Phosphatase in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shamban, Leonid; Patel, Brijesh; Williams, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Congestive hepatopathy can have a mildly elevated liver profile, which should normalize with appropriate therapy. Liver specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in decompensated heart failure (HF) can be mildly elevated. The levels exceeding beyond the expected rise should be a concern and lead to further investigation. The literature reports insubstantial number of cases regarding significantly elevated levels of ALP and congestive hepatopathy. We report a case of a 45-year-old female with known history of severe cardiomyopathy that had persistently elevated levels of ALP. The extensive workup was negative for any specific pathology. The liver biopsy was consistent with congestive hepatopathy. The patient’s ALP levels decreased with aggressive diuretic therapy but still remained elevated. PMID:27785272

  14. Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, P.L.; Evans, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Although goiter formation and hypothyroidism are not infrequent following lithium therapy, the association of exophthalmos and/or elevated thyroxine levels with lithium is uncommon. We describe a 62 year old man who rapidly developed exophthalmos, elevated circulating thyroxine, elevated TSH levels and elevated radioiodine uptake within six weeks of reexposure to lithium carbonate. When the medication was stopped, all indices of thyroid function returned to normal and the proptosis receded from 22 to 17mm. Lithium decreases secretion of preformed thyroid hormone and the secondary elevation of TSH levels usually restores euthyroid status. We propose that in our patient, because triiodothyronine levels remained normal, the pituitary was refractory to the normal inhibitory feedback effect of thyroxine and that continued hypersecretion of TSH resulted in hyperthyroidism

  15. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  18. 35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  19. The Slopes Remain the Same: Reply to Wolfe (2016)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Wolfe (2016) responds to my article (Kristjánsson, 2015), arguing among other things, that the differences in slope by response method in my data reflect speed accuracy trade-offs. But when reaction times and errors are combined in one score (inverse efficiency) to sidestep speed accuracy trade-offs, slope differences still remain. The problem that slopes, which are thought to measure search speed, differ by response type therefore remains. PMID:27872743

  20. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  2. Geothermal activity supports islands of biodiversity in a hyper-arid, high-elevation landscape, Socompa Volcano, Puna de Atacama, Andes: A cultivation-independent molecular-phylogenetic view of soil microbial communities from an extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, E.; Reed, S.; Sowell, P.; Halloy, S.; Schmidt, S.

    2006-12-01

    Socompa Volcano is a relatively young, unglaciated, 6051 m (19,852`) elevation stratovolcano that lies at the Chilean-Argentine border (24° 25`S, 68° 15`W) at the eastern edge of the Atacama Basin in the Arid Core of the Andes. A 1984 exploration revealed isolated mats of moss, liverwort, algae and lichen- dominated autotrophic communities associated with geothermal vents or warmspots near Socompa`s summit (Halloy, 1991). If extant, this system would present a unique opportunity to study life`s limits in a hyper-arid, high-elevation Mars-like landscape. Returning to Socompa in 2005, we encountered previously described warmspot "2" (Halloy, 1991) at 5824 m (19,107`) and found it partially disturbed by recent foot traffic. We collected warmspot-associated gas and soil samples, as well as other non-vent associated soils on Socompa. These soils were subjected to a battery of analyses, including cultivation-independent surveys of bacterial and eukaryotic small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Gas samples contained elevated CO2 and CH4 that, along with water vapor, vent directly from rocky "tubes" and percolate diffusely through the ground at the site. In general, Socompa soils were unvegetated, poorly sorted sands and gravels. Non-vent and vent-associated soils had pH 5.23 and 6.8, respectively. Non-vent and warm (25°C), disturbed (mat destroyed) vent-associated soils had no measurable moisture or nitrogen and 0.03% carbon (with SOM δ13C of -26‰). These soils also contained no measurable photosynthetic or photoprotective pigments and low enzyme activities. Conversely, cold (-5°C), undisturbed (but not overlain with dense mat) vent-associated soil had 10% water, 0.02% nitrogen and 0.25% carbon (C:N=13, SOM δ13C of -23.5‰). These soils had higher enzyme activities, contained chlorophyll a, and harbored a diverse array of algae, moss, liverwort, ascomycete, alveolate, and metazoan 18S rRNA sequences (~30 species). On the other hand, in the warm

  3. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  4. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  5. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach.

  6. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  7. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  8. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  9. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents.

  10. Effect of hydrogen on the integrity of aluminium-oxide interface at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Xie, De-Gang; Ma, Evan; Li, Ju; Zhang, Xi-Xiang; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen can facilitate the detachment of protective oxide layer off metals and alloys. The degradation is usually exacerbated at elevated temperatures in many industrial applications; however, its origin remains poorly understood. Here by heating hydrogenated aluminium inside an environmental transmission electron microscope, we show that hydrogen exposure of just a few minutes can greatly degrade the high temperature integrity of metal-oxide interface. Moreover, there exists a critical temperature of ~150 °C, above which the growth of cavities at the metal-oxide interface reverses to shrinkage, followed by the formation of a few giant cavities. Vacancy supersaturation, activation of a long-range diffusion pathway along the detached interface and the dissociation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes are critical factors affecting this behaviour. These results enrich the understanding of hydrogen-induced interfacial failure at elevated temperatures.

  11. Effect of hydrogen on the integrity of aluminium–oxide interface at elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Xie, De-Gang; Ma, Evan; Li, Ju; Zhang, Xi-Xiang; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen can facilitate the detachment of protective oxide layer off metals and alloys. The degradation is usually exacerbated at elevated temperatures in many industrial applications; however, its origin remains poorly understood. Here by heating hydrogenated aluminium inside an environmental transmission electron microscope, we show that hydrogen exposure of just a few minutes can greatly degrade the high temperature integrity of metal–oxide interface. Moreover, there exists a critical temperature of ∼150 °C, above which the growth of cavities at the metal–oxide interface reverses to shrinkage, followed by the formation of a few giant cavities. Vacancy supersaturation, activation of a long-range diffusion pathway along the detached interface and the dissociation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes are critical factors affecting this behaviour. These results enrich the understanding of hydrogen-induced interfacial failure at elevated temperatures. PMID:28218260

  12. Intolerance of uncertainty in emotional disorders: What uncertainties remain?

    PubMed

    Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara Ann; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The current paper presents a future research agenda for intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor for emotional disorders. In light of the accumulating interest and promising research on IU, it is timely to emphasize the theoretical and therapeutic significance of IU, as well as to highlight what remains unknown about IU across areas such as development, assessment, behavior, threat and risk, and relationships to cognitive vulnerability factors and emotional disorders. The present paper was designed to provide a synthesis of what is known and unknown about IU, and, in doing so, proposes broad and novel directions for future research to address the remaining uncertainties in the literature.

  13. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Activity ratios of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra for transport mechanisms of elevated uranium in alluvial aquifers of groundwater in south-western (SW) Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Karpe, R K; Rout, S; Gautam, Y P; Mishra, M K; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved uranium (U), its isotopic composition ((234)U, (235)U, (238)U) and two long lived Ra isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in alluvial aquifers of groundwater were determined to investigate the groundwater flow pattern in the south-western (SW) Punjab, India. Particular attention was given to the spatial variability of activity ratios (ARs) of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra to predict the possible sources and supply process of U into the water from the solid phase. The measured groundwater (234)U/(238)U ARs were ∼1 or >1 in the shallow zone (depth < 30 m) with high U concentration and <1 in the deeper zone (depth > 30 m) with relatively low U concentration. The simultaneous elevated U concentration and (234)U/(238)U ARs in waters were possibly due to differences in imprints of rock-water interactions under hydrologic conditions. However, (234)U/(238)U ARs < 1 clearly indicate the lack of recharge from surface water to groundwater leading to (234)U deficit in groundwater. This deficit might be also attributed to alpha recoil processes under strong dissolution. Overall, the decreasing pattern of (234)U/(238)U ARs observed from SE to SW or NW ward clearly indicates a groundwater flow paths from SE to SW/NW. Similarly, (226)Ra/(238)U ARs < 1 for all water samples reflect that the precursor (238)U is fairly mobile relative to (226)Ra. This might be due to unusually high amount of (238)U in groundwaters and subsequently the different geochemistry of the two isotopes. On the other hand, (226)Ra/(228)Ra ARs in groundwaters varied widely and observed about 50-300 times higher than (238)U/(232)Th ARs in granitic rocks or soils. Such elevation in ARs might be attributed to different dissolution properties of their parents during water-rock interactions or lattice damage during decay or local enrichments of uranium in the aquifers.

  15. Elevated COX2 expression and PGE2 production by downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huimin; Ma, Feng; Hu, Xiaona; Jin, Ting; Xiong, Chuhui; Teng, Xiaochun

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophage. •RXRα suppresses NF-κB activity and COX2 expression. •Increased PGE2 production due to downregulation of RXRα. -- Abstract: Increased systemic level of inflammatory cytokines leads to numerous age-related diseases. In senescent macrophages, elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production contributes to the suppression of T cell function with aging, which increases the susceptibility to infections. However, the regulation of these inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 with aging still remains unclear. We have verified that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and PGE2 production are higher in LPS-stimulated macrophages from old mice than that from young mice. Downregulation of RXRα, a nuclear receptor that can suppress NF-κB activity, mediates the elevation of COX2 expression and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages. We also have found less induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by RXRα agonist in senescent macrophages, which partially accounts for high risk of atherosclerosis in aged population. Systemic treatment with RXRα antagonist HX531 in young mice increases COX2, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression in splenocytes. Our study not only has outlined a mechanism of elevated NF-κB activity and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages, but also provides RXRα as a potential therapeutic target for treating the age-related diseases.

  16. Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain About SPR Drawdown and Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    and to the ARCO ter- minal in Texas City , Texas. These terminals provide connections to two marine terminals and nine refineries in Texas. 0 Texoma...RCED-91-16 Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain Chater 2 DOE’s Egbleatis of Crient Drawdown Capabllity Appear Reamnable, but Tankeir MAmilability Col

  17. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. BLAST FURNACE No. 1 IS ON THE RIGHT, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) end and clerestory monitor of Machine Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Machine Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  4. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. Remaining True to the Vision: Promoting Research in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Ann P.; Burgess, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for family and consumer sciences professionals to generate new knowledge through research and then share findings with diverse groups. Specific Action Steps describe methods to incorporate research into university curricula to promote this role. The ultimate goal is to inspire new professionals to remain true to the…

  6. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  7. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  8. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  9. 6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL BUILDING AND UTILITY BRIDGE TO BUILDING ACROSS NINTH STREET HABS No. IA-160-AR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Klauer Manufacturing Company Factory, 301 Ninth Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. 22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains of machinery house platform east of drawspan; note cables (still connected to drawspan) coming off the winding drum; view to north. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  12. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  13. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  14. 8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street Pump House. Ashes would be removed via a dump truck driven under the hopper above the garage door. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  16. 1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  17. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  19. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  20. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  1. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  2. Oxytocin-induced elevation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, cyclic ADP-ribose or Ca(2+) concentrations is involved in autoregulation of oxytocin secretion in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice.

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Olga; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Amina, Sarwat; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2010-01-01

    Locally released oxytocin (OT) activates OT receptors (2.1:OXY:1:OT:) in neighboring neurons in the hypothalamus and their terminals in the posterior pituitary, resulting in further OT release, best known in autoregulation occurring during labor or milk ejection in reproductive females. OT also plays a critical role in social behavior of non-reproductive females and even in males in mammals from rodents to humans. Social behavior is disrupted when elevation of free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and OT secretion are reduced in male and female CD38 knockout mice. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate whether ADP-ribosyl cyclase-dependent signaling is involved in OT-induced OT release for social recognition in males, independent from female reproduction, and to determine its molecular mechanism. Here, we report that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was increased by OT in crude membrane preparations of the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice, and that OT elicited an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the isolated terminals over a period of 5 min. The increases in cyclase and [Ca(2+)](i) were partially inhibited by nonspecific protein kinase inhibitors and a protein kinase C specific inhibitor, calphostin C. Subsequently, OT-induced OT release was also inhibited by calphostin C to levels inhibited by vasotocin, an OT receptor antagonist, and 8-bromo-cADP-ribose. These results demonstrate that OT receptors are functionally coupled to membrane-bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 and suggest that cADPR-mediated intracellular calcium signaling is involved in autoregulation of OT release, which is sensitive to protein kinase C, in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis in male mice.

  3. 1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  5. Diagnosis of aortic dextroposition on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Costea, Georgică; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2012-03-01

    The fine macroscopic observation of a young adult female skeleton recovered from a Roman graveyard in Romania revealed distinctive flattening of the vertebra related to a right-sided aorta. Associated bone anomalies may be related to a Kartagener syndrome. This case highlights the fact that visceral anomalies may be diagnosed even on skeletal remains. Such lesions could be useful for osteo-archaeologists, of course, but also for forensic anthropologist investigators dealing with skeletonized remains (for example during the identification process of a dead body, through comparison with known medical data for missing people). More, hypotheses about cause and/or manner of death may be given, and a possibility of genetic confirmation exists.

  6. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  7. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date.

  8. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Girish, Kl; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-07-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  9. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  10. Remaining useful life prediction based on known usage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.

    2003-08-01

    Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has developed a novel statistical approach to estimating the remaining useful life of aircraft components based on known usage monitoring data. The analysis technique is known as the Remaining Useful Life Estimation (RULE) methodology. The basic premise of RULE is to determine conservative predictions for the component loads and fatigue life values from Monte Carlo simulations based on a desired component reliability. Then, as the aircraft's usage is monitored, the component life can be calculated with a known reliability based on the conservative predictions generated by the Monte Carlo simulation. The RULE methodology, which has been successfully tested on small-scale analytical problems, is ideally suited to be integrated into both rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. Furthermore, modifications to the technology may prove to be applicable to wide variety of health and prognostic problems.

  11. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages.

  12. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  14. Area and mammalian elevational diversity.

    PubMed

    McCain, Christy M

    2007-01-01

    Elevational gradients hold enormous potential for understanding general properties of biodiversity. Like latitudinal gradients, the hypotheses for diversity patterns can be grouped into historical explanations, climatic drivers, and spatial hypotheses. The spatial hypotheses include the species-area effect and spatial constraint (mid-domain effect null models). I test these two spatial hypotheses using regional diversity patterns for mammals (non-vola