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Sample records for activity remained elevated

  1. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  2. 13. REMAINING TOP PART OF SOUTH ELEVATION, HAMMER BUILDING, SINCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. REMAINING TOP PART OF SOUTH ELEVATION, HAMMER BUILDING, SINCE JOINED TO BUILDING 6. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Assembly & Manufacturing Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  4. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  5. Interleukin-6 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression remains elevated in revived live endothelial cells following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H

    2013-12-01

    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications. PMID:24362480

  6. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  7. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October`s total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels.

  8. Elevated Gene Copy Number Does Not Always Explain Elevated Amylase Activities in Fishes.

    PubMed

    German, Donovan P; Foti, Dolly M; Heras, Joseph; Amerkhanian, Hooree; Lockwood, Brent L

    2016-01-01

    Amylase activity variation in the guts of several model organisms appears to be explained by amylase gene copy number variation. We tested the hypothesis that amylase gene copy number is always elevated in animals with high amylolytic activity. We therefore sequenced the amylase genes and examined amylase gene copy number in prickleback fishes (family Stichaeidae) with different diets including two species of convergently evolved herbivores with the elevated amylase activity phenotype. We found elevated amylase gene copy number (six haploid copies) with sequence variation among copies in one herbivore (Cebidichthys violaceus) and modest gene copy number (two to three haploid copies) with little sequence variation in the remaining taxa, which included herbivores, omnivores, and a carnivore. Few functional differences in amylase biochemistry were observed, and previous investigations showed similar digestibility among the convergently evolved herbivores with differing amylase genetics. Hence, the phenotype of elevated amylase activity can be achieved by different mechanisms (i.e., elevated expression of fewer genes, increased gene copy number, or expression of more efficient amylase proteins) with similar results. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of available fish amylase genes show mostly lineage-specific duplication events leading to gene copy number variation, although a whole-genome duplication event or chromosomal translocation may have produced multiple amylase copies in the Ostariophysi, again showing multiple routes to the same result. PMID:27327179

  9. Long-Term Response of Terrestrial Productivity to Elevated CO2 Remains a Grand Challenge in Terrestrial Biogeochemistry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is large variability in the long-term response of terrestrial net primary production (NPP) to elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (eCO2). In some ecosystems productivity remains higher under eCO2 compared to aCO2 at the decadal time scale. In other ecosystem productivity under eCO2 increases transiently, returning to levels observed at aCO2 in a few years or less. The diversity of ecosystem responses is as fascinating as it is difficult to understand. A number of scientists, including this one, have postulated that soil water and nutrient supply constrain productivity responses and that in the absence of increases in soil resource uptake productivity must decline because there is little evidence for increases in resource use efficiency, with perhaps the exception of grassland water-use efficiency in some instances. This contention is challenged by the data as they are currently understood. As such there is no unifying explanation for the diversity of these responses and hence models cannot be reasonably expected to accurately predict the timing and magnitude of terrestrial-C sequestration over the next century. Research on the impacts of elevated CO2 has not yet answered a fundamentally important, policy-relevant question in global change science. In this talk I present an analysis of the NPP literature from long-term experiments at eCO2 published to date (>5 years duration) in an effort to stimulate a discussion of why productivity responses to eCO2 vary from ecosystem to ecosystem. Explaining variations in productivity response to eCO2 is a grand challenge in terrestrial biogeochemistry.

  10. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-03-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  11. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Protein Breakdown Remains Elevated in Pediatric Burn Survivors up to One-Year Post-Injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tony; Herndon, David N; Porter, Craig; Chondronikola, Maria; Chaidemenou, Anastasia; Abdelrahman, Doaa Reda; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Andersen, Clark; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-11-01

    Acute alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism are a well-established event associated with the stress response to burns. Nevertheless, the long-lasting effects of burn injury on skeletal muscle protein turnover are incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to investigate fractional synthesis (FSR) and breakdown (FBR) rates of protein in skeletal muscle of pediatric burn patients (n  =  42, >30% total body surface area burns) for up to 1 year after injury. Skeletal muscle protein kinetics were measured in the post-prandial state following bolus injections of C6 and N phenylalanine stable isotopes. Plasma and muscle phenylalanine enrichments were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that the FSR in burn patients was 2- to 3-fold higher than values from healthy men previously reported in the literature (P ≤ 0.05). The FBR was 4- to 6-fold higher than healthy values (P  <  0.01). Therefore, net protein balance was lower in burn patients compared with healthy men from 2 weeks to 12 months post-injury (P  <  0.05). These findings show that skeletal muscle protein turnover stays elevated for up to 1 year after burn, an effect attributable to simultaneous increases in FBR and FSR. Muscle FBR exceeds FSR during this time, producing a persistent negative net protein balance, even in the post-prandial state, which likely contributes to the prolonged cachexia seen in burned victims. PMID:26263438

  13. High Altitude Remains Associated with Elevated Suicide Rates after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status: A Study from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data of completed suicides, the mean altitude of the district where each suicide took place, and the mean income of each district. We analyzed the data using regression analysis before and after adjustment for mean income. We found that there is a positive correlation between altitude and suicide rate, even after adjustment for mean income. Thus, altitude appears to be an independent risk factor for suicide. PMID:25395983

  14. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  15. Elevated aromatase activity in forebrain synaptic terminals during song

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Oyama, Randi K.; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (which converts androgens into oestrogens) is expressed throughout the brain in zebra finches. Aromatase is enzymatically active in both cell bodies and synaptic terminals of neurones of the songbird brain, particularly within forebrain motor and auditory networks. Aromatisation within synaptic terminals could thus provide localised and acute modulatory oestrogens within the forebrain during singing and/or audition. In male zebra finches, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain aromatase activity is elevated during singing behaviour and/or hearing male song. This study reports that aromatase activity is elevated in males that were singing for 30 min as compared to non-singing males, and that this elevation occurs only within the cellular compartment that contains synaptic terminals. In a separate experiment, males that heard acoustic playback of song for 30 min exhibited no differences in aromatase activity or in aromatase mRNA levels as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. Therefore, these results indicate that activation of the motor pathway for song production is linked to local elevations in synaptic aromatase activity within the forebrain of male zebra finches. Future experiments could assess whether elevated synaptic aromatase activity during song is dependent on acute regulation of the aromatase protein. PMID:19207827

  16. Elevation of Serum Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yuuki; Takahashi, Ikuko; Narita, Ayuko; Takeda, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiromi; Tamura, Masamichi; Kikuchi, Wataru; Komatsu, Akira; Tamura, Hiroaki; Tsuchida, Satoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that affects both small and medium-sized vessels including the coronary arteries in infants and children. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, a lipid, that functions as a second messenger in the regulation of cell functions. ASM activation has been implicated in numerous cellular stress responses and is associated with cellular ASM secretion, either through alternative trafficking of the ASM precursor protein or by means of an unidentified mechanism. Elevation of serum ASM activity has been described in several human diseases, suggesting that patients with diseases involving vascular endothelial cells may exhibit a preferential elevation of serum ASM activity. As acute KD is characterized by systemic vasculitis that could affect vascular endothelial cells, the elevation of serum ASM activity should be considered in these patients. In the present study, serum ASM activity in the sera of 15 patients with acute KD was determined both before and after treatment with infusion of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a first-line treatment for acute KD. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly elevated in KD patients when compared to the control group (3.85 ± 1.46 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h vs. 1.15 ± 0.10 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h, p < 0.001), suggesting that ASM activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly correlated with levels of C-reactive protein (p < 0.05). These results suggest the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of KD. PMID:26447086

  17. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Matthew S.; Bebu, Ionut; Tracy, Russell; So-Armah, Kaku; Okulicz, Jason; Ganesan, Anuradha; Armstrong, Adam; O’Bryan, Thomas; Rimland, David; Justice, Amy C.; Agan, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6–148.0, p = 0.002). This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03). Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases. PMID:27088215

  18. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Matthew S; Bebu, Ionut; Tracy, Russell; So-Armah, Kaku; Okulicz, Jason; Ganesan, Anuradha; Armstrong, Adam; O'Bryan, Thomas; Rimland, David; Justice, Amy C; Agan, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6-148.0, p = 0.002). This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03). Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases. PMID:27088215

  19. Elevated temperature creep properties for selected active metal braze alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Active metal braze alloys reduce the number of processes required for the joining of metal to ceramic components by eliminating the need for metallization and/or Ni plating of the ceramic surfaces. Titanium (Ti), V, and Zr are examples of active element additions which have been used successfully in such braze alloys. Since the braze alloy is expected to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch strains between the metal and ceramic materials, a knowledge of its elevated temperature mechanical properties is important. In particular, the issue of whether or not the creep strength of an active metal braze alloy is increased or decreased relative to its non-activated counterpart is important when designing new brazing processes and alloy systems. This paper presents a survey of high temperature mechanical properties for two pairs of conventional braze alloys and their active metal counterparts: (a) the conventional 72Ag-28Cu (Cusil) alloy, and the active braze alloy 62.2Ag- 36.2Cu-1.6Ti (Cusil ABA), and (b) the 82Au-18Ni (Nioro) alloy and the active braze alloy Mu-15.5M-0.75Mo-1.75V (Nioro ABA). For the case of the Cusil/Cusil ABA pair, the active metal addition contributes to solid solution strengthening of the braze alloy, resulting in a higher creep strength as compared to the non-active alloy. In the case of the Nioro/Nioro ABA pair, the Mo and V additions cause the active braze alloy to have a two-phase microstructure, which results in a reduced creep strength than the conventional braze alloy. The Garofalo sinh equation has been used to quantitatively describe the stress and temperature dependence of the deformation behavior. It will be observed that the effective stress exponent in the Garofalo sinh equation is a function of the instantaneous value of the stress argument.

  20. 75 FR 77047 - Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Finance Activities AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for.... Title of Proposal: Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance... Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities describes the types of internal controls and...

  1. Remaining Uncertainties in the Causes of Past and Future Atlantic Hurricane Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is no debate that hurricane activity in the North Atlantic has increased substantially since the relatively quiescent period of the 1970s and 1980s, but there is still uncertainty in the dominant cause of the increase. Increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (aGHG) have contributed to the observed increase in tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) over the past century, while shorter-term decadal variability in regions where hurricanes form and track is generally dominated by 1) internal variability, 2) natural factors such as volcanic eruptions and mineral aerosol variability, and 3) changes in anthropogenic aerosols. Direct SST warming from globally well-mixed aGHG is understood to have a much smaller effect on hurricane formation and intensification compared to the effect of regional warming due to changes in the three factors noted above. While most recent papers implicate both internal and external anthropogenic causes for the presently heightened Atlantic hurricane activity, some show that internal variability dominates and others show that anthropogenic factors dominate. In the Atlantic, model projection-based consensus indicates no change in storm frequency over the next century but the uncertainty is large and spans -50% to +50%. Mean storm intensity and rainfall rates are projected to increase with continued warming, and the models tend to agree better when projecting these measures of activity. Models that are capable of producing very strong hurricanes usually project increases in the frequency of the most intense hurricanes. This measure is highly relevant to physical and societal impacts. In the Atlantic, model-based consensus indicates substantial increases in the strongest hurricanes, but the uncertainty is large and spans -100% to +200% change over the next century.

  2. Rates of Periglacial Activity Along an Elevational Gradient, White Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, G. L.; Wilkerson, F. D.

    2009-12-01

    Periglacial research has been conducted in the alpine zone of the White Mountains since 1991 and has been integrated with the international Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) project since 2005. Study sites range from 3200 m at the southern end of the research area to 4250 m near the summit of White Mountain Peak. This elevation range includes measurements on a variety of lithologies and across several micro-climates. Wooden dowels are used to measure annual vertical movement and surface markers are used to measure horizontal movement. Dowels and markers are placed in grid patterns in a variety of active small-scale sorted circles (frost boils) that often lie within large-scale relict sorted polygons. Rates of vertical movement have decreased since measurements began with an average of 16.8 cm in 1991-1992 decreasing to an average of 10.6 cm between 2005-2009. Surface markers are more consistent with an average of between 31 to 56% of markers being overturned depending upon site location. Temperature (frequency of freeze-thaw cycles) and available water are the driving mechanisms for the surface movement with wet years showing greater rates of activity than dry years. Climate change has significantly decreased activity in the lower elevations, while high elevation sites near the summit remain highly active.

  3. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  4. Leptin receptor null mice with reexpression of LepR in GnRHR expressing cells display elevated FSH levels but remain in a prepubertal state.

    PubMed

    Allen, Susan J; Garcia-Galiano, David; Borges, Beatriz C; Burger, Laura L; Boehm, Ulrich; Elias, Carol F

    2016-06-01

    Leptin signals energy sufficiency to the reproductive hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Studies using genetic models have demonstrated that hypothalamic neurons are major players mediating these effects. Leptin receptor (LepR) is also expressed in the pituitary gland and in the gonads, but the physiological effects of leptin in these sites are still unclear. Female mice with selective deletion of LepR in a subset of gonadotropes show normal pubertal development but impaired fertility. Conditional deletion approaches, however, often result in redundancy or developmental adaptations, which may compromise the assessment of leptin's action in gonadotropes for pubertal maturation. To circumvent these issues, we adopted a complementary genetic approach and assessed if selective reexpression of LepR only in gonadotropes is sufficient to enable puberty and improve fertility of LepR null female mice. We initially assessed the colocalization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and LepR in the HPG axis using GnRHR-IRES-Cre (GRIC) and LepR-Cre reporter (tdTomato or enhanced green fluorescent protein) mice. We found that GRIC and leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 are expressed in distinct hypothalamic neurons. Whereas LepR-Cre was observed in theca cells, GRIC expression was rarely found in the ovarian parenchyma. In contrast, a subpopulation of gonadotropes expressed the LepR-Cre reporter gene (tdTomato). We then crossed the GRIC mice with the LepR null reactivable (LepR(loxTB)) mice. These mice showed an increase in FSH levels, but they remained in a prepubertal state. Together with previous findings, our data indicate that leptin-selective action in gonadotropes serves a role in adult reproductive physiology but is not sufficient to allow pubertal maturation in mice. PMID:27101301

  5. Understanding the Linkage between Elevation and the Activated-Sludge Bacterial Community along a 3,600-Meter Elevation Gradient in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lihua; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Qing

    2015-10-01

    To understand the relationship between elevation and bacterial communities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), bacterial communities in 21 municipal WWTPs across China, located 9 to 3,660 m above sea level (masl), were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. A threshold for the association of elevation with bacterial community richness and evenness was observed at approximately 1,200 masl. At lower elevations, both richness and evenness were not significantly associated with elevation. At higher elevations, significant declines with increased elevations were observed for community richness and evenness. The declining evenness trend at the phylum level was reflected by distinct trends in relative abundance for individual bacterial phyla. Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes displayed significant increases, while most other phyla showed declines. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the community richness and evenness at high elevations were more correlated with elevation than with any other single environmental variable. Redundancy analysis indicated that the contribution of elevation to community composition variances increased from 3% at lower elevations to 11% at higher elevations whereas the community composition variance at higher elevations remained much more explained by operational variables (39.2%) than by elevation. The influent total phosphorus concentration, food/microorganism ratio, and treatment process were the three shared dominant contributors to the community composition variance across the whole elevation gradient, followed by effluent ammonia nitrogen and temperature at higher elevations. PMID:26162883

  6. Understanding the Linkage between Elevation and the Activated-Sludge Bacterial Community along a 3,600-Meter Elevation Gradient in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lihua; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relationship between elevation and bacterial communities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), bacterial communities in 21 municipal WWTPs across China, located 9 to 3,660 m above sea level (masl), were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. A threshold for the association of elevation with bacterial community richness and evenness was observed at approximately 1,200 masl. At lower elevations, both richness and evenness were not significantly associated with elevation. At higher elevations, significant declines with increased elevations were observed for community richness and evenness. The declining evenness trend at the phylum level was reflected by distinct trends in relative abundance for individual bacterial phyla. Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes displayed significant increases, while most other phyla showed declines. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the community richness and evenness at high elevations were more correlated with elevation than with any other single environmental variable. Redundancy analysis indicated that the contribution of elevation to community composition variances increased from 3% at lower elevations to 11% at higher elevations whereas the community composition variance at higher elevations remained much more explained by operational variables (39.2%) than by elevation. The influent total phosphorus concentration, food/microorganism ratio, and treatment process were the three shared dominant contributors to the community composition variance across the whole elevation gradient, followed by effluent ammonia nitrogen and temperature at higher elevations. PMID:26162883

  7. 75 FR 61857 - Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Finance Activities AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities. OMB Number: 1550-0111. Form Number: N/A. Description: Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities describes...

  8. Serum Paraoxonase Activity and Malondialdehyde Serum Concentrations Remain Unaffected in Response to Hydroxyurea Therapy in β-Thalassemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Ansari, Saqib H; Hashim, Zehra; Shamsi, Tahir S; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-07-01

    β-Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disorder characterized by reduced production of β-globin chains of hemoglobin A (HbA). In recent years, hydroxyurea (HU) has shown promising therapeutic benefits in patients with β-thalassemia by fetal hemoglobin augmentation. We have analyzed effects of hydroxyurea treatment on oxidative stress in β-thalassemia patients by assessing activities of paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase along with malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations. Blood samples from 159 individuals including 56 HU-treated and 58 untreated β-thalassemia patients and 45 healthy controls were analyzed. PON activity was found to be highest in healthy individuals (177.76 ± 4.44 U/mL) as compared to treated (52.67 ± 3.65 U/mL) and untreated (55.11 ± 3.26 U/mL) patients. A similar trend was observed in the case of arylesterase activity in normal, β-thalassemia-treated, and untreated (210.0 ± 11.25 U/mL, 163.03 ± 9.04 U/mL, 139.77 ± 10.10 U/mL) subjects. Serum MDA concentrations (2.59 ± 0.09 nmol/mL, 2.45 ± 0.08 nmol/mL, and 1.15 ± 0.05 nmol/mL) and total ROS concentrations (3.73 ± 0.20 nmol/mL, 3.54 ± 0.23 nmol/mL, and 2.45 ± 0.14 nmol/mL) were significantly elevated in both groups (untreated and treated) as compared to healthy individuals (P < .01). Oxidative stress was found to be markedly elevated in β-thalassemia patients as compared to healthy controls. Insignificant differences were, however, observed in mean concentrations of PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, serum MDA concentration and total ROS concentrations between HU-treated and untreated patients. We propose that HU therapy alone seems to be ineffective in managing oxidative stress and is likely to offer a better clinical outcome when supplemented with efficient iron chelation therapy and antioxidants. PMID:26608512

  9. A comparison of bat activity at low and high elevations in the Black Hills of western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, J.; Adams, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the differences in activity patterns and community structure of bats between low (<150 m) and high ( ! 575 m) elevation sites in two habitats of the Capitol State Forest, Washington. Total bat activity averaged four times higher at low elevation sites than at high elevation sites. Feeding activity was almost 20 times higher at low elevation sites. However, the non-myotis group had similar activity levels at high and low elevation, whereas myotis group activity decreased at higher elevations. Different levels of activity between elevations could be the result of differences in insect availability, climatic conditions, and morphology of the bat species.

  10. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies. PMID:25791284

  11. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  12. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity. PMID:11536820

  13. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (p<.01) for women with myofascial TMD (median=3.31 μV and mean=4.98 μV) than for control women (median=2.83 μV and mean=3.88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  14. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  15. Effect of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation and soil microbial activities in tropical rice soil.

    PubMed

    Adak, Totan; Munda, Sushmita; Kumar, Upendra; Berliner, J; Pokhare, Somnath S; Jambhulkar, N N; Jena, M

    2016-02-01

    Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 °C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities. PMID:26790432

  16. Elevated serum thymidine kinase activity in canine splenic hemangiosarcoma*.

    PubMed

    Thamm, D H; Kamstock, D A; Sharp, C R; Johnson, S I; Mazzaferro, E; Herold, L V; Barnes, S M; Winkler, K; Selting, K A

    2012-12-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a soluble biomarker associated with DNA synthesis. This prospective study evaluated serum TK1 activity in dogs presenting with hemoabdomen and a splenic mass. An ELISA using azidothymidine as a substrate was used to evaluate TK1 activity. Sixty-two dogs with hemoabdomen and 15 normal controls were studied. Serum TK1 activity was significantly higher in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) than in normal dogs (mean ± SEM = 17.0 ± 5.0 and 2.01 ± 0.6, respectively), but not dogs with benign disease (mean ± SEM = 10.0 ± 3.3). Using a cut-off of 6.55 U/L, TK activity demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.52, specificity of 0.93, positive predictive value of 0.94 and negative predictive value of 0.48 for distinguishing HSA versus normal. When interval thresholds of <1.55 and >7.95 U/L were used together, diagnostic utility was increased. Serum TK1 evaluation may help to discriminate between benign disease and HSA in dogs with hemoabdomen and a splenic mass. PMID:22236280

  17. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    PubMed

    Eells, Jeffrey B; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice. PMID:25855987

  18. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-Null Heterozygous Mice Exacerbates Elevated Open Field Activity

    PubMed Central

    Eells, Jeffrey B.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X.; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M.; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice. PMID:25855987

  19. Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

  20. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  1. Elevated CO2-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase differentially affects nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis plants under different nitrate supplies.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huijun; Yan, Minggang; Chen, Ni; Xie, Huaqiang; Ke, Shouwei

    2016-02-01

    CO2 elevation often alters the plant's nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the first enzyme acting in the nitrate assimilation pathway. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The association between elevated CO2-induced alterations of NR activity and nitric oxide (NO) was examined in Col-0 Arabidopsis fed with 0.2-10 mM nitrate, using NO donors, NO scavenger, and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. The noa1 mutant, in which most NOS activity was lost, and the NR activity-null mutant nia1 nia2 were also used to examine the above association. In response to CO2 elevation, NR activity increased in low-nitrate Col-0 plants but was inhibited in high-nitrate Col-0 plants. NO scavenger and NOS inhibitor could eliminate these two responses, whereas the application of NO donors mimicked these distinct responses in ambient CO2-grown Col-0 plants. Furthermore, in both low- and high-nitrate conditions, elevated CO2 increased NOS activity and NO levels in Col-0 and nia1 nia2 plants but had little effect on NO level and NR activity in noa1 plants. Considering all of these findings, this study concluded that, in response to CO2 elevation, either the NR activity induction in low-nitrate plants or the NR activity inhibition in high-nitrate plants is regulated by NOS-generated NO. PMID:26608644

  2. Prehypertension-Associated Elevation in Circulating Lysophosphatidlycholines, Lp-PLA2 Activity, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjoo; Jung, Saem; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Prehypertension is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites that are associated with prehypertension. A group of 53 individuals was identified who remained within the range of prehypertension during repeated measurements in a 3-year period. This group was compared with the control group of 53 normotensive subjects who were matched for age and gender. Metabolomic profiles were analyzed with UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The prehypertensive group showed higher levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) containing C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:2, C18:1, C18:0, C20:5, C20:4, C20:3, and C22:6, higher circulating Lp-PLA2 activity, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), interleukin 6 (IL-6), urinary 8-epi-PGF2α, and higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), before and after adjusting for BMI, WHR, smoking, alcohol consumption, serum lipid profiles, glucose, and insulin. LysoPC (16:0) was the most important plasma metabolite for evaluating the difference between control and prehypertensive groups, with a variable important in the projection (VIP) value of 17.173, and it showed a positive and independent association with DBP and SBP. In the prehypertensive group, the levels of lysoPC (16:0) positively and significantly correlated with ox-LDL, Lp-PLA2 activity, 8-epi-PGF2α, ba-PWV, and IL-6 before and after adjusting for confounding variables. Prehypertension-associated elevations in lysoPCs, Lp-PLA2 activity, ox-LDL, urinary 8-epi-PGF2α, IL-6, and ba-PWV could indicate increased oxidative stress from Lp-PLA2-catalyzed PC hydrolysis during increased LDL oxidation, thereby enhancing proinflammation and arterial stiffness. PMID:24800806

  3. Elevated glycosyltransferase activities in infected or traumatized hosts: nonspecific response to inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, P G; Little, J S; Powanda, M C; Bostian, K A; Beisel, W R

    1980-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infection leads to multifold increases in sialyltransferase, galactosyltransferase, alpha 2-fucosyltransferase, and alpha 3-fucosyltransferase activity of rat liver. Such changes may reflect an increased demand for glycosylation of acute-phase proteins synthesized and secreted by the liver during inflammatory processes. Serum sialyltransferase became elevated in bacteria-infected or burned rats and sandfly fever-infected humans, but did not correlate with acute-phase serum protein changes. These data suggest that nonparenchymal liver cells, such as macrophages, may contribute substantially to elevated sialyltransferase activity in the circulation during infection and, as such, represent a general host response to infection and tissue trauma. PMID:6156910

  4. Cardiac activation heat remains inversely dependent on temperature over the range 27-37°C.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The relation between heat output and stress production (force per cross-sectional area) of isolated cardiac tissue is a key metric that provides insight into muscle energetic performance. The heat intercept of the relation, termed "activation heat," reflects the metabolic cost of restoring transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and K(+) following electrical excitation, and myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration following its release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At subphysiological temperatures, activation heat is inversely dependent on temperature. Thus one may presume that activation heat would decrease even further at body temperature. However, this assumption is prima facie inconsistent with a study, using intact hearts, which revealed no apparent change in the combination of activation and basal metabolism between 27 and 37°C. It is thus desired to directly determine the change in activation heat between 27 and 37°C. In this study, we use our recently constructed high-thermal resolution muscle calorimeter to determine the first heat-stress relation of isolated cardiac muscle at 37°C. We compare the relation at 37°C to that at 27°C to examine whether the inverse temperature dependence of activation heat, observed under hypothermic conditions, prevails at body temperature. Our results show that activation heat was reduced (from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 2.3 ± 0.3 kJ/m(3)) at the higher temperature. This leads us to conclude that activation metabolism continues to decline as temperature is increased from hypothermia to normothermia and allows us to comment on results obtained from the intact heart by previous investigators. PMID:27016583

  5. In vivo tendon forces correlate with activity level and remain bounded: evidence in a rabbit flexor tendon model.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, P; Butler, D L; Korvick, D L; Proch, F S

    1998-11-01

    While some tendons and ligaments in the lower extremity develop peak forces proportional to the intensity of activity (Komi 1990; Komi et al., 1992; Korvick et al., 1996), others maintain a steady force regardless of activity level (Herzog et al., 1993; Prilutsky et al., 1994). Investigators (Biewener et al., 1988; Korvick et al., 1996) have also shown that peak knee and ankle tendon forces approach one-quarter to one-third of ultimate or failure force values. In the rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon model we tested several hypotheses, chiefly that peak in vivo forces not only increase with increasing activity but do not exceed one-third of their ultimate or failure values. The FDP tendon was instrumented in three animals, and each rabbit subjected to an experimental design involving three activity levels. Peak tensile forces and rates of rise and fall in tendon force increased significantly with increasing activity (p < 0.01). Further, the tendon maintained a non-zero force level throughout all trials. For the most vigorous activity, inclined hopping, tensile forces and stresses were, on average, within 30% of the tendon's ultimate force and stress values, respectively. Such in vivo measurements in different tendon systems should help investigators better understand the recruitment and contribution of important muscle-tendon units to joint stability and gait. PMID:9880061

  6. Plasma hyperosmolality elevates the internal temperature threshold for active thermoregulatory vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Aoki, Ken; Morimoto, Keiko; Johnson, John M; Takamata, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Plasma hyperosmolality delays the response in skin blood flow to heat stress by elevating the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation. This elevation could be because of a delayed onset of cutaneous active vasodilation and/or to persistent cutaneous active vasoconstriction. Seven healthy men were infused with either hypertonic (3% NaCl) or isotonic (0.9% NaCl) saline and passively heated by immersing their lower legs in 42 degrees C water for 60 min (room temperature, 28 degrees C; relative humidity, 40%). Skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry at sites pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block sympathetic vasoconstriction selectively and at adjacent control sites. Plasma osmolality was increased by approximately 13 mosmol/kgH(2)O following hypertonic saline infusion and was unchanged following isotonic saline infusion. The esophageal temperature (T(es)) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation at untreated sites was significantly elevated in the hyperosmotic state (37.73 +/- 0.11 degrees C) relative to the isosmotic state (36.63 +/- 0.12 degrees C, P < 0.001). A similar elevation of the T(es) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was observed between osmotic conditions at the BT-treated sites (37.74 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.67 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0.001) as well as sweating. These results suggest that the hyperosmotically induced elevation of the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation is due primarily to an elevation in the internal temperature threshold for the onset of active vasodilation, and not to an enhancement of vasoconstrictor activity. PMID:19812357

  7. Effect of elevated CO2 on degradation of azoxystrobin and soil microbial activity in rice soil.

    PubMed

    Manna, Suman; Singh, Neera; Singh, V P

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted in open-top chambers (OTC) to study the effect of elevated CO2 (580 ± 20 μmol mol(-1)) on azoxystrobin degradation and soil microbial activities. Results indicated that elevated CO2 did not have any significant effect on the persistence of azoxystrobin in rice-planted soil. The half-life values for the azoxystrobin in rice soils were 20.3 days in control (rice grown at ambient CO2 outdoors), 19.3 days in rice grown under ambient CO2 atmosphere in OTC, and 17.5 days in rice grown under elevated CO2 atmosphere in OTC. Azoxystrobin acid was recovered as the only metabolite of azoxystrobin, but it did not accumulate in the soil/water and was further metabolized. Elevated CO2 enhanced soil microbial biomass (MBC) and alkaline phosphatase activity of soil. Compared with rice grown at ambient CO2 (both outdoors and in OTC), the soil MBC at elevated CO2 increased by twofold. Elevated CO2 did not affect dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and acid phosphatase activity. Azoxystrobin application to soils, both ambient and elevated CO2, inhibited alkaline phosphates activity, while no effect was observed on other enzymes. Slight increase (1.8-2 °C) in temperature inside OTC did not affect microbial parameters, as similar activities were recorded in rice grown outdoors and in OTC at ambient CO2. Higher MBC in soil at elevated CO2 could be attributed to increased carbon availability in the rhizosphere via plant metabolism and root secretion; however, it did not significantly increase azoxystrobin degradation, suggesting that pesticide degradation was not the result of soil MBC alone. Study suggested that increased CO2 levels following global warming might not adversely affect azoxystrobin degradation. However, global warming is a continuous and cumulative process, therefore, long-term studies are necessary to get more realistic assessment of global warming on fate of pesticide. PMID:22773147

  8. Increased Activity of Rhizosphere and Hyphosphere Enzymes under Elevated CO2 in a Loblolly Pine Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, I.; Phillips, R.

    2012-12-01

    The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 under global climate change on forest productivity has been predicted to decrease over time as pools of available N in soil become depleted, but empirical support for such progressive N limitation has been lacking. Increased N acquisition from soil depleted in inorganic nitrogen requires stimulation of the microbial processing of organic N, possibly through increasing C supply to soil by plant roots or mycorrhizal hyphae. Increases in (mycorr)rhizosphere C fluxes could stimulate microbes to produce extra-cellular enzymes that release N from SOM, feeding back from soil microsites to ecosystem-scale processes. We investigated the influence of elevated CO2 on root exudation and soil enzyme activity at the Duke Forest FACE site, USA, where loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands have been exposed to elevated CO2 for 14 years and N fertilization for five years. In each plot, root boxes containing acetate windows were installed in 2008. Two years after installation, we collected soils adjacent to root tips (the rhizosphere), hyphal tips (the hyphosphere) and bulk soil. We measured in situ root exudation rates from intact pine roots. Study objectives were to analyze (i) the influence of atmospheric CO2 on root exudation and extra-cellular enzyme activities, (ii) the influence of soil N availability in regulating these activities, and (iii) the relationship between the activities of enzymes involved in N cycling in soils and gross N transformations at soil microsites. Elevated atmospheric CO2 significantly increased the activity of β-1-4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) in the rhizosphere by almost 2.5 times (39 to 95 nmol h-1 g-1), and 1.6fold in the hyphosphere relative to ambient plots. NAG is an enzyme involved in the degradation of chitin from the cell walls of soil organisms, releasing absorbable forms of nitrogen. The activity of peroxidase, which degrades aromatic C compounds of SOM, increased significantly in the

  9. Survey sequencing reveals elevated DNA transposon activity, novel elements, and variation in repetitive landscapes among vesper bats.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Heidi J T; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2012-01-01

    The repetitive landscapes of mammalian genomes typically display high Class I (retrotransposon) transposable element (TE) content, which usually comprises around half of the genome. In contrast, the Class II (DNA transposon) contribution is typically small (<3% in model mammals). Most mammalian genomes exhibit a precipitous decline in Class II activity beginning roughly 40 Ma. The first signs of more recently active mammalian Class II TEs were obtained from the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and are reflected by higher genome content (~5%). To aid in determining taxonomic limits and potential impacts of this elevated Class II activity, we performed 454 survey sequencing of a second Myotis species as well as four additional taxa within the family Vespertilionidae and an outgroup species from Phyllostomidae. Graph-based clustering methods were used to reconstruct the major repeat families present in each species and novel elements were identified in several taxa. Retrotransposons remained the dominant group with regard to overall genome mass. Elevated Class II TE composition (3-4%) was observed in all five vesper bats, while less than 0.5% of the phyllostomid reads were identified as Class II derived. Differences in satellite DNA and Class I TE content are also described among vespertilionid taxa. These analyses present the first cohesive description of TE evolution across closely related mammalian species, revealing genome-scale differences in TE content within a single family. PMID:22491057

  10. Elevated shear strength of sediments on active margins: Evidence for seismic strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Derek E.; DeVore, Joshua R.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes are a primary trigger of submarine landslides, yet some of the most seismically active areas on Earth show a surprisingly low frequency of submarine landslides. Here we show that within the uppermost 100 m below seafloor (mbsf) in previously unfailed sediment, active margins have elevated shear strength by a factor of 2-3 relative to the same interval on passive margins. The elevated shear strength is seen in a global survey of undrained shear strength with depth as well as a normalized analysis that accounts for lithology and stress state. The enhanced shear strength is highest within the uppermost 10 mbsf. These results indicate that large areas of modern day slopes on active margins have enhanced slope stability, which may explain the relative paucity of landslides. These findings lend support to the seismic strengthening hypothesis that the repeated exposure to earthquake energy gradually increases shear strength by shear-induced compaction.

  11. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumelevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were

  12. Highly electronegative LDL from patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction triggers platelet activation and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hua-Chen; Ke, Liang-Yin; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lee, An-Sheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Cruz, Miguel A.; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Cheng, Kai-Hung; Chan, Hsiu-Chuan Bonnie; Lu, Jonathan; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Platelet activation and aggregation underlie acute thrombosis that leads to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). L5—highly electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL)—is significantly elevated in patients with STEMI. Thus, we examined the role of L5 in thrombogenesis. Plasma LDL from patients with STEMI (n = 30) was chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions (L1-L5) with increasing electronegativity. In vitro, L5 enhanced adenosine diphosphate–stimulated platelet aggregation twofold more than did L1 and induced platelet-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion. L5 also increased P-selectin expression and glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa activation and decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels (n = 6, P < .01) in platelets. In vivo, injection of L5 (5 mg/kg) into C57BL/6 mice twice weekly for 6 weeks shortened tail bleeding time by 43% (n = 3; P < .01 vs L1-injected mice) and increased P-selectin expression and GPIIb/IIIa activation in platelets. Pharmacologic blockade experiments revealed that L5 signals through platelet-activating factor receptor and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 to attenuate Akt activation and trigger granule release and GPIIb/IIIa activation via protein kinase C-α. L5 but not L1 induced tissue factor and P-selectin expression in human aortic ECs (P < .01), thereby triggering platelet activation and aggregation with activated ECs. These findings indicate that elevated plasma levels of L5 may promote thrombosis that leads to STEMI. PMID:24030386

  13. Elevated NADPH oxidase activity contributes to oxidative stress and cell death in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Antonio; Sapp, Ellen; Kimm, Jeffrey S.; McClory, Hollis; Reeves, Patrick B.; Alexander, Jonathan; Ansong, Kwadwo A.; Masso, Nicholas; Frosch, Matthew P.; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Li, Xueyi; DiFiglia, Marian

    2013-01-01

    A mutation in the huntingtin (Htt) gene produces mutant Htt and Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder. HD patients have oxidative damage in the brain, but the causes are unclear. Compared with controls, we found brain levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevated in human HD postmortem cortex and striatum and highest in striatum of presymptomatic individuals. Synaptosome fractions from cortex and striatum of HD140Q/140Q mice had elevated NOX activity at 3 months of age and a further rise at 6 and 12 months compared with synaptosomes of age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. High NOX activity in primary cortical and striatal neurons of HD140Q/140Q mice correlated with more ROS and neurite swellings. These features and neuronal cell death were markedly reduced by treatment with NOX inhibitors such as diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), apocynin (APO) and VAS2870. The rise in ROS levels in mitochondria of HD140Q/140Q neurons followed the rise in NOX activity and inhibiting only mitochondrial ROS was not neuroprotective. Mutant Htt colocalized at plasma membrane lipid rafts with gp91-phox, a catalytic subunit for the NOX2 isoform. Assembly of NOX2 components at lipid rafts requires activation of Rac1 which was also elevated in HD140Q/140Q neurons. HD140Q/140Q mice bred to gp91-phox knock-out mice had lower NOX activity in the brain and in primary neurons, and neurons had normal ROS levels and significantly improved survival. These findings suggest that increased NOX2 activity at lipid rafts is an early and major source of oxidative stress and cell death in HD140Q/140Q neurons. PMID:23223017

  14. The elevational pattern of microbial community and enzyme activity along the northern slop of Changbai Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Xinyu; Ge, Jianpin; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Wang, Dan

    2014-05-01

    we present a comprehensive analysis of soil microbial community structure, enzyme activities and their role in soil organic matter mineralization along six elevations representing five typical vegetation types from forest to alpine tundra in Changbai Mountain, China. The results showed that the microbial PLFAs presented hump-shaped patterns along the elevation with the total microbial PLFAs highest in Ermans birch forest soil. The fungi to bacteria and gram positive to negative bacteria ratios increased along the elevation with the lowest values in Broad leaved forest and Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest soil, respectively. The soil microbial community structures showed a biogeography distribution pattern in vertical direction with microbial community structures in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest different from other four sites. The soil enzyme activities in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest were significantly higher than in other four elevations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed substantial differences in soil microbial community composition among study sites, appeared to be driven primarily by MAT, MAP, soil temperature and content of silt & clay on the first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 87.1 % of the total sample variance. However, soil nutrients mainly responsible for the variation of soil enzyme activities. The soil organic matter mineralization rates tended to be highest in Ermans birch forest site and lowest in Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest site and showed positive relationship with total microbial, bacterial and actinomycetes PLFAs. These findings could be used to facilitate interpretation of soil microbial community and ecological function in latitude forests ecosystem especially in volcanic forest ecosystem.

  15. Immune activity elevates energy expenditure of house sparrows: a link between direct and indirect costs?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lynn B; Scheuerlein, Alex; Wikelski, Martin

    2003-01-01

    The activation of an immune response is beneficial for organisms but may also have costs that affect fitness. Documented immune costs include those associated with acquisition of special nutrients, as well as immunopathology or autoimmunity. Here, we test whether an experimental induction of the immune system with a non-pathological stimulant can elevate energy turnover in passerine birds. We injected phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a commonly used mitogen that activates the cell-mediated immune response, into the wing web of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We then examined energetic costs resulting from this immune activity and related those costs to other physiological activities. We found that PHA injection significantly elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of challenged sparrows relative to saline controls. We calculated the total cost of this immune activity to be ca. 4.20 kJ per day (29% RMR), which is equivalent to the cost of production of half of an egg (8.23 kJ egg(-1)) in this species. We suggest that immune activity in wild passerines increases energy expenditure, which in turn may influence important life-history characteristics such as clutch size, timing of breeding or the scheduling of moult. PMID:12590753

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui

    2015-03-01

    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  17. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE-COFACTOR RATIOS ON PARTIALLY PURIFIED INORGANIC PYROPHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES.

    PubMed

    MATHEMEIER, P F; MORITA, R Y

    1964-12-01

    Mathemeier, Paul F. (Oregon State University, Corvallis), and Richard Y. Morita. Influence of substrate-cofactor ratios on partially purified inorganic pyrophosphatase activity at elevated temperatures. J. Bacteriol. 88:1661-1666. 1964.-Inorganic pyrophosphatase of Bacillus stearothermophilus was studied for optimal substrate-cofactor ratios at 60 to 100 C. Mg(++) was the primary cofactor, and Co(++) resulted in 50% enzyme activity at 60 C. The pH optima differed for the Mg(++) activated and Co(++) activated pyrophosphatase. At 80 C and above, Co(++) replaced Mg(++) as the optimal cofactor in the enzyme reaction. The optimal ratio of pyrophosphate to Mg(++) varied from 2 to 0.25, dependent on enzyme concentration. The optimal pyrophosphate-cobalt ratio was constant at 1.0. The enzyme catalyzed appreciable pyrophosphate hydrolysis at 95 C. PMID:14240954

  18. Mechanisms of Sympathetic Activation and Blood Pressure Elevation by Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Kumar, Ganesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing with recurrent apneas is one of the most frequently encountered breathing disorder in adult humans and preterm infants. Recurrent apnea patients exhibit several co-morbidities including hypertension and persistent sympathetic activation. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from apneas appears to be the primary stimulus for evoking autonomic changes. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the effects of IH on chemo-and baro-reflexes and circulating vasoactive hormones and their contribution to sympathetic activation and blood pressures. Sleep apnea patients and IH-treated rodents exhibit exaggerated arterial chemo-reflex. Studies on rodent models demonstrated that IH leads to hyperactive carotid body response to hypoxia. On the other hand, baro-reflex function is attenuated in patients with sleep apnea and in IH-treated rodents. Circulating vasoactive hormone levels are elevated in sleep apnea patients and in rodent models of IH. Thus, persistent sympathetic activation and hypertension associated with sleep apneas seems to be due to a combination of altered chemo-and baro-reflexes resulting in sympathetic activation and action of elevated circulating levels of vasoactive hormones on vasculature. PMID:20804865

  19. Annual pattern of nitrate reductase activity in needles of high-elevation red spruce trees

    SciTech Connect

    Tjoelker, M.G.; Norby, R.J. ); DiCosty, R.J. ); Weerasuriya, Y. )

    1989-04-01

    To assess the ability of foliar nitrate reductase (NR) as a biochemical marker for the impact of nitrogen oxide pollutants on high-elevation forests, we measured needle NR activity in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) saplings at two stands in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (1,935 m, 1,720 m). Seven times between September 1987 and 1988, branches were cut from selected saplings, and NR activity was assayed on current-year needles, using an in vivo method. NR activity increased to maximum values of 60 nmol g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} in late summer of both years and then declined by 85 percent in October 1987 and 65 percent in September 1988. Although NR activity was 30 percent great in red spruce at the high site relative to the low site in September and October 1987, NR activity dropped to 10 nmol g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} at both sites in November 1987. No difference between the sites were evident in 1988. The seasonal pattern of needle NR activity at these sites may be due to ontogenetic changes in needle N metabolism and/or extrinsic variation in temperature or nitrogen oxide deposition. Characterization of nitrogen oxide pollutant levels and exposure episodes at high-elevation sites may aid in assessing seasonal and site variation in NR activity and the likelihood of needle NR induction by uptake of nitrogen oxides. These measurements of NR activity indicate that red spruce are capable of reducing nitrate in foliage under field conditions and that the nitrate assimilation capacity varies seasonally.

  20. Quantifying cambial activity of high-elevation conifers in the Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaco, E.; Biondi, F.; Rossi, S.; Deslauriers, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the physiological mechanisms that control the formation of tree rings provides the necessary biological basis for developing dendroclimatic reconstructions and dendroecological histories. Studies of wood formation in the Great Basin are now being conducted in connection with the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN), a recently established transect of valley-to-mountaintop instrumented stations in the Snake and Sheep Ranges of the Great Basin. Automated sensors record meteorological, soil, and vegetational variables at these sites, providing unique opportunities for ecosystem science, and are being used to investigate the ecological implications of xylogenesis. We present here an initial study based on microcores collected during summer 2013 from mountain and subalpine conifers (including Great Basin bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva) growing on the west slope of Mt. Washington. Samples were taken from the mountain west (SM; 2810 m elevation) and the subalpine west (SS, 3355 m elevation) NevCAN sites on June 16th and 27th, 2013. The SS site was further subdivided in a high (SSH) and a low (SSL) group of trees, separated by about 10 m in elevation. Microscopic analyses showed the effect of elevation on cambial activity, as annual ring formation was more advanced at the lower (mountain) site compared to the higher (subalpine) one. At all sites cambium size showed little variations between the two sampling dates. The number of xylem cells in the radial enlargement phase decreased between the two sampling dates at the mountain site but increased at the subalpine site, confirming a delayed formation of wood at the higher elevations. Despite relatively high within-site variability, a general trend of increasing number of cells in the lignification phase was found at all sites. Mature cells were present only at the mountain site on June 27th. Spatial differences in the xylem formation process emerged at the species level and, within

  1. Economic Analysis for Commingling Effects of Insect Activity in the Elevator Boot Area.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Dennis R; Casada, Mark E; Langemeier, Michael R; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-12-01

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model were developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects of insect activity in the boot area. Modified pilot-scale bucket elevator legs, containing residual wheat or corn, were infested with varying insect pest densities prior to clean grain transfers. Appropriate grain discounts were applied to grain samples obtained from clean grain transfers over either: 1) insect-free and untreated boots, 2) infested and untreated boots, or 3) infested and chemical-treated (β-cyfluthrin) boots. The insect-free boots simulated performing clean-out of the boot area. Partial budget analysis and stochastic dominance modeling indicated that boot sanitation (cleanout) about every 30 d, avoiding costly grain discounts from insect commingling, is the preferred choice. Although chemical spray treatments of the empty boot may reduce insect populations of some boot residual grains, boot cleanout always had lower and usually zero insect pest populations in the boot residual grain, providing higher facility operational net income without the use of chemicals. PMID:26470368

  2. Long-range signaling in growing neurons after local elevation of cyclic AMP-dependent activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-dependent activity at the growth cone or the soma of cultured Xenopus spinal neurons was elevated by local extracellular perfusion of the neuron with culture medium containing 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cAMP) or forskolin. During local perfusion of one of the growth cones of multipolar neurons with these drugs, the perfused growth cone showed further extension, while the distant, unperfused growth cones were inhibited in their growth. Local perfusion of the growth cone with culture medium or local perfusion with 8-br-cAMP at a cell-free region 100 microns away from the growth cone did not produce any effect on the extension of the growth cone. Reduced extension of all growth cones was observed when the perfusion with 8-br-cAMP was restricted to the soma. The distant inhibitory effect does not depend on the growth of the perfused growth cone since local coperfusion of the growth cone with 8-br-cAMP and colchicine inhibited growth on both perfused and unperfused growth cones, while local perfusion with colchicine alone inhibited only the perfused growth cone. The distant inhibitory effect was abolished when the perfusion of 8-br-cAMP was carried out together with kinase inhibitor H- 8, suggesting the involvement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and/or its downstream factors in the long-range inhibitory signaling. Uniform exposure of the entire neuron to bath-applied 8-br-cAMP, however, led to enhanced growth activity at all growth cones. Thus, local elevation of cAMP-dependent activity produces long-range and opposite effects on distant parts of the neuron, and a cytosolic gradient of second messengers may produce effects distinctly different from those following uniform global elevation of the messenger, leading to differential growth regulation at different regions of the same neuron. PMID:7798321

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  4. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-10-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in (TH)leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis.

  5. Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Beranek, Josef; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Hallar, Anna G.; McCubbin, Ian; Thornton, Joel A.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2013-12-09

    We present measurements of CCN concentrations and associated aerosol composition and size properties at a high-elevation research site in March 2011. CCN closure and aerosol hygroscopicity were assessed using simplified assumptions of bulk aerosol properties as well as a new method utilizing single particle composition and size to assess the importance of particle mixing state in CCN activation. Free troposphere analysis found no significant difference between the CCN activity of free tropospheric aerosol and boundary layer aerosol at this location. Closure results indicate that using only size and number information leads to adequate prediction, in the majority of cases within 50%, of CCN concentrations, while incorporating the hygroscopicity parameters of the individual aerosol components measured by single particle mass spectrometry adds to the agreement, in most cases within 20%, between predicted and measured CCN concentrations. For high-elevation continental sites, with largely aged aerosol and low amounts of local area emissions, a lack of chemical knowledge and hygroscopicity may not hinder models in predicting CCN concentrations. At sites influenced by fresh emissions or more heterogeneous particle types, single particle composition information may be more useful in predicting CCN concentrations and understanding the importance of particle mixing state on CCN activation.

  6. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  7. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  8. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  9. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, A.M.; Bai, Y.; Basheer, P.A.M.; Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  10. Long-term untreated streptozotocin-diabetes leads to increased expression and elevated activity of prostaglandin H2 synthase in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Siewiera, Karolina; Kassassir, Hassan; Talar, Marcin; Wieteska, Lukasz; Watala, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    In diabetes-related states of chronic hyperglycaemia elevated concentrations of glucose may alter the functioning of platelet enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, including prostaglandin H2 synthase (cyclooxygenase) (PGHS, COX). Therefore, the principal aim of this study was to assess the effects of experimental chronic hyperglycaemia on platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) expression and activity. Blood platelet activation and reactivity were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats with the 5-month streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes. The PGHS-1 abundance in platelets was evaluated with flow cytometry and Western blotting, while its activity monitored using a high resolution respirometry and the peroxidase fluorescent assay. The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in platelets were assayed immunoenzymatically. Circulating platelets from diabetic were characterised by increased size, elevated 'priming' and altered reactivity, compared to non-diabetic animals. Both Western blot analysis and flow cytometry revealed significantly elevated expressions of platelet PGHS-1 in STZ-diabetic rats (p < 0.05). We also observed significantly elevated platelet PGHS-1-related arachidonic acid metabolism in diabetic vs. non-diabetic animals, with the use of polarographic (p < 0.05) and total activity assay (p < 0.001). Such increases were accompanied by the elevated production of PGE2 (p < 0.001) and TXB2 (p < 0.05) in diabetic animals. The increased PGHS-1-dependent oxygen consumption and the total activity of PGHS-1 in diabetic animals remained very significant (p < 0.001) also upon adjusting for blood platelet PGHS-1 abundance. Therefore, our results further contribute to the explanation of the increased metabolism of arachidonic acid observed in diabetes. PMID:26325148

  11. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Effect of elevated temperature curing on properties of alkali-activated slag concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bakharev, T.; Sanjayan, J.G.; Cheng, Y.B.

    1999-10-01

    This investigation is focused on the effect of curing temperature on microstructure, shrinkage, and compressive strength of alkali-activated slag (AAS) concrete. Concrete prepared using sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as the activator had greater early and flexural strength than ordinary Portland cement concrete of the same water/binder ratio, but it also had high autogenous and drying shrinkage. Heat treatment was found to be very effective in reducing drying shrinkage of AAS concrete and promoting high early strength. However, strength of AAS concrete at later ages was reduced. Microstructural study revealed an inhomogeneity in distribution of hydration product in AAS concrete that can be a cause of strength reduction. Pretreatment at room temperature before elevated temperature curing further improved early strength and considerably decreased shrinkage in AAS concrete.

  13. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation. PMID:26084697

  14. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  15. Effect of elevated serum prolactin concentrations on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Clodi, M; Svoboda, T; Kotzmann, H; Deyssig, R; Woloszczuk, W; Zielinski, C C; Luger, A

    1992-12-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and human suggested an immunostimulatory effect of prolactin. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of chronically elevated serum prolactin concentrations on the immune system in patients with prolactinomas. For this purpose parameters of the humoral and cellular immune system were studied in seven patients with prolactinomas on two occasions (1) when their serum prolactin concentration had been normalized through treatment with dopamine agonists and (2) when their serum prolactin concentration was high. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulines, interleukin 1, 3 and 6, TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma and the soluble interleukin 2 receptor, leukocyte subsets and the natural killer cell activity were found to be within the normal range on both occasions, i.e. at normal and at high serum prolactin concentrations. The assumption could be made that long-lasting elevation of serum prolactin concentration induces adaptive changes when the acute stimulatory effects of prolactin on several parameters of the immune system have subsided. PMID:1369584

  16. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 × 0.7, 61.6 × 1.2, and 41.6 × 0.9 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 × 1.1 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 × 2.0 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 × 0.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 × 4.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the

  17. Drug−disease interaction: Crohn's disease elevates verapamil plasma concentrations but reduces response to the drug proportional to disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Sanaee, Forough; Clements, John D; Waugh, Alistair W G; Fedorak, Richard N; Lewanczuk, Richard; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2011-01-01

    AIM Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases that includes reduced response to pharmacotherapy due to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It is not known if these effects exist in general in all inflammatory conditions. It also remains unknown whether in a given population the effect is a function of disease severity. We investigated whether pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a typical calcium channel inhibitor are influenced by Crohn's disease (CD), a disease for which the disease severity can be readily ranked. METHODS We administered 80 mg verapamil orally to (i) healthy control subjects (n = 9), (ii) patients with clinically quiescent CD (n = 22) and (iii) patients with clinically active CD (n = 14). Serial analysis of verapamil enantiomers (total and plasma unbound), blood pressure and electrocardiograms were recorded over 8 h post dose. The severity of CD was measured using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index. RESULTS CD substantially and significantly increased plasma verapamil concentration and in a stereoselective fashion (S, 9-fold; R, 2-fold). The elevated verapamil concentration, however, failed to result in an increased verapamil pharmacodynamic effect so that the patients with elevated verapamil concentration demonstrated no significant increase in response measured as PR interval and blood pressure. Instead, the greater the disease severity, the lower was the drug potency to prolong PR interval (r = 0.86, P < 0.0006), CONCLUSIONS CD patients with severe disease may not respond to cardiovascular therapy with calcium channel blockers. Reducing the severity increases response despite reduced drug concentration. This observation may have therapeutic implication beyond the disease and the drug studies herein. PMID:21592185

  18. Hypothesis for thermal activation of the caspase cascade in apoptotic cell death at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, John A.

    2013-02-01

    Apoptosis is an especially important process affecting disease states from HIV-AIDS to auto-immune disease to cancer. A cascade of initiator and executioner capsase functional proteins is the hallmark of apoptosis. When activated the various caspases activate other caspases or cleave structural proteins of the cytoskeleton, resulting in "blebbing" of the plasma membrane forming apoptotic bodies that completely enclose the disassembled cellular components. Containment of the cytosolic components within the apoptotic bodies differentiates apoptosis from necroptosis and necrosis, both of which release fragmented cytosol and other cellular constituents into the intracellular space. Biochemical models of caspase activation reveal the extensive feedback loops characteristic of apoptosis. They clearly explain the failure of Arrhenius models to give accurate predictions of cell survival curves in hyperthermic heating protocols. Nevertheless, each of the individual reaction velocities can reasonably be assumed to follow Arrhenius kinetics. If so, the thermal sensitivity of the reaction velocity to temperature elevation is: ∂k/∂T = Ea [k/RT2]. Particular reaction steps described by higher activation energies, Ea, are likely more thermally-sensitive than lower energy reactions and may initiate apoptosis in the absence of other stress signals. Additionally, while the classical irreversible Arrhenius formulation fails to accurately represent many cell survival and/or dye uptake curves - those that display an early stage shoulder region - an expanded reversible model of the law of mass action equation seems to prove effective and is directly based on a firm theoretical thermodynamic foundation.

  19. Cerebral cortical neurons with activity linked to central neurogenic spontaneous and evoked elevations in cerebral blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We recorded neurons in rat cerebral cortex with activity relating to the neurogenic elevations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to stereotyped bursts of EEG activity, burst-cerebrovascular wave complexes, appearing spontaneously or evoked by electrical stimulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) or fastigial nucleus (FN). Of 333 spontaneously active neurons only 15 (5%), in layers 5-6, consistently (P < 0.05, chi-square) increased their activity during the earliest potential of the complex, approximately 1.3 s before the rise of rCBF, and during the minutes-long elevation of rCBF elicited by 10 s of stimulation of RVL or FN. The results indicate the presence of a small population of neurons in deep cortical laminae whose activity correlates with neurogenic elevations of rCBF. These neurons may function to transduce afferent neuronal signals into vasodilation.

  20. Compensatory elevation of voluntary activity in mouse mutants with impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lapointe, Jérôme; G. Hughes, Bryan; Bigras, Eve; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondria play a crucial role in determining whole‐body metabolism and exercise capacity. Genetic mouse models of mild mitochondrial dysfunction provide an opportunity to understand how mitochondrial function affects these parameters. MCLK1 (a.k.a. Coq7) is an enzyme implicated in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (UQ; Coenzyme Q). Low levels of MCLK1 in Mclk1+/− heterozygous mutants lead to abnormal sub‐mitochondrial distribution of UQ, impaired mitochondrial function, elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress, and increased lifespan. Here, we report that young Mclk1+/− males, but not females, show a significant decrease in whole‐body metabolic rate as measured by indirect calorimetry. Such a sex‐specific effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on energy metabolism has also been reported for heterozygous mice carrying a mutation for the gene encoding the “Rieske” protein of mitochondrial complex III (RISP+/P224S). We find that both Mclk1+/− and RISP+/P224S males are capable of restoring their defective metabolic rates by making significantly more voluntary use of a running wheel compared to wild type. However, this increase in voluntary activity does not reflect their exercise capacity, which we found to be impaired as revealed by a shorter treadmill distance run before exhaustion. In contrast to what is observed in Mclk1+/− and RISP+/P224S mutants, Sod2+/− mice with elevated oxidative stress and major mitochondrial dysfunction did not increase voluntary activity. Our study reveals a sex‐specific effect on how impaired mitochondrial function impacts whole‐body energy metabolism and locomotory behavior, and contributes to the understanding of the metabolic and behavioral consequences of mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25413331

  1. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    PubMed

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. PMID:26749503

  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the western English Channel: Elevations induced by high summertime rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andrew P.; Hope, Sam B.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Dixon, Joanna L.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2009-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was determined in bulk particulate material and in a single-cell (ELF) assay at station L4 in the western English Channel during the summer of 2007. Throughout this period, the UK experienced its heaviest summertime rainfall since records began in 1914; with the result that riverine run-off into coastal waters was also elevated relative to long-term averages. Between May and August 2007, three distinct periods of elevated river run-off were observed which resulted in salinity minima at L4 on days 141, 190 and 232. An extended period of high river run-off between days 170 and 210 was responsible for decreases in near-surface salinity at L4 from 35.2068 to a minimum on day 190 of 34.7422. This contributed to the development of haline stratification which supported the development of an intense bloom of the centric diatom Chaetoceros debelis, with maximum observed chlorophyll a concentration of 8.69 μg l -1. Minima in salinity, and maxima in chlorophyll concentration on day 190 were coincident with a peak in river-derived dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) of 1.9 μmol l -1 which was >5 times greater than the summertime mean and 24 times the concentrations experienced at L4 on weeks immediately before and after. There was no accompanying increase in dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and the DIN:DIP ratio increased to 49. With the inherent phosphorus stress that this caused, rates of APA increased from <4 to 42.4 nmolP l -1 h -1. ELF analysis on day 197 identified two taxa actively expressing alkaline phosphatase: the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans and ciliate Tiarana sp.

  3. Comparative efficacy of photo-activated disinfection and calcium hydroxide for disinfection of remaining carious dentin in deep cavities: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sidhartha; Shah, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of photo-activated disinfection (PAD), calcium hydroxide (CH) and their combination on the treatment outcome of indirect pulp treatment (IPT). Materials and Methods Institutional ethical clearance and informed consent of the patients were taken. The study was also registered with clinical registry of India. Sixty permanent molars exhibiting deep occlusal carious lesion in patients with the age range of 18 - 22 yr were included. Clinical and radiographic evaluation and set inclusion and exclusion criteria's were followed. Gross caries excavation was accomplished. In group I (n = 20) PAD was applied for sixty seconds. In group II (n = 20), CH was applied to the remaining carious dentin, while in group III (n = 20), PAD application was followed by CH placement. The teeth were permanently restored. They were clinically and radiographically followed-up at 45 day, 6 mon and 12 mon. Relative density of the remaining affected dentin was measured by 'Radiovisiography (RVG) densitometric' analysis. Results Successful outcome with an increase in radiographic grey values were observed in all three groups. However, on inter-group comparison, this change was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions PAD and CH both have equal disinfection efficacy in the treatment of deep carious dentin. PAD alone is as effective for treatment of deep carious lesion as calcium hydroxide and hence can be used as an alternative to CH. They can be used independently in IPT, since combining both does not offer any additional therapeutic benefits. PMID:25110643

  4. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population. PMID:27348992

  5. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  6. Hyperactivated Wnt signaling induces synthetic lethal interaction with Rb inactivation by elevating TORC1 activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Liao, Yang; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Zhang, Robin; Searle, Jennifer S; Pei, Xun; Li, Xuan; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Du, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Inactivation of the Rb tumor suppressor can lead to increased cell proliferation or cell death depending on specific cellular context. Therefore, identification of the interacting pathways that modulate the effect of Rb loss will provide novel insights into the roles of Rb in cancer development and promote new therapeutic strategies. Here, we identify a novel synthetic lethal interaction between Rb inactivation and deregulated Wg/Wnt signaling through unbiased genetic screens. We show that a weak allele of axin, which deregulates Wg signaling and increases cell proliferation without obvious effects on cell fate specification, significantly alters metabolic gene expression, causes hypersensitivity to metabolic stress induced by fasting, and induces synergistic apoptosis with mutation of fly Rb ortholog, rbf. Furthermore, hyperactivation of Wg signaling by other components of the Wg pathway also induces synergistic apoptosis with rbf. We show that hyperactivated Wg signaling significantly increases TORC1 activity and induces excessive energy stress with rbf mutation. Inhibition of TORC1 activity significantly suppressed synergistic cell death induced by hyperactivated Wg signaling and rbf inactivation, which is correlated with decreased energy stress and decreased induction of apoptotic regulator expression. Finally the synthetic lethality between Rb and deregulated Wnt signaling is conserved in mammalian cells and that inactivation of Rb and APC induces synergistic cell death through a similar mechanism. These results suggest that elevated TORC1 activity and metabolic stress underpin the evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction between hyperactivated Wnt signaling and inactivated Rb tumor suppressor. PMID:24809668

  7. Mutation of Fnip1 is associated with B-cell deficiency, cardiomyopathy, and elevated AMPK activity.

    PubMed

    Siggs, Owen M; Stockenhuber, Alexander; Deobagkar-Lele, Mukta; Bull, Katherine R; Crockford, Tanya L; Kingston, Bethany L; Crawford, Greg; Anzilotti, Consuelo; Steeples, Violetta; Ghaffari, Sahar; Czibik, Gabor; Bellahcene, Mohamed; Watkins, Hugh; Ashrafian, Houman; Davies, Benjamin; Woods, Angela; Carling, David; Yavari, Arash; Beutler, Bruce; Cornall, Richard J

    2016-06-28

    Folliculin (FLCN) is a tumor-suppressor protein mutated in the Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which associates with two paralogous proteins, folliculin-interacting protein (FNIP)1 and FNIP2, forming a complex that interacts with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Although it is clear that this complex influences AMPK and other metabolic regulators, reports of its effects have been inconsistent. To address this issue, we created a recessive loss-of-function variant of Fnip1 Homozygous FNIP1 deficiency resulted in profound B-cell deficiency, partially restored by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2, whereas heterozygous deficiency caused a loss of marginal zone B cells. FNIP1-deficient mice developed cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and glycogen accumulation, with close parallels to mice and humans bearing gain-of-function mutations in the γ2 subunit of AMPK. Concordantly, γ2-specific AMPK activity was elevated in neonatal FNIP1-deficient myocardium, whereas AMPK-dependent unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation and autophagy were increased in FNIP1-deficient B-cell progenitors. These data support a role for FNIP1 as a negative regulator of AMPK. PMID:27303042

  8. Elevated nuclear sphingoid base-1-phosphates and decreased histone deacetylase activity after fumonisin B1 treatment in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Nicole M; Riley, Ronald T; Showker, Jency L; Voss, Kenneth A; Sachs, Andrew J; Maddox, Joyce R; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee B

    2016-05-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of corn. Administration of FB1 to pregnant LM/Bc mice induces exencephaly in embryos, and ingestion of FB1-contaminated food during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in humans. FB1 inhibits ceramide synthase enzymes in sphingolipid biosynthesis, causing sphinganine (Sa) and bioactive sphinganine-1-phosphate (Sa1P) accumulation in blood, cells, and tissues. Sphingosine kinases (Sphk) phosphorylate Sa to form Sa1P. Upon activation, Sphk1 associates primarily with the plasma membrane, while Sphk2 is found predominantly in the nucleus. In cells over-expressing Sphk2, accumulation of Sa1P in the nuclear compartment inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, causing increased acetylation of histone lysine residues. In this study, FB1 treatment in LM/Bc mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in significant accumulation of Sa1P in nuclear extracts relative to cytoplasmic extracts. Elevated nuclear Sa1P corresponded to decreased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and increased histone acetylation at H2BK12, H3K9, H3K18, and H3K23. Treatment of LM/Bc MEFs with a selective Sphk1 inhibitor, PF-543, or with ABC294640, a selective Sphk2 inhibitor, significantly reduced nuclear Sa1P accumulation after FB1, although Sa1P levels remained significantly increased relative to basal levels. Concurrent treatment with both PF-543 and ABC294640 prevented nuclear accumulation of Sa1P in response to FB1. Other HDAC inhibitors are known to cause NTDs, so these results suggest that FB1-induced disruption of sphingolipid metabolism leading to nuclear Sa1P accumulation, HDAC inhibition, and histone hyperacetylation is a potential mechanism for FB1-induced NTDs. PMID:26905748

  9. Choline Kinase β Mutant Mice Exhibit Reduced Phosphocholine, Elevated Osteoclast Activity, and Low Bone Mass*

    PubMed Central

    Kular, Jasreen; Tickner, Jennifer C.; Pavlos, Nathan J.; Viola, Helena M.; Abel, Tamara; Lim, Bay Sie; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Honghui; Cook, Robert; Hool, Livia C.; Zheng, Ming Hao; Xu, Jiake

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of bone homeostasis requires tight coupling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. However, the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying the differentiation and activities of these specialized cells are still largely unknown. Here, we identify choline kinase β (CHKB), a kinase involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, as a novel regulator of bone homeostasis. Choline kinase β mutant mice (flp/flp) exhibit a systemic low bone mass phenotype. Consistently, osteoclast numbers and activity are elevated in flp/flp mice. Interestingly, osteoclasts derived from flp/flp mice exhibit reduced sensitivity to excessive levels of extracellular calcium, which could account for the increased bone resorption. Conversely, supplementation of cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine in vivo and in vitro, a regimen that bypasses CHKB deficiency, restores osteoclast numbers to physiological levels. Finally, we demonstrate that, in addition to modulating osteoclast formation and function, loss of CHKB corresponds with a reduction in bone formation by osteoblasts. Taken together, these data posit CHKB as a new modulator of bone homeostasis. PMID:25451916

  10. Elevated Expression and Pro-Inflammatory Activity of IL-36 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chu, Man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Cai, Zhe; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Delong; Kam, Ngar Woon; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Tam, Lai Shan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the expression and proinflammatory activity of interleukin (IL)-36 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The expression level of IL-36, its putative receptors and the frequency of CD19⁺CD24(high)CD27⁺ regulatory B (Breg) lymphocytes of peripheral blood from 43 SLE patients and 16 normal control (NC) subjects were studied using ELISA and flow cytometry. Plasma cytokines/chemokines and ex vivo productions of cytokine/chemokine from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with recombinant IL-36 were determined by Luminex multiplex assay. Plasma concentrations of IL-36α, IL-36γ and the proportions of circulating IL-36R-positive CD19⁺ B lymphocytes in total B lymphocytes and PBMC were significantly increased in active SLE patients compared with NC (all p < 0.05). Plasma IL-36α and IL-36γ correlated positively with SLE disease activity and elevated plasma IL-10 concentration (all p < 0.05). The frequencies of circulating Breg lymphocytes in total B lymphocytes and PBMC were significantly decreased in both inactive and active SLE patients compared with NC (all p < 0.01). The frequency of Breg lymphocytes in total B lymphocytes correlated negatively with the proportion of IL-36R-positive B lymphocytes (p < 0.05). IL-36α exerted substantial proinflammatory effect in PBMC from SLE patients by inducing the production of IL-6 and CXCL8. Upon stimulation with IL-36α and IL-36γ, ex vivo productions of IL-6 and CXCL8 were significantly increased in SLE patients compared with NC (all p < 0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated that over expression of circulating IL-36α may exert a proinflammatory effect as observed in human SLE. PMID:26516833

  11. Elevated total and central adiposity and low physical activity are associated with insulin resistance in children.

    PubMed

    Krekoukia, Maria; Nassis, George P; Psarra, Glykeria; Skenderi, Katerina; Chrousos, George P; Sidossis, Labros S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to examine insulin resistance, blood lipid levels, and inflammatory markers in 9- to 11.5-year-old obese and lean children and (2) to identify factors that influence insulin resistance in this cohort of youths. Body mass index, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, physical activity (4-day triaxial accelerometer), cardiorespiratory fitness (submaximal bicycle ergometer test), and dietary intake (3-day food records) were evaluated in 27 obese and 27 lean boys and girls. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for insulin, glucose, lipids and lipoproteins, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Obese children presented higher HOMA-IR, CRP, and blood lipid levels (all P < .01) compared with lean children. Total body fat and waist circumference were positively associated with fasting insulin (r > or = 0.51), HOMA-IR (r > or = 0.56), CRP (r > or = 0.51), and blood triacylglycerol (r > or = 0.38), and were inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r > or = -0.39; all P < .01). Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (r = -0.24; P < .05), but this association disappeared when adjusted for age, sex, and fat mass. Waist circumference and total daily physical activity explained 49% of the variance in HOMA-IR in these children. In conclusion, these findings suggest that total and central adiposity are positively associated and physical activity is negatively associated with insulin resistance in children. Interventions to improve glucose metabolism in youth should target at reducing total body and abdominal fat and increasing physical activity. The lack of association between inflammatory markers and HOMA-IR suggests that obesity may precede the elevation of these markers in the evolution of insulin resistance in youth

  12. Elevated Ornithine Decarboxylase Levels Activate ATM - DNA Damage Signaling in Normal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S.; Woster, Patrick M.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ATM and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. ChIP analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine-dependent since DFMO, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also display increased generation of H2O2, acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant γH2AX. Both ROS generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H2O2 and cytotoxic aldehydes, since spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H2O2 and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results demonstrate a novel activation of the ATM/DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes. PMID:18381427

  13. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress. PMID:26315595

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypernatremia Elevates Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure via the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Lang, Susan M; Simmonds, Sarah S; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2015-12-01

    Elevated NaCl concentrations of the cerebrospinal fluid increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a pivotal role in the regulation of SNA and receive mono- or polysynaptic inputs from several hypothalamic structures responsive to hypernatremia. Therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of RVLM neurons to the SNA and pressor response to cerebrospinal fluid hypernatremia. Lateral ventricle infusion of 0.15 mol/L, 0.6 mol/L, and 1.0 mol/L NaCl (5 µL/10 minutes) produced concentration-dependent increases in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure, despite no change in splanchnic SNA and a decrease in renal SNA. Ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine or acute lesion of the lamina terminalis blocked or significantly attenuated these responses, respectively. RVLM microinjection of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) agonist muscimol abolished the sympathoexcitatory response to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl. Furthermore, blockade of ionotropic glutamate, but not angiotensin II type 1, receptors significantly attenuated the increase in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure. Finally, single-unit recordings of spinally projecting RVLM neurons revealed 3 distinct populations based on discharge responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl: type I excited (46%; 11/24), type II inhibited (37%; 9/24), and type III no change (17%; 4/24). All neurons with slow conduction velocities were type I cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that acute increases in cerebrospinal fluid NaCl concentrations selectively activate a discrete population of RVLM neurons through glutamate receptor activation to increase SNA and arterial blood pressure. PMID:26416846

  15. Economic analysis for commingling effects of insect activity in the elevator boot area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model was developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects ...

  16. Multilineage somatic activating mutations in HRAS and NRAS cause mosaic cutaneous and skeletal lesions, elevated FGF23 and hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young H.; Ovejero, Diana; Sugarman, Jeffrey S.; DeKlotz, Cynthia M.C.; Maruri, Ann; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Kelley, Patrick K.; Jüppner, Harald; Gottschalk, Michael; Tifft, Cynthia J.; Gafni, Rachel I.; Boyce, Alison M.; Cowen, Edward W.; Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Guthrie, Lori C.; Gahl, William A.; Golas, Gretchen; Loring, Erin C.; Overton, John D.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Lifton, Richard P.; Levy, Moise L.; Collins, Michael T.; Choate, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Pathologically elevated serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphorus homeostasis, result in renal phosphate wasting and lead to rickets or osteomalacia. Rarely, elevated serum FGF23 levels are found in association with mosaic cutaneous disorders that affect large proportions of the skin and appear in patterns corresponding to the migration of ectodermal progenitors. The cause and source of elevated serum FGF23 is unknown. In those conditions, such as epidermal and large congenital melanocytic nevi, skin lesions are variably associated with other abnormalities in the eye, brain and vasculature. The wide distribution of involved tissues and the appearance of multiple segmental skin and bone lesions suggest that these conditions result from early embryonic somatic mutations. We report five such cases with elevated serum FGF23 and bone lesions, four with large epidermal nevi and one with a giant congenital melanocytic nevus. Exome sequencing of blood and affected skin tissue identified somatic activating mutations of HRAS or NRAS in each case without recurrent secondary mutation, and we further found that the same mutation is present in dysplastic bone. Our finding of somatic activating RAS mutation in bone, the endogenous source of FGF23, provides the first evidence that elevated serum FGF23 levels, hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia are associated with pathologic Ras activation and may provide insight in the heretofore limited understanding of the regulation of FGF23. PMID:24006476

  17. Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Bersot, T P; Vega, G L; Grundy, S M; Palaoglu, K E; Atagündüz, P; Ozbayrakçi, S; Gökdemir, O; Mahley, R W

    1999-03-01

    Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and, in the United States, are often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In Turkey, low HDL-C levels are highly prevalent, 53% of men and 26% of women having HDL-C levels <35 mg/dl, in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In this study to investigate the cause of low HDL-C levels in Turks, various factors affecting HDL metabolism were assessed in normotriglyceridemic Turkish men and women living in Istanbul and in non-Turkish men and women living in San Francisco. Turkish men and women had significantly lower HDL-C levels than the San Francisco men and women, as well as markedly lower apolipoprotein A-I levels (25 and 39 mg/dl lower, respectively). In both Turkish and non-Turkish subjects, the mean body mass index was <27 kg/m2, the mean triglyceride level was <120 mg/dl, and the mean total cholesterol was 170-180 mg/dl. The mean hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was 21% and 31% higher in Turkish men and women, respectively, than in non-Turkish men and women, and remained higher even after subjects with a body mass index >50th percentile for men and women in the United States were excluded from the analysis. As no dietary or behavioral factors have been identified in the Turkish population that account for increased hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, the elevation most likely has a genetic basis. high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. PMID:10064731

  18. Elevation of the level and activity of acid ceramidase in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Liu, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2004-12-01

    Protein glycosylation modifies the processing of several key proteins involved in the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aberrant glycosylation of tau and down-regulation of sialyltransferase in AD brain suggest a possible dysregulation of protein glycosylation that may play a role in AD. We therefore isolated major glycoproteins from AD brain by using lectin-affinity chromatographies and ion-exchange chromatography and further separated them using SDS-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis of 11 isolated glycoproteins led to their identification as: neuronal cell adhesion molecule, beta-globin, IgM heavy chain VH1 region precursor, contactin precursor, dipeptidylpeptidase VI, CD81 partner 3, prenylcysteine lyase, adipocyte plasma-associated protein, acid ceramidase and two novel proteins. We found that the level and activity of acid ceramidase (AC), one of the major identified human brain glycoproteins, were significantly elevated in AD brain. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that AC was located mainly in the cell bodies of neurons and colocalized with neurofibrillary tangles. Our findings suggest that AC might play a role in controlling neuronal apoptosis and that AC-mediated signalling pathways might be involved in the molecular mechanism of AD. PMID:15610181

  19. The Elevated Secreted Immunoglobulin D Enhanced the Activation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hengshi; Zhang, Lingling; Chang, Yan; Yan, Shangxue; Dai, Xing; Ma, Yang; Huang, Qiong; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is a surface immunoglobulin that is expressed as either membrane IgD (mIgD) or secreted IgD (sIgD). Researchers have shown that sIgD is often elevated in patients with autoimmune diseases. The possible roles of sIgD on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are still unclear. In this study, we compared the expression of sIgD, mIgD and IgD receptor (IgDR) in RA patients and healthy controls, and investigated the effect of sIgD on the function of PBMCs. We found that the levels of sIgD, mIgD and IgDR were significantly higher in RA patients compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of sIgD were positively correlated with soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL), rheumatoid factor (RF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients. Strikingly, IgD could enhance the proliferation of PBMCs and induce IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 production from PBMCs. Moreover, the percentage of activated T cell subsets (CD4+CD69+, CD4+CD154+) and activated B cell subsets (CD19+CD23+, CD19+CD21+, CD19+IgD+ and CD19-CD138+) were increased by IgD. The percentage of unactivated T cell subset (CD4+CD62L+) and immature B cell subset (CD19+IgM+IgD-) were decreased by IgD in PBMCs. Furthermore, the expressions of IgDR on T and B cells were significantly increased by treatment with IgD. Our results demonstrate that IgD enhanced the activation of PBMCs, which may contribute to RA pathogenesis. Therefore, IgD could be a potential novel immunotherapeutic target for the management of RA. PMID:26814717

  20. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is currently (2012) 393.1 μmol mol-1, an increase of approximately 42 % over pre-industrial levels. In order to understand the responses of metabolic enzymes to elevated CO2 concentrations, an experiment was conducted using the Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE )system. Two conventional japonica rice varieties ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) grown in North China, Songjing 9 and Daohuaxiang 2, were used in this study. The activities of ADPG pyrophosphorylase, soluble and granule-bound starch synthases, and soluble and granule-bound starch branching enzymes were measured in rice grains, and the effects of elevated CO2 on the amylose and protein contents of the grains were analyzed. The results showed that elevated CO2 levels significantly increased the activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase at day 8, 24, and 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 56.67 % for Songjing 9 and 21.31 % for Daohuaxiang 2. Similarly, the activities of starch synthesis enzymes increased significantly from the day 24 after flower to the day 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 36.81 % for Songjing 9 and 66.67 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in soluble starch synthase (SSS), and 25.00 % for Songjing 9 and 36.44 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), respectively. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the activity of soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE) at day 16, 32, and 40 after flower, and also significantly increased the activity of granule-bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE) at day 8, 32, and 40 after flower. The elevated CO2 concentration increased the peak values of enzyme activity, and the timing of the activity peaks for SSS and GBSBE were earlier in Songjing 9 than in Daohuaxiang 2. There were obvious differences in developmental stages between the two varieties of rice, which indicated that the elevated CO2 concentration increased enzyme activity expression and starch synthesis, affecting the final contents

  1. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The global atmospheric CO(2) concentration is currently (2012) 393.1 μmol mol(-1), an increase of approximately 42 % over pre-industrial levels. In order to understand the responses of metabolic enzymes to elevated CO(2) concentrations, an experiment was conducted using the Free Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE )system. Two conventional japonica rice varieties (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) grown in North China, Songjing 9 and Daohuaxiang 2, were used in this study. The activities of ADPG pyrophosphorylase, soluble and granule-bound starch synthases, and soluble and granule-bound starch branching enzymes were measured in rice grains, and the effects of elevated CO(2) on the amylose and protein contents of the grains were analyzed. The results showed that elevated CO(2) levels significantly increased the activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase at day 8, 24, and 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 56.67 % for Songjing 9 and 21.31 % for Daohuaxiang 2. Similarly, the activities of starch synthesis enzymes increased significantly from the day 24 after flower to the day 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 36.81 % for Songjing 9 and 66.67 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in soluble starch synthase (SSS), and 25.00 % for Songjing 9 and 36.44 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), respectively. The elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the activity of soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE) at day 16, 32, and 40 after flower, and also significantly increased the activity of granule-bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE) at day 8, 32, and 40 after flower. The elevated CO(2) concentration increased the peak values of enzyme activity, and the timing of the activity peaks for SSS and GBSBE were earlier in Songjing 9 than in Daohuaxiang 2. There were obvious differences in developmental stages between the two varieties of rice, which indicated that the elevated CO(2) concentration increased enzyme activity expression and starch synthesis, affecting the

  2. Alternations of Structure and Functional Activity of Below Ground Microbial Communities at Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhili; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Ye; Kang, Sanghoon; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    The global atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by more than 30percent since the industrial revolution. Although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity have been well studied, its influences on belowground microbial communities are poorly understood and controversial. In this study, we showed a significant change in the structure and functional potential of soil microbial communities at eCO2 in a grassland ecosystem, the BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and Nitrogen) experimental site (http://www.biocon.umn.edu/) using a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 3.0, which contains about 28,0000 probes and covers approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles as well as other functional processes. GeoChip data indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different between ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all 5001 detected functional gene probes although no significant differences were detected in the overall microbial diversity. A further analysis of 1503 detected functional genes involved in C, N, P, and S cycles showed that a considerable portion (39percent) of them were only detected under either aCO2 (14percent) or eCO2 (25percent), indicating that the functional characteristics of the microbial community were significantly altered by eCO2. Also, for those shared genes (61percent) detected, some significantly (p<0.05) changed their abundance at eCO2. Especially, genes involved in labile C degradation, such as amyA, egl, and ara for starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses, respectively, C fixation (e.g., rbcL, pcc/acc), N fixation (nifH), and phosphorus utilization (ppx) were significantly increased under eCO2, while those involved in decomposing recalcitrant C, such as glx, lip, and mnp for lignin degradation remained unchanged. This study provides insights

  3. Elevation of plasma noradrenaline levels in urethane-anaesthetized rats by activation of central prostanoid EP3 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Yokotani, K.; Nishihara, M.; Murakami, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Okuma, Y.; Osumi, Y.

    1995-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptor subtype ligands on plasma levels of catecholamines in urethane-anaesthetized rats. 2. Administration of PGE2 (0.15, 0.3 and 1.5 nmol per animal, i.c.v.) dose-dependently elevated plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), while the levels of adrenaline were not affected. 3. Administration of sulprostone (EP3/EP1 agonist) and misoprostol (EP3/EP2 agonist) effectively elevated plasma NA levels in a dose-dependent manner (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 nmol per animal). Butaprost (EP2 agonist) (0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 nmol per animal) was without effect. 17-Phenyl-omega-trinor PGE2 (EP1/EP3 agonist) effectively elevated plasma NA levels only at its highest dose (1.0 nmol per animal), but this elevation was not attenuated by pretreatment with SC-19220 (selective EP1 antagonist) (20 nmol per animal, i.c.v.). 4. The potency of these test agents in elevating plasma levels of NA was as follows; misoprostol > sulprostone > PGE2 > > 17-phenyl-omega-trinor PGE2 > > > butaprost. These results suggest that activation of central prostanoid EP3-receptors induces central sympathetic outflow in rats. PMID:7582489

  4. Effects of long-term elevated CO2, warming, and prolonged drought on Pleurozium-associated diazotrophic activity and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrnum, Kristine; Priemé, Anders; Michelsen, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is the primary natural influx of N to terrestrial ecosystems, and changes in N2 fixation may have consequences for primary productivity and thus ecosystem function. We studied the activity and abundance of diazotrophs associated with the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi in a temperate heathland, after seven years of global change manipulations, including elevated atmospheric CO2 (510 ppm), increased temperature (0.5-1.5 ° C), and prolonged pre-summer droughts (4-6 weeks /year). Acetylene reduction assay was carried out monthly to monitor N2 fixation rates throughout one year, while nif H copy abundance, serving as a diazotroph abundance estimate, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Prolonged summer droughts significantly increased both N2 fixation and nif H copy abundance, contrasting previous studies that demonstrate a direct negative correlation between N2 fixation and water availability. A shift in the relative abundance of N2-fixing bacteria from the green, upper parts of the moss stem to the lower, brown parts was observed. This shift could make diazotrophs less sensitive to desiccation, enabling N2 fixation to be upheld for longer during drought and thus causing higher abundance. Increased temperature likewise had a positive effect on the diazotroph abundance, although this did not translate into increased activity. Possibly, warming protects diazotrophs during extreme cold events, while actual N2 fixation is limited by water, disregarding a rise in potential N2 fixation caused by higher abundance. Increased CO2 caused no significant diazotroph response. Our study showed that long-term increase in temperature and recurrent drought events cause higher diazotroph abundance in Pleurozium schreberi and thus enhance the potential N2 fixations rate. Furthermore, our results indicate that diazotrophs may alter colonization patterns and thereby actively remain in the moss fraction less likely affected by

  5. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: A review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, V; Camargo, PR; Ludewig, PM

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this manuscript is to review current knowledge of how muscle activation and force production contribute to shoulder kinematics in healthy subjects and persons with shoulder impingement. Results The middle and lower serratus anterior muscles produce scapular upward rotation, posterior tilting, and external rotation. Upper trapezius produces clavicular elevation and retraction. The middle trapezius is primarily a medial stabilizer of the scapula. The lower trapezius assists in medial stabilization and upward rotation of the scapula. The pectoralis minor is aligned to resist normal rotations of the scapula during arm elevation. The rotator cuff is critical to stabilization and prevention of excess superior translation of the humeral head, as well as production of glenohumeral external rotation during arm elevation. Alterations in activation amplitude or timing have been identified across various investigations of subjects with shoulder impingement as compared to healthy controls. These include decreased activation of the middle or lower serratus anterior and rotator cuff, delayed activation of middle and lower trapezius, and increased activation of the upper trapezius and middle deltoid in impingement subjects. In addition, subjects with a short resting length of the pectoralis minor exhibit altered scapular kinematic patterns similar to those found in persons with shoulder impingement. Conclusion These normal muscle functional capabilities and alterations in patient populations should be considered when planning exercise approaches for the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:20411160

  6. Elevated glucose levels impair the WNT/β-catenin pathway via the activation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fuxing; Huo, Junwei; Liu, Yu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Gaowei; Chen, Ying; Chen, Biliang

    2016-05-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in the world. Associations between fasting glucose levels (greater than 5.6mmol/L) and the risk of cancer fatality have been reported. However, the underlying link between glucose metabolic disease and EC remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the influence of elevated glucose levels on the WNT/β-catenin pathway in EC. Previous studies have suggested that elevated concentrations of glucose can drive the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) flux, thereby enhancing the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins. Here, we cultured EC cell lines, AN3CA and HEC-1-B, with various concentrations of glucose. Results showed that when treated with high levels of glucose, both lines showed increased expression of β-catenin and O-GlcNAcylation levels; however, these effects could be abolished by the HBP inhibitors, Azaserine and 6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine, and be restored by glucosamine. Moreover the AN3CA and HEC-1-B cells that were cultured with or without PUGNAc, an inhibitor of the O-GlcNAcase, showed that PUGNAc increased β-catenin levels. The results suggest that elevated glucose levels increase β-catenin expression via the activation of the HBP in EC cells. Subcellular fractionation experiments showed that AN3CA cells had a higher expression of intranuclear β-catenin in high glucose medium. Furthermore, TOP/FOP-Flash and RT-PCR results showed that glucose-induced increased expression of β-catenin triggered the transcription of target genes. In conclusion, elevated glucose levels, via HBP, increase the O-GlcNAcylation level, thereby inducing the over expression of β-catenin and subsequent transcription of the target genes in EC cells. PMID:26923859

  7. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Wan-Fen; Hsu, Ling-I; Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Sun, Chien-Wen; Chen, Wei J.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  8. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Assess the Influence of Blinatumomab-Mediated Cytokine Elevations on Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y; Hijazi, Y; Wolf, A; Wu, B; Sun, Y-N; Zhu, M

    2015-01-01

    Blinatumomab is a CD19/CD3 bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody construct for treatment of leukemia. Transient elevation of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)) has been observed within the first 48 hours of continuous intravenous blinatumomab infusion. In human hepatocytes, blinatumomab showed no effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities, whereas a cytokine cocktail showed suppression of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9 activities. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to evaluate the effect of transient elevation of cytokines, particularly IL-6, on CYP450 suppression. The predicted suppression of hepatic CYP450 activities was <30%, and IL-6–mediated changes in exposure to sensitive substrates of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9 were activities; the duration of cytokine elevation was a major determinant of magnitude of suppression. This study shows the utility of PBPK modeling for risk assessment of cytokine-mediated drug interactions. PMID:26451330

  9. Relationship between the tonic elevator mandibular activity and the vertical dimension during the states of vigilance and hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Manns, A; Zuazola, R V; Sirhan, R M; Quiroz, M; Rocabado, M

    1990-04-01

    The variation of the tonic EMG elevator mandibular activity was studied as well as the consequent variation of the vertical dimension in two different experimental states: those of vigilance and hypnosis. In the state of vigilance, normal values of tonic EMG activity were recorded and a space of inocclusion (X = 2.22 mm) coincident with the postural mandibular position. Under hypnosis a significant reduction of the tonic EMG activity was observed (43 to 50%), together with a great increase of the inocclusion space (X = 8.90 mm). PMID:2073696

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Berta; Falco, Virgílio; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Bacelar, Eunice; Peixoto, Francisco; Correia, Carlos

    2009-01-14

    The impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on the quality of berries, must, and red wine (with special reference to volatile composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity) made from Touriga Franca, a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L. for Port and Douro wine manufacturing grown in the Demarcated Region of Douro, was investigated during 2005 and 2006. Grapevines were grown either in open-top chambers (OTC) with ambient (365 +/- 10 ppm) or elevated (500 +/-16 ppm) [CO2] or in an outside plot. In general, the increase of [CO2] did not affect berry characteristics, especially the total anthocyan and tannin concentrations. However, the total anthocyan and polyphenol concentrations of the red wine were inhibited under elevated [CO2]. The antioxidant capacity of the wines was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and TBARS assays and, despite the low concentrations of phenolics, the elevated [CO2] did not significantly change the total antioxidant capacity of the red wines. Thirty-five volatile compounds belonging to seven chemical groups were identified: C6 alcohols, higher alcohols, esters, terpenols, carbonyl compounds, acids, volatile phenols, and C13 norisoprenoids. Generally, the same volatile compounds were present in all of the wines, but the relative levels varied among the treatments. The effect of elevated [CO2] was significant because it was detected as an increase in ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid concentrations and a decrease in ethyl acetate concentration when compared to wines produced in ambient [CO2] in 2005. In elevated [CO2], wines from 2006 had lower methionol, 1-octanol, and 4-ethylguaiacol and higher ethyl lactate and linalool concentrations. The increase in [CO2] did not significantly affect C6 alcohols, citronellol, carbonyl compounds, and beta-damascenone concentrations. This study showed that the predicted rise in [CO2] did not produce negative

  11. Elevated Ground Temperatures at Crude Oil Spill Sites due to Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Crude oil near the water table at spill sites near Bemidji and Cass Lake, Minnesota, has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for decades. Because the reactions are exothermic, biodegradation of oil compounds will produce measurable temperature increases if heat is generated faster than it is transported away from the oil body. Subsurface temperatures at the two spill sites were measured with thermistors at multiple depths in groundwater monitoring wells and water-filled tubes in the vadose zone. Temperatures in selected wells were measured in the summer of 2007, 2008, and 2009. At the Bemidji site, temperatures measured in the summer ranged from a low of 6.3 oC in the background well to a high of 9.2 oC within wells in the oil-contaminated zone. From year to year, background minimum temperatures were constant within +/- 0.05 oC while maximum temperatures within the oil-contaminated zone remained within +/- 0.25 oC. Seasonal changes in temperature in the plume as measured by data loggers exceeded 4 oC, which was far greater than the year to year change in the summer measurements. Seasonal variability was greater near the water table than at depth. It is unclear whether this variability is due to subsurface hydrology or microbial activity. Temperatures in the vadose zone were warmer near and down-gradient from the oil body compared to the background indicating the heat from the oil and plume propagates up and outward into the vadose zone. At the Cass Lake site, summer temperatures in 2009 were 6.4 oC in the background and 11.5 oC in wells near the oil. Reaction rates inferred from chemical data were compared to heating required in a 3-dimension energy transport model of the subsurface. The increased temperature compared well to the expected heat production from biodegradation reactions occurring in the oil and plume. Results indicate that microbial activity in sediments contaminated with crude oil undergoing biodegradation can be detected using

  12. Elevated p21-activated kinase 2 activity results in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Jerry W; Eaton, Andrew; Montano, Gerald T; Chang, Yu-Wen E; Jakobi, Rolf

    2009-03-01

    p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK-2) seems to be a regulatory switch between cell survival and cell death signaling. We have shown previously that activation of full-length PAK-2 by Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival, whereas caspase activation of PAK-2 to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment is involved in the cell death response. In this study, we present a role of elevated activity of full-length PAK-2 in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Hs578T human breast cancer cells that have low levels of PAK-2 activity were more sensitive to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis and showed higher levels of caspase activation of PAK-2 than MDA-MB435 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have high levels of PAK-2 activity. To examine the role of elevated PAK-2 activity in breast cancer, we have introduced a conditionally active PAK-2 into Hs578T human breast cells. Conditional activation of PAK-2 causes loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, conditional activation of PAK-2 suppresses activation of caspase 3, caspase activation of PAK-2, and apoptosis of Hs578T cells in response to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which full-length PAK-2 activity controls the apoptotic response by regulating levels of activated caspase 3 and thereby its own cleavage to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment. As a result, elevated PAK-2 activity interrupts the apoptotic response and thereby causes anchorage-independent survival and growth and resistance to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:19242610

  13. Tau phosphorylation at Alzheimer's disease-related Ser356 contributes to tau stabilization when PAR-1/MARK activity is elevated.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kanae; Oka, Mikiko; Ohtake, Yosuke; Hayashishita, Motoki; Shimizu, Sawako; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Iijima, Koichi M

    2016-09-16

    Abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD-related phosphorylation of two tau residues, Ser262 and Ser356, by PAR-1/MARK stabilizes tau in the initial phase of mismetabolism, leading to subsequent phosphorylation events, accumulation, and toxicity. However, the relative contribution of phosphorylation at each of these sites to tau stabilization has not yet been elucidated. In a Drosophila model of human tau toxicity, we found that tau was phosphorylated at Ser262, but not at Ser356, and that blocking Ser262 phosphorylation decreased total tau levels. By contrast, when PAR-1 was co-overexpressed with tau, tau was hyperphosphorylated at both Ser262 and Ser356. Under these conditions, the protein levels of tau were significantly elevated, and prevention of tau phosphorylation at both residues was necessary to completely suppress this elevation. These results suggest that tau phosphorylation at Ser262 plays the predominant role in tau stabilization when PAR-1/MARK activity is normal, whereas Ser356 phosphorylation begins to contribute to this process when PAR-1/MARK activity is abnormally elevated, as in diseased brains. PMID:27520376

  14. Effects of Elevated Free-Stream Turbulence on Active Control of a Separation Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, D. (Technical Monitor); Halfon, E.; Nishri, B.; Seifert, A.; Wygnanski, I.

    2004-01-01

    The Effects of elevated free-stream turbulence (FST) on the natural and periodically excited separation bubbles were studied experimentally, due to the relevance of this flow to low-pressure turbine blades at low Reynolds numbers. A bubble was formed at the leading edge of a flat plate and the FST level was altered by placing a grid across the flow at different locations upstream of the plate. The mixing across the separated shear-layer, forming the free boundary of the bubble, increased due to the elevated FST and due to nominally two-dimensional periodic excitation, both flattening and shortening the bubble. Periodic excitation at frequencies that were at least an order of magnitude lower than those associated with the initial shear-layer instability, were very effective at low FST, because the amplitudes of the excitation frequency and its harmonic were amplified over the bubble. High frequency excitation (F+ 3, based on the length of the baseline low FST bubble) had a major effect close to the separation location, while farther downstream the excited fluctuations rapidly decayed in the reattachment region. Low frequency excitation, that generated waves comparable to the length of the unperturbed bubble (F+ 1) were less effective and their magnitude decayed at a slower rate downstream of reattachment. An increase in the level of the FST reduced the net effect of the periodic excitation on the mixing enhancement and subsequent reattachment process, probably due to a destructive interference between the nominally 2D excitation and the random (in space and time) FST, reducing the spanwise coherence and therefore the effectiveness of the current control strategy. However, even at the reduced effectiveness of 2D periodic excitation at elevated FST, it accelerated the reattachment process and the recovery rate of the reattached boundary layer, enhancing the boundary layer resistance to repeat separation and reducing its momentum loss further downstream.

  15. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Tomoko I; DeBakey, Samar F; Nagaraj, Barbara E; Bellis, Kimberly S; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Methods Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642) and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994–2004, by service branch. Results Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Conclusion Our results were generally consistent with a previous

  16. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Laurie C.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

  17. mTORC1 promotes aging-related venous thrombosis in mice via elevation of platelet volume and activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan; Fan, Xiaorong; Xiao, Min; Yang, Dinghua; Liang, Bo; Dai, Meng; Shan, Lanlan; Lu, Jingbo; Lin, Zhiqi; Liu, Rong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Liping; Zhong, Mei; Jiang, Yu; Bai, Xiaochun

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Platelet hyperactivation is linked to aging-related VTE. However, the mechanisms through which aging enhances platelet activation and susceptibility to VTE are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is essential for aging-related platelet hyperactivation and VTE. mTORC1 was hyperactivated in platelets and megakaryocytes (MKs) from aged mice, accompanied by elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet activation. Inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin led to a significant reduction in susceptibility to experimental deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in aged mice (P < .01). To ascertain the specific role of platelet mTORC1 activation in DVT, we generated mice with conditional ablation of the mTORC1-specific component gene Raptor in MKs and platelets (Raptor knockout). These mice developed markedly smaller and lighter thrombi, compared with wild-type littermates (P < .01) in experimental DVT. Mechanistically, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with aging induced activation of mTORC1 in MKs and platelets, which, in turn, enhanced bone marrow MK size, MPV, and platelet activation to promote aging-related VTE. ROS scavenger administration induced a significant decrease (P < .05) in MK size, MPV, and platelet activation in aged mice. Our findings collectively demonstrate that mTORC1 contributes to enhanced venous thrombotic susceptibility in aged mice via elevation of platelet size and activation. PMID:27288518

  18. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  19. Diffuse elevated MIBG activity in the renal parenchyma caused by compromised renal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Codreanu, Ion; Yang, Jigang; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-11-01

    Increased metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) activity in the kidneys is usually focal and commonly attributed to radioactive urine accumulation in the renal pelvis. Hereby, we present 2 cases of abnormal diffuse MIBG activity in the kidneys caused by compromised renal blood flow. The patterns should be differentiated from physiologic renal MIBG activity, especially when the uptake is relatively symmetric as well as from regional MIBG-avid disease. PMID:24999702

  20. Elevated ATPase activity of KaiC applies a circadian checkpoint on cell division in Synechococcus elongatus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guogang; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Qiang; Kim, Yong-Ick; Wood, Thammajun L; Osteryoung, Katherine W; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Golden, Susan S

    2010-02-19

    A circadian clock coordinates physiology and behavior in diverse groups of living organisms. Another major cyclic cellular event, the cell cycle, is regulated by the circadian clock in the few cases where linkage of these cycles has been studied. In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, the circadian clock gates cell division by an unknown mechanism. Using timelapse microscopy, we confirm the gating of cell division in the wild-type and demonstrate the regulation of cytokinesis by key clock components. Specifically, a state of the oscillator protein KaiC that is associated with elevated ATPase activity closes the gate by acting through a known clock output pathway to inhibit FtsZ ring formation at the division site. An activity that stimulates KaiC phosphorylation independently of the KaiA protein was also uncovered. We propose a model that separates the functions of KaiC ATPase and phosphorylation in cell division gating and other circadian behaviors. PMID:20178745

  1. Allopregnanolone Elevations Following Pregnenolone Administration are Associated with Enhanced Activation of Emotion Regulation Neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Rebecca K.; Marx, Christine E.; King, Anthony P.; Rampton, Jessica C.; Ho, Shaun; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Background The neurosteroid allopregnanolone is a potent allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor with anxiolytic properties. Exogenous administration of allopregnanolone reduces anxiety, and allopregnanolone blockade impairs social and affective functioning. However, the neural mechanism whereby allopregnanolone improves mood and reduces anxiety is unknown. In particular, brain imaging has not been used to link neurosteroid effects to emotion regulation neurocircuitry. Methods To investigate the brain basis of allopregnanolone’s impact on emotion regulation, participants were administered 400mg of pregnenolone (N=16) or placebo (N=15) and underwent 3T fMRI while performing the Shifted-Attention Emotion Appraisal Task (SEAT), which probes emotional processing and regulation. Results Compared to placebo, allopregnanolone was associated with reduced activity in the amygdala and insula across all conditions. During the appraisal condition, allopregnanolone increased activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and enhanced connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, an effect that was associated with reduced self-reported anxiety. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in response to emotional stimuli, allopregnanolone reduces activity in regions associated with generation of negative emotion. Furthermore, allopregnanolone may enhance activity in regions linked to regulatory processes. Aberrant activity in these regions has been linked to anxiety psychopathology. These results thus provide initial neuroimaging evidence that allopregnanolone may be a target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and suggest potential future directions for research into neurosteroid effects on emotion regulation neurocircuitry. PMID:23348009

  2. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  3. Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules with elevated enzyme loading and enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-10-25

    Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules (HMCs) are synthesized through a hard-templating method. When utilized for enzyme immobilization and enzymatic catalysis, the open-mouthed HMCs show high enzyme loading capability, enhanced catalytic activity and desirable recycling stability, due to their fully exposed outer and inner surfaces. PMID:25189769

  4. Reduced Sleep Spindle Activity in Early-Onset and Elevated Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sleep disturbances are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), although polysomnographic (PSG) abnormalities are more prevalent in adults than in children and adolescents with MDD. Sleep spindle activity (SPA) is associated with neuroplasticity mechanisms during brain maturation and is more abundant in childhood and adolescence than…

  5. Elevated Levels of Uterine Anti-Apoptotic Signaling May Activate NFKB and Potentially Confer Resistance to Caspase 3-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death During Pregnancy in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Subedi, Kalpana; Suresh, Arvind; Condon, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Preserving the uterus in a state of relative quiescence is vital to the maintenance of a successful pregnancy. Elevated cytoplasmic levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy have been proposed as a potential regulator of uterine quiescence through direct targeting and disabling of the uterine contractile architecture. However, despite highly elevated levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy, there is minimal evidence of apoptosis. This current study defines the mechanism whereby the pregnant uterine myocyte may harness the tocolytic activity of active caspases while avoiding apoptotic cell death. Using the pregnant mouse model, we have analyzed the uterus for changes in pro- and antiapoptotic signaling patterns associated with the advancing stages of pregnancy. Briefly, we have found that members of the IAP family, such as SURVIVIN and XIAP, and the Bcl2 family members, such as MCL1, are elevated in the uterine myocyte during late gestation. The IAP family members are the only endogenous inhibitors of active caspase 3, and MCL1 limits activation of caspase 3 by suppressing proapoptotic signaling. Elevated XIAP levels partner with SURVIVIN, resulting in increased levels of the antiapoptotic MCL1 via NFKB activation; these together have the potential to limit both the activity and level of active caspase 3 in the pregnant uterus as term approaches. We propose that modification of these antiapoptotic signaling partners allows the pregnant uterus to escape the apoptotic action of elevated active caspase 3 levels but also functions to limit the levels of active uterine caspase 3 near term. PMID:21566000

  6. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  7. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, p<05). Furthermore, with mediation analysis it was found that high cortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but

  8. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Misako; Mori, Nobuko; Iramina, Chizuru; Yasutake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI) diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine) to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule. PMID:27597985

  9. Platelet Activating Factor Enhances Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Via PKC, Elevated Intracellular Calcium, and Modulation of Synapsin 1 Dynamics and Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennetta W.; Lu, Shao-Ming; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analog of PAF (cPAF) enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity. PMID:26778968

  10. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Misako; Mori, Nobuko; Iramina, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI) diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine) to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule. PMID:27597985

  11. Charge transport and activation energy of amorphous silicon carbide thin film on quartz at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Toan; Viet Dao, Dzung; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Wang, Li; Qamar, Afzaal; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Tanner, Philip; Rybachuk, Maksym

    2015-06-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of the charge transport and activation energy of amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) thin films grown on quartz by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The electrical conductivity as characterized by the Arrhenius rule was found to vary distinctly under two activation energy thresholds of 150 and 205 meV, corresponding to temperature ranges of 300 to 450 K and 450 to 580 K, respectively. The a-SiC/quartz system displayed a high temperature coefficient of resistance ranging from -4,000 to -16,000 ppm/K, demonstrating a strong feasibility of using this material for highly sensitive thermal sensing applications.

  12. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level. PMID:26678812

  13. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  14. High and Low Activity Rats: Elevated intrinsic physical activity drives resistance to diet induced obesity in non-bred rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Boland, Kelsey; Billington, Charles; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and rodents show large variability in their individual sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, which has been associated with differences in intrinsic spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Evidence from genetic and out-bred rat obesity models shows that higher activity of the orexin peptides results in higher intrinsic SPA and protection against diet-induced obesity. Based on this, we hypothesized that naturally occurring variation in SPA and orexin signaling activity is sufficient to drive differences in sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. We analyzed orexin activity and sensitivity to diet-induced obesity in non-manipulated male Sprague Dawley rats selected for high and low intrinsic SPA. Our results defined a new model of differential DIO sensitivity, the high-activity and low activity-rats, and suggest that naturally occurring variations in intrinsic SPA cause differences in energy expenditure that are mediated by orexin signaling and alter DIO sensitivity. PMID:23404834

  15. Oritavancin Activity Tested against Molecularly Characterized Staphylococci and Enterococci Displaying Elevated Linezolid MIC Results.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-06-01

    Oritavancin (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 to 0.12 μg/ml) had potent activity against linezolid-resistant staphylococci, as well as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (oritavancin MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml against both species). All linezolid-resistant isolates were inhibited by oritavancin at ≤0.12 μg/ml. These results confirmed the absence of cross-resistance between linezolid and oritavancin in staphylococci and enterococci. PMID:27001823

  16. Elevating optical activity: Efficient on-edge lithography of three-dimensional starfish metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K. Menzel, C.; Lehr, D.; Puffky, O.; Pertsch, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Kley, E.-B.; Hübner, U.

    2014-05-12

    We present an approach for extremely fast, wafer-scale fabrication of chiral starfish metamaterials based on electron beam- and on-edge lithography. A millimeter sized array of both the planar chiral and the true 3D chiral starfish is realized, and their chiroptical performances are compared by circular dichroism measurements. We find optical activity in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, where the 3D starfish clearly outperforms the planar design by almost 2 orders of magnitude, though fabrication efforts are only moderately increased. The presented approach is capable of bridging the gap between high performance optical chiral metamaterials and industrial production by nanoimprint technology.

  17. The absolute CBF response to activation is preserved during elevated perfusion: Implications for neurovascular coupling measures

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Joseph R.; Driver, Ian D.; Bright, Molly G.; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in which the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to a neural stimulus are measured, can be used to estimate the fractional increase in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) that accompanies evoked neural activity. A measure of neurovascular coupling is obtained from the ratio of fractional CBF and CMRO2 responses, defined as n, with the implicit assumption that relative rather than absolute changes in CBF and CMRO2 adequately characterise the flow-metabolism response to neural activity. The coupling parameter n is important in terms of its effect on the BOLD response, and as potential insight into the flow-metabolism relationship in both normal and pathological brain function. In 10 healthy human subjects, BOLD and CBF responses were measured to test the effect of baseline perfusion (modulated by a hypercapnia challenge) on the coupling parameter n during graded visual stimulation. A dual-echo pulsed arterial spin labelling (PASL) sequence provided absolute quantification of CBF in baseline and active states as well as relative BOLD signal changes, which were used to estimate CMRO2 responses to the graded visual stimulus. The absolute CBF response to the visual stimuli were constant across different baseline CBF levels, meaning the fractional CBF responses were reduced at the hyperperfused baseline state. For the graded visual stimuli, values of n were significantly reduced during hypercapnia induced hyperperfusion. Assuming the evoked neural responses to the visual stimuli are the same for both baseline CBF states, this result has implications for fMRI studies that aim to measure neurovascular coupling using relative changes in CBF. The coupling parameter n is sensitive to baseline CBF, which would confound its interpretation in fMRI studies where there may be significant differences in baseline perfusion between groups. The absolute change in

  18. Elevated autocrine chemokine ligand 18 expression promotes oral cancer cell growth and invasion via Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yun; Wu, Tong; Chen, Xiaobing; Xia, Juan; Cheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various cancers; however, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the role of CCL18 is unknown. In this study, we found that CCL18 was overexpressed in primary OSCC tissues and was associated with an advanced clinical stage. CCL18 was found in both the cytoplasm and cell membrane of OSCC cells and was predominantly produced by cancer epithelial cells, as opposed to tumor-infiltrating macrophages. In vitro studies indicated that the effects of endogenous CCL18 on OSCC cell growth, migration, and invasion could be blocked by treatment with a neutralizing anti-CCL18 antibody or CCL18 knockdown, while exogenous recombinant CCL18 (rCCL18) rescued those effects. Akt was activated in rCCL18-treated OSCC cells, while LY294002, a pan-PI3K inhibitor, abolished both endogenous and exogenous CCL18-induced OSCC cell invasion. In vivo, LY294002 treatment attenuated rCCL18-induced OSCC cell growth. Our results indicate that CCL18 acts in an autocrine manner via Akt activation to stimulate OSCC cell growth and invasion during OSCC progression. They also provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of oral cancer. PMID:26919103

  19. Apparent activation energy of subcritical crack growth of SiC/SiC composites at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y.S.; Stackpoole, M.M.; Bordia, R.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental effect of oxygen-containing gases on the subcritical crack growth of continuous fiber (Nicalon {open_quotes}SiC{close_quotes}) reinforced ceramic matrix (SiC) composites at elevated temperatures. This is a continuing project and the primary goal for this time period is to obtain an apparent activation energy for SiC/SiC materials with two different interfaces: carbon and boron nitride coatings. In the past six months, the authors have conducted studies of subcritical crack growth on SiC/SiC composite materials in a corrosive (O{sub 2}) as well as an inert (Ar) atmosphere for temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100{degree}C.

  20. Recurrent myocardial infarctions in a young football player secondary to thrombophilia, associated with elevated factor VIII activity

    PubMed Central

    Vacek, Thomas P; Yu, Shipeng; Rehman, Shahnaz; Grubb, Blair P; Kosinski, Daniel; Verghese, Cherian; Eltahawy, Ehab A; Shafiq, Qaiser

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary atherosclerosis in young adults is uncommon; rare causes such as cocaine abuse, arterial dissection, and thromboembolism should be considered. A 21-year-old football player, and otherwise healthy African American man, developed chest pain during exercise while bench-pressing 400 lbs. Acute MI was diagnosed based on physical examination, electrocardiography findings, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary arteriography showed a thrombus occluding the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). Aggressive antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide was pursued, in addition to standard post-MI care. This led to the successful resolution of symptoms and dissolution of the thrombus, demonstrated by repeat coronary arteriography. Five months later, he presented with similar symptoms during exercise after lifting heavy weights, and was found to have another acute MI. Coronary arteriography again showed a thrombus occluding the LAD. No evidence of coronary artery dissection or vasospasm was found. Only mild atherosclerotic plaque burden was observed on both occasions by intravascular ultrasound. A bare metal stent was placed at the site as it was thought this site had acted as a nidus for small plaque rupture and thrombus formation. Elevated serum factor VIII activity at 205% (reference range 60%–140%) was found, a rare cause of hypercoagulability. Further workup revealed a patent foramen ovale during a Valsalva maneuver by transesophageal echocardiography. Both events occurred during weight lifting, which can transiently increase right heart pressure in a similar way to the Valsalva maneuver. In light of all the findings, we concluded that an exercise-related increase in factor VIII activity led to coronary arterial thrombosis in the presence of a small ruptured plaque. Alternatively, venous clots may have traversed the patent foramen ovale and occluded the LAD. In addition to continuing aggressive risk

  1. Caribbean maitotoxin elevates [Ca2+]i and activates non-selective cation channels in HIT-T15 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin-Zhong; Deckey, Robert; Jiao, Guo-Liang; Ren, Hui-Feng; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cytotoxic mechanism of caribbean maitotoxin (MTX-C) in mammalian cells. METHODS: We used whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and fluorescence calcium imaging to determine the cellular toxic mechanisms of MTX-C in insulin secreting HIT-T15 cells, which is a system where the effects of MTX have been observed. HIT-T15 cells stably express L-type calcium current, making it a suitable model for this study. Using the fluorescence calcium indicator Indo-1 AM, we found that there is a profound increase in HIT-T15 intracellular free calcium 3 min after application of 200 nmol/L MTX-C. RESULTS: About 3 min after perfusion of MTX-C, a gradual increase in free calcium concentration was observed. This elevation was sustained throughout the entire recording period. Application of MTX-C did not elicit the L-type calcium current, but large cationic currents appeared after applying MTX-C to the extracellular solution. The current-voltage relationship of the cation current is approximately linear within the voltage range from -60 to 50 mV, but flattened at voltages at -80 and -100 mV. These results indicate that MTX-C induces a non-voltage activated, inward current under normal physiological conditions, which by itself or through a secondary mechanism results in a large amount of cationic influx. The biophysical mechanism of MTX-C is different to its isoform, pacific maitotoxin (MTX-P), when the extracellular calcium is removed. CONCLUSION: We conclude that MTX-C causes the opening of non-selective, non-voltage-activated ion channels, which elevates level of intracellular calcium concentration and leads to cellular toxicities. PMID:23772275

  2. Murine and Human Myogenic Cells Identified by Elevated Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity: Implications for Muscle Regeneration and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Joseph B.; Thompson, Seth D.; Bucsek, Mark J.; Song, Minjung; Huard, Johnny

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the initial promise of myoblast transfer therapy to restore dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, clinical efficacy has been limited, primarily by poor cell survival post-transplantation. Murine muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) isolated from slowly adhering cells (SACs) via the preplate technique, induce greater muscle regeneration than murine myoblasts, primarily due to improved post-transplantation survival, which is conferred by their increased stress resistance capacity. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) represents a family of enzymes with important morphogenic as well as oxidative damage mitigating roles and has been found to be a marker of stem cells in both normal and malignant tissue. In this study, we hypothesized that elevated ALDH levels could identify murine and human muscle derived cell (hMDC) progenitors, endowed with enhanced stress resistance and muscle regeneration capacity. Methodology/Principal Findings Skeletal muscle progenitors were isolated from murine and human skeletal muscle by a modified preplate technique and unfractionated enzymatic digestion, respectively. ALDHhi subpopulations isolated by fluorescence activate cell sorting demonstrated increased proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacities compared to their ALDHlo counterparts when cultivated in oxidative and inflammatory stress media conditions. This behavior correlated with increased intracellular levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase. ALDHhi murine myoblasts were observed to exhibit an increased muscle regenerative potential compared to ALDHlo myoblasts, undergo multipotent differentiation (osteogenic and chondrogenic), and were found predominately in the SAC fraction, characteristics that are also observed in murine MDSCs. Likewise, human ALDHhi hMDCs demonstrated superior muscle regenerative capacity compared to ALDHlo hMDCs. Conclusions The methodology of isolating myogenic cells on the basis of elevated ALDH activity

  3. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  4. Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidant Chemicals for Cancer Prevention in Humans.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kedar N

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in cancer prevention, the incidence of cancer is increasing. We review studies that have identified several biochemical and genetic defects as well as potential carcinogens in the diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle-related habits. Two of the biochemical abnormalities increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, and chronic exposure to carcinogens and mutagens play a significant role in the initiation of multistage carcinogenesis. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical defects may be useful in reducing the incidence of cancer. Activation of the transcriptional factor called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which enhances the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes by complex mechanisms, may be one of the ways to reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes destroy free radicals by catalysis, whereas phase-2-detoxifying enzymes remove potential carcinogens by converting them to harmless compounds for elimination from the body. However, increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2 may not be sufficient to decrease oxidative stress and chronic inflammation optimally, because antioxidant chemicals, which are decreased in a high oxidative environment, must also be elevated. This review discusses the regulation of activation of Nrf2 and proposes a hypothesis that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and dietary and endogenous antioxidant chemicals simultaneously may reduce the incidence of cancer by decreasing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The levels of antioxidant chemicals can be increased by supplementation, but increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes requires activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Several phytochemicals and antioxidant chemicals that activate Nrf2 have been identified. This review also describes clinical studies on antioxidants in cancer

  5. Elevated caspase 3 activity and cytosolic cytochrome c in NT2 cybrids containing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis subject mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Mohita; Subbiah, Vivekanandhan

    2016-09-01

    Apoptosis of motor neurons is an important feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A vital role of mitochondria in apoptosis and cell survival is well documented. Eventually mitochondria have shown to be an early target in the pathogenesis of ALS. On account of these facts, we investigated the involvement of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in ALS and control (CTR) cybrids, generated fusing human platelets with mitochondrial DNA-depleted NT2-neuroteratocarcinoma cells. After a 6 week selection process during which transferred subject mtDNA repopulated the NT2 cells and restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, we assessed cell viability and two programmed cell death parameters, caspase 3 activity and cytosolic cytochrome c levels. Compared to the control cybrid lines (n = 5), the ALS cybrid lines (n = 10) showed 45% less XTT reduction and higher caspase 3 activity ( p < 0.05, two-way Student's t test) exhibiting lesser cell viability and execution of apoptosis. Elevated cytosolic cytochrome c levels in ALS cybrid lines (n = 8) than in CTR (n = 4) ( p < 0.05, two-way Student's t-test) indicating its mitochondrial release and initiation of apoptosis. This indicates apoptosis as one of the possible mechanisms of cell death in ALS. Our findings support the view that in ALS, subject's mitochondria are altered in non-degenerating tissues in such a way that intrinsic apoptotic pathway activity is relatively increased. PMID:26268635

  6. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  7. Stable and unstable phases of elevated seismic activity at the persistently restless Telica Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Mel; Roman, Diana C.; Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter; McNutt, Stephen R.; Muñoz, Angelica; Tenorio, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, is a persistently restless volcano with daily seismicity rates that can vary by orders of magnitude without apparent connection to eruptive activity. Low-frequency (LF) events are dominant and peaks in seismicity rate show little correlation with eruptive episodes, presenting a challenge for seismic monitoring and eruption forecasting. A short period seismic station (TELN) has been operated on Telica's summit since 1993, and in 2010 the installation of a six-station broadband seismic and eleven-station continuous GPS network (the TESAND network) was completed to document in detail the seismic characteristics of a persistently restless volcano. Between our study period of November 2009 and May 2013, over 400,000 events were detected at the TESAND summit station (TBTN), with daily event rates ranging from 5 to 1400. We present spectral analyses and classifications of ~ 200,000 events recorded by the TESAND network between April 2010 and March 2013, and earthquake locations for a sub-set of events between July 2010 and February 2012. In 2011 Telica erupted in a series of phreatic vulcanian explosions. Six months before the 2011 eruption, we observe a sudden decrease in LF events concurrent with a swarm of high-frequency (HF) events, followed by a decline in overall event rates, which reached a minimum at the eruption onset. We observe repeated periods of high and low seismicity rates and suggest these changes in seismicity represent repeated transitions between open-system and closed-system degassing. We suggest that these short- and long-term transitions between open to closed-system degassing form part of a long-term pattern of stable vs. unstable phases at Telica. Stable phases are characterised by steady high-rate seismicity and represent stable open-system degassing, whereas unstable phases are characterised by highly variable seismicity rates and represent repeated transitions from open to closed-system degassing, where the system is

  8. ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

    1997-10-01

    A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

  9. Elevated levels of plasminogen activators in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation damage in rat cervical spinal cord in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sawaya, R.; Rayford, A.; Kono, S.; Rao, J.S.; Ang, K.K.; Feng, Y.; Stephens, L.C.

    1994-06-01

    The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white-matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. Preliminary data suggest that tissue damage is partly mediated through changes in the proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we irradiated rat cervical spinal cords with single doses of 24 Gy of 18 MV photons or 20 MeV electrons and measured the levels of plasminogen activators at days 2, 7, 30, 60, 90, 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation, using appropriate controls at each time. Fibrin zymography revealed fibrinolytic bands representing molecular weights of 68,000 and 48,000 in controls and irradiated samples; these bands increased significantly at days 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation. Inhibition of these enzymatic bands with specific antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), confirmed that these bands were tPA and uPA. Enzymatic levels quantified by densitometry showed a twofold elevation in the levels of tPA and more than a tenfold increase in uPA after 120 days` irradiation. Activity of uPA was increased threefold by day 2 and increased steadily with time compared to nonirradiated control samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed a threefold increase in the tPA content in the extracts of irradiated rat cervical spinal cords at days 120, 130 and 145. This study adds additional information to the proposed role of plasminogen activators in the pathogenic pathways of radiation damage in the CNS. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  11. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called "repeat-swap modeling" to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport also

  12. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called “repeat-swap modeling” to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport

  13. Sustained Isoprostane E2 Elevation, Inflammation and Fibrosis after Acute Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury Are Reduced by Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Aimen O.; Probert, Philip M.; Dunn, Michael; Knight, Margaret; Vallance, Abigail E.; Flecknell, Paul A.; Oakley, Fiona; Cameron, Iain; White, Steven A.; Blain, Peter G.; Wright, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Liver grafts donated after cardiac death are increasingly used to expand the donor pool but are prone to ischaemic-type biliary lesions. The anti-inflammatory effects of the activated pregnane X receptor have previously been shown to be beneficial in a number of inflammatory liver conditions. However, its role in reducing peri-portal inflammation and fibrosis following ischaemia-reperfusion injury has not been investigated. Hepatic injury and its response to pregnane X receptor activation was examined after partial hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced by surgically clamping the left and middle lobar blood vessels in rats. Molecular and pathological changes in the liver were examined over the following 28 days. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury resulted in transient cholestasis associated with microvillar changes in biliary epithelial cell membranes and hepatocellular injury which resolved within days after reperfusion. However, in contrast to chemically-induced acute liver injuries, this was followed by sustained elevation in isoprostane E2, peri-portal inflammation and fibrosis that remained unresolved in the ischaemic reperfused lobe for at least 28 days after clamping. Administration of pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile—a rodent-specific pregnane X receptor activator—resulted in significant reductions in cholestasis, hepatic injury, ischaemic lobe isoprostane E2 levels, peri-portal inflammation and fibrosis. Hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury therefore results in inflammatory and fibrotic changes that persist well beyond the initial ischaemic insult. Drug-mediated activation of the pregnane X receptor reduced these adverse changes in rats, suggesting that the pregnane X receptor is a viable drug target to reduce ischaemic-type biliary lesions in recipients of liver transplants donated after cardiac death. PMID:26302150

  14. The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Aschengrau, A.; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D.

    1998-10-01

    This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  15. Elevated cholinesterase activity and increased urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in the workers producing fluorine-containing plastic (polytetrafluoroethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Baohui Xu |; Jiusun Zhang; Guaogeng Mao; Guifen Yang; Aini Chen; Aoyama, Kohji; Matsushita, Toshio; Ueda, Atsushi

    1992-07-01

    Fluoropolymers are widely used in thermal and electrical industries. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) plastic is a typical one. During its production, workers are occupationally exposed to many organic fluorides, especially tetrafluoroethylene, chlorodifluoromethane, PTFE and its thermal decomposition products. Of these compounds, it has been documented that following inhalation of combustion products of PTFE the focal hemorrhages, edema, fibrin deposition in lungs and renal infarcts were observed in rats. Odum and Green have demonstrated a marked damage to proximal tubule of kidney with no effects on the liver in rats exposed to 6000 ppm tetrafluoroethylene for 6 hr. The investigations of the hazards of these compounds to workers have been mainly focused on acute toxicity. There have been some reports that polymers and its pyrolysis caused polymer fume fever and pulmonary edema. In practice, workers engaged in PTFE manufacture are chronically exposed to the above-mentioned chemicals, but little was known about the hazards ascribed to these chemicals. To clarify the influences of the exposed chemicals on health in PTFE production we conducted a mass survey investigation in a PTFE production factory. As a result, in addition to the nephrotoxicity characterized by elevated ALP and NAG activities in urine, more interestingly, we have also found a reversible increase in cholinesterase (ChE) activity and enhanced urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in workers engaged in PTFE production. We report here these findings and discuss their physiological significance. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Response of microbial extracellular enzyme activities and r- vs. K- selected microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 depends on soil aggregate size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorodnikov, Maxim; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Increased belowground carbon (C) transfer by plant roots under elevated atmospheric CO2 and the contrasting environment in soil macro- and microaggregates could affect properties of the microbial community in the rhizosphere. We evaluated the effect of 5 years of elevated CO2 (550 ppm) on four extracellular enzymes: ß-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase along with the contribution of fast- (r-strategists) and slow-growing microorganisms (K-strategists) in soil aggregates. We fractionated the bulk soil from the ambient and elevated CO2 treatments of FACE-Hohenheim (Stuttgart) into large macro- (>2 mm), small macro- (0.25-2.00 mm), and microaggregates (<0.25 mm) using a modified dry sieving. Microbial biomass (C-mic by SIR), the maximal specific growth rate (µ), growing microbial biomass (GMB) and lag-period (t-lag) were estimated by the kinetics of CO2 emission from bulk soil and aggregates amended with glucose and nutrients. In the bulk soil and isolated aggregates before and after activation with glucose, the actual and the potential enzyme activities were measured. Although C-org and C-mic as well as the activities of ß-glucosidase, phosphatase, and sulfatase were unaffected in bulk soil and in aggregate-size classes by elevated CO2, significant changes were observed in potential enzyme production after substrate amendment. After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. In addition, µ values were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2 for bulk soil, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates. Based on changes in µ, GMB, and lag-period, we conclude that elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulated the r-selected microorganisms, especially in soil microaggregates. In contrast, significantly higher chitinase activity in bulk soil and in large macroaggregates under elevated CO2 revealed an increased contribution of fungi to turnover processes. We conclude that quantitative and

  17. Hot spots remain the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the drilling activity and petroleum activity in Africa. The areas which seem to hold the highest promise for new discoveries or increased exports are Egypt's Western Desert which seems to offer the possibility of significant oil discoveries. In addition, Nigeria has dramatically increased its exploration activity which is counter to the global trend in 1986. Areas where activity is decreasing are Cameroon, South Africa. It is pointed out that the Gabon crude oil reserves may have been raised 60% by a single on-shore discovery.

  18. Elevated Levels of Monocyte Activation Markers Are Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Men With and Those Without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    McKibben, Rebeccah A.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Grinspoon, Steven; Li, Xiuhong; Palella, Frank J.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Witt, Mallory D.; George, Richard T.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Budoff, Matthew; Tracy, Russell P.; Brown, Todd T.; Post, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Heightened immune activation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons may contribute to atherosclerosis. We assessed associations of serologic markers of monocyte activation, soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2) with subclinical atherosclerosis among men with and those without HIV infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods. We performed noncontrast computed tomography on 906 men (566 HIV-infected men and 340 HIV-uninfected men), 709 of whom also underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography. Associations between each biomarker and the prevalence of coronary plaque, the prevalence of stenosis of ≥50%, and the extent of plaque were assessed by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for age, race, HIV serostatus, and cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Levels of all biomarkers were higher among HIV-infected men, of whom 81% had undetectable HIV RNA, and were associated with lower CD4+ T-cell counts. In the entire population and among HIV-infected men, higher biomarker levels were associated with a greater prevalence of coronary artery stenosis of ≥50%. Higher sCD163 levels were also associated with greater prevalences of coronary artery calcium, mixed plaque, and calcified plaque; higher CCL2 levels were associated with a greater extent of noncalcified plaque. Conclusions. sCD163, sCD14, and CCL2 levels were elevated in treated HIV-infected men and associated with atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in individuals with HIV infection. PMID:25362192

  19. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  20. Serum levels of innate immunity cytokines are elevated in dogs with metaphyseal osteopathy (hypertrophic osteodytrophy) during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Safra, Noa; Hitchens, Peta L; Maverakis, Emanual; Mitra, Anupam; Korff, Courtney; Johnson, Eric; Kol, Amir; Bannasch, Michael J; Pedersen, Niels C; Bannasch, Danika L

    2016-10-15

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production. Given the similarities between these diseases, we hypothesize that MO is an autoinflammatory disease mediated by cytokines involved in innate immunity. To characterize immune dysregulation in MO dogs we measured serum levels of inflammatory markers in 26 MO and 102 control dogs. MO dogs had significantly higher levels (pg/ml) of serum Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, IL-6, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10. Notably, recovered MO dogs were not different from dogs during active MO disease, providing a suggestive mechanism for disease predisposition. This is the first documentation of elevated immune markers in MO dogs, uncovering an immune profile similar to comparable autoinflammatory disorders in children. PMID:27590423

  1. Doxorubicin Activates Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Elevation of p21 (Waf1/Cip1) and C/EBPα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Fang; Chong, Chin-Liew; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Wang, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Kuo, Tzer-Min; Hong, Ming-Hsiang; Hu, Cheng-po; Chen, Mong-Liang; Chou, Yu-Chi; Chang, Chungming

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus reactivation is an important medical issue in cancer patients who undergo systemic chemotherapy. Up to half of CHB carriers receiving chemotherapy develop hepatitis and among these cases a notable proportion are associated with HBV reactivation. However, the molecular mechanism(s) through which various chemotherapeutic agents induce HBV reactivation is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the cell cycle regulator p21 (Waf1/Cip1) in the modulation of HBV replication when a common chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, is present. We showed that p21 expression was increased by doxorubicin treatment. This elevation in p21 expression enhanced the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα); such an increase is likely to promote the binding of C/EBPα to the HBV promoter, which will contribute to the activation of HBV replication. Our current study thus reveals the mechanism underlying doxorubicin modulation of HBV replication and provides an increased understanding of HBV reactivation in CHB patients who are receiving systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26121644

  2. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  3. Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase elevates the threshold to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure activity in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kaasinen, Selma K; Gröhn, Olli H J; Keinänen, Tuomo A; Alhonen, Leena; Jänne, Juhani

    2003-10-01

    Activation of polyamine catabolism in transgenic mice through an overexpression of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) results in a massive overaccumulation of the diamine putrescine in most tissues including brain. Putrescine pool in transgenic animals was strikingly expanded in every six brain regions analyzed at present. Pons (23-fold), cerebellum (37-fold), cerebrum (34-fold), and hippocampus (16-fold) showed the greatest increases in putrescine levels. Moreover, the molar ratio of putrescine to spermidine was increased in the different brain regions of the transgenic animals on an average of nearly 40-fold. Upon an exposure of the animals to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) infusions, a compound known to induce epilepsy-like seizure activity, the SSAT transgenic mice showed significantly elevated seizure threshold to both clonic and tonic convulsions in comparison with their syngenic littermates. This difference, however, disappeared when the animals were treated with ifenprodil prior to PTZ infusions. The latter compound acts as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by binding to the polyamine site of the receptor. Overexpression of SSAT likewise appeared to protect the transgenic animals from PTZ-induced neuron loss in the hippocampus. As putrescine is known to serve as a precursor to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), we carried out (1)H NMR analyses the results of which revealed that the levels of the inhibitory amino acid GABA and its excitatory counterpart glutamate were indistinguishable in syngenic and transgenic animals in all brain regions analyzed. The present results suggest that the frequently observed enhanced accumulation of putrescine in response to brain insults belongs to neuroprotective measures rather than being a cause of the subsequent injury. PMID:14552906

  4. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Linford J. B.; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O.; Nolan, Matthew F.; Champneys, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15–30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. PMID:25122704

  5. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Briant, Linford J B; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O; Nolan, Matthew F; Champneys, Alan R; Pickering, Anthony E

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15-30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. PMID:25122704

  6. Admission Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Activity Is Not Associated with Long-Term Clinical Outcomes after ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Woudstra, Pier; Damman, Peter; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Grundeken, Maik J.; van Brussel, Peter M.; Stroobants, An K.; van Straalen, Jan P.; Fischer, Johan C.; Koch, Karel T.; Henriques, José P. S.; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity is a biomarker predicting cardiovascular diseases in a real-world. However, the prognostic value in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on long-term clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods Lp-PLA2 activity was measured in samples obtained prior to pPCI from consecutive STEMI patients in a high-volume intervention center from 2005 until 2007. Five years all-cause mortality was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared among tertiles of Lp-PLA2 activity during complete follow-up and with a landmark at 30 days. In a subpopulation clinical endpoints were assessed at three years. The prognostic value of Lp-PLA2, in addition to the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction or multimarker risk score, was assessed in multivariable Cox regression. Results The cohort (n = 987) was divided into tertiles (low <144, intermediate 144–179, and high >179 nmol/min/mL). Among the tertiles differences in baseline characteristics associated with long-term mortality were observed. However, no significant differences in five years mortality in association with Lp-PLA2 activity levels were found; intermediate versus low Lp-PLA2 (HR 0.97; CI 95% 0.68–1.40; p = 0.88) or high versus low Lp-PLA2 (HR 0.75; CI 95% 0.51–1.11; p = 0.15). Both in a landmark analysis and after adjustments for the established risk scores and selection of cases with biomarkers obtained, non-significant differences among the tertiles were observed. In the subpopulation no significant differences in clinical endpoints were observed among the tertiles. Conclusion Lp-PLA2 activity levels at admission prior to pPCI in STEMI patients are not associated with the incidence of short and/or long-term clinical endpoints. Lp-PLA2 as an independent and clinically useful biomarker in the risk stratification of STEMI patients still remains to be proven

  7. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  8. Effects of biochar and elevated soil temperature on soil microbial activity and abundance in an agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of Global Warming, rising surface temperatures will likely cause increased soil temperatures. Soil warming has already been shown to, at least temporarily, increase microbial activity and, therefore, the emissions of greenhouse gases like CO2 and N2O. This underlines the need for methods to stabilize soil organic matter and to prevent further boost of the greenhouse gas effect. Plant-derived biochar as a soil amendment could be a valuable tool to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestrate it in soil on the long-term. During the process of pyrolysis, plant biomass is heated in an oxygen-low atmosphere producing the highly stable solid matter biochar. Biochar is generally stable against microbial degradation due to its chemical structure and it, therefore, persists in soil for long periods. Previous experiments indicated that biochar improves or changes several physical or chemical soil traits such as water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity or soil structure, but also biotic properties like microbial activity/abundance, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth. Changes in the soil microbial abundance and community composition alter their metabolism, but likely also affect plant productivity. The interaction of biochar addition and soil temperature increase on soil microbial properties and plant growth was yet not investigated on the field scale. To investigate whether warming could change biochar effects in soil, we conducted a field experiment attached to a soil warming experiment on an agricultural experimental site near the University of Hohenheim, already running since July 2008. The biochar field experiment was set up as two-factorial randomized block design (n=4) with the factors biochar amendment (0, 30 t ha-1) and soil temperature (ambient, elevated=ambient +2.5° C) starting from August 2013. Each plot has a dimension of 1x1m and is equipped with combined soil temperature and moisture sensors. Slow pyrolysis biochar from the C

  9. Digital elevation models in 10 minute time steps - a status report on 4D monitoring of an active erosional scar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Neugirg, Fabian; Hass, Erik; Jose, Steffen; Haas, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    In erosional research a variety of processes are well understood and have been mimicked under laboratory conditions. In complex natural systems such as Alpine environments a multitude of influencing factors tend to superimpose single processes in a mixed signal which impedes a reliable interpretation. These mixed signals can already be captured by geoscientific research approaches such as sediment collectors, erosion pins or remote sensing surveys. Nevertheless, they fail to distinguish between single processes and their individual impact on slope morphology. Throughout the last two years a highly active slope of unsorted glacial deposits in the northern Alps has been monitored by repeated terrestrial laser scans roughly every three months. Resulting high resolution digital elevation models of difference were produced to identify possible seasonal patterns. By reproducing the TLS results with a physically based erosion model (EROSION 3D) ran with in situ input data from rainfall simulations and a climate station a better understanding of individual mechanism could be achieved. However, the already elaborate combination of soil science and close range remote sensing could not answer all questions concerning the slopes behaviour, especially not for freeze and thaw cycles and the winter period. Therefore, an array of three fully automatic synchronised cameras was setup to generate continuous 3D surface models. Among the main challenges faced for the system were the energy supply and durability, perspectives of the cameras to avoid shadowing and to guarantee sufficient overlap, a certain robustness to withstand rough alpine weather conditions, the scaling of each 3D model by tracked ground control points and the automatic data handling. First results show individual processes sculpting the slope's morphology but further work is required to improve automatic point cloud creation and change monitoring.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is not elevated in a songbird (Junco hyemalis) preparing for migration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Needham, Katie B; Le, Chuong N; Stewart, Emily C; Graham, Jessica L; Ketterson, Ellen D; Greives, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    During spring, increasing daylengths stimulate gonadal development in migratory birds. However, late-stage reproductive development is typically postponed until migration has been completed. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, which have been associated with pre-migratory hyperphagia and fattening. The HPA-axis is also known to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, suggesting the possibility that final transition into the breeding life history stage may be slowed by glucocorticoids. We hypothesized that greater HPA-axis activity in individuals preparing for migration may foster preparation for migration while simultaneously acting as a "brake" on the development of the HPG-axis. To test this hypothesis, we sampled baseline corticosterone (CORT), stress-induced CORT, and negative feedback efficacy of Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) in an overwintering population that included both migratory (J.h. hyemalis) and resident (J.h. carolinensis) individuals. We predicted that compared to residents, migrants would have higher baseline CORT, higher stress-induced CORT, and weaker negative feedback. Juncos were sampled in western Virginia in early March, which was about 2-4wk before migratory departure for migrants and 4-5wk before first clutch initiation for residents. Contrary to our predictions, we found that migrants had lower baseline and stress-induced CORT and similar negative feedback efficacy compared with residents, which suggests that delayed breeding in migrants is influenced by other physiological mechanisms. Our findings also suggest that baseline CORT is not elevated during pre-migratory fattening, as migrants had lower baseline CORT and were fatter than residents. PMID:26718082

  11. Properties of nitrogen fertilization are decisive in determining the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the activity of nitrate reductase in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ranran; Du, Shaoting

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of atmospheric CO2 is predicted to double by the end of this century. The response of higher plants to an increase in atmospheric CO2 often includes a change in nitrate reductase (NR) activity. In a recent study, we showed that, under elevated CO2 levels, NR induction in low-nitrate plants and NR inhibition in high-nitrate plants are regulated by nitric oxide (NO) generated via nitric oxide synthases. This finding provides an explanation for the diverse responses of plants to elevated CO2 levels, and suggests that the use of nitrogen fertilizers on soil will have a major influence on the nitrogen assimilation capacity of plants in response to CO2 elevation. PMID:27043473

  12. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, J; Moller, S; Schifter, S; Abrahamsen, J; Becker, U

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Static and dynamic functions of the wall of large arteries are largely unknown in cirrhosis in vivo. The present study was undertaken to determine arterial compliance (COMPart) in relation to vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems in patients with cirrhosis. In addition, vasoactivity was manipulated by inhalation of oxygen.
STUDY POPULATION AND METHODS—In 20 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 12 controls we determined COMPart (stroke volume relative to pulse pressure), cardiac output, plasma volume, systemic vascular resistance, central circulation time, plasma catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation.
RESULTS—COMPart was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; p< 0.05) and inversely related to plasma adrenaline levels (r=−0.53; p<0.02) but positively related to circulating levels of CGRP (r=0.58; p<0.01). No significant relation was found for plasma noradrenaline, renin activity, or endothelin-1. COMPart was positively related to plasma volume (r=0.50; p<0.02) and inversely to systemic vascular resistance (r=−0.69; p<0.001) and central circulation time (r=−0.49; p<0.02). During oxygen inhalation, COMPart decreased (−13%; p<0.005) and systemic vascular resistance increased (+10%; p<0.001) towards normal values without significant changes in mean arterial pressure. Plasma adrenaline (−16%; p<0.01) decreased and the relation to COMPart disappeared. The relation of COMPart to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged.
CONCLUSION—Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems (noradrenaline, renin, endothelin-1). Thus the altered static and dynamic characteristics of the wall of large arteries are intimately associated with circulatory and

  13. Pancreatic Stem Cells Remain Unresolved

    PubMed Central

    Morahan, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin-secreting islet β cells. An ideal treatment of diabetes would, therefore, be to replace the lost or deficient β cells, by transplantation of donated islets or differentiated endocrine cells or by regeneration of endogenous islet cells. Due to their ability of unlimited proliferation and differentiation into all functional lineages in our body, including β cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are ideally placed as cell sources for a diabetic transplantation therapy. Unfortunately, the inability to generate functional differentiated islet cells from pluripotent stem cells and the poor availability of donor islets have severely restricted the broad clinical use of the replacement therapy. Therefore, endogenous sources that can be directed to becoming insulin-secreting cells are actively sought after. In particular, any cell types in the developing or adult pancreas that may act as pancreatic stem cells (PSC) would provide an alternative renewable source for endogenous regeneration. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress and knowledge of such PSC, and discuss ways that facilitate the future development of this often controversial, but crucial research. PMID:25132582

  14. A comparison of soil climate and biological activity along an elevation gradient in the eastern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, R.G.; Chadwick, O.A.; Sowers, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Soil temperature, moisture, and CO2 were monitored at four sites along an elevation transect in the eastern Mojave Desert from January to October, 1987. Climate appeared to be the major factor controlling CO2 partial pressures, primarily through its influence of rates of biological reactions, vegetation densities, and organic matter production. With increasing elevation, and increasing actual evapotranspiration, the organic C, plant density, and the CO2 content of the soils increased. Between January and May, soil CO2 concentrations at a given site were closely related to variations in soil temperature. In July and October, temperatures had little effect on CO2, presumably due to low soil moisture levels. Up to 75% of litter placed in the field in March was lost by October whereas, for the 3 lower elevations, less than 10% of the litter placed in the field in April was lost through decomposition processes. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? ...

  16. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  17. Sequential digital elevation models of active lava flows from ground-based stereo time-lapse imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a framework for deriving sequences of digital elevation models (DEMs) for the analysis of active lava flows using oblique stereo-pair time-lapse imagery. A photo-based technique was favoured over laser-based alternatives due to low equipment cost, high portability and capability for network expansion, with images of advancing flows captured by digital SLR cameras over durations of up to several hours. However, under typical field scale scenarios, relative camera orientations cannot be rigidly maintained (e.g. through the use of a stereo bar), preventing the use of standard stereo time-lapse processing software. Thus, we trial semi-automated DEM-sequence workflows capable of handling the small camera motions, variable image quality and restricted photogrammetric control that result from the practicalities of data collection at remote and hazardous sites. The image processing workflows implemented either link separate close-range photogrammetry and traditional stereo-matching software, or are integrated in a single software package based on structure-from-motion (SfM). We apply these techniques in contrasting case studies from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii and Mount Etna, Sicily, which differ in scale, duration and image texture. On Kilauea, the advance direction of thin fluid lava lobes was difficult to forecast, preventing good distribution of control. Consequently, volume changes calculated through the different workflows differed by ∼10% for DEMs (over ∼30 m2) that were captured once a minute for 37 min. On Mt. Etna, more predictable advance (∼3 m h-1 for ∼3 h) of a thicker, more viscous lava allowed robust control to be deployed and volumetric change results were generally within 5% (over ∼500 m2). Overall, the integrated SfM software was more straightforward to use and, under favourable conditions, produced results comparable to those from the close-range photogrammetry pipeline. However, under conditions with limited options for photogrammetric

  18. Sustained elevation of NF-κB activity sensitizes offspring of maternal inflammation to hypertension via impairing PGC-1α recovery.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Chen, Xianhua; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Huang, Pei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Guo, Wei; Che, Ling; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that maternal detrimental factors, including inflammation, contribute to the development of hypertension in the offspring. The current study found that offspring subjected to prenatal exposure of inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge during the second semester showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure. In addition, these offspring also displayed augmented vascular damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in thoracic aortas when challenged with deoxycorticosterone acetate and high-salt diet (DOCA-salt). Interestingly, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine markedly reversed these changes. Mechanistically, prenatal LPS exposure led to pre-existing elevated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ co-activator (PGC)-1α, a critical master of ROS metabolism, which up-regulated the ROS defense capacity and maintained the balance of ROS generation and elimination under resting state. However, continued elevation of NF-κB activity significantly suppressed the rapid recovery of PGC-1α expression response to DOCA-salt challenge in offspring that underwent prenatal inflammatory stimulation. This was further confirmed by using a NF-κB inhibitor (N-p-Tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone) that restored PGC-1α recovery and prevented blood pressure elevation induced by DOCA-salt. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation programmed proneness to NF-κB over-activation which impaired PGC-1α-mediated anti-oxidant capacity resulting in the increased sensitivity of offspring to hypertensive damage. PMID:27616627

  19. Changes in Respiratory Mitochondrial Machinery and Cytochrome and Alternative Pathway Activities in Response to Energy Demand Underlie the Acclimation of Respiration to Elevated CO2 in the Invasive Opuntia ficus-indica1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Blanc-Betes, Elena; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Azcon-Bieto, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Studies on long-term effects of plants grown at elevated CO2 are scarce and mechanisms of such responses are largely unknown. To gain mechanistic understanding on respiratory acclimation to elevated CO2, the Crassulacean acid metabolism Mediterranean invasive Opuntia ficus-indica Miller was grown at various CO2 concentrations. Respiration rates, maximum activity of cytochrome c oxidase, and active mitochondrial number consistently decreased in plants grown at elevated CO2 during the 9 months of the study when compared to ambient plants. Plant growth at elevated CO2 also reduced cytochrome pathway activity, but increased the activity of the alternative pathway. Despite all these effects seen in plants grown at high CO2, the specific oxygen uptake rate per unit of active mitochondria was the same for plants grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Although decreases in photorespiration activity have been pointed out as a factor contributing to the long-term acclimation of plant respiration to growth at elevated CO2, the homeostatic maintenance of specific respiratory rate per unit of mitochondria in response to high CO2 suggests that photorespiratory activity may play a small role on the long-term acclimation of respiration to elevated CO2. However, despite growth enhancement and as a result of the inhibition in cytochrome pathway activity by elevated CO2, total mitochondrial ATP production was decreased by plant growth at elevated CO2 when compared to ambient-grown plants. Because plant growth at elevated CO2 increased biomass but reduced respiratory machinery, activity, and ATP yields while maintaining O2 consumption rates per unit of mitochondria, we suggest that acclimation to elevated CO2 results from physiological adjustment of respiration to tissue ATP demand, which may not be entirely driven by nitrogen metabolism as previously suggested. PMID:17660349

  20. UAV-based photogrammetry combination of the elevational outcrop and digital surface models: an example of Sanyi active fault in western Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Cheng-En; Huang, Wen-Jeng; Chang, Ping-Yu; Lo, Wei

    2016-04-01

    An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a digital camera is an efficient tool for geologists to investigate structure patterns in the field. By setting ground control points (GCPs), UAV-based photogrammetry provides high-quality and quantitative results such as a digital surface model (DSM) and orthomosaic and elevational images. We combine the elevational outcrop 3D model and a digital surface model together to analyze the structural characteristics of Sanyi active fault in Houli-Fengyuan area, western Taiwan. Furthermore, we collect resistivity survey profiles and drilling core data in the Fengyuan District in order to build the subsurface fault geometry. The ground sample distance (GSD) of an elevational outcrop 3D model is 3.64 cm/pixel in this study. Our preliminary result shows that 5 fault branches are distributed 500 meters wide on the elevational outcrop and the width of Sanyi fault zone is likely much great than this value. Together with our field observations, we propose a structural evolution model to demonstrate how the 5 fault branches developed. The resistivity survey profiles show that Holocene gravel was disturbed by the Sanyi fault in Fengyuan area.

  1. Neural Basis of Moral Elevation Demonstrated through Inter-Subject Synchronization of Cortical Activity during Free-Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Zoë A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Morris, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust). Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two “other-praising" emotions – Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty), and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill). Methodology/Principal Findings Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion. PMID:22745745

  2. Females with angina pectoris have altered lipoprotein metabolism with elevated cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and impaired high-density lipoproteins-associated antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    PARK, JUNGHO; KIM, JAE-RYONG; SHIN, DONG-GU; CHO, KYUNG-HYUN

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate non-invasive biomarkers for angina pectoris (AP), we analyzed the lipid and protein composition in individual lipoproteins from females with angina pectoris (n=22) and age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). In the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction, the triglycerides (TG) and protein content increased in the AP group compared to the control group. The AP group had lower total cholesterol (TC) and elevated TG in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. In the AP group, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was enhanced in HDL and LDL, while lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in HDL3 was almost depleted. Antioxidant activity was significantly decreased in the HDL3 fraction, with a decrease in the HDL2 particle size. In the HDL3 fraction, paraoxonase and platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity were much lower and the levels of CETP and apoC-III were elevated in the AP group. The LDL from the AP group was more sensitive to cupric ion-mediated oxidation with faster mobility. In conclusion, the lipoprotein fractions in the AP group had impaired antioxidant activity and increased TG and apoC-III with structural and functional changes. PMID:22211242

  3. Fluoxetine elevates allopregnanolone in female rat brain but inhibits a steroid microsomal dehydrogenase rather than activating an aldo-keto reductase

    PubMed Central

    Fry, J P; Li, K Y; Devall, A J; Cockcroft, S; Honour, J W; Lovick, T A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, elevates brain concentrations of the neuroactive progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone, an effect suggested to underlie its use in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. One report showed fluoxetine to activate the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) component of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), which catalyses production of allopregnanolone from 5α-dihydroprogesterone. However, this action was not observed by others. The present study sought to clarify the site of action for fluoxetine in elevating brain allopregnanolone. Experimental Approach Adult male rats and female rats in dioestrus were treated with fluoxetine and their brains assayed for allopregnanolone and its precursors, progesterone and 5α-dihydroprogesterone. Subcellular fractions of rat brain were also used to investigate the actions of fluoxetine on 3α-HSD activity in both the reductive direction, producing allopregnanolone from 5α-dihydroprogesterone, and the reverse oxidative direction. Fluoxetine was also tested on these recombinant enzyme activities expressed in HEK cells. Key Results Short-term treatment with fluoxetine increased brain allopregnanolone concentrations in female, but not male, rats. Enzyme assays on native rat brain fractions and on activities expressed in HEK cells showed fluoxetine did not affect the AKR producing allopregnanolone from 5α-dihydroprogesterone but did inhibit the microsomal dehydrogenase oxidizing allopregnanolone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone. Conclusions and Implications Fluoxetine elevated allopregnanolone in female rat brain by inhibiting its oxidation to 5α-dihydroprogesterone by a microsomal dehydrogenase. This is a novel site of action for fluoxetine, with implications for the development of new agents and/or dosing regimens to raise brain allopregnanolone. PMID:25161074

  4. Elevated PGC-1α Activity Sustains Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Muscle Function without Extending Survival in a Mouse Model of Inherited ALS

    PubMed Central

    Da Cruz, Sandrine; Parone, Philippe A.; Lopes, Vanda S.; Lillo, Concepción; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Lee, Sandra K.; Vetto, Anne P.; Petrosyan, Susanna; Marsala, Martin; Murphy, Anne N.; Williams, David S.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α induces multiple effects on muscle, including increased mitochondrial mass and activity. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal, adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of motor neurons and skeletal muscle degeneration. An early event is thought to be denervation-induced muscle atrophy accompanied by alterations in mitochondrial activity and morphology within muscle. We now report that elevation of PGC-1α levels in muscles of mice that develop fatal paralysis from an ALS-causing SOD1 mutant elevates PGC-1α-dependent pathways throughout disease course. Mitochondrial biogenesis and activity are maintained through end-stage disease, accompanied by retention of muscle function, delayed muscle atrophy, and significantly improved muscle endurance even at late disease stages. However, survival was not extended. Therefore, muscle is not a primary target of mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity, but drugs increasing PGC-1α activity in muscle represent an attractive therapy for maintaining muscle function during progression of ALS. PMID:22560226

  5. The tumor suppressor p53 guides GluA1 homeostasis through Nedd4-2 during chronic elevation of neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Kathryn A; Zhu, Jiuhe; Tsai, Nien-Pei

    2015-10-01

    Chronic activity perturbation in neurons can trigger homeostatic mechanisms to restore the baseline function. Although the importance and dysregulation of neuronal activity homeostasis has been implicated in neurological disorders such as epilepsy, the complete signaling by which chronic changes in neuronal activity initiate the homeostatic mechanisms is unclear. We report here that the tumor suppressor p53 and its signaling are involved in neuronal activity homeostasis. Upon chronic elevation of neuronal activity in primary cortical neuron cultures, the ubiquitin E3 ligase, murine double minute- 2 (Mdm2), is phosphorylated by the kinase Akt. Phosphorylated Mdm2 triggers the degradation of p53 and subsequent induction of a p53 target gene, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4-like (Nedd4-2). Nedd4-2 encodes another ubiquitin E3 ligase. We identified glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluA1), subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors as a novel substrate of Nedd4-2. The regulation of GluA1 level is known to be crucial for neuronal activity homeostasis. We confirmed that, by pharmacologically inhibiting Mdm2-mediated p53 degradation or genetically reducing Nedd4-2 in a mouse model, the GluA1 ubiquitination and down-regulation induced by chronically elevated neuronal activity are both attenuated. Our findings demonstrate the first direct function of p53 in neuronal homeostasis and elucidate a new mechanism by which cortical neurons respond to chronic activity perturbation. PMID:26250624

  6. Elevated levels of invariant natural killer T-cell and natural killer cell activation correlate with disease progression in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, Susanna M.; Malone, David F.G.; Buggert, Marcus; Karlsson, Annika C.; Isberg, Per-Erik; Biague, Antonio J.; Norrgren, Hans; Medstrand, Patrik; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K.; Jansson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency and activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and natural killer (NK) cells among HIV-1, HIV-2, or dually HIV-1/HIV-2 (HIV-D)-infected individuals, in relation to markers of disease progression. Design: Whole blood samples were collected from treatment-naive HIV-1 (n = 23), HIV-2 (n = 34), and HIV-D (n = 11) infected individuals, as well as HIV-seronegative controls (n = 25), belonging to an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Frequencies and activation levels of iNKT and NK cell subsets were analysed using multicolour flow cytometry, and results were related to HIV-status, CD4+ T-cell levels, viral load, and T-cell activation. Results: HIV-1, HIV-D, and viremic HIV-2 individuals had lower numbers of CD4+ iNKT cells in circulation compared with seronegative controls. Numbers of CD56bright NK cells were also reduced in HIV-infected individuals as compared with control study participants. Notably, iNKT cell and NK cell activation levels, assessed by CD38 expression, were increased in HIV-1 and HIV-2 single, as well as dual, infections. HIV-2 viremia was associated with elevated activation levels in CD4+ iNKT cells, CD56bright, and CD56dim NK cells, as compared with aviremic HIV-2 infection. Additionally, disease markers such as CD4+ T-cell percentages, viral load, and CD4+ T-cell activation were associated with CD38 expression levels of both iNKT and NK cells, which activation levels also correlated with each other. Conclusion: Our data indicate that elevated levels of iNKT-cell and NK-cell activation are associated with viremia and disease progression markers in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. PMID:27163705

  7. Genetic variation at the delta-sarcoglycan (SGCD) locus elevates heritable sympathetic nerve activity in human twin pairs

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, C. Makena; Zhang, Kuixing; Miramontes-González, José Pablo; Rao, Fangwen; Wei, Zhiyun; Schork, Andrew J.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Biswas, Nilima; Mahata, Manjula; Elkelis, Nina; Taupenot, Laurent; Stridsberg, Mats; Ziegler, Michael G.; O'Connor, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    The Syrian Cardiomyopathic Hamster (BIO-14.6/53.58 strains) model of cardiac failure, resulting from naturally occurring deletion at the SGCD (delta-sarcoglycan) locus, displays widespread disturbances in catecholamine metabolism. Rare Mendelian myopathy disorders of human SGCD occur, though common naturally occurring SGCD genetic variation has not been evaluated for effects on human norepinephrine (NE) secretion. This study investigated the effect of SGCD genetic variation on control of NE secretion in healthy twin pairs. Genetic associations profiled SNPs across the SGCD locus. Trait heritability (h2) and genetic covariance (pleiotropy; shared h2) were evaluated. Sympathochromaffin exocytosis in vivo was probed in plasma by both catecholamines and CHGB. Plasma NE is substantially heritable (P=3.19E-16, at 65.2±5.0% of trait variance), sharing significant (P<0.05) genetic determination with circulating and urinary catecholamines, CHGB, eGFR and several cardio-metabolic traits. Participants with higher pNE showed significant (P<0.05) differences in several traits, including increased BP and hypertension risk factors. Peak SGCD variant rs1835919 predicted elevated systemic vascular compliance, without changes in specifically myocardial traits. We used a chimeric regulated secretory pathway photoprotein (CHGA-EAP) to evaluate the effect of SGCD on the exocytotic pathway in transfected PC12 cells; in transfected cells, expression of SGCD augmented CHGA trafficking into the exocytotic regulated secretory pathway. Thus our investigation determined human NE secretion to be a highly heritable trait, influenced by common genetic variation within the SGCD locus. Circulating NE aggregates with BP and hypertension risk factors. Additionally, coordinate NE and CHGB elevation by rs1835919 implicates exocytosis as the mechanism of release. PMID:23786442

  8. Genetic variation at the delta-sarcoglycan (SGCD) locus elevates heritable sympathetic nerve activity in human twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Hightower, C Makena; Zhang, Kuixing; Miramontes-González, José P; Rao, Fangwen; Wei, Zhiyun; Schork, Andrew J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Biswas, Nilima; Mahata, Manjula; Elkelis, Nina; Taupenot, Laurent; Stridsberg, Mats; Ziegler, Michael G; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2013-12-01

    The Syrian Cardiomyopathic Hamster (BIO-14.6/53.58 strains) model of cardiac failure, resulting from naturally occurring deletion at the SGCD (delta-sarcoglycan) locus, displays widespread disturbances in catecholamine metabolism. Rare Mendelian myopathy disorders of human SGCD occur, although common naturally occurring SGCD genetic variation has not been evaluated for effects on human norepinephrine (NE) secretion. This study investigated the effect of SGCD genetic variation on control of NE secretion in healthy twin pairs. Genetic associations profiled SNPs across the SGCD locus. Trait heritability (h(2)) and genetic covariance (pleiotropy; shared h(2)) were evaluated. Sympathochromaffin exocytosis in vivo was probed in plasma by both catecholamines and Chromogranin B (CHGB). Plasma NE is substantially heritable (p = 3.19E-16, at 65.2 ± 5.0% of trait variance), sharing significant (p < 0.05) genetic determination with circulating and urinary catecholamines, CHGB, eGFR, and several cardio-metabolic traits. Participants with higher pNE showed significant (p < 0.05) differences in several traits, including increased BP and hypertension risk factors. Peak SGCD variant rs1835919 predicted elevated systemic vascular compliance, without changes in specifically myocardial traits. We used a chimeric-regulated secretory pathway photoprotein (CHGA-EAP) to evaluate the effect of SGCD on the exocytotic pathway in transfected PC12 cells; in transfected cells, expression of SGCD augmented CHGA trafficking into the exocytotic regulated secretory pathway. Thus, our investigation determined human NE secretion to be a highly heritable trait, influenced by common genetic variation within the SGCD locus. Circulating NE aggregates with BP and hypertension risk factors. In addition, coordinate NE and CHGB elevation by rs1835919 implicates exocytosis as the mechanism of release. PMID:23786442

  9. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  10. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  11. The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast augments the Th17-promoting capability of dendritic cells by enhancing IL-23 production, and impairs their T cell stimulatory activity due to elevated IL-10.

    PubMed

    Bros, Matthias; Montermann, Evelyn; Cholaszczyńska, Anna; Reske-Kunz, Angelika B

    2016-06-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors serve to prevent degradation of the intracellular second messenger cAMP, resulting in broad anti-inflammatory effects on different cell types including immune cells. Agents that elevate cAMP levels via activation of adenylate cyclase have been shown to imprint a Th17-promoting capacity in dendritic cells (DCs). Therefore, we studied the potential of therapeutically relevant PDE inhibitors to induce a pronounced Th17-skewing capacity in DCs. Here we show that mouse bone marrow-derived (BM-) DCs when treated with the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast (ROF, trade name: Daxas) in the course of stimulation with LPS (ROF-DCs) evoked elevated IL-17 levels in cocultured allogeneic T cells. In addition, as compared with control settings, levels of IFN-γ remained unaltered, while contents of Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-10) were diminished. ROF enhanced expression of the Th17-promoting factor IL-23 in BM-DCs. In line, neutralizing antibodies specific for IL-23 or IL-6 when applied to DC/T cell cocultures partially inhibited the IL17-promoting effect of ROF-DCs. Furthermore, ROF-DCs displayed a markedly diminished allogeneic T cell stimulatory capacity due to enhanced production of IL-10, which was restored upon application of IL-10 specific neutralizing antibody to DC/T cell cocultures. Both the IL-17-inducing and impaired T cell stimulatory capacity of BM-DCs were mimicked by a specific activator of protein kinase A, while stimulation of EPACs (exchange proteins of activated cAMP) did not yield such effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that PDE4 inhibitors aside from their broad overall anti-inflammatory effects may enhance the Th17-polarizing capacity in DCs as an unwanted side effect. PMID:27070502

  12. DSR-71167, a novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity, separates urinary sodium excretion and serum potassium elevation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuya; Kawane, Kenji; Mori, Masaya; Nakayama, Ryo; Matsuda, Koichi; Katayama, Seiji; Fukuda, Nobuhisa; Hori, Seiji; Iwata, Masato; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Suzuki, Kuniko; Kato, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists, such as spironolactone (SPI) and eplerenone (EPL), are useful for treating hypertension and heart failure. However, these two agents have the serious side effect of hyperkalemia. We hypothesized that adding the ability to inhibit carbonic anhydrase (CA) would reduce the risk of hyperkalemia associated with MR antagonists. We investigated the profiles of DSR-71167 [2-([(2,2-difluoroethyl)amino]methyl)-2'-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-4-sulfamoylphenyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide hydrochloride; an MR antagonist with weak CA inhibitory activity] with regard to antimineralocorticoid actions by examining relationships between the urinary excretion of sodium (index of antimineralocorticoid action) in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats and elevation of serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats compared with a DSR-71167 derivative without CA inhibition (2-(hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide), SPI, and EPL. DSR-71167 dose-dependently increased urinary excretion of sodium in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats without elevating serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide, SPI, and EPL elevated serum levels of potassium significantly in potassium-loaded rats at doses that increased MR inhibitory activity. We confirmed that DSR-71167 significantly increases urinary bicarbonate and decreases blood bicarbonate, as pharmacodynamic markers of CA inhibition, in intact rats. Chronic DSR-71167 administration showed antihypertensive effects in high salt-loaded Dahl hypertensive rats. These results demonstrate that DSR-71167 is a novel type of MR antagonist, with CA inhibitory activity, which is expected to become a safer MR antagonist with a low potential risk for hyperkalemia. PMID:25922341

  13. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-alpha in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induce...

  14. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries. PMID:16438119

  15. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, J.; Borchard, C.; Sperling, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175-1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The bacterioplankton communities responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity and revealed a close coupling of heterotrophic bacterial activity to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The natural extracellular enzyme assemblages showed increased activity in response to moderate acidification. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units roughly doubled rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. Activities of extracellular enzymes in the mesocosms were directly related to both seawater pH and primary production. Also primary production and bacterial protein production in the mesocosms at different pCO2 were positively correlated. Therefore, it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilization in this Arctic microbial food web had the potential to counteract increased phytoplankton production that was achieved under elevated pCO2 in this study. However, our results also show that the transfer of beneficial pCO2-related effects on the cellular bacterial metabolism to the scale of community activity and organic matter degradation can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  16. Retinal complications with elevated circulating plasma C5a associated with interferon-alpha therapy for chronic active hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sugano, S; Yanagimoto, M; Suzuki, T; Sato, M; Onmura, H; Aizawa, H; Makino, H

    1994-11-01

    Retinal hemorrhage is a complication of interferon therapy of unknown pathogenesis. We report two chronic active hepatitis C patients who developed retinal hemorrhage and/or cotton wool patches during interferon-alpha therapy 4 and 12 wk after beginning treatment. At the time of the hemorrhage, plasma-activated complement 5, a known potent intravascular aggregator of granulocytes, increased to 54 ng/ml in one patient and to 29 ng/ml in the other patient. When the hemorrhage resolved, it decreased to under 5 ng/ml. Our cases suggest that complement activation occurs in patients treated with interferon-alpha and that activation of complement 5 can lead to retinal capillary infarction and retinal hemorrhage. High levels of activated complement 5 may predict retinal artery infarction or perhaps microvascular emboli in the other organs. PMID:7942735

  17. AMPK activation protects cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence via autophagic flux restoration and intracellular NAD(+) elevation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojuan; Tai, Haoran; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jiao; Wei, Xiawei; Ding, Yi; Gong, Hui; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Qin, Jianqiong; Ma, Yuanji; Huang, Ning; Xiang, Rong; Xiao, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress-induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP-RFP-LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD(+) levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD(+) synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD(+) synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD(+) homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD(+) homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging. PMID:26890602

  18. Elevated expression and release of tissue-type, but not urokinase-type, plasminogen activator after binding of autoantibodies to bullous pemphigoid antigen 180 in cultured human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, E; WEHR, B; TABENGWA, E M; REIMER, S; BRÖCKER, E-B; ZILLIKENS, D

    2004-01-01

    In bullous pemphigoid (BP), the binding of BP180-specific antibodies to their hemidesmosomal target antigen is not sufficient for blister formation, but must be accompanied by the release of proteases. Using plasminogen activator (PA) knock-out mice, the PA system has previously been shown to be a prerequisite for blister formation in experimental murine BP. Here, we found elevated levels of plasmin and tPA, but not of uPA, in blister fluid from BP patients (n = 7) compared to blisters from patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (n = 4) and suction blisters in healthy controls (n = 7). Subsequently, we addressed the question whether keratinocytes release PA in response to the binding of anti-BP180 antibodies. Treatment of cultured normal human keratinocytes with BP IgG, but not with control IgG, led to both increased protein and mRNA levels of tPA, but not of uPA, as determined by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. The specificity of this finding was confirmed using BP180-deficient keratinocytes from a patient with generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa, where no tPA release was observed after stimulation with BP IgG. Our results show the elevated expression and release of tPA from normal human keratinocytes upon stimulation with antibodies to human BP180. Keratinocytes, by secreting tPA, may thus play an active role in blister formation of BP. PMID:15008985

  19. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors is required for elevated α1A-adrenoreceptors expression and signaling in mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A; Fadeeva, Julia I; Kanareikina, Margarita A; Kalinina, Natalia I; Sysoeva, Veronika Yu; Dyikanov, Daniyar T; Stambolsky, Dmitriy V; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons are important components of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) niche and noradrenaline regulates biological activities of these cells. Here we examined the mechanisms of regulation of MSCs responsiveness to noradrenaline. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that α1A adrenergic receptors isoform was the most abundant in adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Using calcium imaging in single cells, we demonstrated that only 6.9 ± 0.8% of MSCs responded to noradrenaline by intracellular calcium release. Noradrenaline increases MSCs sensitivity to catecholamines in a transitory mode. Within 6 hrs after incubation with noradrenaline the proportion of cells responding by Ca(2+) release to the fresh noradrenaline addition has doubled but declined to the baseline after 24 hrs. Increased sensitivity was due to the elevated quantities of α1A-adrenergic receptors on MSCs. Such elevation depended on the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activation. The data for the first time clarify mechanisms of regulation of MSCs sensitivity to noradrenaline. PMID:27596381

  20. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors is required for elevated α1A-adrenoreceptors expression and signaling in mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A.; Fadeeva, Julia I.; Kanareikina, Margarita A.; Kalinina, Natalia I.; Sysoeva, Veronika Yu.; Dyikanov, Daniyar T.; Stambolsky, Dmitriy V.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons are important components of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) niche and noradrenaline regulates biological activities of these cells. Here we examined the mechanisms of regulation of MSCs responsiveness to noradrenaline. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that α1A adrenergic receptors isoform was the most abundant in adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Using calcium imaging in single cells, we demonstrated that only 6.9 ± 0.8% of MSCs responded to noradrenaline by intracellular calcium release. Noradrenaline increases MSCs sensitivity to catecholamines in a transitory mode. Within 6 hrs after incubation with noradrenaline the proportion of cells responding by Ca2+ release to the fresh noradrenaline addition has doubled but declined to the baseline after 24 hrs. Increased sensitivity was due to the elevated quantities of α1A-adrenergic receptors on MSCs. Such elevation depended on the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activation. The data for the first time clarify mechanisms of regulation of MSCs sensitivity to noradrenaline. PMID:27596381

  1. Elevated Levels of the Complement Activation Product C4d in Bronchial Fluids for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ajona, Daniel; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Pajares, Maria Jose; Garcia, Javier; Cardenal, Felipe; Fleischhacker, Michael; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J.; Schmidt, Bernd; Nadal, Ernest; Paz-Ares, Luis; Montuenga, Luis M.; Pio, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71–0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58–0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56–0.83). In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25799154

  2. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ajona, Daniel; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Pajares, Maria Jose; Garcia, Javier; Cardenal, Felipe; Fleischhacker, Michael; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J; Schmidt, Bernd; Nadal, Ernest; Paz-Ares, Luis; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83). In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25799154

  3. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  4. Children with elevated blood lead levels related to home renovation, repair, and painting activities--New York State, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-01-30

    Although blood lead levels (BLLs) >/=10 microg/dL are associated with adverse behavioral and developmental outcomes, and environmental and medical interventions are recommended at >/=20 microg/dL, no level is considered safe. A 1997 analysis conducted by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) indicated that home renovation, repair, and painting (RRP) activities were important sources of lead exposure among children with BLLs >/=20 microg/dL in New York state (excluding New York City) during 1993--1994. Subsequently, local health departments in New York state began to routinely collect information about RRP activities when investigating children's home environments for lead sources. This report updates the 1997 analysis with data from environmental investigations conducted during 2006--2007 in New York state (excluding New York City) for 972 children with BLLs >/=20 microg/dL. RRP activities were identified as the probable source of lead exposure in 139 (14%) of the 972 children. Resident owners or tenants performed 66% of the RRP work, which often included sanding and scraping (42%), removal of painted materials or structures (29%), and other activities (29%) that can release particles of lead-based paint. RRP activities continued to be an important source of lead exposure during 2006--2007. Children living in housing built before 1978 (when lead-based paint was banned from residential use) that are undergoing RRP activities should be considered at high risk for elevated BLLs, and appropriate precautions should be taken to prevent exposure. PMID:19177040

  5. Phosphoserine phosphatase activity is elevated and correlates negatively with plasma d-serine concentration in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Yuji; Sekine, Masae; Fujii, Kumiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Aoki, Akiko; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Homma, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2016-03-30

    The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. D-3serine and glycine are endogenous l-serine-derived NMDAR co-agonists. We hypothesized that the l-serine synthesis pathway could be involved in schizophrenia. We measured the activity of phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), a rate-limiting enzyme in l-serine synthesis, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 49 normal control subjects. Plasma amino acid (l-serine, d-serine, glycine, glutamine, and glutamate) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral blood mRNA expression levels of PHGDH, PSAT1, PSP, and SR, determined by quantitative real-time PCR were compared between patients and controls. PSP activity was higher in patients than in controls, especially in male patients. In male patients, the plasma l-serine concentration was higher than that in controls. In patients, PSP activity was negatively correlated with plasma d-serine and glycine levels. Furthermore, PSP activity was positively correlated with plasma l-serine concentration. These results were statistically significant only in male patients. PSP, PSAT1, and PHGDH mRNA levels were lower in patients than in controls, except when the PHGDH expression level was compared with ACTB expression. In summary, we found the l-serine synthesis system to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, especially in male patients. PMID:26804975

  6. Follistatin-like protein 1 is elevated in systemic autoimmune diseases and correlated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) is a proinflammation mediator implicated in arthritis in rodent animal models. The present study is aimed at assessing FSTL1 levels in systemic autoimmune diseases and correlating them with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Serum FSTL1 levels from 487 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases and 69 healthy individuals were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). FSTL1 expression in synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissues (STs) was determined by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis in RA patients and trauma controls. FSTL1 levels in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA patients were determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Results Serum FSTL1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with RA, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic sclerosis and polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Serum FSTL1 levels in the RA and secondary SS patients were substantially higher than those in other patients. Serum FSTL1 levels were increased in early RA, rheumatoid factor (RF)- and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA)-negative patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, serum FSTL1 concentrations were significantly higher in long-standing RA patients than in early RA patients and in the RF- and ACPA-positive RA patients than in RF- and ACPA-negative RA patients. Elevated FSTL1 levels in the STs and SF of RA patients were also observed. FSTL1 levels in serum were markedly higher than those in SF in RA patients. The strongest FSTL1 staining was detected in the cytoplasm of synovial and capillary endothelial cells from RA synovium. Furthermore, FSTL1 was induced in FLSs by inflammatory mediators. Importantly, serum FSTL1 levels were correlated with several important biologic and clinical markers of disease activity, including erythrocyte

  7. Elevated Hepatic Iron Activates NF-E2–Related Factor 2–Regulated Pathway in a Dietary Iron Overload Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Isom, Harriet C.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been associated classically with the genetic disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. More recently, it has become apparent that mild-to-moderate degrees of elevated hepatic iron stores observed in other liver diseases also have clinical relevance. The goal was to use a mouse model of dietary hepatic iron overload and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics to identify, at a global level, differentially expressed proteins in livers from mice fed a control or 3,5,5-trimethyl-hexanoyl-ferrocene (TMHF) supplemented diet for 4 weeks. The expression of 74 proteins was altered by ≥ ±1.5-fold, showing that the effects of iron on the liver proteome were extensive. The top canonical pathway altered by TMHF treatment was the NF-E2–related factor 2 (NRF2–)–mediated oxidative stress response. Because of the long-standing association of elevated hepatic iron with oxidative stress, the remainder of the study was focused on NRF2. TMHF treatment upregulated 25 phase I/II and antioxidant proteins previously categorized as NRF2 target gene products. Immunoblot analyses showed that TMHF treatment increased the levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTM4, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit, GCL modifier subunit, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, heme oxygenase 1, epoxide hydrolase 1, and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1. Immunofluorescence, carried out to determine the cellular localization of NRF2, showed that NRF2 was detected in the nucleus of hepatocytes from TMHF-treated mice and not from control mice. We conclude that elevated hepatic iron in a mouse model activates NRF2, a key regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:22649188

  8. Chandra Reveals Remains of Giant Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo taken by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory that reveals the remains of an explosion in the form of two enormous arcs of multimillion-degree gas in the galaxy Centaurus A that appear to be part of a ring 25,000 light years in diameter. The size and location of the ring suggest that it could have been an explosion that occurred about 10 million years ago. A composite image made with radio (red and green), optical (yellow-orange), and X-ray data (blue) presents a sturning tableau of a turbulent galaxy. A broad band of dust and cold gas is bisected at an angle by opposing jets of high-energy particles blasting away from the supermassive black hole in the nucleus. Lying in a plane perpendicular to the jets are the two large arcs of x-ray emitting multi-million degree gas. This discovery can help astronomers better understand the cause and effect of violent outbursts from the vicinity of supermassive black holes of active galaxies. The Chandra program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  9. Effects of Elevated Cytosolic Glutathione Reductase Activity on the Cellular Glutathione Pool and Photosynthesis in Leaves under Normal and Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Foyer, C; Lelandais, M; Galap, C; Kunert, K J

    1991-11-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Samsun) was transformed using the bacterial gor gene coding for the enzyme glutathione reductase. Transgenic plants were selected by their kanamycin resistence and expression of the bacterial gor gene. After separation by isoelectric focusing techniques, leaf extracts from transgenic plants having both native and bacterial glutathione reductase activity gave, in addition to the six bands of the native enzyme, two further closely running isoenzymes. These additional bands originating from the expression of the bacterial gor gene were nonchloroplastic. Leaves from transgenic plants had two- to 10-fold higher glutathione reductase activity than non-transgenic controls. The amount of extractable glutathione reductase activity obtained in transgenic plants was dependent on leaf age and the conditions to which leaves were exposed. Both light and exposure to methylviologen increased leaf glutathione reductase activity. Elevated levels of cytosolic glutathione reductase activity in transgenic plants had no effect on the amount or reduction state of the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione pool under optimal conditions or oxidative conditions induced by methylviologen. The glutathione pool was unaltered despite the oxidation-dependent loss of CO(2) assimilation and oxidation of enzymes involved in photosynthesis. However, the reduction state of the ascorbate pool was greater in transgenic plants relative to nontransgenic controls following illumination of methylviologen-treated leaf discs. Therefore, we conclude that in the natural state glutathione reductase is present in tobacco at levels above those required for maximal operation of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway. PMID:16668524

  10. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, J.; Borchard, C.; Sperling, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175-1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase increased along the gradient of mesocosm pCO2. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units almost doubled rates of both enzymes. Heterotrophic bacterial activity was closely coupled to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The bacterioplankton community responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity. Time-integrated primary production and bacterial protein production were positively correlated, strongly suggesting that higher amounts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter were assimilated by heterotrophic bacteria at increased primary production. Primary production increased under high pCO2 in this study, and it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilisation had the potential to counteract the enhanced autotrophic CO2 fixation. However, our results also show that beneficial pCO2-related effects on bacterial activity can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  11. Nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells is accompanied by elevated adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Yung, H S; Lai, K H; Chow, K B S; Ip, N Y; Tsim, K W K; Wong, Y H; Wu, Z; Wise, H

    2010-01-01

    Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells characteristically undergo differentiation when cultured with nerve growth factor (NGF). Here we show that NGF dramatically increased the adenylyl cyclase-activating property of forskolin in PC12 cells. This effect of NGF was well maintained even when NGF was removed after 4 days, even though the morphological features of neuronal differentiation were rapidly lost on removal of NGF. The enhanced cAMP production in response to forskolin could be due to a synergistic interaction between forskolin and endogenously released agonists acting on G(s)-coupled receptors. However, responses to forskolin were not attenuated by antagonists of adenosine A2 receptors or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors, suggesting that adenosine and PACAP were not involved. Adenylyl cyclases 3, 6 and 9 were the predominant isoforms expressed in PC12 cells, but we found no evidence for NGF-induced changes in expression levels of any of the 9 adenylyl cyclase isoforms, nor in the expression of Gα(s). These findings highlight that NGF has a subtle influence on adenylyl cyclase activity in PC12 cells which may influence more than the neurite extension process classically associated with neuronal differentiation. PMID:20389133

  12. Elevated Levels of Endocannabinoids in Chronic Hepatitis C May Modulate Cellular Immune Response and Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Patsenker, Eleonora; Sachse, Philip; Chicca, Andrea; Gachet, María Salomé; Schneider, Vreni; Mattsson, Johan; Lanz, Christian; Worni, Mathias; de Gottardi, Andrea; Semmo, Mariam; Hampe, Jochen; Schafmayer, Clemens; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Gertsch, Jürg; Stickel, Felix; Semmo, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (EC) system is implicated in many chronic liver diseases, including hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. Cannabis consumption is associated with fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), however, the role of ECs in the development of CHC has never been explored. To study this question, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) were quantified in samples of HCV patients and healthy controls by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoaclyglycerol lipase (MAGL) activity was assessed by [3H]AEA and [3H]2-AG hydrolysis, respectively. Gene expression and cytokine release were assayed by TaqMan PCR and ELISpot, respectively. AEA and 2-AG levels were increased in plasma of HCV patients, but not in liver tissues. Hepatic FAAH and MAGL activity was not changed. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), ECs inhibited IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 secretion. Inhibition of IL-2 by endogenous AEA was stronger in PBMC from HCV patients. In hepatocytes, 2-AG induced the expression of IL-6, -17A, -32 and COX-2, and enhanced activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) co-cultivated with PBMC from subjects with CHC. In conclusion, ECs are increased in plasma of patients with CHC and might reveal immunosuppressive and profibrogenic effects. PMID:25826533

  13. Lactic Acid is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Induces Myofibroblast Differentiation Via pH-Dependent Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-β

    SciTech Connect

    Kottman, R. M.; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Smolnycki, Katie A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Dahanayake, Thinesh; Salibi, Rami; Honnons, Sylvie; Jones, Carolyn; Isern, Nancy G.; Hu, Jian Z.; Nathan, Steven D.; Grant, Geraldine; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2012-10-15

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods:We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissuefrom patients with IPFanddeterminedthe effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b activation in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; a-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-b. TGF-b induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1a and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low dose TGF-b to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1a and LDH5 inhibited TGF-b–induced myofibroblast differentiation. Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pHdependent activation of TGF-b. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders.

  14. The panicolytic-like effect of fluoxetine in the elevated T-maze is mediated by serotonin-induced activation of endogenous opioids in the dorsal periaqueductal grey.

    PubMed

    Roncon, Camila M; Biesdorf, Carla; Santana, Rosangela G; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G; Audi, Elisabeth A

    2012-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), opioids and the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of panic disorder. In order to study 5-HT-opioid interaction, the opioid antagonist naloxone was injected either systemically (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or intra-DPAG (0.2 μg/0.5 μL) to assess its interference with the effect of chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 21 days) or of intra-DPAG 5-HT (8 μg/0.5 μL). Drug effects were measured in the one-escape task of the rat elevated T-maze, an animal model of panic. Pretreatment with systemic naloxone antagonized the lengthening of escape latency caused by chronic fluoxetine, considered a panicolytic-like effect that parallels the drug's therapeutic response in the clinics. Pretreatment with naloxone injected intra-DPAG antagonized both the panicolytic effect of chronic fluoxetine as well as that of 5-HT injected intra-DPAG. Neither the performance of the inhibitory avoidance task in the elevated T-maze, a model of generalized anxiety nor locomotion measured in a circular arena was affected by the above drug treatments. These results indicate that the panicolytic effect of fluoxetine is mediated by endogenous opioids that are activated by 5-HT in the DPAG. They also allow reconciliation between the serotonergic and opioidergic hypotheses of panic disorder pathophysiology. PMID:22279131

  15. Sustained elevated levels of circulating vasopressin selectively stimulate the proliferation of kidney tubular cells via the activation of V2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Gérard; Galibert, Evelyne; Boulay, Véra; Guillou, Anne; Jean, Alexandra; Compan, Valérie; Guillon, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone vasopressin (AVP) has known mitogenic effects on various cell types. This study was designed to determine whether sustained elevated levels of circulating AVP could influence cell proliferation within adult tissues known to express different AVP receptors, including the pituitary, adrenal gland, liver, and kidney. Plasmatic AVP was chronically increased by submitting animals to prolonged hyperosmotic stimulation or implanting them with a AVP-containing osmotic minipump. After several days of either treatment, increased cell proliferation was detected only within the kidney. This kidney cell proliferation was not affected by the administration of selective V1a or V1b receptor antagonists but was either inhibited or mimicked by the administration of a selective V2 receptor antagonist or agonist, respectively. Kidney proliferative cells mostly concerned a subpopulation of differentiated tubular cells known to express the V2 receptors and were associated with the phosphorylation of ERK. These data indicate that in the adult rat, sustained elevated levels of circulating AVP stimulates the proliferation of a subpopulation of kidney tubular cells expressing the V2 receptor, providing the first illustration of a mitogenic effect of AVP via the activation of the V2 receptor subtype. PMID:18787031

  16. Effect of Elevated Salt Concentrations on the Aerobic Granular Sludge Process: Linking Microbial Activity with Microbial Community Structure▿

    PubMed Central

    Bassin, J. P.; Pronk, M.; Muyzer, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Dezotti, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The long- and short-term effects of salt on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes were studied in an aerobic granular sludge reactor. The microbial community structure was investigated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on 16S rRNA and amoA genes. PCR products obtained from genomic DNA and from rRNA after reverse transcription were compared to determine the presence of bacteria as well as the metabolically active fraction of bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to validate the PCR-based results and to quantify the dominant bacterial populations. The results demonstrated that ammonium removal efficiency was not affected by salt concentrations up to 33 g/liter NaCl. Conversely, a high accumulation of nitrite was observed above 22 g/liter NaCl, which coincided with the disappearance of Nitrospira sp. Phosphorus removal was severely affected by gradual salt increase. No P release or uptake was observed at steady-state operation at 33 g/liter NaCl, exactly when the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs), “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” bacteria, were no longer detected by PCR-DGGE or FISH. Batch experiments confirmed that P removal still could occur at 30 g/liter NaCl, but the long exposure of the biomass to this salinity level was detrimental for PAOs, which were outcompeted by glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the bioreactor. GAOs became the dominant microorganisms at increasing salt concentrations, especially at 33 g/liter NaCl. In the comparative analysis of the diversity (DNA-derived pattern) and the activity (cDNA-derived pattern) of the microbial population, the highly metabolically active microorganisms were observed to be those related to ammonia (Nitrosomonas sp.) and phosphate removal (“Candidatus Accumulibacter”). PMID:21926194

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated, but not essential, in the development of bleomycin-induced murine scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, M; Yamamoto, T; Nishioka, K

    2005-01-01

    Accumulative data have demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in the extracellular matrix metabolism; however, the involvement of PAI-1 in scleroderma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of PAI-1 in bleomycin-induced murine scleroderma. 100 µg of bleomycin was injected subcutaneously to the back skin of C3H/HeJ mice on alternate day for 4 weeks. Histopathological findings revealed that PAI-1 was positive in macrophage-like cells and fibroblastic cells in the dermis, in parallel with the induction of dermal sclerosis. PAI-1 mRNA expression in the whole skin was up-regulated at 1 and 4 weeks. The production of active PAI-1 protein in the lesional skin was significantly increased 3 and 4 weeks after bleomycin treatment. Next, we examined whether dermal sclerosis is induced by bleomycin in PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1–/–) mice. 10 µg of bleomycin was subcutaneously injected to PAI-1–/– and wild type (WT) mice 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed that dermal sclerosis was similarly induced even in PAI-1–/– as well as WT mice. Dermal thickness and collagen contents in the skin were significantly increased by bleomycin injection in both PAI-1–/– and WT mice, and the rate of increase was similar. These data suggest that PAI-1 plays an important role, possibly via TGF-β pathway activation. However, the fact that PAI-1 deficiency did not ameliorate skin sclerosis suggest that PAI-1 is not the essential factor in the development of bleomycin-induced scleroderma, and more complex biochemical effects other than PA/plasmin system are greatly suspected. PMID:15730388

  18. Osteopontin That Is Elevated in the Airways during COPD Impairs the Antibacterial Activity of Common Innate Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Michiko; Keenan, Paul; Mörgelin, Matthias; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Herwald, Heiko; Egesten, Arne; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the respiratory tract contribute to exacerbations and disease progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is also an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in COPD. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood but include impaired mucociliary clearance and structural remodeling of the airways. In addition, antimicrobial proteins that are constitutively expressed or induced during inflammatory conditions are an important part of the airway innate host defense. In the present study, we show that osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein that is highly upregulated in the airways of COPD patients co-localizes with several antimicrobial proteins expressed in the airways. In vitro, OPN bound lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), midkine, human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) but showed low or no affinity for lysozyme and LL-37. Binding of OPN impaired the antibacterial activity against the important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, OPN reduced lysozyme-induced killing of S. pneumoniae, a finding that could be explained by binding of OPN to the bacterial surface, thereby shielding the bacteria. A fragment of OPN generated by elastase of P. aeruginosa retained some inhibitory effect. Some antimicrobial proteins have additional functions. However, the muramidase-activity of lysozyme and the protease inhibitory function of SLPI were not affected by OPN. Taken together, OPN can contribute to the impairment of innate host defense by interfering with the function of antimicrobial proteins, thus increasing the vulnerability to acquire infections during COPD. PMID:26731746

  19. Moringa oleifera Enhances Liver Antioxidant Status via Elevation of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Counteracts Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Uma, N; Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme system following crude hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) in acute paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Hydroethanolic extract (80%) of MO (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg; p.o) was pre-administered before a single oral dose of 3 g/kg PCM intoxication to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pre-treatment of the extract was found to have reduced lipid peroxidation level when compared to the group treated with PCM only. The level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was restored to near normal in groups that were pre-treated with MO. Histopathological studies have further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MO compared to group treated with PCM only. The results obtained were comparable to silymarin (200 mg/kg; p.o). The MO extract was found to have significantly protected the liver against toxicity following PCM intoxication by enhancing the level of antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:22691934

  20. Heat Shock Protein 96 is Elevated in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Activates Macrophages primarily via TLR2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi-Quan; Sobkoviak, Rudina; Jockheck-Clark, Angela; Shi, Bo; Mandelin, Arthur M.; Tak, Paul Peter; Haines, G Kennith; Nicchitta, Christopher V.; Pope, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages are important mediators of chronic inflammation and are prominent in the synovial lining and sublining of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, we demonstrated increased toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 expression and increased response to microbial TLR2 and TLR4 ligands in macrophages from the joints of RA. The current study characterized the expression of the 96-kDa heat shock glycoprotein (gp96) in the joints of RA and its role as an endogenous TLR ligand to promote innate immunity in RA. Gp96 was increased in RA compared with osteoarthritis and arthritis-free control synovial tissues. The expression of gp96 strongly correlated with inflammation and synovial lining thickness. Gp96 was increased in synovial fluid from the joints of RA compared with disease controls. Recombinant gp96 was a potent activator of macrophages, and the activation was mediated primarily through TLR2 signaling. The cellular response to gp96 was significantly stronger with RA synovial macrophages compared to peripheral blood monocytes from RA or healthy controls. The transcription of TLR2, TNFα and IL-8, but not TLR4, was significantly induced by gp96, and the induction was significantly greater in purified RA synovial macrophages. The expression of TLR2, but not TLR4, on synovial fluid macrophages strongly correlated with the level of gp96 in the synovial fluid. The present study documents the potential role of gp96 as an endogenous TLR2 ligand in RA and provides insight into the mechanism by which gp96 promotes the chronic inflammation of RA, identifying gp96 as a potential new therapeutic target. PMID:19342676

  1. Elevated Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level, Association Between Depression and Disease Activity, and Stress as a Predictor of Disease Flare in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Psychological stress has been shown to trigger systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, objective evidence of symptom aggravation due to mental stress is difficult to identify. We aimed to investigate the relationship between SLE disease activity and mental stress, and the usefulness of saliva as an assessment index for stress in patients with SLE. We prospectively assessed the salivary stress hormone and disease-related biomarkers, and questionnaire data regarding stress and depression in 100 patients with SLE and 49 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs). Patients with SLE had higher mean salivary α-amylase levels (5.7 ± 4.6 U/mL vs 2.7 ± 2.5 U/mL, P < 0.001), anti-chromatin antibody levels (25.3 ± 22.9 U/mL vs 15.9 ± 10.9 U/mL, P < 0.001), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) scores (11.1 ± 9.2 vs 5.3 ± 5.1, P < 0.001) than NCs. However, salivary cortisol levels and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores did not differ between the groups. The BDI scores correlated with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.253, P = 0.011) and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (r = 0.234, P = 0.019). SLE patients with the highest-quartile PSS scores had significantly increased SLEDAI scores compared to those with the lowest-quartile PSS scores after 4 to 5 months’ follow-up. Moreover, SLE patients with elevated SLEDAI scores had higher baseline PSS scores. Patients with SLE showed uncoupling of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; higher salivary α-amylase and no different cortisol levels compared with NCs. Also, patients with SLE were more depressed, which correlated with disease activity. Furthermore, perceived stress was not correlated with disease activity; however, disease activity worsened several months later with elevated perceived stress levels. PMID:26222848

  2. Ocular gene transfer of active TGF-beta induces changes in anterior segment morphology and elevated IOP in rats.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jennifer V; Golesic, Elizabeth; Gauldie, Jack; West-Mays, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is known to play a crucial role in wound healing and fibrotic tissue remodeling. A large body of evidence suggests a role for this cytokine in the pathogenesis of glaucoma; however, the mechanisms by which it affects anterior segment morphology are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of TGF-beta overexpression on anterior segment morphology and subsequent effects on intraocular pressure. Methods. Adenoviral gene transfer was used to deliver active TGF-beta1 to the rat eye. Measurements of intraocular pressure were taken with a tonometer on days 0, 14, 21, and 29. Histologic analysis was undertaken to examine anterior segment morphology, and markers of matrix deposition and fibrosis were used. Results. Gene transfer of TGF-beta in the anterior segment resulted in the formation of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), which consisted of a fibroproliferative region of corneal endothelial cells, matrix accumulation, and decrease in trabecular meshwork expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. These features were accompanied by ocular hypertension. Conclusions. Gene transfer of TGF-beta into the anterior segment induces aberrant PAS associated with the transition of corneal endothelial cells and subsequent matrix deposition. These features are highly reminiscent of human iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome. Gene transfer of TGF-beta can, therefore, be used to induce anatomic changes in the anterior segment in a rodent model that result in ocular hypertension. PMID:19696167

  3. Abamectin resistance in strains of vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is linked to elevated glutathione S-transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Bo; Lei, Zhong-Ren; Nauen, Ralf; Cai, Du-Cheng; Gao, Yu-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Abamectin resistance was selected in the vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) under laboratory conditions, and cross-resistance patterns and possible resistance mechanisms in the abamectin-resistant strains (AL-R, AF-R) were investigated. Compared with the susceptible strain (SS), strain AL-R displayed 39-fold resistance to abamectin after 20 selection cycles during 25 generations, and strain AF-R exhibited 59-fold resistance to abamectin after 16 selection cycles during 22 generations. No cross-resistance to cyromazine was found in both abamectin-resistant strains. However, we failed to select for cyromazine resistance in L. sativae under laboratory conditions by conducting 17 selection cycles during 22 generations. However, moderate levels of cross-resistance to abamectin (6-9 fold) were observed in strains which received cyromazine treatments. Biochemical analysis showed that glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in both abamectin-resistant strains (AL-R, AF-R) was significantly higher than in the susceptible strain (SS), suggesting metabolically driven resistance to abamectinin L. sativae. Recommendations of mixtures or rotation of cyromazine and abamectin should be considered carefully, as consecutive cyromazine treatments may select for low-level cross-resistance to abamectin. PMID:25813391

  4. Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities.

    PubMed

    Drollette, Brian D; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Warner, Nathaniel R; Darrah, Thomas H; Karatum, Osman; O'Connor, Megan P; Nelson, Robert K; Fernandez, Loretta A; Reddy, Christopher M; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2015-10-27

    Hundreds of organic chemicals are used during natural gas extraction via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). However, it is unclear whether these chemicals, injected into deep shale horizons, reach shallow groundwater aquifers and affect local water quality, either from those deep HVHF injection sites or from the surface or shallow subsurface. Here, we report detectable levels of organic compounds in shallow groundwater samples from private residential wells overlying the Marcellus Shale in northeastern Pennsylvania. Analyses of purgeable and extractable organic compounds from 64 groundwater samples revealed trace levels of volatile organic compounds, well below the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels, and low levels of both gasoline range (0-8 ppb) and diesel range organic compounds (DRO; 0-157 ppb). A compound-specific analysis revealed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is a disclosed HVHF additive, that was notably absent in a representative geogenic water sample and field blanks. Pairing these analyses with (i) inorganic chemical fingerprinting of deep saline groundwater, (ii) characteristic noble gas isotopes, and (iii) spatial relationships between active shale gas extraction wells and wells with disclosed environmental health and safety violations, we differentiate between a chemical signature associated with naturally occurring saline groundwater and one associated with alternative anthropogenic routes from the surface (e.g., accidental spills or leaks). The data support a transport mechanism of DRO to groundwater via accidental release of fracturing fluid chemicals derived from the surface rather than subsurface flow of these fluids from the underlying shale formation. PMID:26460018

  5. Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities

    PubMed Central

    Drollette, Brian D.; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Karatum, Osman; O’Connor, Megan P.; Nelson, Robert K.; Fernandez, Loretta A.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of organic chemicals are used during natural gas extraction via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). However, it is unclear whether these chemicals, injected into deep shale horizons, reach shallow groundwater aquifers and affect local water quality, either from those deep HVHF injection sites or from the surface or shallow subsurface. Here, we report detectable levels of organic compounds in shallow groundwater samples from private residential wells overlying the Marcellus Shale in northeastern Pennsylvania. Analyses of purgeable and extractable organic compounds from 64 groundwater samples revealed trace levels of volatile organic compounds, well below the Environmental Protection Agency’s maximum contaminant levels, and low levels of both gasoline range (0–8 ppb) and diesel range organic compounds (DRO; 0–157 ppb). A compound-specific analysis revealed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is a disclosed HVHF additive, that was notably absent in a representative geogenic water sample and field blanks. Pairing these analyses with (i) inorganic chemical fingerprinting of deep saline groundwater, (ii) characteristic noble gas isotopes, and (iii) spatial relationships between active shale gas extraction wells and wells with disclosed environmental health and safety violations, we differentiate between a chemical signature associated with naturally occurring saline groundwater and one associated with alternative anthropogenic routes from the surface (e.g., accidental spills or leaks). The data support a transport mechanism of DRO to groundwater via accidental release of fracturing fluid chemicals derived from the surface rather than subsurface flow of these fluids from the underlying shale formation. PMID:26460018

  6. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  7. Elevation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in Holocaust survivor offspring: evidence for an intergenerational effect of maternal trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bierer, Linda M.; Bader, Heather N.; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult offspring of Holocaust survivors comprise an informative cohort in which to study intergenerational transmission of the effects of trauma exposure. Lower cortisol and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity have been previously demonstrated in Holocaust survivors with PTSD, and in offspring of Holocaust survivors in association with maternal PTSD. In other work, reduction in the activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD-2), which inactivates cortisol, was identified in Holocaust survivors in comparison to age-matched, unexposed Jewish controls. Therefore, we investigated glucocorticoid metabolism in offspring of Holocaust survivors to evaluate if similar enzymatic decrements would be observed that might help to explain glucocorticoid alterations previously shown for Holocaust offspring. Methods Holocaust offspring (n=85) and comparison subjects (n=27) were evaluated with clinical diagnostic interview and self-rating scales, and asked to collect a 24-hr urine sample from which concentrations of cortisol and glucocorticoid metabolites were assayed by GCMS. 11β-HSD-2 activity was determined as the ratio of urinary cortisone to cortisol. Results Significantly reduced cortisol excretion was observed in Holocaust offspring compared to controls (p=.046), as had been shown for Holocaust survivors. However, 11β-HSD-2 activity was elevated for offspring compared to controls (p=.008), particularly among those whose mothers had been children, rather than adolescents or adults, during World War II (p=.032). The effect of paternal Holocaust exposure could not be reliably investigated in the current sample. Conclusions The association of offspring 11β-HSD-2 activity with maternal age at Holocaust exposure is consistent with the influence of glucocorticoid programming. Whereas a long standing reduction in 11β-HSD-2 activity among survivors is readily interpreted in the context of Holocaust related deprivation, understanding the

  8. Elevated Seismic Activity Beneath the Slumbering Morne aux Diables Volcano, Northern Dominica and the Monitoring Role of the Seismic Research Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, R. B.; Robertson, R. E.; Abraham, W.; Cole, P.; de Roche, T.; Edwards, S.; Higgins, M.; Johnson, M.; Joseph, E. P.; Latchman, J.; Lynch, L.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, C.; Stewart, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Since June 2009, periods of elevated seismic activity have been experienced around the flanks of Morne Aux Diables Volcano in northern Dominica. This long-dormant volcano is a complex of 7 andesitic lava domes with a central depression where a cold soufrière is evident. Prior to this activity, seismicity was very quiet except for a short period in 2000 and an intense short-lived swarm in April 2003. The most recent earthquake activity has been regularly felt by residents in villages on all flanks of the complex. In Dec 09/Jan10, scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC), based in Trinidad & Tobago, in collaboration with staff of the Office of Disaster Management (ODM) and Dominica Public Seismic Network (DPSN) improved the monitoring capacity around this volcano from 1 to 7 seismic stations. Earthquakes are determined to be volcano-tectonic in nature and located at shallow depths (<4 km) beneath the central depression. Additionally, in Jan/Feb 10 geothermal sampling was undertaken and 2 permanent GPS sites were deployed. Public information leaflets prepared by SRC scientists using a "Question & Answer" format have been distributed to concerned citizens whilst many public meetings were carried out by ODM staff. Field investigations indicate that the previous Late Pleistocene activity of Morne Aux Diables switched from Pelèan dome growth and gravitational collapse to more explosive pumice-falls and associated ignimbrites, both styles forming extensive pyroclastic fans around the central complex. The town of Portsmouth is located on one of these fans ~5 km southwest of the central depression. Sporadic, short bursts of seismic activity continue at the time of writing.

  9. Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Differ in Gene Expression and Activity of Inorganic Carbon Uptake Systems at Elevated CO2 Levels.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Jakupovic, Dennis; Matthijs, Hans C P; Huisman, Jef

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are generally assumed to be effective competitors at low CO2 levels because of their efficient CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and yet how bloom-forming cyanobacteria respond to rising CO2 concentrations is less clear. Here, we investigate changes in CCM gene expression at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (1,100 ppm) in six strains of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis. All strains downregulated cmpA encoding the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, whereas both the low- and high-affinity CO2 uptake genes were expressed constitutively. Four strains downregulated the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and/or sbtA, whereas two strains showed constitutive expression of the bicA-sbtA operon. In one of the latter strains, a transposon insert in bicA caused low bicA and sbtA transcript levels, which made this strain solely dependent on BCT1 for bicarbonate uptake. Activity measurements of the inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems confirmed the CCM gene expression results. Interestingly, genes encoding the RuBisCO enzyme, structural carboxysome components, and carbonic anhydrases were not regulated. Hence, Microcystis mainly regulates the initial uptake of inorganic carbon, which might be an effective strategy for a species experiencing strongly fluctuating Ci concentrations. Our results show that CCM gene regulation of Microcystis varies among strains. The observed genetic and phenotypic variation in CCM responses may offer an important template for natural selection, leading to major changes in the genetic composition of harmful cyanobacterial blooms at elevated CO2. PMID:26319871

  10. Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Differ in Gene Expression and Activity of Inorganic Carbon Uptake Systems at Elevated CO2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Jakupovic, Dennis; Matthijs, Hans C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are generally assumed to be effective competitors at low CO2 levels because of their efficient CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and yet how bloom-forming cyanobacteria respond to rising CO2 concentrations is less clear. Here, we investigate changes in CCM gene expression at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (1,100 ppm) in six strains of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis. All strains downregulated cmpA encoding the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, whereas both the low- and high-affinity CO2 uptake genes were expressed constitutively. Four strains downregulated the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and/or sbtA, whereas two strains showed constitutive expression of the bicA-sbtA operon. In one of the latter strains, a transposon insert in bicA caused low bicA and sbtA transcript levels, which made this strain solely dependent on BCT1 for bicarbonate uptake. Activity measurements of the inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems confirmed the CCM gene expression results. Interestingly, genes encoding the RuBisCO enzyme, structural carboxysome components, and carbonic anhydrases were not regulated. Hence, Microcystis mainly regulates the initial uptake of inorganic carbon, which might be an effective strategy for a species experiencing strongly fluctuating Ci concentrations. Our results show that CCM gene regulation of Microcystis varies among strains. The observed genetic and phenotypic variation in CCM responses may offer an important template for natural selection, leading to major changes in the genetic composition of harmful cyanobacterial blooms at elevated CO2. PMID:26319871

  11. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  12. Autonomic and prefrontal events during moral elevation.

    PubMed

    Piper, Walter T; Saslow, Laura R; Saturn, Sarina R

    2015-05-01

    Moral elevation, or elevation, is a specific emotional state triggered by witnessing displays of profound virtue and moral beauty. This study set out to characterize the physiology underlying elevation with measurements of heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. During elevation, HR and RSA increased. These findings illustrate that elevation involves an uncommon combination of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation, which is present in circumstances where arousal and social engagement are both required. In addition, we show evidence of content-dependent alterations of mPFC activity during elevation peaks. Altogether, this study shows that the induction of moral elevation recruits an uncommon autonomic and neural pattern that is consistent with previous understanding of socioemotional-induced allostasis. PMID:25813121

  13. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat

    PubMed Central

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. PMID:24646860

  14. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity. PMID:21855599

  15. Elevated high-mobility group B1 levels in active adult-onset Still's disease associated with systemic score and skin rash.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Suh, Chang-Hee; Sohn, Seonghyang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah

    2016-08-01

    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein, and such prototypical damage-associated molecular patterns mediate the immune response in the noninfectious inflammatory response. Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder involved in the dysregulation of innate immunity. We investigated the serum HMGB1 level in patients with AOSD and evaluated its clinical significance. Blood samples were collected from 40 patients with active AOSD and 40 healthy controls (HC). Of the patients with AOSD, follow-up samples were collected from 16 patients after a resolution of AOSD disease activity. Serum HMGB1 levels in patients with AOSD were higher than those of the HC (10.0 ± 5.85 vs. 5.15 ± 1.79 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Serum HMGB1 levels were found to be correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) and the systemic score. The AOSD patient who had a sore throat showed a higher serum HMGB1 level than those patients who did not, and the patient with a skin rash had higher levels than the patients without. In addition, the serum HMGB1 levels were decreased after the resolution of disease activity in the AOSD patients who were followed up. The serum HMGB1 levels were elevated in AOSD patients compared to the HC and were correlated with both CRP and the systemic score. The HMGB1 levels were associated with skin rash and a sore throat in AOSD patients. After the resolution of disease activity, serum HMGB1 levels were found to have decreased. PMID:27225247

  16. Catholic Identity Remains a Public Relations Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The massive sex scandal that rocked the Roman Catholic Church raises a question as to whether Catholic identity remains an asset that the nation's 8,000 Catholic schools should continue to promote. This case study found that continuing to promote Catholic identity has had no adverse effect on recruitment and enrollment at four Omaha, Nebraska,…

  17. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  18. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  19. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  20. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  1. The activation and blockage of CRF type 2 receptors of the medial amygdala alter elevated T-maze inhibitory avoidance, an anxiety-related response.

    PubMed

    Alves, Stephanie W E; Portela, Natasha C; Silva, Mariana S; Céspedes, Isabel C; Bittencourt, Jackson C; Viana, Milena B

    2016-05-15

    Previous results show that the activation of CRF type 1 (CRFR1) receptors of the medial amygdala (MeA) induces anxiogenic-like effects. The present study investigates the role played by medial amygdala CRF type 2 receptors (CRFR2) in the modulation of anxiety and panic-related responses. Male Wistar rats were administered into the MeA with the CRFR2 agonist urocortin 2 (0.5 e 1.0μg/0.2μl, experiment 1) or with the CRFR2 antagonist astressin 2-B (60ng/0.2μl, experiment 2) and 10min later tested in the elevated T-maze (ETM) for inhibitory avoidance and escape measurements. In clinical terms, these responses have been respectively related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder. In a third experiment, the effects of the combined treatment with urocortin 2 (1.0μg/0.2μl) and a sub-effective dose of astressin 2-B (30ng/0.2μl) were also investigated. All animals were tested in an open field, immediately after the ETM, for locomotor activity assessment. Results showed that urocortin 2, in the highest dose administered (1.0μg/0.2μl), facilitated ETM avoidance, an anxiogenic-like effect. Astressin 2-B, also in the highest dose (60ng/0.2μl), significantly decreased avoidance latencies, an anxiolytic-like effect. The lower dose of astressin 2-B (30ng/0.2μl) did not induce anxiolytic-like effects but was able to counteract the anxiogenic-like effects of urocortin 2. None of the compounds administered altered escape responses or locomotor activity measurements. These results suggest that CRFR2 in the medial amygdala, as CRFR1, selectively modulate an anxiety-related response. PMID:26965566

  2. In vitro spectrum of pexiganan activity; bactericidal action and resistance selection tested against pathogens with elevated MIC values to topical agents.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-09-01

    Pexiganan, in Phase 3 clinical development for topical use, exhibited bactericidal activity in vitro against Gram-positive and -negative isolates and was also shown to have a low potential for resistance development in broth serial passage experiments. Susceptibility studies were performed against bacterial isolates (110 total from 2004 to 2013; primarily from skin and soft tissue infections) selected for elevated MIC values (non-wildtype [WT] distributions) to bacitracin, polymyxin B, neomycin, mupirocin, retapamulin, fusidic acid, or gentamicin. A narrow range of pexiganan MIC values (4-32 μg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus was observed (MIC50 and MIC90 values, 16 μg/mL) with a pexiganan mode and MIC50 value for the subsets of isolates with non-WT MIC values to bacitracin and neomycin (n = 14), fusidic acid (n = 11), mupirocin (n = 12) and retapamulin (n = 11) at 16 μg/mL. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), the pexiganan mode and MIC50 values were 4 μg/mL. The pexiganan mode and MIC50 for each non-WT CoNS subset was also 4 μg/mL. Pexiganan MIC values for Enterococcus faecium was 8 μg/mL, but E. faecalis isolates exhibited MIC values that ranged from 128-256 μg/mL. Pexiganan was active against β-hemolytic streptococci including non-WT subsets (MIC range, 4-64 μg/mL). MIC values for pexiganan varied by species for viridans group streptococci, with highest values occurring for Streptococcus oralis. The broad bactericidal spectrum of pexiganan activity and low potential for resistance selection offers the possibility that this experimental agent may be able to play an important role in the current environment of emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens. PMID:27352729

  3. Formation of chloroplast protrusions and catalase activity in alpine Ranunculus glacialis under elevated temperature and different CO2/O2 ratios.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Moser, Tim; Karadar, Matthias; Roach, Thomas; Kranner, Ilse; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Chloroplast protrusions (CPs) have frequently been observed in plants, but their significance to plant metabolism remains largely unknown. We investigated in the alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis L. treated under various CO2 concentrations if CP formation is related to photorespiration, specifically focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism. Immediately after exposure to different CO2 concentrations, the formation of CPs in leaf mesophyll cells was assessed and correlated to catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Under natural irradiation, the relative proportion of chloroplasts with protrusions (rCP) was highest (58.7 %) after exposure to low CO2 (38 ppm) and was lowest (3.0 %) at high CO2 (10,000 ppm). The same relationship was found for CAT activity, which decreased from 34.7 nkat mg(-1) DW under low CO2 to 18.4 nkat mg(-1) DW under high CO2, while APX activity did not change significantly. When exposed to natural CO2 concentration (380 ppm) in darkness, CP formation was significantly lower (18.2 %) compared to natural solar irradiation (41.3 %). In summary, CP formation and CAT activity are significantly increased under conditions that favour photorespiration, while in darkness or at high CO2 concentration under light, CP formation is significantly lower, providing evidence for an association between CPs and photorespiration. PMID:25701381

  4. Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of normal shoulder function have often failed to consider the inter-relationship between different muscle groups in activities relevant to daily life. Upper limb functional status was assessed in 12 healthy male volunteers using the Functional Impairment Test-Hand, Neck, Shoulder and Arm test (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography was then used to study the activity and coordination of 13 muscles (10 by surface electrodes, 3 by fine-wire intramuscular electrodes) around the shoulder during a dynamic movement task based on the shelf-lifting task in FIT-HaNSA. Muscles were grouped for analysis into deltoid (anterior, middle, and posterior divisions), adductors (latissimus dorsi and teres major), rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis), and elbow flexor (brachioradialis, biceps brachii) groups. There were no significant inter-session effects. Using cross-correlation analysis to investigate the whole time-course of activation, there were highly significant positive correlations (p < 0.001) between the deltoid and rotator cuff, the deltoid and adductor and the adductor and rotator cuff groups, and a significant negative correlation between the deltoid and elbow flexor groups (p = 0.031). We conclude that the deltoid, adductor, and rotator cuff muscles all contribute to the muscular component of glenohumeral joint stability. Muscular stability can be adapted as required to meet task-specific demands. PMID:21674607

  5. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take. PMID:3540171

  6. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  7. Remains of Comet-Shoemaker/Levy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration of the Comet-Shoemaker/Levy collision shows the first piece of the remains of the comet crashing into Jupiter. This event occurred in 1994 after tidal forces from Jupiter caused the comet to break up into 21 separate pieces. Although on a very different scale, the physical mechanism for the breakup of Shoemaker/Levy also caused the tidal disruption of the star in RX J1242-11. (Illustration: SEDS/D. Seal (edited by CXC/M. Weiss)

  8. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  9. Rapid resolution of ST elevation and prediction of clinical outcome in patients undergoing thrombolysis with alteplase (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator): results of the Israeli Study of Early Intervention in Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Barbash, G I; Roth, A; Hod, H; Miller, H I; Rath, S; Har-Zahav, Y; Modan, M; Seligsohn, U; Battler, A; Kaplinsky, E

    1990-01-01

    Alteplase (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA)) was infused within four hours of onset of symptoms in 286 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Delayed coronary angiography was performed 72 hours after admission with coronary angioplasty if indicated. Electrocardiographic monitoring was continuous during the first hour of treatment. The sum of the ST segment elevations (sigma ST) was calculated on electrocardiograms recorded at entry and an hour later. ST elevations resolved rapidly within one hour of treatment in 189 patients and persisted in 97 patients. Rapid resolution of ST elevation correlated with angiographic coronary patency as determined by coronary angiography 72 hours after admission. The patients with rapid resolution of sigma ST had significantly smaller infarcts and a better clinical outcome than the patients with persistent ST elevation. sigma ST values at entry and one hour after treatment had no additional independent predictive value. Rapid resolution of ST elevations in patients undergoing thrombolysis with alteplase was associated with a significantly smaller release of creatine kinase, better preservation of left ventricular function, lower morbidity, and less short and long term mortality. Rapid resolution of sigma ST elevation is an efficient indicator of clinical outcome in groups of patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing thrombolysis with alteplase. PMID:2121199

  10. Zaprinast and Rolipram Enhances Spatial and Emotional Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze and Passive Avoidance Tests and Diminishes Exploratory Activity in Naive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the central nervous system have been shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, and rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor, on learning and memory in elevated plus maze (EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice received short-term treatment with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) before the acquisition trial of the EPM and PA tests. The exploratory activity of the animals was also investigated in the Hughes box test. Results Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency compared to the control group in the EPM test, while only rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly increased second-day latency in the PA test. Both zaprinast (10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of entries to new areas and time spent in new areas in the Hughes box test. Conclusions Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in EPM, while rolipram seemed to have more emotional memory-enhancing effects in the PA test compared to zaprinast. Both zaprinast and rolipram diminished exploratory activity in the Hughes box test, which can be attributed to the drugs’ anxiogenic effects. PMID:25057848

  11. Active Cigarette Smoking in Cognitively-Normal Elders and Probable Alzheimer's Disease is Associated with Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Oxidative Stress Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Korecka, Magdalena; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W; O' Hara, Ruth; Ashford, John W; Shaw, Leslie M

    2016-07-25

    Neurodegenerative diseases and chronic cigarette smoking are associated with increased cerebral oxidative stress (OxS). Elevated F2-isoprostane levels in biological fluid is a recognized marker of OxS. This study assessed the association of active cigarette smoking with F2-isoprostane in concentrations in cognitively-normal elders (CN), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Smoking and non-smoking CN (n = 83), MCI (n = 164), and probable AD (n = 101) were compared on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) iPF2α-III and 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI F2-isoprostane concentrations. Associations between F2-isoprostane levels and hippocampal volumes were also evaluated. In CN and AD, smokers had higher iPF2α-III concentration; overall, smoking AD showed the highest iPF2α-III concentration across groups. Smoking and non-smoking MCI did not differ on iPF2α-III concentration. No group differences were apparent on 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI concentration, but across AD, higher 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI level was related to smaller left and total hippocampal volumes. Results indicate that active cigarette smoking in CN and probable AD is associated with increased central nervous system OxS. Further investigation of factors mediating/moderating the absence of smoking effects on CSF F2-isoprostane levels in MCI is warranted. In AD, increasing magnitude of OxS appeared to be related to smaller hippocampal volume. This study contributes additional novel information to the mounting body of evidence that cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on the human central nervous system across the lifespan. PMID:27472882

  12. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Jung, Deok-Beom; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Hanna Hyun; Park, Moon Nyeo; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seok Geun; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Although cryptotanshinone (CT) was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23243443

  13. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  14. The identification of submerged skeletonized remains.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Both, Katrin; Simpson, Ellie

    2008-03-01

    Examination was undertaken of skeletonized remains contained within 2 rubber boots dredged by a fishing boat from a depth of 145 m, approximately 185 km off the southern Australian coast in the Great Australian Bight. The boots had been manufactured in Australia in July 1993 and were of a type commonly used by local fishermen. Examination of the lower legs and feet revealed well-preserved bones with arthritic changes in keeping with an older male. DNA analyses using reference samples taken from relatives of fishermen who had disappeared in the area resulted in the identification of the victim as a 52-year-old prawn fisherman who had been swept off a boat over a decade earlier. DNA stability had been maintained by the low light, cold temperatures, and alkaline pH of the ocean floor. Integration of pathologic, anthropologic, and biologic analyses with police investigations enabled a positive identification to be made despite the unusual nature of the location of the remains and the time lapse since the disappearance of the victim. PMID:19749621

  15. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes. PMID:24612293

  16. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  17. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them. PMID:26971523

  18. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  19. Tularemia vaccines: recent developments and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, J Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and other mammals. Its inhaled infectious dose is very low and can result in very high mortality. Historically, subsp. tularensis was developed as a biological weapon and there are now concerns about its abuse as such by terrorists. A live attenuated vaccine developed pragmatically more than half a century ago from the less virulent holarctica subsp. is the sole prophylactic available, but it remains unlicensed. In recent years several other potential live, killed and subunit vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in mice for their efficacy against respiratory challenge with subsp. tularensis. This article will review these vaccine candidates and the development hurdles they face. PMID:21526941

  20. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  1. 72. View of elevated Mainline structure looking North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of elevated Mainline structure - looking North - along Washington Street at juncture of Section F-5 and Section F-6 (the concrete enclosed portion of structure). Remaining stub of the former incline that led down to the Arborway storage yards is at the right. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  3. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

  4. Soluble CD163, a Novel Marker of Activated Macrophages, Is Elevated and Associated With Noncalcified Coronary Plaque in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burdo, Tricia H.; Lo, Janet; Abbara, Suhny; Wei, Jeffrey; DeLelys, Michelle E.; Preffer, Fred; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Williams, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Pro-inflammatory monocytes/macrophages may contribute to increased atherosclerosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients. We investigate—to our knowledge, for the first time—sCD163 and other markers of monocyte activation in relationship to atherosclerotic plaque in HIV-infected patients. Methods. One hundred two HIV-infected and 41 HIV-seronegative men with equivalent cardiovascular risk factors and without history of coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited and underwent computed tomography coronary angiography. Results. sCD163 levels and presence of plaque were significantly higher among antiretroviral-treated subjects with undetectable HIV RNA levels, compared with seronegative controls (1172 ± 646 vs. 883 ± 561 ng/mL [P = .02] for sCD163 and 61% vs. 39% [P = .03] for presence of plaque). After adjusting for age, race, lipids, blood pressure, glucose, smoking, sCD14, and HIV infection, sCD163 remained independently associated with noncalcified plaque (P = .008). Among HIV-infected patients, sCD163 was associated with coronary segments with noncalcified plaque (r = 0.21; P = .04), but not with calcium score. In contrast, markers of generalized inflammation, including C-reactive protein level, and D-dimer were not associated with sCD163 or plaque among HIV-infected patients. Conclusions. sCD163, a monocyte/macrophage activation marker, is increased in association with noncalcified coronary plaque in men with chronic HIV infection and low or undetectable viremia. These data suggest a potentially important role of chronic monocyte/macrophage activation in the development of noncalcified vulnerable plaque. Clinical Trial Registration. NCT00455793. PMID:21917896

  5. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  6. 54. West elevation of portion of elevated Mainline structure (Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. West elevation of portion of elevated Mainline structure (Section F-5) over Washington Street - looking East - at the corner of Bray Street. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  8. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  9. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  10. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  11. NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed by merging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital ...

  12. NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET HILLSHADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed bymerging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital E...

  13. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  14. Science on a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane through that region

  15. Adolescent female rats exhibiting activity-based anorexia express elevated levels of GABA(A) receptor α4 and δ subunits at the plasma membrane of hippocampal CA1 spines.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Chiye; Sabaliauskas, Nicole; Chowdhury, Tara; Min, Jung-Yun; Colacino, Anna Rita; Laurino, Kevin; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C

    2012-05-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model for anorexia nervosa that has revealed genetic links to anxiety traits and neurochemical characteristics within the hypothalamus. However, few studies have used this animal model to investigate the biological basis for vulnerability of pubertal and adolescent females to ABA, even though the great majority of the anorexia nervosa cases are females exhibiting the first symptoms during puberty. GABAergic inhibition of the hippocampus strongly regulates anxiety as well as plasticity throughout life. We recently showed that the hippocampal CA1 of female mice undergo a dramatic change at puberty onset--from expressing virtually none of the nonsynaptic α4βδ GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) prepubertally to expressing these GABARs at ~7% of the CA1 dendritic spine membranes at puberty onset. Furthermore, we showed that this change underlies the enhanced modulation of anxiety, neuronal excitability, and NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus by the stress neurosteroid, THP (3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone). Here, we used quantitative electron microscopy to determine whether ABA induction in female rats during adolescence also elevates the expression of α4 and δ subunits of α4βδ GABARs, as was observed at puberty onset for mice. Our analysis revealed that rats also exhibit a rise of α4 and δ subunits of α4βδ GABARs at puberty onset, in that these subunits are detectable at ~6% of the dendritic spine membranes of CA1 pyramidal cells at puberty onset (postnatal day 32-36; P32-36) but this drops to about 2% by P40-P44. The levels of α4 and δ subunits at the CA1 spines remained low following exposure of females to either of the two environmental factors needed to generate ABA--food restriction and access to a running wheel for 4 days--from P40 to P44. This pattern contrasted greatly from those of ABA animals, for which the two environmental factors were combined. Within the

  16. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  17. 76 FR 3531 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  18. 76 FR 54134 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  19. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  20. 76 FR 39305 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  1. 75 FR 11468 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  2. 77 FR 71702 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  3. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  4. 76 FR 29656 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  5. 78 FR 9831 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  6. 77 FR 49379 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  7. 77 FR 26959 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  8. 77 FR 26968 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  9. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  10. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  11. Long-term market brisk, spot remains sluggish

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Spot market activity totaled almost 54,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range had a slight increase from a high last month of $15.60/lb U3O8 to a hgih this month of $16.00/lb U3O8. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range remained at last month`s prices for the first time in recent weeks. Spot prices for conversion and SWU also held steady at their March levels.

  12. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  13. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  14. 21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  15. Central HIV-1 Tat exposure elevates anxiety and fear conditioned responses of male mice concurrent with altered mu-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation and β-arrestin 2 activity in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Yun K; Paris, Jason J; Lichtman, Aron H; Hauser, Kurt F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Selley, Dana E; Knapp, Pamela E

    2016-08-01

    Co-exposure to opiates and HIV/HIV proteins results in enhanced CNS morphological and behavioral deficits in HIV(+) individuals and in animal models. Opiates with abuse liability, such as heroin and morphine, bind preferentially to and have pharmacological actions through μ-opioid-receptors (MORs). The mechanisms underlying opiate-HIV interactions are not understood. Exposure to the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein causes neurodegenerative outcomes that parallel many aspects of the human disease. We have also observed that in vivo exposure to Tat results in apparent changes in morphine efficacy, and thus have hypothesized that HIV proteins might alter MOR activation. To test our hypothesis, MOR-mediated G-protein activation was determined in neuroAIDS-relevant forebrain regions of transgenic mice with inducible CNS expression of HIV-1 Tat. G-protein activation was assessed by MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) autoradiography in brain sections, and in concentration-effect curves of MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in membranes isolated from specific brain regions. Comparative studies were done using the MOR-selective agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin) and a more clinically relevant agonist, morphine. Tat exposure reduced MOR-mediated G-protein activation in an agonist, time, and regionally dependent manner. Levels of the GPCR regulatory protein β-arrestin-2, which is involved in MOR desensitization, were found to be elevated in only one affected brain region, the amygdala; amygdalar β-arrestin-2 also showed a significantly increased association with MOR by co-immunoprecipitation, suggesting decreased availability of MOR. Interestingly, this correlated with changes in anxiety and fear-conditioned extinction, behaviors that have substantial amygdalar input. We propose that HIV-1 Tat alters the intrinsic capacity of MOR to signal in response to agonist binding

  16. Space Elevator: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, Lubos

    2008-04-01

    Many papers have been published on engineering and economic aspects of the Space Elevator. The Elevator, however, is a very special and unusual astronomical body. Its behavior in space is affected not only by the attraction of the Earth and by the "centrifugal force" but also by the attraction of the Sun and the Moon, by the detailed shape of the Earth, by the presence of space debris, etc. Not all of the minor effects have been adequately studied. The size of the Space Elevator and its lack of resistance against buckling or bending require a detailed study of its stability, both in its initial phase as a geostationary (GEO) satellite as well as in its operational phase as a "sling". Lunisolar perturbations and other minor forces may affect the stability in the initial phase and will cause oscillations in the operational phase. Station-keeping thrusters will have to be mounted at selected points along the cable in order to maintain stability. In addition, the thrusters will perform local maneuvers for avoiding collisions with passing space debris. The control system of thrusters has to be adaptive, reacting fast to actual situation and rectifying the attitude of the Elevator whenever necessary. A further advantage of the thrusters is a possibility to locate the Elevator at any longitude, possibly looking for a region with minimum traffic at GEO distance. Extensive numerical simulations will have to be performed in order to determine elements of the thrusters and their control system.

  17. Activation of the canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway is involved in isoflurane-induced hippocampal interleukin-1β elevation and the resultant cognitive deficits in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zheng-Qian; Rong, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ya-Jie; Ni, Cheng; Tian, Xiao-Sheng; Mo, Na; Chui, De-Hua; Guo, Xiang-Yang

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Isoflurane induces hippocampal IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits in aged rats. •Isoflurane transiently activates the canonical NF-κB pathway in aged rat hippocampus. •NF-κB inhibitor mitigates isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits. •We report a linkage between NF-κB signaling, IL-1β expression, and cognitive changes. -- Abstract: Although much recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation contributes to volatile anesthetic-induced cognitive deficits, there are few existing mechanistic explanations for this inflammatory process. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane on canonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, and to explore its association with hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β levels and anesthetic-related cognitive changes in aged rats. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in IκB kinase and IκB phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα), were observed in the hippocampi of isoflurane-exposed rats compared with control rats. These events were accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation at 6 h after isoflurane exposure and hippocampal IL-1β elevation from 1 to 6 h after isoflurane exposure. Nevertheless, no significant neuroglia activation was observed. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed the IL-1β increase and NF-κB signaling, and also mitigated the severity of cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze task. Overall, our results demonstrate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may stem from upregulation of hippocampal IL-1β, partially via activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, in aged rats.

  18. Acute management of unstable angina and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernando Morita Fernandes; Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo Pereira; Franken, Marcelo; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Non-ST segment elevation coronary syndrome usually results from instability of an atherosclerotic plaque, with subsequent activation of platelets and several coagulation factors. Its treatment aims to reduce the ischemic pain, limiting myocardial damage and decreasing mortality. Several antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents have been proven useful, and new drugs have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium in the search for higher anti-ischemic efficacy and lower bleeding rates. Despite the advances, the mortality, infarction and readmission rates remain high. PMID:26466065

  19. Quantifying the behavioral response of spawning chum salmon to elevated discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Haskell, C.A.; Kock, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta that spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, USA, are periodically subjected to elevated discharges that may alter spawning behaviour. We investigated behavioural responses of spawning chum salmon to increased water velocities associated with experimental increases in tailwater elevation using acoustic telemetry and a dual-frequency identification sonar. Chum salmon primarily remained near their redds at base tailwater elevations (3.5 m above mean sea level), but displayed different movement and behavioural responses as elevations were increased to either 4.1 or 4.7m for 8-h periods. When velocities remained suitable (<0.8m s-1) during elevated-tailwater tests, female chum salmon remained near their redds but exhibited reduced digging activity as water velocities increased. However, when velocities exceeded 0.8m s-1, the females that remained on their redds exhibited increased swimming activity and digging virtually ceased. Female and male chum salmon that left their redds when velocities became unsuitable moved mean distances ranging from 32 to 58 m to occupy suitable velocities, but returned to their redds after tailwaters returned to base levels. Spawning events (i.e. egg deposition) were observed for five of nine pairs of chum salmon following tests indicating any disruptions to normal behaviour caused by elevated tailwaters were likely temporary. We believe a chum salmon's decision to either remain on, or leave, its redd during periods of unsuitably high water velocities reflects time invested in the redd and the associated energetic costs it is willing to incur. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Rhizosphere priming effects on soil N availability in forests exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. P.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    The progressive nitrogen (N) limitation hypothesis suggests that the uptake of N due to rapid tree growth under elevated CO2 depletes pools of available N resulting in short-term increases in productivity under elevated CO2. To date however, a down-regulation of forest productivity under elevated CO2 has not been observed among the four forest FACE experiments suggesting that our understanding of the mechanisms by which trees influence soil N cycling needs further refinement. We sought to test the hypothesis that trees exposed to elevated CO2 increase soil N availability by 'priming' rhizosphere microbes via the release of root exudates. At the Duke Forest FACTS-1 site, NC, we collected exudates bi-monthly from intact fine roots of 25 year-old loblolly pine Pinus taeda trees exposed to elevated CO2 and N fertilization. In addition, we collected rhizosphere and bulk soil from the same plots in order to develop a time-integrated estimate of the plant- microbial response to the CO2 and N treatments. In general, there were strong interactive effects between CO2 and N fertilization on exudation and rhizosphere microbial activity. In non-fertilized plots, mass-specific exudation rates were 15% greater with CO2 enrichment. In fertilized soils the opposite patterns were detected, as CO2 decreased mass specific rates by 40% (relative to the ambient rates). In the soil, treatment effects on rhizosphere microbial activity were similar: elevated CO2 increased microbial activity in non-fertilized plots (29%) but decreased it in fertilized plots (15%). However, we found no differences in net N mineralization rates in the rhizosphere in response to either CO2 or N fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that although changes in exudation and microbial activity are likely mediated by soil N availability, the degree to which such processes are responsible for increased soil N cycling in forests exposed to elevated CO2 remains unclear.

  1. Human lung and bladder carcinoma tumors as compared to their adjacent normal tissue have elevated AP-1 activity associated with the retinoblastoma gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Linardopoulos, S; Papadakis, E; Delakas, D; Theodosiou, V; Cranidis, A; Spandidos, D A

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma (Rb) promoter revealed the presence of a DNA region highly homologous to the recognition site for the cellular transcription factor AP-1. A pair of complementary oligonucleotides containing the AP-1 site was synthesized and used in gel retardation assays to determine the role of the AP-1 protein in the regulation of the Rb gene expression. Using nuclear extracts from Hela cells as well as from lung and bladder tumors, we found specific binding of the AP-1 protein to this oligonucleotide. This binding is elevated in Hela cells, in 10/13 lung and 3/8 bladder tumors as compared to adjacent normal tissue. These results suggest that AP-1 could be implicated in Rb gene transcriptional regulation through its interaction with the AP-1 binding site of the Rb gene promoter. PMID:8476221

  2. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP-defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit-during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  3. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  4. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  5. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  6. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  7. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  8. 1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY REMODELING, CENTRAL ELEVATION WITH EARLY AND MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY ALTERATIONS, AND RIGHT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ALTERATIONS TO GROUND FLOOR - 160-166 Main Street, 160-166 Main Street, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  9. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  11. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST STAND REMNANTS OF BUILDING-BLANK WHITE WALL ONLY ORIGINAL REMAINS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. [Acute blood pressure elevations].

    PubMed

    Chamontin, B; Amar, J; Chollet, F; Rouge, P; Bonetti-d'Esteve, L; Guittard, J; Salvador, M

    2000-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) elevations may correspond to different clinical situations. Hypertensives emergencies are situations that require immediate reduction in BP because of acute or rapidly progressing target organ damage: accelerated malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute myocardial infarction, acute aortic dissection, acute left ventricular failure, and eclampsia. Hypertensive urgencies are those with marked elevated BP in which it is desirable to reduce BP progressively within few hours, such as severe hypertension, progressive target organ damage, perioperative hypertension. Cerebrovascular accidents have to be individualized. In most patients in the immediate post-stroke period, BP should not be lowered. Caution is advised in lowering BP in these patients because excessive falls may precipitate cerebral ischemia. In situations without symptoms or progressive target organ it is necessary to exclude proximate causes of elevated BP such as pain and elevated BP alone rarely requires antihypertensive treatment. Among parenteral antihypertensive (AH) drugs labetalol, nicardipine, urapidil, and nitroprussiate are generally used, and the choice of AH drug depends on the clinical situation. It is not required to normalize BP immediately but to reduce mean BP no more than 25%, then toward 160/100 mmHg as recommended by JNC VI, in order to avoid an impairment of renal, cerebral or coronary ischemia. Oral long-acting dihydropyridines are often subsequently administrated, except in myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic attitudes vary considerably according to the clinical situation: abstention, immediate decrease or progressive decrease in BP have to be decided. PMID:11190294

  13. Methane Uptake in a Semi-Arid Grassland Affected by Elevated CO2 and Warming: Role of Methanotroph Activity and Gas Diffusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiarid rangelands represent a significant global sink for methane (CH4) where methane uptake is controlled by methanotroph activity and the diffusivity of CH4 into the soil. Because increasing soil moisture causes diffusivity to fall but methanotroph activity to rise, methane uptake rates show a h...

  14. RAD001 (everolimus) attenuates experimental autoimmune neuritis by inhibiting the mTOR pathway, elevating Akt activity and polarizing M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Han, Ranran; Gao, Juan; Zhai, Hui; Xiao, Jinting; Ding, Ya'nan; Hao, Junwei

    2016-06-01

    Guillain-Barre' syndrome (GBS) is an acute, postinfectious, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. As a classical animal model of GBS, experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) has become well-accepted. Additionally, the potent immune modulation exerted by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been used to treat cancers and showed beneficial effects. Here we demonstrate that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) protected rats from the symptoms of EAN, as shown by decreased paralysis, diminished inflammatory cell infiltration, reductions in demyelination of peripheral nerves and improved nerve conduction. Furthermore, RAD001 shifted macrophage polarization toward the protective M2 phenotype and modified the inflammatory milieu by downregulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-17as well as upregulating the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and TGF-β. Amounts of the mTOR downstream targets p-P70S6K and p-4E-BP1 in sciatic nerves decreased, whereas the level of its upstream protein p-Akt was elevated. This demonstrated that RAD001 inhibited the mTOR pathway and encouraged the expression of p-Akt, which led to M2 macrophage polarization, thus improved the outcome of EAN in rats. Consequently, RAD001 exhibits strong potential as a therapeutic strategy for ameliorating peripheral poly-neuropathy. PMID:27063582

  15. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Micallef, Malgre C.; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C.; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065

  16. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Micallef, Malgre C; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065

  17. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, C B

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age. PMID:16172511

  18. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion and results of the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, manufacturing producibility studies, quality assurance development, and production status.

  19. [What remains is what should remain: using estates to construct biographies].

    PubMed

    Füssl, Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Estates play a major role in historical research, especially biographic research, for they supplement the official writings surrounding the individual view of a historical figure. But they nonetheless reflect only a small part of the scientific and private activities of a researcher. Moreover, before being handed over to an archive, they are also often filtered by the researchers themselves, by family members, and/or by successors to the historical figure's post. The history of an estate is thus of great importance to research. With an eye to the estates of natural scientists, the present text uses a concept of estates that includes not only the surviving texts but also artifacts with which the scientists worked. The focus will be on three physicists--Ernst Mach, Walther Gerlach, and Philipp Lenard--in order to investigate the significance of these objects for their respective biographies and for the history of physics. PMID:25296527

  20. Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri Leaves Displays In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Prevents the Elevation of Oxidative Stress in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Giribabu, Nelli; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Kumar, Korla Praveen; Muniandy, Sekaran; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    P. niruri has been reported to possess antidiabetic and kidney protective effects. In the present study, the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. niruri leaf aqueous extract were investigated together with its effect on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rat kidney. Results. Treatment of diabetic male rats with P. niruri leaf aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days prevents the increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, malondialdehyde (MDA), and the diminution of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity levels in the kidney of diabetic rats. The amount of LPO showed strong negative correlation with SOD, CAT, and GPx activity levels. P. niruri leaf aqueous extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity with IC50 slightly lower than ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening of plant extract indicates the presence of polyphenols. Conclusion. P. niruri leaf extract protects the kidney from oxidative stress induced by diabetes. PMID:24991228

  1. Sulindac sulfide selectively inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human breast tumor cells by PDE5 inhibition, elevation of cGMP, and activation of PKG

    PubMed Central

    Tinsley, Heather N.; Gary, Bernard D.; Keeton, Adam B.; Zhang, Wei; Abadi, Ashraf H.; Reynolds, Robert C.; Piazza, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulindac displays promising antineoplastic activity, but toxicities from cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition limit its use for chemoprevention. Previous reports suggest that its anticancer properties may be attributed to a COX-independent mechanism, although alternative targets have not been well defined. Here we show that sulindac sulfide (SS) induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of human breast tumor cells with IC50 values of 60-85 μM. Within the same concentration range, SS inhibited cGMP hydrolysis in tumor cell lysates, but did not affect cAMP hydrolysis. SS did not induce apoptosis of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), nor did it inhibit PDE activity in HMEC lysates. SS increased intracellular cGMP levels and activated protein kinase G in breast tumor cells, but not HMEC. The guanylyl cyclase (GC) activator, NOR-3, and cGMP PDE inhibitors, trequinsin and MY5445, displayed similar growth inhibitory activity as SS, but the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, and other PDE inhibitors had no effect. Moreover, GC activation increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to SS, while GC inhibition reduced sensitivity. By comparing PDE isozyme profiles in breast tumor cells with HMEC and determining the sensitivity of recombinant PDE isozymes to SS, PDE5 was found to be overexpressed in breast tumor cells and selectively inhibited by SS. The mechanism of SS binding to the catalytic domain of PDE5 was revealed by molecular modeling. These data suggest that PDE5 inhibition is responsible for the breast tumor cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing activity of SS and may contribute to the chemopreventive properties of sulindac. PMID:19996273

  2. Elevated CO2 further lengthens growing season under warming conditions.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Fox, Melissa; Steltzer, Heidi; Trlica, M J; McMaster, Gregory S; Andales, Allan A; LeCain, Dan R; Morgan, Jack A

    2014-06-12

    Observations of a longer growing season through earlier plant growth in temperate to polar regions have been thought to be a response to climate warming. However, data from experimental warming studies indicate that many species that initiate leaf growth and flowering earlier also reach seed maturation and senesce earlier, shortening their active and reproductive periods. A conceptual model to explain this apparent contradiction, and an analysis of the effect of elevated CO2--which can delay annual life cycle events--on changing season length, have not been tested. Here we show that experimental warming in a temperate grassland led to a longer growing season through earlier leaf emergence by the first species to leaf, often a grass, and constant or delayed senescence by other species that were the last to senesce, supporting the conceptual model. Elevated CO2 further extended growing, but not reproductive, season length in the warmed grassland by conserving water, which enabled most species to remain active longer. Our results suggest that a longer growing season, especially in years or biomes where water is a limiting factor, is not due to warming alone, but also to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations that extend the active period of plant annual life cycles. PMID:24759322

  3. Anxiogenic effects of activation of NK-1 receptors of the dorsal periaqueductal gray as assessed by the elevated plus-maze, ultrasound vocalizations and tail-flick tests.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Gabriel S; Nobre, Manoel J; de Araújo, João E; Brandão, Marcus L

    2007-12-01

    Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) known as 22kHz are usual components of the defensive responses of rats exposed to threatening conditions. The amount of emission of 22kHz USVs depends on the intensity of the aversive stimuli. While moderate fear causes an anxiolytic-sensitive enhancement of the defensive responses, high fear tended to reduce the defensive performance of the animals to aversive stimuli. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) is an important vocal center and a crucial structure for the expression of defensive responses. Substance P (SP) is involved in the modulation of the defensive response at this midbrain level, but the type of neurokinin receptors involved in this action is not completely understood. In this study we examined whether local injections of the selective NK-1 agonist SAR-MET-SP (10-100 pmol/0.2microL) into the dPAG (i) cause anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) (Exp. I), (ii) influence the novelty-induced 22kHz USVs recorded within the frequency range of 20-26kHz (Exp. II) and (iii) change the nociceptive reactivity to heat applied to the rat's tail (Exp III). The data obtained showed that SAR-MET-SP elicited significant "anxiety-like" behaviors, as revealed by the decrease in the number of entries into and time spent onto the open arms of the EPM. These anxiogenic effects were accompanied with antinociception and disruption of the novelty-induced increase in the number and duration of 22kHz USVs. These findings are in agreement with the notion that NK-1 receptors of the dPAG may be an important neurochemical target for new selective drugs aimed at the control of pathological anxiety states. PMID:17981325

  4. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  5. Risk remaining from fine particle contaminants after vacuum cleaning of hard floor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew; Johnson, David L; Brooks, J; Griffith, Daniel A

    2008-12-01

    In the indoor environment, settled surface dust often functions as a reservoir of hazardous particulate contaminants. In many circumstances, a major contributing source to the dust pool is exterior soil. Young children are particularly susceptible to exposure to both outdoor derived soil and indoor derived dust present in the indoor dust pool. This is because early in life the exploratory activities of the infant are dominated by touching and mouthing behavior. Inadvertent exposure to dust through mouth contact and hand-to-mouth activity is an inevitable consequence of infant development. Clean-up of indoor dust is, in many circumstances, critically important in efforts to minimize pediatric exposure. In this study, we examine the efficiency of vacuum cleaner removal of footwear-deposited soil on vinyl floor tiles. The study utilized a 5 x 10 foot (c. 152.5 x 305 cm) test surface composed of 1-foot-square (c. 30.5 x 30.5 cm) vinyl floor tiles. A composite test soil with moderately elevated levels of certain elements (e.g., Pb) was repeatedly introduced onto the floor surface by footwear track-on. The deposited soil was subsequently periodically removed from randomly selected tiles using a domestic vacuum cleaner. The mass and loading of soil elements on the tiles following vacuuming were determined both by wet wipe collection and by subsequent chemical analysis. It was found that vacuum cleaner removal eliminated much of the soil mass from the floor tiles. However, a small percentage of the mass was not removed and a portion of this residual mass could be picked up by moistened hand-lifts. Furthermore, although the post-vacuuming tile soil mass was sizably reduced, for some elements (notably Pb) the concentration in the residual soil was increased. We interpret this increased metal concentration to be a particle size effect with smaller particles (with a proportionately higher metal content) remaining in situ after vacuuming. PMID:18566895

  6. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T.; He Shiping; Jan, C.-R. . E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

  7. Elevated thymidine phosphorylase activity in psoriatic lesions accounts for the apparent presence of an epidermal growth inhibitor, but is not in itself growth inhibitory

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, C.; Fisher, G.J.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-08-01

    An apparent tissue-specific growth inhibitor, or chalone, obtained from psoriatic lesions was tentatively identified in the 100-kDa fraction based upon inhibition of DNA synthesis, as measured by (3H)-thymidine uptake by a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC 38. This fraction, however, failed to inhibit SCC 38 cell growth when assessed directly in a neutral red uptake assay. Characterization of the inhibitor of (3H)-thymidine uptake revealed it to have biochemical properties identical to thymidine phosphorylase: (1) molecular weight close to 100 kDa, (2) isoelectric point of 4.2, and (3) thymidine phosphorylase enzyme activity. Thus, the authors conclude that its ability to inhibit (3H)-thymidine uptake was due to thymidine catabolism rather than inhibition of DNA synthesis or growth inhibition. Examination of thymidine phosphorylase activity in keratome biopsies from psoriatic and normal skin demonstrated a twentyfold increase in activity in psoriatic lesions relative to non-lesional or normal skin. This increase in metabolism of thymidine was due to thymidine phosphorylase rather than uridine phosphorylase activity. The correlation between increased thymidine phosphorylase activity and increased keratinocyte proliferation in vitro (cultured) and in vivo (psoriasis), suggests that this enzyme may play a critical role in providing the thymidine necessary for keratinocyte proliferation.

  8. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  9. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  10. Elevated Src family kinase activity stabilizes E-cadherin-based junctions and collective movement of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Veracini, Laurence; Grall, Dominique; Schaub, Sébastien; Divonne, Stéphanie Beghelli-de la Forest; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Milano, Gérard; Bozec, Alexandre; Babin, Emmanuel; Sudaka, Anne; Thariat, Juliette; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    EGF receptor (EGFR) overexpression is thought to drive head and neck carcinogenesis however clinical responses to EGFR-targeting agents have been modest and alternate targets are actively sought to improve results. Src family kinases (SFKs), reported to act downstream of EGFR are among the alternative targets for which increased expression or activity in epithelial tumors is commonly associated to the dissolution of E-cadherin-based junctions and acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Robust expression of total and activated Src was observed in advanced stage head and neck tumors (N=60) and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines. In cultured cancer cells Src co-localized with E-cadherin in cell-cell junctions and its phosphorylation on Y419 was both constitutive and independent of EGFR activation. Selective inhibition of SFKs with SU6656 delocalized E-cadherin and disrupted cellular junctions without affecting E-cadherin expression and this effect was phenocopied by knockdown of Src or Yes. These findings reveal an EGFR-independent role for SFKs in the maintenance of intercellular junctions, which likely contributes to the cohesive invasion E-cadherin-positive cells in advanced tumors. Further, they highlight the need for a deeper comprehension of molecular pathways that drive collective cell invasion, in absence of mesenchymal transition, in order to combat tumor spread. PMID:25779657

  11. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. PMID:26483343

  12. Elevated Src family kinase activity stabilizes E-cadherin-based junctions and collective movement of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Veracini, Laurence; Grall, Dominique; Schaub, Sébastien; Beghelli-de la Forest Divonne, Stéphanie; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Milano, Gérard; Bozec, Alexandre; Babin, Emmanuel; Sudaka, Anne; Thariat, Juliette; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen

    2015-04-10

    EGF receptor (EGFR) overexpression is thought to drive head and neck carcinogenesis however clinical responses to EGFR-targeting agents have been modest and alternate targets are actively sought to improve results. Src family kinases (SFKs), reported to act downstream of EGFR are among the alternative targets for which increased expression or activity in epithelial tumors is commonly associated to the dissolution of E-cadherin-based junctions and acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Robust expression of total and activated Src was observed in advanced stage head and neck tumors (N=60) and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines. In cultured cancer cells Src co-localized with E-cadherin in cell-cell junctions and its phosphorylation on Y419 was both constitutive and independent of EGFR activation. Selective inhibition of SFKs with SU6656 delocalized E-cadherin and disrupted cellular junctions without affecting E-cadherin expression and this effect was phenocopied by knockdown of Src or Yes. These findings reveal an EGFR-independent role for SFKs in the maintenance of intercellular junctions, which likely contributes to the cohesive invasion E-cadherin-positive cells in advanced tumors. Further, they highlight the need for a deeper comprehension of molecular pathways that drive collective cell invasion, in absence of mesenchymal transition, in order to combat tumor spread. PMID:25779657

  13. Elevated SP-1 transcription factor expression and activity drives basal and hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Karl; Onion, David; Kumari, Rajendra; Watson, Susan A; Knox, Alan J

    2012-11-16

    VEGF plays a central role in angiogenesis in cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors have increased microvascular density, localized hypoxia, and high VEGF expression levels; however, there is a lack of understanding of how oncogenic and tumor microenvironment changes such as hypoxia lead to greater VEGF expression in lung and other cancers. We show that NSCLC cells secreted higher levels of VEGF than normal airway epithelial cells. Actinomycin D inhibited all NSCLC VEGF secretion, and VEGF minimal promoter-luciferase reporter constructs were constitutively active until the last 85 base pairs before the transcription start site containing three SP-1 transcription factor-binding sites; mutation of these VEGF promoter SP-1-binding sites eliminated VEGF promoter activity. Furthermore, dominant negative SP-1, mithramycin A, and SP-1 shRNA decreased VEGF promoter activity, whereas overexpression of SP-1 increased VEGF promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated SP-1, p300, and PCA/F histone acetyltransferase binding and histone H4 hyperacetylation at the VEGF promoter in NSCLC cells. Cultured NSCLC cells expressed higher levels of SP-1 protein than normal airway epithelial cells, and double-fluorescence immunohistochemistry showed a strong correlation between SP-1 and VEGF in human NSCLC tumors. In addition, hypoxia-driven VEGF expression in NSCLC cells was SP-1-dependent, with hypoxia increasing SP-1 activity and binding to the VEGF promoter. These studies are the first to demonstrate that overexpression of SP-1 plays a central role in hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion. PMID:22992725

  14. first floor plan, east elevation, north elevation, building section, paneling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, east elevation, north elevation, building section, paneling details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 1-2, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard profile, crown molding profile, window and door details - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 22, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. first floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, building section, door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, building section, door details, window details, paneling details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 14-16, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. first floor plan, north elevation, east elevation, building section, door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, north elevation, east elevation, building section, door details, window details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 9, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  19. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  20. 3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ENGINE HOUSE, LEFT REAR. - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  1. South elevation of post office, with elevated storage tank and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation of post office, with elevated storage tank and standpipe at left and water column at right. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  2. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POST OFFICE, WITH ELEVATED STORAGE TANK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF POST OFFICE, WITH ELEVATED STORAGE TANK AND STANDPIPE AT LEFT AND WATER COLUMN AT RIGHT - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  3. 43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  5. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  6. 44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR NEAR WEST WALL OF MST STATION 111 ANTEROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  8. Elevated caspase‑1 activity and IL‑1β expression are associated with the IPAF inflammasome in an experimental model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Hamid Reza; Karkhah, Ahmad; Mohammadzadeh, Iraj; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)‑1β has an important role in the development of allergic diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the upstream pathway underlying IL‑1β production in an experimental model of allergy. BALB/c mice (female, 6‑8 weeks old) were sensitized to recombinant (r)Che a 2 by intraperitoneal injection of rChe a 2 adsorbed onto an alum gel suspension on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. In the control group, mice received an injection of 20 mM phosphate‑buffered saline absorbed onto alum via the same route. The allergic status of the mice was confirmed serologically by measuring allergen‑specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels. The protein expression levels of IL‑1β and the mRNA expression levels of inflammasome compartments were measured by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay and semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In addition, caspase‑1 activity was determined by fluorometric assay. Sensitized mice exhibited significantly increased levels of specific IgE (P<0.05). IL‑1β production and caspase‑1 activity were significantly higher in the sensitized mice compared with the control group. In addition, no significant differences were observed between the control and sensitized mice in the expression of genes associated with the inflammasome, including NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3; apoptosis‑associated speck‑like protein; and NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein 5. However, IL‑1β converting enzyme protease‑activating factor (IPAF) expression was significantly increased in sensitized mice compared with in the control group (P<0.05). These data indicate that caspase‑1 activation and IL‑1β expression are associated with the IPAF inflammasome. Therefore, based on this association, the IPAF inflammasome may be considered for IL‑1β production in the experimental model of allergy. PMID:26935900

  9. Extremely Elevated Room-Temperature Kinetic Isotope Effects Quantify the Critical Role of Barrier Width in Enzymatic C–H Activation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme soybean lipoxygenase (SLO) has served as a prototype for hydrogen-tunneling reactions, as a result of its unusual kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and their temperature dependencies. Using a synergy of kinetic, structural, and theoretical studies, we show how the interplay between donor–acceptor distance and active-site flexibility leads to catalytic behavior previously predicted by quantum tunneling theory. Modification of the size of two hydrophobic residues by site-specific mutagenesis in SLO reduces the reaction rate 104-fold and is accompanied by an enormous and unprecedented room-temperature KIE. Fitting of the kinetic data to a non-adiabatic model implicates an expansion of the active site that cannot be compensated by donor–acceptor distance sampling. A 1.7 Å resolution X-ray structure of the double mutant further indicates an unaltered backbone conformation, almost identical side-chain conformations, and a significantly enlarged active-site cavity. These findings show the compelling property of room-temperature hydrogen tunneling within a biological context and demonstrate the very high sensitivity of such tunneling to barrier width. PMID:24884374

  10. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  11. Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. p53-independent activation of the hdm2-P2 promoter through multiple transcription factor response elements results in elevated hdm2 expression in estrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Monika; Darley, Matthew; Primrose, John N; Blaydes, Jeremy P

    2003-05-15

    The negative-regulatory feedback loop between p53 and hdm2 forms part of a finely balanced regulatory network of proteins that controls cell cycle progression and commitment to apoptosis. Expression of hdm2, and its mouse orthologue mdm2, is known to be induced by p53, but recent evidence has demonstrated mdm2 expression can also be regulated via p53-independent pathways. However the p53 independent mechanisms that control transcription of the human hdm2 gene have not been studied. Differential levels of hdm2 mRNA and protein expression have been reported in several types of human malignancy, including breast cancers in which hdm2 expression correlates with positive estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) status. Experimental models have demonstrated that hdm2 overexpression can promote breast cancer development. Here, we show that the elevated level of hdm2 protein in ERalpha(+ve) breast cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 and T47D is because of transcription from the p53-inducible P2 promoter of hdm2. The P2 promoter is inactive in ERalpha(-ve) cell lines such as SKBr3. Hdm2-P2 promoter activity in T47D cells is independent of p53, as well as of known regulators of the mouse mdm2-P2 promoter, including ERalpha and ras-raf-mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. We show that hdm2-P2 activity in T47D cells is dependent on the integrity of both an evolutionarily conserved composite binding site for AP1 and ETS family transcription factors (AP1-ETS) and a nonconserved upstream (nnGGGGC)(5) repeat sequence. Lack of hdm2-P2 activity in ERalpha(-ve) cells is shown to be a consequence of reduced transcriptional activation through the AP1-ETS element. Overexpression of ETS2 in SKBr3 cells reconstitutes AP1-ETS element-dependent hdm2-P2 promoter activity, resulting in increased levels of hdm2 protein in the cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that the elevated levels of hdm2 expression reported

  13. Elevated hepatocyte growth factor expression as an autocrine c-Met activation mechanism in acquired resistance to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Firtina Karagonlar, Zeynep; Koc, Dogukan; Iscan, Evin; Erdal, Esra; Atabey, Neşe

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Limitations in HCC treatment result due to poor prognosis and resistance against traditional radiotherapy and chemotherapies. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only FDA approved drug available for advanced HCC patients, and development of second-line treatment options for patients who cannot tolerate or develop resistance to sorafenib is an urgent medical need. In this study, we established sorafenib-resistant cells from Huh7 and Mahlavu cell lines by long-term sorafenib exposure. Sorafenib-resistant HCC cells acquired spindle-shape morphology, upregulated mesenchymal markers, and showed significant increase in both migration and invasion abilities compared to their parental counterparts. Moreover, after long-term sorafenib treatment, HCC cells showed induction of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) synthesis and secretion along with increased levels of c-Met kinase and its active phosphorylated form, indicating autocrine activation of HGF/c-Met signaling. Importantly, the combined treatment of the resistant cells with c-Met kinase inhibitor SU11274 and HGF neutralizing antibody significantly reversed the increased invasion ability of the cells. The combined treatment also significantly augmented sorafenib-induced apoptosis, suggesting restoration of sorafenib sensitivity. These results describe, for the first time, compensatory upregulation of HGF synthesis leading to autocrine activation of HGF/c-Met signaling as a novel cellular strategy in the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Therefore, we suggest that combinatorial therapeutic strategies with HGF and c-Met inhibitors comprise promising candidates for overcoming sorafenib resistance. PMID:26790028

  14. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  15. Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  16. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. Most p35+CD4+ T cells and EBI3+CD4+ T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB. PMID:27158354

  17. Phylogenetic history underlies elevational biodiversity patterns in tropical salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, John J; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; García-París, Mario; Wake, David B

    2007-01-01

    Elevational variation in species richness is ubiquitous and important for conservation, but remains poorly explained. Numerous studies have documented higher species richness at mid-elevations, but none have addressed the underlying evolutionary and biogeographic processes that ultimately explain this pattern (i.e. speciation, extinction and dispersal). Here, we address the evolutionary causes of the mid-elevational diversity hump in the most species-rich clade of salamanders, the tropical bolitoglossine plethodontids. We present a new phylogeny for the group based on DNA sequences from all 13 genera and 137 species. Using this phylogeny, we find no relationship between rates of diversification of clades and their elevational distribution, and no evidence for a rapid ‘species pump’ in tropical montane regions. Instead, we find a strong relationship between the number of species in each elevational zone and the estimated time when each elevational band was first colonized. Mid-elevation habitats were colonized early in the phylogenetic history of bolitoglossines, and given similar rates of diversification across elevations, more species have accumulated in the elevational zones that were inhabited the longest. This pattern may be widespread and suggests that mid-elevation habitats may not only harbour more species, but may also contain more phylogenetic diversity than other habitats within a region. PMID:17284409

  18. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  19. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  20. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  1. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  2. The transformation of γ Fe 2O 3 to α Fe 2O 3: thermal activation and the effect of elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, J.; O'Reilly, W.

    1999-01-01

    The transformation of acicular γ Fe 2O 3 particles to α Fe 2O 3 has been monitored using magnetic properties as a proxy for γ Fe 2O 3 concentration during the inversion process. The transformation is thermally activated, the height of the barrier opposing inversion being 3.7 eV at atmospheric pressure and 0.5 eV at a pressure of about 100 MPa. The barrier arises from the combination of a term representing the reduction in lattice energy in an inverted region, and the strain energy associated with the interface between the inverted and non-inverted phases. The sensitivity of the inversion process to pressure can be understood in terms of the dependence of these energy terms, and the energy barrier, on interatomic spacing. Extrapolation of these laboratory data to the conditions of the submarine crust at Site 504B of the Deep Sea Drilling Project is consistent with the inferred magnetic mineralogy of the recovered material.

  3. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  4. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  5. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi Najafabadi, Bent-al-hoda; Abnosi, Mohammad Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Boron (B) is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA) on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rdpassage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 µg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results Although 6 µg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture. PMID:27054120

  6. Reproductive success, early life stage development, and survival of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) exposed to elevated selenium in an area of active coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Barri-Lynn Rudolph; Iisak Andreller; Christopher J. Kennedy

    2008-04-15

    The effects of accumulated Se on the reproductive success and larval development of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) collected from a site of active coal mining in British Columbia were assessed. Eggs from 12 fish from an exposed site (Clode Pond) and 16 from a reference site (O'Rourke Lake) were field-collected and reared in the laboratory. Egg Se concentrations ranged from 12.3 to 16.7 and 11.8 to 140.0 {mu}g/g dry weight (dw) from fish collected at the reference and exposed sites, respectively. Other studies, including those with this species, have not shown Se to affect egg viability. However, in the present study, eggs with Se concentrations >86.3 {mu}g/g dw were not successfully fertilized or were nonviable at fertilization, while eggs with concentrations >46.8 and <75.4 {mu}g/g dw were fertilized (96% reached the eyed stage) but did not produce viable fry. A significant positive relationship between egg Se concentration and alevin mortality was observed. Deformities were analyzed in surviving fry which developed from eggs with Se concentrations between 11.8 and 20.6 {mu}g/g dw. No relationship between Se concentration in eggs and deformities or edema was found in this range, suggesting that the no-effect threshold for deformity is >20.6 {mu}g/g dw. The present data, in conjunction with the data from several other studies in temperate fish, suggest that current Se thresholds are conservative for cold-water fish. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Elevated urinary levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma identify a clinically high-risk group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is highly expressed and its gene is amplified in about 50% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas; this last feature is associated with worse prognosis. It is unknown whether the level of its soluble form (suPAR) in urine may be a diagnostic-prognostic marker in these patients. Methods The urinary level of suPAR was measured in 146 patients, 94 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 52 chronic pancreatitis. Urine from 104 healthy subjects with similar age and gender distribution served as controls. suPAR levels were normalized with creatinine levels (suPAR/creatinine, ng/mg) to remove urine dilution effect. Results Urinary suPAR/creatinine values of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients were significantly higher (median 9.8; 25th-75th percentiles 5.3-20.7) than those of either healthy donors (median 0; 0-0.5) or chronic pancreatitis patients (median 2.7; 0.9-4.7). The distribution of values among cancer patients was widespread and asymmetric, 53% subjects having values beyond the 95th percentile of healthy donors. The values of suPAR/creatinine did not correlate with tumour stage, Ca19-9 or CEA levels. Higher values correlated with poor prognosis among non-resected patients at univariate analysis; multivariate Cox regression identified high urinary suPAR/creatinine as an independent predictor of poor survival among all cancer patients (odds ratio 2.10, p = 0.0023), together with tumour stage (stage III odds ratio 2.65, p = 0.0017; stage IV odds ratio 4.61, p < 0.0001) and female gender (odds ratio 1.85, p = 0.01). Conclusions A high urinary suPAR/creatinine ratio represents a useful marker for the identification of a subset of patients with poorer outcome. PMID:21999221

  8. A Challenge for School Leaders: Gender Equity Issues Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Joyce C.; Hatcher, Denise L.; Thomas, Jerald A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Gender roles in North American education remain a pertinent and dynamic source of discourse. Many questions concerning gender bias remain. This study attempts to characterize a nine-year period of college students' recall of episodes of gender bias from their pre-college experiences. The survey instrument used in this research consisted of a nine…

  9. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  10. Individual and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with special emphasis on ROS generation and activation of antioxidant defence system.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Rai, Richa; Agrawal, S B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and O3, singly and in combination were investigated on various physiological, biochemical and yield parameters of two locally grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (HUW-37 and K-9107) in open top chambers (OTCs). Elevated CO2 stimulated photosynthetic rate (Ps) and Fv/Fm ratio and reduced the stomatal conductance (gs). Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidative enzymes, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were higher, whereas Ps, gs, Fv/Fm, protein and photosynthetic pigments were reduced in elevated O3 exposure, as compared to their controls. Under elevated CO2 + O3, elevated levels of CO2 modified the plant performance against O3 in both the cultivars. Elevated CO2 caused significant increase in economic yield. Exposure to elevated O3 caused significant reduction in yield and the effect was cultivar-specific. The study concluded that elevated CO2 ameliorated the negative impact of elevated O3 and cultivar HUW-37 was more sensitive to elevated O3 than K-9107. PMID:23720888

  11. Analysis of Slip Activity and Deformation Modes in Tension and Tension-Creep Tests of Cast Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (Wt Pct) at Elevated Temperatures Using In Situ SEM Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Boehlert, Carl J.; Wang, Qudong; Yin, Dongdi; Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-05-01

    The tension and tension-creep deformation behavior at elevated temperatures of a cast Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (wt pct, GW103) alloy was investigated using in situ scanning electron microscopy. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 473 K to 598 K (200 °C to 325 °C). The active slip systems were identified using an EBSD-based slip trace analysis methodology. The results showed that for all of the tests, basal slip was the most likely system to be activated, and non-basal slip was activated to some extent depending on the temperature. No twinning was observed. For the tension tests, non-basal slip consisted of ~35 pct of the deformation modes at low temperatures (473 K and 523 K (200 °C and 250 °C)), while non-basal slip accounted for 12 and 7 pct of the deformation modes at high temperatures (573 K and 598 K (300 °C and 325 °C)), respectively. For the tension-creep tests, non-basal slip accounted for 31 pct of the total slip systems at low temperatures, while this value decreased to 10 to 16 pct at high temperatures. For a given temperature, the relative activity for prismatic slip in the tension-creep tests was slightly greater than that for the tension tests, while the activity for pyramidal slip was lower. Slip-transfer in neighboring grains was observed for the low-temperature tests. Intergranular cracking was the main cracking mode, while some intragranular cracks were observed for the tension-creep tests at high temperature and low stress. Grain boundary ledges were prevalently observed for both the tension and tension-creep tests at high temperatures, which suggests that besides dislocation slip, grain boundary sliding also contributed to the deformation.

  12. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  13. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  14. [Chronic elevation of enzymes of pancreatic origin in asymptomatic patients].

    PubMed

    Quílez, C; Martínez, J; Gómez, A; Trigo, C; Palazón, J M; Belda, G; Pérez-Mateo, M

    1998-05-01

    Chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is a well known entity although little has been reported. In most cases chronic asymptomatic elevation of amylase is due to a salival isoamylase increase or macroamylasemia. However, we have studied 10 cases with an increase in amylases due to pancreatic isoamylase and an increase in the remaining pancreatic enzymes which remained elevated during the follow up period ranging from 2 to 60 months. The amylase values ranged from 186 to 1,600; the lipase from 176 to 3,989, trypsin from 476 to 2,430 and pancreatic isoamylase from 122 to 1,263. In all patients CT and echography were carried out, which discarded structural damage. Nonetheless, an indirect test of pancreatic function presented unexplained pathologic values in 4 out of 10 patients. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is of unknown etiology with no associated structural pancreatic pathology demonstrable by the usual study methods. PMID:9644872

  15. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. PMID:25084574

  16. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  17. Fingerprinting digital elevation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Hongmei; Wu, Min

    2006-02-01

    Digital elevation maps (DEMs) provide a digital representation of 3-D terrain information. In civilian applications, high-precision DEMs carry a high commercial value owing to the large amount of effort in acquiring them; and in military applications, DEMs are often used to represent critical geospatial information in sensitive operations. These call for new technologies to prevent unauthorized distribution and to trace traitors in the event of information leak related to DEMs. In this paper, we propose a new digital fingerprinting technique to protect DEM data from illegal re-distribution. The proposed method enables reliable detection of fingerprints from both 3-D DEM data set and its 2-D rendering, whichever format that is available to a detector. Our method starts with extracting from a DEM a set of critical contours either corresponding to important topographic features of the terrain or having application-dependent importance. Fingerprints are then embedded into these critical contours by employing parametric curve modeling and spread spectrum embedding. Finally, a fingerprinted DEM is constructed to incorporate the marked 2-D contours. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against a number of challenging attacks applied to either DEMs or their contour representations.

  18. Soil microbial nutrient constraints along a tropical forest elevation gradient: a belowground test of a biogeochemical paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottingham, A. T.; Turner, B. L.; Whitaker, J.; Ostle, N. J.; McNamara, N. P.; Bardgett, R. D.; Salinas, N.; Meir, P.

    2015-10-01

    Aboveground primary productivity is widely considered to be limited by phosphorus (P) availability in lowland tropical forests and by nitrogen (N) availability in montane tropical forests. However, the extent to which this paradigm applies to belowground processes remains unresolved. We measured indices of soil microbial nutrient status in lowland, sub-montane and montane tropical forests along a natural gradient spanning 3400 m in elevation in the Peruvian Andes. With increasing elevation there were marked increases in soil concentrations of total N, total P, and readily exchangeable P, but a decrease in N mineralization determined by in situ resin bags. Microbial carbon (C) and N increased with increasing elevation, but microbial C : N : P ratios were relatively constant, suggesting homeostasis. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes, which are rich in N, decreased with increasing elevation, while the ratio of enzymes involved in the acquisition of N and P increased with increasing elevation, further indicating an increase in the relative demand for N compared to P with increasing elevation. We conclude that soil microorganisms shift investment in nutrient acquisition from P to N between lowland and montane tropical forests, suggesting that different nutrients regulate soil microbial metabolism and the soil carbon balance in these ecosystems.

  19. Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, P.L.; Evans, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Although goiter formation and hypothyroidism are not infrequent following lithium therapy, the association of exophthalmos and/or elevated thyroxine levels with lithium is uncommon. We describe a 62 year old man who rapidly developed exophthalmos, elevated circulating thyroxine, elevated TSH levels and elevated radioiodine uptake within six weeks of reexposure to lithium carbonate. When the medication was stopped, all indices of thyroid function returned to normal and the proptosis receded from 22 to 17mm. Lithium decreases secretion of preformed thyroid hormone and the secondary elevation of TSH levels usually restores euthyroid status. We propose that in our patient, because triiodothyronine levels remained normal, the pituitary was refractory to the normal inhibitory feedback effect of thyroxine and that continued hypersecretion of TSH resulted in hyperthyroidism

  20. Understanding the elevated suicide risk of female soldiers during deployments

    PubMed Central

    Street, A. E.; Gilman, S. E.; Rosellini, A. J.; Stein, M. B.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Little, R. J. A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Ursano, R. J.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004–2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1–3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 person-years) was 0.9–1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9–2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women. PMID:25359554

  1. Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  3. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  4. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  5. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  7. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  10. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  11. View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to the northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  12. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the north - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  13. View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  14. View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  15. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  16. Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone brick pattern from earlier cooking fireplace at back, southeast wall looking southeast - Kingston-Upon-Hill, Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Kent County, DE

  17. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  18. 32. Interior view, encased fireplace and remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Interior view, encased - fireplace and remains of the hearth against the north wall, with scale l(note: hole punched through plaster allows access to the flues) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  19. 3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS OF THE TURBINE FLUMES. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  20. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  1. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  3. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  4. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  5. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  6. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  7. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  8. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  9. 6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  10. 3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  11. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. Headspace constituents of the tree remain of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Hashimoto, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Kubota, K

    2001-01-01

    The volatile ingredients isolated from a fresh tree of Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) and from a tree remain of C. camphora were collected by using headspace techniques and analyzed by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 99.77% of the constituents consisting 23 components from the fresh tree, 98.68% of the constituents consisting 24 components from the tree remain were identified. Of these ingredients, camphor was obtained as the most abundant component. PMID:11547425

  13. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  14. 35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  15. 38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. Addition to Bacteriology Laboratory at Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. January 1916. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  19. Geothermal activity supports islands of biodiversity in a hyper-arid, high-elevation landscape, Socompa Volcano, Puna de Atacama, Andes: A cultivation-independent molecular-phylogenetic view of soil microbial communities from an extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, E.; Reed, S.; Sowell, P.; Halloy, S.; Schmidt, S.

    2006-12-01

    Socompa Volcano is a relatively young, unglaciated, 6051 m (19,852`) elevation stratovolcano that lies at the Chilean-Argentine border (24° 25`S, 68° 15`W) at the eastern edge of the Atacama Basin in the Arid Core of the Andes. A 1984 exploration revealed isolated mats of moss, liverwort, algae and lichen- dominated autotrophic communities associated with geothermal vents or warmspots near Socompa`s summit (Halloy, 1991). If extant, this system would present a unique opportunity to study life`s limits in a hyper-arid, high-elevation Mars-like landscape. Returning to Socompa in 2005, we encountered previously described warmspot "2" (Halloy, 1991) at 5824 m (19,107`) and found it partially disturbed by recent foot traffic. We collected warmspot-associated gas and soil samples, as well as other non-vent associated soils on Socompa. These soils were subjected to a battery of analyses, including cultivation-independent surveys of bacterial and eukaryotic small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Gas samples contained elevated CO2 and CH4 that, along with water vapor, vent directly from rocky "tubes" and percolate diffusely through the ground at the site. In general, Socompa soils were unvegetated, poorly sorted sands and gravels. Non-vent and vent-associated soils had pH 5.23 and 6.8, respectively. Non-vent and warm (25°C), disturbed (mat destroyed) vent-associated soils had no measurable moisture or nitrogen and 0.03% carbon (with SOM δ13C of -26‰). These soils also contained no measurable photosynthetic or photoprotective pigments and low enzyme activities. Conversely, cold (-5°C), undisturbed (but not overlain with dense mat) vent-associated soil had 10% water, 0.02% nitrogen and 0.25% carbon (C:N=13, SOM δ13C of -23.5‰). These soils had higher enzyme activities, contained chlorophyll a, and harbored a diverse array of algae, moss, liverwort, ascomycete, alveolate, and metazoan 18S rRNA sequences (~30 species). On the other hand, in the warm

  20. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  1. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  2. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  3. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  4. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA.

    PubMed

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. PMID:22994903

  5. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Elevated COX2 expression and PGE2 production by downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huimin; Ma, Feng; Hu, Xiaona; Jin, Ting; Xiong, Chuhui; Teng, Xiaochun

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophage. •RXRα suppresses NF-κB activity and COX2 expression. •Increased PGE2 production due to downregulation of RXRα. -- Abstract: Increased systemic level of inflammatory cytokines leads to numerous age-related diseases. In senescent macrophages, elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production contributes to the suppression of T cell function with aging, which increases the susceptibility to infections. However, the regulation of these inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 with aging still remains unclear. We have verified that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and PGE2 production are higher in LPS-stimulated macrophages from old mice than that from young mice. Downregulation of RXRα, a nuclear receptor that can suppress NF-κB activity, mediates the elevation of COX2 expression and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages. We also have found less induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by RXRα agonist in senescent macrophages, which partially accounts for high risk of atherosclerosis in aged population. Systemic treatment with RXRα antagonist HX531 in young mice increases COX2, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression in splenocytes. Our study not only has outlined a mechanism of elevated NF-κB activity and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages, but also provides RXRα as a potential therapeutic target for treating the age-related diseases.

  7. Hyperosmotic stress and elevated pCO2 alter monoclonal antibody charge distribution and monosaccharide content.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Albert E; Miller, William M

    2002-01-01

    Medium osmolality increases with pCO2 at constant pH. Elevated pCO2 and osmolality inhibit hybridoma growth to similar extents in both serum-containing and serum-free media. The combination of osmolality and elevated pCO2 synergizes to negatively impact cell growth. IgG2a glycosylation by hybridoma cells was evaluated under elevated pCO2 (to 250 mmHg pCO2) and/or osmolality (to 476 mOsm/kg). IgG2a site occupancy did not change significantly under any of the conditions studied, which is consistent with the robust glycosylation of other antibodies produced under various environmental stresses. However, changes were observed in the IgG2a charge distribution. Changes in the isoelectric point (pI) were greater under hyperosmotic stress, increasing by 0.32 and 0.41 pH units at 435 mOsm/kg in serum-containing and serum-free medium, respectively. Hyperosmotic stress also resulted in a concomitant increase in the heterogeneity of the charge distribution. The mean pI in serum-containing medium decreased by 0.16 pH units at 250 mmHg pCO2 when osmolality was controlled at 320 mOsm/kg but increased by 0.20 pH units when the osmolality increased with pCO2 (195 mmHg pCO2-435 mOsm/kg). In serum-free medium, elevated pCO2 did not alter pI, regardless of medium osmolality. In contrast to elevated osmolality at control pCO2, elevated pCO2 did not significantly alter the IgG2a charge heterogeneity under any of the conditions studied. The IgG2a was not sialylated, so sialylation changes were not responsible for changes in the charge distribution. IgG2a galactose content decreased with elevated osmolality, as a result of either elevated NaHCO3 or NaCl. However, when osmolality was controlled at elevated pCO2, the galactose content tended to increase. The mannose content decreased with increasing stress, while the fucose content remained relatively unchanged. It is likely that the observed increases in the pI of murine IgG2a were due to increased organellar pH, which is reflected by

  8. Activity ratios of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra for transport mechanisms of elevated uranium in alluvial aquifers of groundwater in south-western (SW) Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Karpe, R K; Rout, S; Gautam, Y P; Mishra, M K; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved uranium (U), its isotopic composition ((234)U, (235)U, (238)U) and two long lived Ra isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in alluvial aquifers of groundwater were determined to investigate the groundwater flow pattern in the south-western (SW) Punjab, India. Particular attention was given to the spatial variability of activity ratios (ARs) of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra to predict the possible sources and supply process of U into the water from the solid phase. The measured groundwater (234)U/(238)U ARs were ∼1 or >1 in the shallow zone (depth < 30 m) with high U concentration and <1 in the deeper zone (depth > 30 m) with relatively low U concentration. The simultaneous elevated U concentration and (234)U/(238)U ARs in waters were possibly due to differences in imprints of rock-water interactions under hydrologic conditions. However, (234)U/(238)U ARs < 1 clearly indicate the lack of recharge from surface water to groundwater leading to (234)U deficit in groundwater. This deficit might be also attributed to alpha recoil processes under strong dissolution. Overall, the decreasing pattern of (234)U/(238)U ARs observed from SE to SW or NW ward clearly indicates a groundwater flow paths from SE to SW/NW. Similarly, (226)Ra/(238)U ARs < 1 for all water samples reflect that the precursor (238)U is fairly mobile relative to (226)Ra. This might be due to unusually high amount of (238)U in groundwaters and subsequently the different geochemistry of the two isotopes. On the other hand, (226)Ra/(228)Ra ARs in groundwaters varied widely and observed about 50-300 times higher than (238)U/(232)Th ARs in granitic rocks or soils. Such elevation in ARs might be attributed to different dissolution properties of their parents during water-rock interactions or lattice damage during decay or local enrichments of uranium in the aquifers. PMID:26555366

  9. Teacher Retention: Why Do Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Duane; Marlow, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    As beginning teachers continue to leave the profession within the first several years of entering, educators must identify factors which cause teachers to remain in the profession, as well as factors related to attrition if the current teacher shortage is to be remedied. The purpose of this study was to examine the reported attitudes of beginning…

  10. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  11. 11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION STATIONS AT LEFT, TRACKSIDE CAMERA STAND AT FAR RIGHT. Looking northeast toward launch pad. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  13. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  14. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  17. 5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT UPPER GUIDE WALL REMAINS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT UPPER GUIDE WALL REMAINS AND LAND WALL FROM THE OHIO RIVER. - Ohio Slack Water Dams, Lock & Dam No. 4, East bank of Ohio River at mile point 18.6, along State Route 65, Ambridge, Beaver County, PA

  18. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  19. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  20. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  1. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  2. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  3. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  6. Refractory intraoperative hypotension with elevated serum tryptase

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Kelly J.; Divekar, Rohit D.; Butterfield, Joseph H.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Weingarten, Toby N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe intraoperative hypotension has been reported in patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 antagonists. We describe a patient on lisinopril who developed refractory intraoperative hypotension associated with increased serum tryptase level suggesting mast cell activation (allergic reaction). However, allergology workup ruled out an allergic etiology as well as mastocytosis, and hypotension recalcitrant to treatment was attributed to uninterrupted lisinopril therapy. Elevated serum tryptase was attributed to our patient's chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:25653920

  7. 1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

  9. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  10. Identifying and Reducing Remaining Stocks of Rinderpest Virus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Keith; Visser, Dawid; Evans, Brian; Vallat, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. Rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. However, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are committed to destroying remaining stocks of infectious material or ensuring that it is stored under international supervision in a limited number of approved facilities. To facilitate this commitment and maintain global freedom from rinderpest, World Organisation for Animal Health Member Countries must report annually on rinderpest material held in their countries. The first official surveys, conducted during 2013-2015, revealed that rinderpest material was stored in an unacceptably high number of facilities and countries. PMID:26584400

  11. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  12. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory. PMID:23580533

  13. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    PubMed Central

    Girish, KL; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains. PMID:21731342

  14. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages. PMID:18000894

  15. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  16. Belarus ratifies START I pact; Ukraine remains last holdout

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-03-01

    The Belarus Parliment ratified START I by a vote of 218 to 1 on February 4, 1993. The Parliment also voted to accede to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state. The Parliment also passed two companion accords with Russia to coordinate the withdrawal of the ICBMs now in Belarus and to define the legal states of those weapons. Ukraine remains the only party to START I that has not yet approved the treaty.

  17. Elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Kane, R. D.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Sensitivity of the elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel to grain size and shape was examined in both tension and creep. Elevated temperature strength increased with increasing grain diameter and increasing L/D ratio. Measured activation enthalpies in tension and creep were not the same. In tension, the internal stress was not proportional to the shear modulus. Creep activation enthalpies increased with increasing L/D ratio and increasing grain diameter, to high values compared with that of the self diffusion enthalpy. It has been postulated that two concurrent processes contribute to the elevated temperature deformation of polycrystalline TD-nickel: (1) diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding, and (2) dislocation motion.

  18. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    PubMed

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals. PMID:15902255

  19. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  20. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. PMID:24112343

  1. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts. PMID:26391374

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  3. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  4. Slow rate of molecular evolution in high-elevation hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, R

    1998-01-20

    Estimates of relative rates of molecular evolution from a DNA-hybridization phylogeny for 26 hummingbird species provide evidence for a negative association between elevation and rate of single-copy genome evolution. This effect of elevation on rate remains significant even after taking into account a significant negative association between body mass and molecular rate. Population-level processes do not appear to account for these patterns because (i) all hummingbirds breed within their first year and (ii) the more extensive subdivision and speciation of bird populations living at high elevations predicts a positive association between elevation and rate. The negative association between body mass and molecular rate in other organisms has been attributed to higher mutation rates in forms with higher oxidative metabolism. As ambient oxygen tensions and temperature decrease with elevation, the slow rate of molecular evolution in high-elevation hummingbirds also may have a metabolic basis. A slower rate of single-copy DNA change at higher elevations suggests that the dynamics of molecular evolution cannot be separated from the environmental context. PMID:9435240

  5. Soil microbial nutrient constraints along a tropical forest elevation gradient: a belowground test of a biogeochemical paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottingham, A. T.; Turner, B. L.; Whitaker, J.; Ostle, N.; McNamara, N. P.; Bardgett, R. D.; Salinas, N.; Meir, P.

    2015-04-01

    Aboveground primary productivity is widely considered to be limited by phosphorus (P) availability in lowland tropical forests and by nitrogen (N) availability in montane tropical forests. However, the extent to which this paradigm applies to belowground processes remains unresolved. We measured indices of soil microbial nutrient status in lowland, sub-montane and montane tropical forests along a natural gradient spanning 3400 m in elevation in the Peruvian Andes. With increasing elevation there were marked increases in soil concentrations of total N, total P, and readily-extractable P, but a decrease in N mineralization determined by in situ resin bags. Microbial carbon (C) and N increased with increasing elevation, but microbial C:N:P ratios were relatively constant, suggesting homeostasis. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes, which are rich in N, decreased with increasing elevation, while the ratios of enzymes involved in the acquisition of N and P increased with increasing elevation, further indicating a shift in the relative demand for N and P by microbial biomass. We conclude that soil microorganisms shift investment in nutrient acquisition from P to N between lowland and montane tropical forests, suggesting that different nutrients regulate soil microbial metabolism and the soil carbon balance in these ecosystems.

  6. New fossil cercopithecid remains from the Humpata Plateau, southern Angola.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, N G

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to describe and identify the well-preserved cranial remains of a fossil cercopithecid recently recovered from sites on the Humpata Plateau in southern Angola. In the past, papionin fossils recovered from the Angolan site of Tchiua (Leba) have been referred to various taxa, including Dinopithecus ingens, Parapapio sp., and Papio (Dinopithecus) quadratirostris. Comparison of the new Angolan papionin cranial remains with those previously described from the Humpata Plateau and a large range of living and fossil Papionini revealed that the range of metrical and morphological variation present in the Humpata papionin sample was consistent with that found in a single extant papionin species. The Humpata cranial remains bear the largest number of similarities to Theropithecus baringensis R. Leakey, 1969, and it is to this species that the remains are hereby referred. This assignment is based on a suite of 11 shared attributes of the Humpata papionin fossils and the type specimen of T. baringensis, KNM BC2, which include: large molar teeth of relatively low relief with pinched cusps and with a prominent distal fovea on M3; a small, low cranial vault with little mid-parietal expansion; a bow-shaped supraorbital torus; trapezoidal, inferiorly tapering orbits; a functional complex related to the presence of a large and vertically oriented anterior temporalis muscle; a large infratemporal fossa with an anteromedially oriented posterior border; a long muzzle with a steep interorbital drop, shallow incisive arc, flattened dorsum, and rounded maxillary ridges; nasal bones that extend across the breadth of the posterior margin of the nasal aperture and then taper markedly as they approach nasion; prominent, inferiorly divergent mental ridges; and relatively shallow mandibular fossae that are long, elliptical in shape, and extend to the level of the M3. The results of the current study suggest that T. baringensis (now including the Humpata

  7. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  8. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease. PMID:27400066

  9. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans. PMID:26650923

  10. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  11. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  12. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  13. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  14. Impact of long-term moderate hypercapnia and elevated temperature on the energy budget of isolated gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Cornelia M; Michael, Katharina; Bock, Christian; Lucassen, Magnus; Pörtner, Hans-O

    2015-04-01

    Effects of severe hypercapnia have been extensively studied in marine fishes, while knowledge on the impacts of moderately elevated CO2 levels and their combination with warming is scarce. Here we investigate ion regulation mechanisms and energy budget in gills from Atlantic cod acclimated long-term to elevated PCO2 levels (2500 μatm) and temperature (18°C). Isolated perfused gill preparations were established to determine gill thermal plasticity during acute exposures (10-22°C) and in vivo costs of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, protein and RNA synthesis. Maximum enzyme capacities of F1Fo-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were measured in vitro in crude gill homogenates. After whole animal acclimation to elevated PCO2 and/or warming, branchial oxygen consumption responded more strongly to acute temperature change. The fractions of gill respiration allocated to protein and RNA synthesis remained unchanged. In gills of fish CO2-exposed at both temperatures, energy turnover associated with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced by 30% below rates of control fish. This contrasted in vitro capacities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which remained unchanged under elevated CO2 at 10°C, and earlier studies which had found a strong upregulation under severe hypercapnia. F1Fo-ATPase capacities increased in hypercapnic gills at both temperatures, whereas Na(+)/K(+)ATPase and H(+)-ATPase capacities only increased in response to elevated CO2 and warming indicating the absence of thermal compensation under CO2. We conclude that in vivo ion regulatory energy demand is lowered under moderately elevated CO2 levels despite the stronger thermal response of total gill respiration and the upregulation of F1Fo-ATPase. This effect is maintained at elevated temperature. PMID:25535111

  15. Elevated dissolved organic carbon biodegradability from thawing and collapsing permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Benjamin W.; Larouche, Julia R.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Bowden, William B.; Balser, Andrew W.

    2014-10-01

    As high latitudes warm, a portion of the large organic carbon pool stored in permafrost will become available for transport to aquatic ecosystems as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). If permafrost DOC is biodegradable, much will be mineralized to the atmosphere in freshwater systems before reaching the ocean, accelerating carbon transfer from permafrost to the atmosphere, whereas if recalcitrant, it will reach marine ecosystems where it may persist over long time periods. We measured biodegradable DOC (BDOC) in water flowing from collapsing permafrost (thermokarst) on the North Slope of Alaska and tested the role of DOC chemical composition and nutrient concentration in determining biodegradability. DOC from collapsing permafrost was some of the most biodegradable reported in natural systems. However, elevated BDOC only persisted during active permafrost degradation, with a return to predisturbance levels once thermokarst features stabilized. Biodegradability was correlated with background nutrient concentration, but nutrient addition did not increase overall BDOC, suggesting that chemical composition may be a more important control on DOC processing. Despite its high biodegradability, permafrost DOC showed evidence of substantial previous microbial processing, and we present four hypotheses explaining this incongruity. Because thermokarst features form preferentially on river banks and lake shores and can remain active for decades, thermokarst may be the dominant short-term mechanism delivering sediment, nutrients, and biodegradable organic matter to aquatic systems as the Arctic warms.

  16. Novel dengue virus inhibitor 4-HPR activates ATF4 independent of protein kinase R-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase and elevates levels of eIF2α phosphorylation in virus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J E; Wang, C; Chan, K W K; Vasudevan, S G; Jans, D A

    2016-06-01

    Infections by dengue virus (DENV) are increasing worldwide, with an urgent need for effective anti-DENV agents. We recently identified N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), an anti-DENV agent effective against all 4 serotypes of DENV in cell culture, and in a lethal mouse model for DENV infection (Fraser et al., 2014b). Although identified as an inhibitor of DENV non-structural protein 5 (NS5) recognition by host nuclear import proteins, the precise impact and mode of action of 4-HPR in effecting DENV clearance remains to be defined. Significantly, concurrent with decreased viral RNA and infectious DENV in 4-HPR-treated cells, we previously observed specific up-regulation of transcripts representing the Protein Kinase R-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK) arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway upon 4-HPR addition. Here we pursue these findings in detail, examining the role of specific PERK pathway components in DENV clearance. We demonstrate that 4-HPR-induced nuclear localization of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4), a pathway component downstream from PERK, occurs in a PERK-independent manner, implying activation instead occurs through Integrated Stress Response (ISR) kinases. Significantly, ATF4 does not appear to be required for the antiviral activity of 4-HPR, suggesting transcriptional events induced by ATF4 do not drive the 4-HPR-induced antiviral state. Instead, we demonstrate that 4-HPR induces phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a target of ISR kinases which controls translation attenuation, and confirm the importance of phosphorylated-eIF2α in DENV infection using guanabenz, a specific inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation. This study provides the first detailed insight into the cellular effects modulated by 4-HPR in DENV-infected cells, critical to progressing 4-HPR towards the clinic. PMID:26965420

  17. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology. PMID:25689980

  19. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article. PMID:23357827

  20. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  1. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  2. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  3. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. PMID:22150429

  4. Systematic acquisition of audio classes for elevator surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Divakaran, Ajay

    2005-03-01

    We present a systematic framework for arriving at audio classes for detection of crimes in elevators. We use a time series analysis framework to analyze the low-level features extracted from the audio of an elevator surveillance content to perform an inlier/outlier based temporal segmentation. Since suspicious events in elevators are outliers in a background of usual events, such a segmentation help bring out such events without any a priori knowledge. Then, by performing an automatic clustering on the detected outliers, we identify consistent patterns for which we can train supervised detectors. We apply the proposed framework to a collection of elevator surveillance audio data to systematically acquire audio classes such as banging, footsteps, non-neutral speech and normal speech etc. Based on the observation that the banging audio class and non-neutral speech class are indicative of suspicious events in the elevator data set, we are able to detect all of the suspicious activities without any misses.

  5. Provision of Training for the IT Industry: The ELEVATE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskakis, Iraklis; Konstantinidis, Andreas; Bouras, Thanassis; Perakis, Kostas; Pantelopoulos, Stelios; Hatziapostolou, Thanos

    This paper will present ELEVATE that aims to deliver an innovative training, educational and certification environment integrating the application software to be taught with the training procedure. ELEVATE aspires to address the training needs of software development SMEs and the solution proposed is based on three basic notions: to provide competence training that is tailored to the needs of the individual trainee, to allow the trainee to carry out authentic activities as well as problem based learning that draws from real life scenarios and finally to allow for the assessment and certification of the skills and competences acquired. In order to achieve the desired results the ELEVATE architecture utilises an Interactive Interoperability Layer, an Intelligent Personalization Trainer as well as the Training, Evaluation & Certification component. As an end product, the ELEVATE project The ELEVATE pedagogical model is based on blended learning, the e-Training component (an intelligent system that provides tailored training) and Learning 2.0.

  6. 2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  9. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  11. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  12. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  13. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  14. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  15. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  16. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  17. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  18. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  19. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  20. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...