Science.gov

Sample records for activity remained high

  1. Slope exploration slow but hopes remain high

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-15

    Alaska North Slope exploratory drilling has been sparse this winter. Attention focused on a pair of ARCO alaska Inc. wildcats in the West Colville high sector west of Kuparuk River oil field and two BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. wildcats in the Badami area at Mikkelson Bay. In both prospects, the drilling effort was to prove up more production that could support commercial development of the respective areas. Though there has been relatively little exploratory drilling this winter, both of the slope`s major producers have indicated they are far from finished with exploration in Alaska. The paper discusses the debate over the use of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, leasing and licensing, the federal leasing outlook, and Russian-US leasing.

  2. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  3. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    PubMed

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  4. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  5. High-performance vertical Si PiN diode by hole remaining mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Masanori; Baba, Akiyoshi; Shiba, Yuji; Omura, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    A novel diode with a unique trench shape is predicted by TCAD simulation to have high performance. The novel 600 V vertical PiN diode with hole pockets by the Bosch deep trench process shows a better trade-off curve between reverse recovery loss and forward voltage. The reverse recovery loss is reduced by half. In addition, the active chip size of the novel diode is reduced to two-thirds that of the conventional PiN diode in the same forward voltage. Thanks to the hole pockets with an electric field in the diagonal direction, the remaining hole suppresses the surge voltage with noise for high performance. In this paper, we specially focus on the analysis of phenomenon and the noise suppression mechanism during reverse recovery. The novel diode structure is a strong candidate when developing the fabrication process after silicon trench etching is established.

  6. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    PubMed

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive.

  7. The VSOP 5 GHz Active Galactic Nucleus Survey. V. Imaging Results for the Remaining 140 Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, R.; Fomalont, E. B.; Wiik, K.; Horiuchi, S.; Hirabayashi, H.; Edwards, P. G.; Murata, Y.; Asaki, Y.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Scott, W. K.; Taylor, A. R.; Gurvits, L. I.; Paragi, Z.; Frey, S.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Rioja, M. J.; Fodor, S.; Lister, M. L.; Mosoni, L.; Coldwell, G.; Piner, B. G.; Yang, J.

    2008-04-01

    In 1997 February, the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-bourne element for the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP) mission. Approximately 25% of the mission time was dedicated to the VSOP survey of bright compact active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 5 GHz. This paper, the fifth in the series, presents images and models for the remaining 140 sources not included in the third paper in the series, which contained 102 sources. For most sources, the plots of the (u,v) coverage, the visibility amplitude versus (u,v) distance, and the high-resolution image are presented. Model fit parameters to the major radio components are determined, and the brightness temperature of the core component for each source is calculated. The brightness temperature distributions for all of the sources in the VSOP AGN survey are discussed.

  8. Scavenging activity can produce predictable patterns in surface skeletal remains scattering: observations and comments from two experiments.

    PubMed

    Kjorlien, Yvonne P; Beattie, Owen B; Peterson, Arthur E

    2009-07-01

    In forensic contexts, surface deposited remains are frequently found that have been scattered by various taphonomic processes. In an effort to develop strategies to improve recovery rates, this study evaluates whether patterns can be detected in the scattering of remains due to scavenger activity. In two experiments, 24 human analogues (pig carcasses) were placed in two adjacent but differing environmental contexts: 12 in wooded and 12 in open grassland. Six carcasses in each of these contexts were dressed in human clothing. Elapsed time and direction of movement information for each carcass and its parts were collected and analyzed. Unclothed carcasses and carcasses in open contexts exhibited scavenger activity sooner than the others. Scattering of remains occurred along game trails and was directed away from human population and activity. Due to the highly variable nature of scavenger activity, daily observations during a research project are the key leading to a better understanding of the development of these patterns.

  9. Simple and highly effective DNA extraction methods from old skeletal remains using silica columns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Sim, Jeong Eun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2010-10-01

    The recovery of DNA data from old skeletal remains is often difficult due to degraded and very low yield of extracted DNA and the presence of PCR inhibitors. Herein, we compared several silica-based DNA extraction methods from artificially degraded DNA, DNA with PCR inhibitors and DNA from old skeletal remains using quantitative real-time PCR. We present a modified large-scale silica-based extraction combined with complete demineralization, that enables maximum DNA recovery and efficient elimination of PCR inhibitors. This is performed with high concentration of EDTA solution for demineralization of bone powder followed by QIAamp spin columns and buffers from the QIAquick PCR purification kit. We have successfully used this modified technique to perform STR analysis for 55-year-old skeletal remains. The results of this study will contribute to solve the forensic cases dealing with skeletal remains.

  10. Remaining activity determination of the resid desulfurization catalyst in a commerical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yung-Ji Tarng; Sheng-Yang Ju

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to present a method to determine the remaining catalyst activity of the resid desulfurization plant. Using the daily available operating data, we can establish a performance curve which is a temperature versus days on stream curve. By the use of the performance curve, we can in situ predict how much the catalyst life remains. With the knowledge of the catalyst life remaining, plant engineers are able to control the operating conditions to meet the specified run length of the catalyst suggested by the catalyst venders and refinery planning department. There are five heavy oil desulfurization (RDS) plants in Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) to produce the low sulfur fuel oil and low metal content feed stocks for the downstream processes. In general four or five reactors are connected in series for the reacting system and catalysts of various types are loaded in each reactor. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Many Mobile Health Apps Target High-Need, High-Cost Populations, But Gaps Remain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karandeep; Drouin, Kaitlin; Newmark, Lisa P; Lee, JaeHo; Faxvaag, Arild; Rozenblum, Ronen; Pabo, Erika A; Landman, Adam; Klinger, Elissa; Bates, David W

    2016-12-01

    With rising smartphone ownership, mobile health applications (mHealth apps) have the potential to support high-need, high-cost populations in managing their health. While the number of available mHealth apps has grown substantially, no clear strategy has emerged on how providers should evaluate and recommend such apps to patients. Key stakeholders, including medical professional societies, insurers, and policy makers, have largely avoided formally recommending apps, which forces patients to obtain recommendations from other sources. To help stakeholders overcome barriers to reviewing and recommending apps, we evaluated 137 patient-facing mHealth apps-those intended for use by patients to manage their health-that were highly rated by consumers and recommended by experts and that targeted high-need, high-cost populations. We found that there is a wide variety of apps in the marketplace but that few apps address the needs of the patients who could benefit the most. We also found that consumers' ratings were poor indications of apps' clinical utility or usability and that most apps did not respond appropriately when a user entered potentially dangerous health information. Going forward, data privacy and security will continue to be major concerns in the dissemination of mHealth apps.

  12. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories.

  13. Embryonic stem cells remain highly pluripotent following long term expansion as aggregates in suspension bioreactors.

    PubMed

    zur Nieden, Nicole I; Cormier, Jaymi T; Rancourt, Derrick E; Kallos, Michael S

    2007-05-01

    Increasing attention has been drawn towards pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their potential use as the primary material in various tissue engineering applications. Successful clinical implementation of this technology would require a quality controlled reproducible culture system for the expansion of the cells to be used in the generation of functional tissues. Recently, we showed that suspension bioreactors could be used in the regulated large-scale expansion of highly pluripotent murine ESCs. The current study illustrates that these bioreactor protocols can be adapted for long term culture and that murine ESC cultures remain highly undifferentiated, when serially passaged in suspension bioreactors for extended periods. Flow cytometry analysis and gene expression profiles of several pluripotency markers, in addition to colony and embryoid body (EB) formation tests were conducted at the start and end of the experiment and all showed that the ESC cultures remained highly undifferentiated over extended culture time in suspension. In vivo teratoma formation and in vitro differentiation into neural, cardiomyocyte, osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, performed at the end of the long term culture, further supported the presence of functional and undifferentiated ESCs in the expanded population. Overall, this system enables the controlled expansion of highly pluripotent murine ESC populations.

  14. The efficacy of high-throughput sequencing and target enrichment on charred archaeobotanical remains

    PubMed Central

    Nistelberger, H. M.; Smith, O.; Wales, N.; Star, B.; Boessenkool, S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of archaeological plant material is preserved in a charred state. Obtaining reliable ancient DNA data from these remains has presented challenges due to high rates of nucleotide damage, short DNA fragment lengths, low endogenous DNA content and the potential for modern contamination. It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three different laboratories, presenting the largest HTS assessment of charred archaeobotanical specimens to date. Rigorous analysis of our data – excluding false-positives due to background contamination or incorrect index assignments – indicated a lack of endogenous DNA in nearly all samples, except for one lightly-charred maize cob. Even with target enrichment, this sample failed to yield adequate data required to address fundamental questions in archaeology and biology. We further reanalysed part of an existing dataset on charred plant material, and found all purported endogenous DNA sequences were likely to be spurious. We suggest these technologies are not suitable for use with charred archaeobotanicals and urge great caution when interpreting data obtained by HTS of these remains. PMID:27881876

  15. Application of novel "mini-amplicon" STR multiplexes to high volume casework on degraded skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas J; Huel, Rene; Davoren, Jon; Katzmarzyk, Cheryl; Milos, Ana; Selmanović, Arijana; Smajlović, Lejla; Coble, Michael D; Rizvić, Adnan

    2007-06-01

    The International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) conducts high throughput STR profiling on degraded skeletal remains, primarily recovered from mass graves relating to conflicts from 1992 to 1999 in the former Yugoslavia. To date, over 11,000 individuals have been identified through comparison of bone profiles to a large database of profiles from family members of the missing. To increase success rates in STR recovery, three short amplicon STR multiplexes (a 7-plex, a 6-plex, and a 5-plex) have been devised and implemented. These target loci from large commercial multiplexes, with an average decrease in amplicon size of 144 bp. The ICMP "miniplexes" have proven to provide substantially greater recovery of DNA data from a certain subset of difficult samples. However, the circumstances under which miniplexes provide additional data are restricted, and their advantages do not outweigh those of large commercial multiplexes for a majority of cases. The miniplexes, however, also have a very powerful use in DNA testing to support large scale reassociation of commingled, partial skeletons recovered from secondary mass graves.

  16. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p < .01) and high for body fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p < .05). However, there were no differences (p > .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  17. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  18. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  19. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  20. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  1. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  2. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  3. The curtain remains open: NGC 2617 continues in a high state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oknyansky, V. L.; Gaskell, C. M.; Huseynov, N. A.; Lipunov, V. M.; Shatsky, N. I.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Mikailov, Kh. M.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Metlov, V. G.; Nadzhip, A. E.; Kuznetsov, A. S.; Balanutza, P. V.; Burlak, M. A.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Artamonov, B. P.; Salmanov, I. R.; Malanchev, K. L.; Oknyansky, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Optical and near-infrared photometry, optical spectroscopy, and soft X-ray and UV monitoring of the changing look active galactic nucleus NGC 2617 show that it continues to have the appearance of a type-1 Seyfert galaxy. An optical light curve for 2010-2017 indicates that the change of type probably occurred between October 2010 and February 2012 and was not related to the brightening in 2013. In 2016 NGC 2617 brightened again to a level of activity close to that of April 2013. We find variations in all passbands and in both the intensities and profiles of the broad Balmer lines. A new displaced emission peak has appeared in Hβ. X-ray variations are well correlated with UV-optical variability and possibly lead by ˜ 2-3 days. The K band lags the J band by about 21.5 ± 2.5 days and lags the combined B + J filters by ˜ 25 days. J lags B by about 3 days. This could be because J-band variability arises from the outer part of the accretion disc while K-band variability comes from thermal re-emission by dust. We propose that spectral type changes are a result of increasing central luminosity causing sublimation of the innermost dust in the hollow bi-conical outflow. We briefly discuss various other possible reasons which might explain the dramatic changes NGC 2617.

  4. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  5. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  6. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies.

  7. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity remains detectable during severe aplasia following bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Morton, C T; Solovey, A; Dandelet, L; Bach, R R; Hebbel, R P; Slungaard, A; Key, N S

    2001-02-01

    Using a novel whole blood assay, we recently demonstrated that tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) is present in normal individuals. Preliminary experiments suggested that this activity is localized in the mononuclear cell fraction. Postulating that whole blood TF PCA would therefore be undetectable when monocytes and neutrophils are absent from peripheral blood, we assayed TF PCA during the peri-transplant period in 15 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic (n = 12) or autologous (n = 3) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Baseline (pre-transplant) mean TF PCA was higher in patients compared to normal controls (P <0.005). Unexpectedly, although TF PCA during the period of profound aplasia was significantly reduced compared to baseline (p <0.05), fully 55% of the initial activity remained detectable. During the engraftment phase, TF PCA returned to pre-transplant levels, with a linear correlation between monocyte counts and TF PCA (r = 0.63). In contrast to normal whole blood, incubation of aplastic samples with E. Coli lipopolysaccharide ex vivo failed to induce TF PCA. Throughout the period of study--but especially during the aplastic phase--the absolute number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) that were TF antigen-positive was increased compared to normals (P <0.001). However, removal of these cells from whole blood samples failed to significantly diminish total TF PCA indicating that CECs alone could not account for the detectable TF PCA during aplasia. We conclude that neither circulating mature myelo-monocytic cells nor endothelial cells can account for all the functionally intact TF in peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to identify the other source(s) of TF PCA.

  8. Machine remaining useful life prediction: An integrated adaptive neuro-fuzzy and high-order particle filtering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaochao; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2012-04-01

    Machine prognosis can be considered as the generation of long-term predictions that describe the evolution in time of a fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem so that timely maintenance can be performed to avoid catastrophic failures. This paper proposes an integrated RUL prediction method using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) and high-order particle filtering, which forecasts the time evolution of the fault indicator and estimates the probability density function (pdf) of RUL. The ANFIS is trained and integrated in a high-order particle filter as a model describing the fault progression. The high-order particle filter is used to estimate the current state and carry out p-step-ahead predictions via a set of particles. These predictions are used to estimate the RUL pdf. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated via the real-world data from a seeded fault test for a UH-60 helicopter planetary gear plate. The results demonstrate that it outperforms both the conventional ANFIS predictor and the particle-filter-based predictor where the fault growth model is a first-order model that is trained via the ANFIS.

  9. High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    We examined changes in lipid profiles of 40 adult northern elephant seal bulls over the 3-month breeding fast and the 1-month molting fast to investigate impacts of fasting on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were initially high (3930 ± 190mgL(-1)and 1610 ± 170mgL(-1), respectively) and decreased significantly over the breeding season. Total cholesterol and LDL declined significantly with adipose tissue reserves (p<0.001), and LDL levels as low as 43 mgL(-1) were measured in seals late in the breeding fast. Less dramatic but similar changes in lipid metabolism were observed across the molting fast. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remained consistently elevated (>1750 mgL(-1)) suggesting that elephant seals defend HDL concentrations, despite significant depletion of TC and LDL across the breeding fast. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher during the molt, consistent with lower rates of lipid oxidation needed to meet metabolic energy demands during this period. The maintenance of HDL during breeding is consistent with its role in delivering cholesterol from adipose tissue for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and potentially mitigates oxidative stress associated with fasting.

  10. High genetic diversity on a sample of pre-Columbian bone remains from Guane territories in northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Casas-Vargas, Andrea; Gómez, Alberto; Briceño, Ignacio; Díaz-Matallana, Marcela; Bernal, Jaime E; Rodríguez, José Vicente

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA was recovered from 17 individuals found in a rock shelter in the district of "La Purnia" (Santander, Colombia). This region is the homeland of pre-Columbian Guane, whom spread over the "Río Suarez" to the "Río de Oro", and were surrounded to the west by the Central Andes, south and east by foothills of Eastern Andes, and north by the "Chicamocha" river canyon. Guanes established in a region that straddles the Andes and the northern Amazon basin, possibly making it an unavoidable conduit for people moving to and from South America. We amplified mtDNA hypervariable region I (HVI) segments from ancient bone remains, and the resulting sequences were compared with both ancient and modern mitochondrial haplogroups from American and non-American populations. Samples showed a distribution of 35% for haplogroup A, 41% for haplogroup B and 24% for haplogroup D. Nine haplotypes were found in 17 samples, indicating an unusually high genetic diversity on a single site ancient population. Among them, three haplotypes have not been previously found in America, two are shared in Asia, and one is a private haplotype. Despite geographical barriers that eventually isolated them, an important influence of gene flow from neighboring pre-Columbian communities, mainly Muiscas, could explain the high genetic polymorphism of this community before the Spanish conquest, and argues against Guanes as being a genetic isolate.

  11. Specificity of high-intensity intermittent action remains important to MMA athletes' physical conditioning: response to Paillard (2011).

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-02-01

    This response to Paillard (2011) focuses on the intermittent nature of mixed martial arts (MMA). It also emphasizes that the main goal of MMA athletes is to win by knockout or submission and that these actions normally are high-intensity actions or preceded by high-intensity actions. Additionally, there is evidence that high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols are able to improve aerobic fitness. It is important only to adjust physical training to the athletes' techniques and tactics.

  12. The drink remains the same: implicit positive associations in high but not moderate or non-caffeine users.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Wright, Claire; Yeomans, Martin R

    2010-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that high, but not low caffeine users exhibit an attentional bias to caffeine related stimuli. Separately, the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) has been used to investigate the valence of implicit cognitions to drugs with some contradictory findings, though no work has addressed this issue with respect to caffeine. Here, we examined whether attentional bias would be found in high and moderate caffeine users using a pictorial version of the dot-probe task. A second aim was to explore differences in implicit cognitions between users and non-users. Fifteen high, moderate and non-caffeine users completed a picture dot-probe, IAT, and mood questionnaire following overnight caffeine deprivation. In the IAT, results demonstrated positive associations to caffeine related words for high but not moderate or non-users. Lower ratings for calmness were evident in both groups of caffeine compared to non-users. Dot-probe findings revealed an attentional bias among moderate caffeine users and non-users but not heavy users. The observed positive implicit associations to caffeine suggest that drug acceptability is the key in such perceptions.

  13. Patients who return to care after tracking remain at high risk of attrition: experience from a large HIV clinic, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nakiwogga-Muwanga, A; Musaazi, J; Katabira, E; Worodria, W; Talisuna, S Alamo; Colebunders, R

    2015-01-01

    We determined the retention rate of patients infected with HIV who resumed care after being tracked at the Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) in Kampala, Uganda. Between April 2011 and September 2013, patients who missed their clinic appointment for 8-90 days were tracked, and those who returned to the clinic within 120 days were followed up. The proportion of patients retained among tracked patients, and those who resumed care before tracking started was compared. At 18 months of follow up, 33 (39%) of the tracked patients and 72 (61%) of those who had resumed care before tracking started were retained in care. The most important cause of attrition among the traceable was self-transfer to another clinic (38 [73%] patients), whereas among those who resumed care before tracking was loss to follow up (LTFU) (32 [71%] patients). Tracked patients who resume care following a missed appointment are at high risk of attrition. To increase retention, antiretroviral therapy clinics need to adopt a chronic care model which takes into consideration patients' changing needs and their preference for self-management.

  14. Tenacious D: Symbiodinium in clade D remain in reef corals at both high and low temperature extremes despite impairment.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Rachel N; Cunning, Ross; Baker, Andrew C

    2017-04-01

    Reef corals are sensitive to thermal stress, which induces coral bleaching (the loss of algal symbionts), often leading to coral mortality. However, corals hosting certain symbionts (notably some members of Symbiodinium clade D) resist bleaching when exposed to high temperatures. To determine whether these symbionts are also cold tolerant, we exposed corals hosting either Symbiodinium C3 or D1a to incremental warming (+1°C week(-1) to 35°C) and cooling (-1°C week(-1) to 15°C), and measured photodamage and symbiont loss. During warming to 33°C, C3 corals were photodamaged and lost >99% of symbionts, while D1a corals experienced photodamage but did not bleach. During cooling, D1a corals suffered more photodamage than C3 corals but still did not bleach, while C3 corals lost 94% of symbionts. These results indicate that photodamage does not always lead to bleaching, suggesting alternate mechanisms exist by which symbionts resist bleaching, and helping explain the persistence of D1a symbionts on recently bleached reefs, with implications for the future of these ecosystems.

  15. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  16. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  17. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  18. A cost-effective high-throughput metabarcoding approach powerful enough to genotype ~44 000 year-old rodent remains from Northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, S; Pruvost, M; Daligault, J; Stoetzel, E; Bennett, E A; Côté, N M-L; Nicolas, V; Lalis, A; Denys, C; Geigl, E-M; Grange, T

    2016-07-04

    We present a cost-effective metabarcoding approach, aMPlex Torrent, which relies on an improved multiplex PCR adapted to highly degraded DNA, combining barcoding and next-generation sequencing to simultaneously analyse many heterogeneous samples. We demonstrate the strength of these improvements by generating a phylochronology through the genotyping of ancient rodent remains from a Moroccan cave whose stratigraphy covers the last 120 000 years. Rodents are important for epidemiology, agronomy and ecological investigations and can act as bioindicators for human- and/or climate-induced environmental changes. Efficient and reliable genotyping of ancient rodent remains has the potential to deliver valuable phylogenetic and paleoecological information. The analysis of multiple ancient skeletal remains of very small size with poor DNA preservation, however, requires a sensitive high-throughput method to generate sufficient data. We show this approach to be particularly adapted at accessing this otherwise difficult taxonomic and genetic resource. As a highly scalable, lower cost and less labour-intensive alternative to targeted sequence capture approaches, we propose the aMPlex Torrent strategy to be a useful tool for the genetic analysis of multiple degraded samples in studies involving ecology, archaeology, conservation and evolutionary biology.

  19. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  20. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  1. [What remains of arthrography?].

    PubMed

    Morvan, G

    1994-06-15

    At the time of RMI, arthrography appears sometimes old-fashioned. However this exam, which knows a second youth in relation with the supply of CT-scan (arthro-CT) remains the gold-standard in the exploration of many pathologic situations: intra-articular foreign bodies, tears of glenoid or acetabular labrum, precise assessment of chondral or ligamentous lesions (especially of the ankle), sub-scapularis tendon tears, adhesive capsulitis, complications of prosthesis, appreciation of intra-articular position of the needle's tip before injection of a therapeutic drug. Arthrography, completed or not by CT-slices gives, in this indications, excellent spatial resolution images, easy to perform, to read, to understand and to transmit at the clinicians, with a reasonable cost and a minor risk. RMI is a more and more used alternative, especially for the study of meniscus and ligaments of the knee, and rotator's cuff of the shoulder. It's sure that, with the increase of the RMI image's quality, other common indications will slip towards this technique, but nevertheless at this time (and it seams to me, for a long time) arthrography and arthro-CT will remain an excellent diagnostic tool with a very competitive advantages/inconvenience ratio.

  2. Galectin-9 is rapidly released during acute HIV-1 infection and remains sustained at high levels despite viral suppression even in elite controllers.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ravi; Chew, Glen M; Byron, Mary M; Borrow, Persephone; Niki, Toshiro; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Barbour, Jason D; Norris, Philip J; Lanteri, Marion C; Martin, Jeffrey N; Deeks, Steven G; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C

    2014-07-01

    Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a β-galactosidase-binding lectin that promotes apoptosis, tissue inflammation, and T cell immune exhaustion, and alters HIV infection in part through engagement with the T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) receptor and protein disulfide isomerases (PDI). Gal-9 was initially thought to be an eosinophil attractant, but is now known to mediate multiple complex signaling events that affect T cells in both an immunosuppressive and inflammatory manner. To understand the kinetics of circulating Gal-9 levels during HIV infection we measured Gal-9 in plasma during HIV acquisition, in subjects with chronic HIV infection with differing virus control, and in uninfected individuals. During acute HIV infection, circulating Gal-9 was detected as early as 5 days after quantifiable HIV RNA and tracked plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β. In chronic HIV infection, Gal-9 levels positively correlated with plasma HIV RNA levels (r=0.29; p=0.023), and remained significantly elevated during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (median: 225.3 pg/ml) and in elite controllers (263.3 pg/ml) compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected controls (54 pg/ml). Our findings identify Gal-9 as a novel component of the first wave of the cytokine storm in acute HIV infection that is sustained at elevated levels in virally suppressed subjects and suggest that Gal-9:Tim-3 crosstalk remains active in elite controllers and antiretroviral (ARV)-suppressed subjects, potentially contributing to ongoing inflammation and persistent T cell dysfunction.

  3. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P < 0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  4. High (18)F-FDG uptake by the remaining adrenal gland four months after surgery and initiation of mitotane treatment in two patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mpanaka, Ioanna; Lyra, Vassiliki D; Kaltsas, Gregory; Chatziioannou, Sofia N

    2011-01-01

    Two men, one 42 and the other 35 years old were both subjected to adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Adjuvant treatment with mitotane [o,p΄-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane, (o,p΄-DDD)], was initiated following surgery. Mitotane is the only agent available at present for treatment in ACC because of a late-onset specific adrenocortical cell toxicity. Both patients underwent a (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan, which revealed 4 months after starting treatment with mitotane significantly high (18)F-FDG uptake in the contralateral adrenal gland. Both patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, while one had a laparotomy, because of an abcess at the site of previous adrenalectomy. No metastasis or size increase of the remaining adrenal glands were found suggesting that their hypermetabolic state could be attributed to mitotane treatment. Beside its cytotoxic delayed-effect, mitotane has an early -onset effect on steroid metabolism. In conclusion, an abnormal high (18)F-FDG uptake was observed in the contralateral adrenal gland in both our adrenalectomized ACC patients, 4 months after starting mitotane treatment, probably related to mitotane's effect on steroid metabolism, not yet fully understood.

  5. Assessing high altitude glacier volume change and remaining thickness using cost-efficient scientific techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, P.; Herold, C.; Silverio, W.

    2009-10-01

    Higher temperature and change in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to an additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier volume losses and on current ice thickness. We show how volume changes can be accurately estimated in remote areas using readily available low-cost digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. They were used for estimating the volume changes over the Coropuna glacier (Peru) from 1955 to 2002. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a georadar coupled with Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regressions techniques. Computers were modified to resists to high altitude (6500 m) temperatures and low pressure conditions. The results delineated a significant glacier volume loss and provided an estimate of the remaining ice. It provided the scientific evidence needed by local Peruvian NGO, COPASA, and the German Cooperation Program in order to alert local governments and communities and for enforcing new climate change adaptation policies.

  6. The HST Frontier Fields: High-Level Science Data Products for the First 4 Completed Clusters, and Latest Data on the Remaining Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Borncamp, David; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Porterfield, Blair; Grogin, Norman A.; Robberto, Massimo; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt; HST Frontier Fields Team

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The first four of these clusters are now complete, namely Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223, with each of these having been observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, using ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W). The remaining two clusters, Abell 370 and Abell S1063, are currently in progress. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including a total of 24 separate cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth version 1.0 releases at the end of each completed epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The resulting high-level science products are delivered via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to the community on a rapid timescale to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  7. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kongkanand, Anusorn

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  8. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation.

  9. New Swift/XRT observation shows faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 remains active 1 year after outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, R.; Wijnands, R.; Heinke, C.; Degenaar, N.

    2012-02-01

    The faint X-ray transient SAX J1806.5-2215 was discovered through the detection of two type-I bursts by BeppoSAX's WFC in 1996-1997 (in't Zand et al. 1999, NuPhS, 69, 228). Around the times of both bursts, no persistent emission was detected from the source with BeppoSAX. RXTE/ASM observations suggested that the source was active from early 1996 till late 1997 with an X-ray luminosity of ~ 1E+36 erg/s (for d=8 kpc; Cornelisse et al.

  10. Extracurricular Activities and High School Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study of 14,249 students to determine whether participation in specific extracurricular activities (athletics and fine arts) significantly reduces a student's likelihood of dropping out. Finds that, when all activities are examined, only athletic participation remains significantly related to dropping out. (ACM)

  11. Genetic diversity and connectivity remain high in Holothuria polii (Delle Chiaje 1823) across a coastal lagoon-open sea environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-08-01

    Coastal lagoons represent habitats with widely heterogeneous environmental conditions, particularly as regards salinity and temperature, which fluctuate in both space and time. These characteristics suggest that physical and ecological factors could contribute to the genetic divergence among populations occurring in coastal lagoon and open-coast environments. This study investigates the genetic structure of Holothuria polii at a micro-geographic scale across the Mar Menor coastal lagoon and nearby marine areas, estimating the mitochondrial DNA variation in two gene fragments, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA (16S). Dataset of mitochondrial sequences was also used to test the influence of environmental differences between coastal lagoon and marine waters on population genetic structure. All sampled locations exhibited high levels of haplotype diversity and low values of nucleotide diversity. Both genes showed contrasting signals of genetic differentiation (non-significant differences using COI and slight differences using 16S, which could due to different mutation rates or to differential number of exclusive haplotypes. We detected an excess of recent mutations and exclusive haplotypes, which can be generated as a result of population growth. However, selective processes can be also acting on the gene markers used; highly significant generalized additive models have been obtained considering genetic data from 16S gene and independent variables such as temperature and salinity.

  12. Long-term experimental warming alters nitrogen-cycling communities but site factors remain the primary drivers of community structure in high arctic tundra soils.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer K M; Egger, Keith N; Henry, Gregory H R

    2008-09-01

    Arctic air temperatures are expected to rise significantly over the next century. Experimental warming of arctic tundra has been shown to increase plant productivity and cause community shifts and may also alter microbial community structure. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine whether experimental warming caused shifts in soil microbial communities by measuring changes in the frequency, relative abundance and/or richness of nosZ and nifH genotypes. Five sites at a high arctic coastal lowland were subjected to a 13-year warming experiment using open-top chambers (OTCs). Sites differed by dominant plant community, soil parent material and/or moisture regimen. Six soil cores were collected from each of four replicate OTC and ambient plots at each site and subdivided into upper and lower samples. Differences in frequency and relative abundance of terminal restriction fragments were assessed graphically by two-way cluster analysis and tested statistically with permutational multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). Genotypic richness was compared using factorial ANOVA. The genotype frequency, relative abundance and genotype richness of both nosZ and nifH communities differed significantly by site, and by OTC treatment and/or depth at some sites. The site that showed the most pronounced treatment effect was a wet sedge meadow, where community structure and genotype richness of both nosZ and nifH were significantly affected by warming. Although warming was an important factor affecting these communities at some sites at this high arctic lowland, overall, site factors were the main determinants of community structure.

  13. Alternative Effector-Function Profiling Identifies Broad HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses in Highly HIV-Exposed Individuals Who Remain Uninfected

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A.; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T.; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine–like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:25249264

  14. Alternative effector-function profiling identifies broad HIV-specific T-cell responses in highly HIV-exposed individuals who remain uninfected.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-03-15

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine-like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders.

  15. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  16. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.

  17. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  18. Environmental Activities, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William C.; Larson, Robert J.

    This guide, for use at the junior high level, is aimed at helping our youth become more knowledgeable concerning the environment and associated problems, thus making them aware of how to solve these problems and motivating them to work toward their solution. Among the subjects discussed are art in nature, erosion, body pollution, water pollution,…

  19. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  20. How a protein can remain stable in a solvent with high content of urea: insights from molecular dynamics simulation of Candida antarctica lipase B in urea : choline chloride deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Monhemi, Hassan; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-28

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are utilized as green and inexpensive alternatives to classical ionic liquids. It has been known that some of DESs can be used as solvent in the enzymatic reactions to obtain very green chemical processes. DESs are quite poorly understood at the molecular level. Moreover, we do not know much about the enzyme microstructure in such systems. For example, how some hydrolase can remain active and stable in a deep eutectic solvent including 9 M of urea? In this study, the molecular dynamics of DESs as a liquid was simulated at the molecular level. Urea : choline chloride as a well-known eutectic mixture was chosen as a model DES. The behavior of the lipase as a biocatalyst was studied in this system. For comparison, the enzyme structure was also simulated in 8M urea. The thermal stability of the enzyme was also evaluated in DESs, water, and 8M urea. The enzyme showed very good conformational stability in the urea : choline chloride mixture with about 66% urea (9 M) even at high temperatures. The results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations. In contrast, complete enzyme denaturation occurred in 8M urea with only 12% urea in water. It was found that urea molecules denature the enzyme by interrupting the intra-chain hydrogen bonds in a "direct denaturation mechanism". However, in a urea : choline chloride deep eutectic solvent, as a result of hydrogen bonding with choline and chloride ions, urea molecules have a low diffusion coefficient and cannot reach the protein domains. Interestingly, urea, choline, and chloride ions form hydrogen bonds with the surface residues of the enzyme which, instead of lipase denaturation, leads to greater enzyme stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the microstructural properties of a macromolecule are examined in a deep eutectic solvent.

  1. Hot spots remain the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the drilling activity and petroleum activity in Africa. The areas which seem to hold the highest promise for new discoveries or increased exports are Egypt's Western Desert which seems to offer the possibility of significant oil discoveries. In addition, Nigeria has dramatically increased its exploration activity which is counter to the global trend in 1986. Areas where activity is decreasing are Cameroon, South Africa. It is pointed out that the Gabon crude oil reserves may have been raised 60% by a single on-shore discovery.

  2. Purpose and Meaning in Highly Active Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penick, Jeffrey M.; Fallshore, Marte

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the sources of meaning for active seniors. Results indicated that seniors who were most active were relatively high in a wide range of sources of meaning as well as in life satisfaction in general. The importance of meaning and purpose in relation to counseling with older adults is discussed.

  3. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  4. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  5. Assessment of Remaining Lubricant Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    numerous nnaLytical. procedures identified in Task 1, procedures based on cyclic voltammetry, di~flerenttiil scanning calorimetry ( DSC ), and chemical...operation and RLL assess- mento. Thn development of RLLAT from the DSC techniques were limited by the high instrumental costs (greater than $20,000). The...Size 49 (3) Effect of Analysis Temperature 51 (4) Summary of HP- DSC Technique 54 d. Chemical Stressing Techniques 54 (1) Introduction 54 (2

  6. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical

  7. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  8. Chromatographic purification of highly active yeast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2011-10-24

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes.

  9. Iridium Oxide Coatings with Templated Porosity as Highly Active Oxygen Evolution Catalysts: Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Bernicke, Michael; Ortel, Erik; Reier, Tobias; Bergmann, Arno; Ferreira de Araujo, Jorge; Strasser, Peter; Kraehnert, Ralph

    2015-06-08

    Iridium oxide is the catalytic material with the highest stability in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performed under acidic conditions. However, its high cost and limited availability demand that IrO2 is utilized as efficiently as possible. We report the synthesis and OER performance of highly active mesoporous IrO2 catalysts with optimized surface area, intrinsic activity, and pore accessibility. Catalytic layers with controlled pore size were obtained by soft-templating with micelles formed from amphiphilic block copolymers poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide). A systematic study on the influence of the calcination temperature and film thickness on the morphology, phase composition, accessible surface area, and OER activity reveals that the catalytic performance is controlled by at least two independent factors, that is, accessible surface area and intrinsic activity per accessible site. Catalysts with lower crystallinity show higher intrinsic activity. The catalyst surface area increases linearly with film thickness. As a result of the templated mesopores, the pore surface remains fully active and accessible even for thick IrO2 films. Even the most active multilayer catalyst does not show signs of transport limitations at current densities as high as 75 mA cm(-2) .

  10. Selective disruption of high sensitivity heat activation but not capsaicin activation of TRPV1 channels by pore turret mutations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Cao, Xu; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Wang, KeWei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-04-01

    The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 is a highly heat-sensitive ion channel. Although chemical activation and heat activation of TRPV1 elicit similar pungent, painful sensation, the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic activation remains mysterious. In particular, where the temperature sensor is located and whether heat and capsaicin share a common activation pathway are debated. To address these fundamental issues, we searched for channel mutations that selectively affected one form of activation. We found that deletion of the first 10 amino acids of the pore turret significantly reduced the heat response amplitude and shifted the heat activation threshold, whereas capsaicin activation remained unchanged. Removing larger portions of the turret disrupted channel function. Introducing an artificial sequence to replace the deleted region restored sensitive capsaicin activation in these nonfunctional channels. The heat activation, however, remained significantly impaired, with the current exhibiting diminishing heat sensitivity to a level indistinguishable from that of a voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv7.4. Our results demonstrate that heat and capsaicin activation of TRPV1 are structurally and mechanistically distinct processes, and the pore turret is an indispensible channel structure involved in the heat activation process but is not part of the capsaicin activation pathway. Synergistic effect of heat and capsaicin on TRPV1 activation may originate from convergence of the two pathways on a common activation gate.

  11. High milk lipase activity associated with breast milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Poland, R L; Schultz, G E; Garg, G

    1980-12-01

    Human milk samples that inhibit bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity in vitro have been associated with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in newborn infants. We measured the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (total and individual fatty acids), total fat and protein, and lipase activities (with and without bile salt stimulation) in milk samples from two groups of women. Women whose infants had prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and whose milk inhibited the activity of UDPGT were in the first group (N = 9). Volunteers with healthy infants acted as controls. Inhibitory milk contained significantly more nonesterified fatty acids (total, palmitic, and oleic) than did controls. Fat and protein concentrations and bile salt-stimulated lipase activities were similar in the two groups. Unstimulated lipase activity was higher in the inhibitory milks (11.9 +/- 0.8 mM x min-1 x ml-1) than in the controls (6.0 +/- 0.1 mM x min-1 x ml-1) (P less than 0.01). The specific activity (mM x min-1 x mg protein) of unstimulated lipase was also significantly higher in the inhibitory milks (P less than 0.0001). The high nonesterified fatty acid levels in inhibitory milks is accounted for by the elevated unstimulated lipase activities. How these circumstances lead to jaundice in the infants remains to be shown.

  12. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  13. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  14. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.

  15. Interferon-resistant Daudi cells are deficient in interferon-alpha-induced ISGF3 alpha activation, but remain sensitive to the interferon-alpha-induced increase in ISGF3 gamma content.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Tovey, M G

    1993-10-01

    Low levels of the transcription factor ISGF3 alpha were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of untreated Daudi cells, which increased markedly following interferon (IFN) treatment. In contrast no ISGF3 alpha was detected in an IFN-resistant clone of Daudi cells, DIF8, and only low levels were detected in these cells after IFN-alpha treatment. High levels of ISGF3 were produced in vitro, however, by the addition of ISGF3 alpha to extracts of IFN-treated DIF8 cells, indicating that IFN is unable to produce substantial amounts of functional ISGF3 alpha in DIF8 cells. A second clone of IFN-resistant Daudi cells, DIF3, also exhibited defective ISGF3 alpha production, which was restored to normal in the subclone DIF3REV5 that had reverted to high IFN sensitivity. Thus, the antiproliferative effect of IFN on Daudi cells and derived clones is closely related to the level of ISGF3 present in the nucleus of these cells. IFN-alpha, however, also enhances the content of ISGF3 gamma in IFN-resistant cells as well as certain proteins of unknown function, raising the possibility that a second pathway of IFN-alpha signal transduction, distinct from the ISGF3 pathway, remains functional in both DIF8 and DIF3 cells.

  16. P2X7 Receptor-mediated Scavenger Activity of Mononuclear Phagocytes toward Non-opsonized Particles and Apoptotic Cells Is Inhibited by Serum Glycoproteins but Remains Active in Cerebrospinal Fluid*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ben J.; Duce, James A.; Valova, Valentina A.; Wong, Bruce; Bush, Ashley I.; Petrou, Steven; Wiley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid phagocytosis of non-opsonized particles including apoptotic cells is an important process that involves direct recognition of the target by multiple scavenger receptors including P2X7 on the phagocyte surface. Using a real-time phagocytosis assay, we studied the effect of serum proteins on this phagocytic process. Inclusion of 1–5% serum completely abolished phagocytosis of non-opsonized YG beads by human monocytes. Inhibition was reversed by pretreatment of serum with 1–10 mm tetraethylenepentamine, a copper/zinc chelator. Inhibitory proteins from the serum were determined as negatively charged glycoproteins (pI < 6) with molecular masses between 100 and 300 kDa. A glycoprotein-rich inhibitory fraction of serum not only abolished YG bead uptake but also inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes or neuronal cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Three copper- and/or zinc-containing serum glycoproteins, ceruloplasmin, serum amyloid P-component, and amyloid precursor protein, were identified, and the purified proteins were shown to inhibit the phagocytosis of beads by monocytes as well as phagocytosis of apoptotic neuronal cells by macrophages. Human adult cerebrospinal fluid, which contains very little glycoprotein, had no inhibitory effect on phagocytosis of either beads or apoptotic cells. These data suggest for the first time that metal-interacting glycoproteins present within serum are able to inhibit the scavenger activity of mononuclear phagocytes toward insoluble debris and apoptotic cells. PMID:22461619

  17. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  18. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  19. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  20. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  1. Non-reciprocal and highly nonlinear active acoustic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-02-27

    Unidirectional devices that pass acoustic energy in only one direction have numerous applications and, consequently, have recently received significant attention. However, for most practical applications that require unidirectionality at audio and low frequencies, subwavelength implementations capable of the necessary time-reversal symmetry breaking remain elusive. Here we describe a design approach based on metamaterial techniques that provides highly subwavelength and strongly non-reciprocal devices. We demonstrate this approach by designing and experimentally characterizing a non-reciprocal active acoustic metamaterial unit cell composed of a single piezoelectric membrane augmented by a nonlinear electronic circuit, and sandwiched between Helmholtz cavities tuned to different frequencies. The design is thinner than a tenth of a wavelength, yet it has an isolation factor of >10 dB. The design method generates relatively broadband unidirectional devices and is a good candidate for numerous acoustic applications.

  2. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  3. Highly active oxide photocathode for photoelectrochemical water reduction.

    PubMed

    Paracchino, Adriana; Laporte, Vincent; Sivula, Kevin; Grätzel, Michael; Thimsen, Elijah

    2011-06-01

    A clean and efficient way to overcome the limited supply of fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect is the production of hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water through the semiconductor/water junction of a photoelectrochemical cell, where energy collection and water electrolysis are combined into a single semiconductor electrode. We present a highly active photocathode for solar H(2) production, consisting of electrodeposited cuprous oxide, which was protected against photocathodic decomposition in water by nanolayers of Al-doped zinc oxide and titanium oxide and activated for hydrogen evolution with electrodeposited Pt nanoparticles. The roles of the different surface protection components were investigated, and in the best case electrodes showed photocurrents of up to -7.6 mA cm(-2) at a potential of 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode at mild pH. The electrodes remained active after 1 h of testing, cuprous oxide was found to be stable during the water reduction reaction and the Faradaic efficiency was estimated to be close to 100%.

  4. Highly active oxide photocathode for photoelectrochemical water reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paracchino, Adriana; Laporte, Vincent; Sivula, Kevin; Grätzel, Michael; Thimsen, Elijah

    2011-06-01

    A clean and efficient way to overcome the limited supply of fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect is the production of hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water through the semiconductor/water junction of a photoelectrochemical cell, where energy collection and water electrolysis are combined into a single semiconductor electrode. We present a highly active photocathode for solar H2 production, consisting of electrodeposited cuprous oxide, which was protected against photocathodic decomposition in water by nanolayers of Al-doped zinc oxide and titanium oxide and activated for hydrogen evolution with electrodeposited Pt nanoparticles. The roles of the different surface protection components were investigated, and in the best case electrodes showed photocurrents of up to -7.6 mA cm-2 at a potential of 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode at mild pH. The electrodes remained active after 1 h of testing, cuprous oxide was found to be stable during the water reduction reaction and the Faradaic efficiency was estimated to be close to 100%.

  5. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  6. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing evidence for the presence of a large number of microbes in the oceanic subsurface. Such a habitat has a very low energy input because it is deprived of light. A few meters below the sediment surface, conditions are already anoxic in most cases, sulfate reduction and/or methanogenesis becoming thus the primary respiratory reactions of organic matter. Neither the fate of methanogenesis, nor the fate of Dissimilatory Metal-Reduction (DMR) has been investigated so far as a function of pressure. For this reason, we measured experimentally the pressure limits of microbial anaerobic energetic metabolism. In practice, we measured in situ the kinetics of selenite respiration by the bacterial model Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) between 0 and 150 MPa at 30°C. MR-1 stationary-phase cells were used in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium amended with lactate as an additional electron donor and sodium selenite as an electron acceptor. In situ measurements were performed by X- ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy in both a diamond-anvil cell and an autoclave. A red precipitate of amorphous Se(0) was virtually observed at any pressure to 150 MPa. A progressive reduction of selenite Se(IV) into selenium Se(0) was also observed in the evolution of XANES spectra with time. All kinetics between 0.1 and 150 MPa can be adjusted to a first order kinetic law. MR-1 respires all available selenite up to 60 MPa. Above 60 MPa, the respiration yield decreases linearly as a function of pressure and reaches 0 at 155 ±5 MPa. This indicates that selenite respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 stops at about 155 MPa, whereas its growth is arrested at 50 MPa. Hence, the present results show that the respiration of selenium by the strain MR-1 occurs efficiently up to 60 MPa and 30°C, i.e. from the surface of a continental sediment to an equivalent depth of about 2 km, or beneath a 5-km water column and

  7. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  8. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  9. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  10. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  11. Human intracranial high-frequency activity maps episodic memory formation in space and time

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Long, Nicole M.; Zaghloul, Kareem A.; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Sperling, Michael R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive neuroimaging studies have revealed a network of brain regions that activate during human memory encoding; however, the relative timing of such activations remains unknown. Here we used intracranially recorded high-frequency activity (HFA) to first identify regions that activate during successful encoding. Then, we leveraged the high-temporal precision of HFA to investigate the timing of such activations. We found that memory encoding invokes two spatiotemporally distinct activations: early increases in HFA that involve the ventral visual pathway as well as the medial temporal lobe and late increases in HFA that involve the left inferior frontal gyrus, left posterior parietal cortex and left ventrolateral temporal cortex. We speculate that these activations reflect higher-order visual processing and top-down modulation of attention/semantic information, respectively. PMID:23827329

  12. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Mechanism of Highly Synchronized Bilateral Hippocampal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Toprani, S.; Tang, Y.; Vrabec, T.; Durand, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo studies of epileptiform discharges in the hippocampi of rodents have shown that bilateral seizure activity can sometimes be synchronized with very small delays (< 2 ms). This observed small time delay of epileptiform activity between the left and right CA3 regions is unexpected given the physiological propagation time across the hemispheres (> 6 ms). The goal of this study is to determine the mechanisms of this tight synchronization with in-vitro electrophysiology techniques and computer simulations. The hypothesis of a common source was first eliminated by using an in-vitro preparation containing both hippocampi with a functional ventral hippocampal commissure (VHC) and no other tissue. Next, the hypothesis that a noisy baseline could mask the underlying synchronous activity between the two hemispheres was ruled out by low noise in-vivo recordings and computer simulation of the noisy environment. Then we built a novel bilateral CA3 model to test the hypothesis that the phenomenon of very small left-to-right propagation delay of seizure activity is a product of epileptic cell network dynamics. We found that the commissural tract connectivity could decrease the delay between seizure events recorded from two sides while the activity propagated longitudinally along the CA3 layer thereby yielding delays much smaller than the propagation time between the two sides. The modeling results indicate that both recurrent and feedforward inhibition were required for shortening the bilateral propagation delay and depended critically on the length of the commissural fiber tract as well as the number of cells involved in seizure generation. These combined modeling/experimental studies indicate that it is possible to explain near perfect synchronization between the two hemispheres by taking into account the structure of the hippocampal network. PMID:24262205

  14. New and highly active microbial phosphotriesterase sources.

    PubMed

    Santillan, Julia Y; Dettorre, Lucas A; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2016-12-01

    Many toxic insecticides used worldwide as well as some chemical warfare agents are phosphotriester derivatives. Therefore, detoxification of organophosphorus compounds has become the subject of many studies and in particular bioremediation, based on the phosphotriesterase catalysed hydrolysis of these compounds, has shown to be an effective and ecological methodology. In order to identify new bacterial phosphotriesterases, a simple and sensitive fluorimetric screening method on solid media was employed that allowed the selection of six strains with phosphotriesterase activity. Since pH and temperature are important parameters for bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters, the influence of these variables on the rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed. This study afforded notable results, being the most remarkable one the increased activity exhibited by Nocardia asteroides and Streptomyces setonii strains at 50°C, 7 and 30 times higher than at 30°C, respectively. Compared with the results obtained with Brevundimonas diminuta, whose activity is usually considered as reference, an increase of 26 and 75 times is observed, respectively.

  15. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  16. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  17. High School Extracurricular Activities & College Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rombokas, Mary; And Others

    Many factors influence the development and socialization of American adolescents including peers, schools, family, and the community. This paper examines how the relationship of extracurricular participation influences academic growth. To determine if selected personal and academic variables during high school currently affect college academic…

  18. High specific activity platinum-195m

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-10-12

    A new composition of matter includes .sup.195m Pt characterized by a specific activity of at least 30 mCi/mg Pt, generally made by method that includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  19. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-02-23

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  20. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  1. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  2. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  3. The case for fencing remains intact.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  4. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  5. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains.

    PubMed

    Vass, Arpad A; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the "odor signatures" unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  6. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  7. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  8. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  9. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  10. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  11. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  12. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    PubMed

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  13. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  14. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  15. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  16. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  17. 51-L Challenger Crew Remains Transferred

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Challenger crewmember remains are being transferred from 7 hearse vehicles to a MAC C-141 transport plane at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility for transport to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The STS-51L crew consisted of: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis and Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee and Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.

  18. Superintendents' Frustration Grows, but Intangible Rewards Remain High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    The nation's K12 school superintendents are increasingly fatigued and frustrated by pressures to accomplish more in their districts with less resources. For most, though, personal commitment to public education helps overcome sources of stress stemming from many aspects of their jobs. That is the top-level finding of the 2012 Public School…

  19. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    PubMed

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  20. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  1. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  2. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes.

  3. Treating to Protect: Current Cardiovascular Treatment Approaches and Remaining Needs

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Michael; Werner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Current best practice to reduce cardiovascular disease involves evaluating patients' global cardiovascular risk profiles and devising treatment strategies accordingly. Despite the proven efficacy of this approach, very few physicians are adequately assessing risk, and consequently patients are failing to achieve desired treatment targets. Modifying lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, and cessation of smoking, remains one of the simplest and most potent means of reducing risk. Newly emerging evidence suggests that moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking for 30 minutes a day), eg, by raising levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, improves endothelial function and enhances vascular repair. However, patients remain remarkably reluctant to lifestyle changes, even in the face of overt, life-threatening disease. Statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and death in both primary and secondary prevention studies. However, over 90% of adults at high risk for coronary heart disease fail to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in spite of statin therapy. Similarly, only about 37% of patients with hypertension meet blood pressure targets. Antihypertensive drugs achieve different levels of cardioprotection. Mounting evidence links regimens containing beta-blockers or diuretics with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers appear to confer extra protection on target organs on top of blood pressure reduction. The ONTARGET Trial Program is designed to clarify the importance of this effect. Educating patients, raising physicians' awareness, and implementing effective and safe treatment regimens are all necessary steps to bring about the much-needed improvements in cardiac health outcomes. PMID:18449384

  4. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  5. High glucose enhances progression of cholangiocarcinoma cells via STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Saengboonmee, Charupong; Seubwai, Wunchana; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-01-08

    Epidemiological studies have indicated diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), however, the effects and mechanisms of high glucose on progression of CCA remain unclear. This study reports for the first time of the enhancing effects of high glucose on aggressive phenotypes of CCA cells via STAT3 activation. CCA cells cultured in high glucose media exerted significantly higher rates of cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion than those cultured in normal glucose. The phosphokinase array revealed STAT3 as the dominant signal activated in response to high glucose. Increased nuclear STAT3, p-STAT3 and its downstream target proteins, cyclin D1, vimentin and MMP2, were shown to be underling mechanisms of high glucose stimulation. The link of high glucose and STAT3 activation was confirmed in tumor tissues from CCA patients with DM that exhibited higher STAT3 activation than those without DM. Moreover, the levels of STAT3 activation were correlated with the levels of blood glucose. Finally, decreasing the level of glucose or using a STAT3 inhibitor could reduce the effects of high glucose. These findings suggest that controlling blood glucose or using a STAT3 inhibitor as an alternative approach may improve the therapeutic outcome of CCA patients with DM.

  6. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  7. Junior High Career Maturity Activities. Report No. 33-A-57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afdahl, Anne; And Others

    The activities in this curriculum guide are designed to facilitate self-evaluation, goal setting, and educator-student planning of junior high learning experiences relating to career maturity. It is suggested that the career maturity measurement activity worksheets can be included in the student's school record and used as a reference base for…

  8. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  9. Introducing human papillomavirus vaccines - questions remain.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated cervical and other anogenital cancers are significant public health problems. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for approximately 70% of all invasive cervical cancers worldwide. The first prophylactic HPV virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against HPV types 6/11/16/18 was licensed in 2006 for girls and women aged 9-26 years. The second prophylactic HPV vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 has been licensed this year. These vaccines are almost 100% effective in preventing infection and high-grade precancer associated with the HPV types included in the vaccine. The vaccines are well tolerated, safe, and highly immunogenic when given in three doses within 6 months. Efficacy of the vaccine against external vulvar and HPV-related vaginal lesions is also high. Even though the vaccine is highly effective against high-grade cervical, vaginal, or vulvar precancers, this only applies to women unexposed to these HPV types and only to high-grade intraepithelial lesions caused by these HPV types. Therefore, it is important to understand that the population impact of the vaccines will be much lower than vaccinating naive populations. Implementing HPV vaccine is a great opportunity but also a great challenge. However, mandatory HPV vaccination may raise many questions, and more answers are needed.

  10. Organic Remains in Finnish Subglacial Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkari, Mikko; Forsström, Lars

    1995-05-01

    Many sites in Fennoscandia contain pre-Late Weichselian beds of organic matter, located mostly in the flanks of eskers. It is a matter of debate whether these fragmentary beds were deposited in situ, or whether they were deposited elsewhere and then picked up and moved by glacial ice. The till-mantled esker of Harrinkangas includes a shallow depression filled with sand and silt containing, for example, several tightly packed laminar sheets of brown moss ( Bryales) remains. It is argued that these thin peat sheets were transported at the base of the ice sheet, or englacially, and were deposited together with the silt and sand on the side of a subglacial meltwater tunnel. Subglacial meltout till subsequently covered the flanks of the esker near the receding ice margin. Information about the depositional and climatic environments was obtained from biostratigraphic analysis of the organic matter. Pollen spectra for the peat represent an open birch forest close to the tundra zone. A thin diamicton beneath the peat contains charred pine wood, recording the former presence of pine forests in western Finland. The unhumified, extremely well-preserved peat evidently originated during the final phase of an ice-free period, most probably the end of the Eemian Interglaciation. It was redeposited in the esker by the last ice sheet. Reconstructions of the Pleistocene chronology and stratigraphy of central Fennoscandia that rely on such redeposited organic matter should be viewed with caution.

  11. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  12. The Job Market Remains Strong in 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Jennifer L.; Kelter, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 unemployment reached a 30-year low; more than half of all job growth was in services; federal employment increased because of Census 2000; the home health care industry began a slight recovery. Nearly half of total employment growth was in high-paying managerial and professional specialties, especially for women and blacks. (SK)

  13. Immunizations in College Health: The Remaining Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Walter W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to have an adverse impact on health on college campuses. Ways to eliminate measles and rubella from campus, the importance of accurate immunization records, the need to educate high-risk students about hepatitis B, and the immunization requirements of students traveling abroad are discussed. (Author/MT)

  14. High throughput, quantitative analysis of human osteoclast differentiation and activity.

    PubMed

    Diepenhorst, Natalie A; Nowell, Cameron J; Rueda, Patricia; Henriksen, Kim; Pierce, Tracie; Cook, Anna E; Pastoureau, Philippe; Sabatini, Massimo; Charman, William N; Christopoulos, Arthur; Summers, Roger J; Sexton, Patrick M; Langmead, Christopher J

    2017-02-15

    Osteoclasts are multinuclear cells that degrade bone under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Osteoclasts are therefore a major target of osteoporosis therapeutics aimed at preserving bone. Consequently, analytical methods for osteoclast activity are useful for the development of novel biomarkers and/or pharmacological agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. The nucleation state of an osteoclast is indicative of its maturation and activity. To date, activity is routinely measured at the population level with only approximate consideration of the nucleation state (an 'osteoclast population' is typically defined as cells with ≥3 nuclei). Using a fluorescent substrate for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a routinely used marker of osteoclast activity, we developed a multi-labelled imaging method for quantitative measurement of osteoclast TRAP activity at the single cell level. Automated image analysis enables interrogation of large osteoclast populations in a high throughput manner using open source software. Using this methodology, we investigated the effects of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANK-L) on osteoclast maturation and activity and demonstrated that TRAP activity directly correlates with osteoclast maturity (i.e. nuclei number). This method can be applied to high throughput screening of osteoclast-targeting compounds to determine changes in maturation and activity.

  15. Differential activation of the dorsal striatum by high-calorie visual food stimuli in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Rothemund, Yvonne; Preuschhof, Claudia; Bohner, Georg; Bauknecht, Hans-Christian; Klingebiel, Randolf; Flor, Herta; Klapp, Burghard F

    2007-08-15

    The neural systems regulating food intake in obese individuals remain poorly understood. Previous studies applied positron emission tomography and manipulated hunger and satiety to investigate differences in appetitive processing between obese and normal-weight individuals. However, it is not known whether manipulation of stimulus value may yield different neural activity in obese as compared to control subjects when intrinsic physiological states are kept constant. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate 13 obese and 13 normal-weight subjects and manipulated food motivation by presenting visual food stimuli differing in their caloric content and energy density. In contrast to controls, obese women selectively activated the dorsal striatum while viewing high-caloric foods. Moreover, in the high-calorie condition body mass index (BMI) predicted activation in the dorsal striatum, anterior insula, claustrum, posterior cingulate, postcentral and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. The results indicate that in obese individuals simple visual stimulation with food stimuli activates regions related to reward anticipation and habit learning (dorsal striatum). Additionally, high-calorie food images yielded BMI-dependent activations in regions associated with taste information processing (anterior insula and lateral orbitofrontal cortex), motivation (orbitofrontal cortex), emotion as well as memory functions (posterior cingulate). Collectively, the results suggest that the observed activation is independent of the physiological states of hunger and satiation, and thus may contribute to pathological overeating and obesity. Some of the observed activations (dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) are likely to be dopamine-mediated.

  16. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, V; Gregson, W; Atkinson, G; Tordoff, P; Drust, B

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide a detailed analysis of the high intensity running activity completed by elite soccer players during match-play. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of high intensity running activity to overall team success. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on 563 outfield players (median of 8 games per player; range=1-57) competing in the English Premier League from 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 using a computerised tracking system (Prozone, Leeds, England). High intensity activities selected for analysis included total high intensity running distance (THIR), total sprint distance (TSD) and the number and type of sprints undertaken. Total high intensity running distance in possession and without possession of the ball was also analysed. The THIR was dependant upon playing position with wide midfield (1,049+/-106 m) and central defenders (681+/-128 m) completing the highest and lowest distance respectively (p<0.001). High intensity activity was also related to team success with teams finishing in the bottom five (919+/-128 m) and middle ten (917+/-143 m) league positions completing significantly more THIR compared with teams in the top five (885+/-113 m) (p=0.003). The THIR and TSD also significantly declined during the 2nd half with the greatest decrements observed in wide midfield and attacking players (p<0.05). Both positional differences in high intensity activity and the observed change in activity throughout the game were also influenced by team success (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that high intensity activity in elite soccer match-play is influenced by both playing position and previous activity in the game. These activity patterns are also dependant upon success of the team. This may indicate that overall technical and tactical effectiveness of the team rather than high levels of physical performance per se are more important in determining success

  18. Peak activation of lower limb musculature during high flexion kneeling and transitional movements.

    PubMed

    Kingston, David C; Tennant, Liana M; Chong, Helen C; Acker, Stacey M

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have measured lower limb muscle activation during high knee flexion or investigated the effects of occupational safety footwear. Therefore, our understanding of injury and disease mechanisms, such as knee osteoarthritis, is limited for these high-risk postures. Peak activation was assessed in eight bilateral lower limb muscles for twelve male participants, while shod or barefoot. Transitions between standing and kneeling had peak quadriceps and tibialis anterior (TA) activations above 50% MVC. Static kneeling and simulated tasks performed when kneeling had peak TA activity above 15% MVC but below 10% MVC for remaining muscles. In three cases, peak muscle activity was significantly higher (mean 8.9% MVC) when shod. However, net compressive knee joint forces may not be significantly increased when shod. EMG should be used as a modelling input when estimating joint contact forces for these postures, considering the activation levels in the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles during transitions. Practitioner Summary: Kneeling transitional movements are used in activities of daily living and work but are linked to increased knee osteoarthritis risk. We found peak EMG activity of some lower limb muscles to be over 70% MVC during transitions and minimal influence of wearing safety footwear.

  19. Palynological Investigation of Mummified Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Amaral, Marina Milanello do; Wall, Nicole

    2017-03-10

    Pollen analysis was applied to a mummified homicide victim in Nebraska, U.S.A., to determine the location of death. A control sample showed the normal ambient pollen in the garage crime scene. Ambient windborne types, common in the air of the region, dominated the control. Internal samples were analyzed from the sacrum, intestine, and diaphragm. Microfossils were recovered from the rehydrated intestine lumen. The intestinal sample was dominated by Brassica (broccoli). The sacrum sample was high in dietary types but with a showing of ambient types. The pollen from the diaphragm was dominated by ambient pollen similar to the control samples. The discovery of diverse pollen spectra from within a single mummy was unexpected. They show that ingested and inhaled pollen mixed in the corpse. The data linked the decedent to a specific crime scene in her Nebraska home in the southern tier of eastern counties on the border with Kansas.

  20. Regulation of catalase activity in leaves of Nicotiana sylvestris by high CO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Havir, E.A.; McHale, N.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The effect of high CO{sub 2} (1% CO{sub 2}/21% O{sub 2}) on the activity of specific forms of catalase (CAT-1, -2, and -3) in seedling leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum) was examined. In high CO{sub 2} total catalase activity decreased by 50% in the first 2 days, followed by a more gradual decline in the next 4 days. The loss of total activity resulted primarily from a decrease in CAT-1 catalase. In contrast, the activity of CAT-3 catalase, a form with enhanced peroxidatic activity, increased 3-fold in high CO{sub 2} relative to air controls after 4 days. Short-term exposure to high CO{sub 2} indicated that the 50% loss of total activity occurs in the firs 12 hours. Catalase levels increased to normal within 12 hours after seedlings were returned to air. When seedlings were transferred to air after prolonged exposure to high CO{sub 2} (13 days), the levels of CAT-1 catalase were partially restored while CAT-3 remained at its elevated level. Levels of superoxide dismutase activity and those of several peroxisomal enzymes were not affected by high CO{sub 2}. Total catalase levels did not decline when seedlings were exposed to atmospheres of 0.04% CO{sub 2}/5% O{sub 2} or 0.04% CO{sub 2}/1% O{sub 2}, indicating that regulation of catalase in high CO{sub 2} is not related directly to suppression of photorespiration. Antibodies prepared against CAT-1 catalase from N. tabacum reacted strongly against CAT-1 catalase from both N. sylvestris and N. tabacum but not against CAT-3 catalase from either species.

  1. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents.

  2. Female Academic Department Chairs at a Public, Very High Research Activity University: Exploring Their Career Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Marthe, Tamara Jaslene Marcelle

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of women into academic leadership remains a problem facing public, high-research activity universities. While there are more women who are qualified to assume the position of department chair in research institutions today than there were 30 years ago, women still lag behind their male counterparts in holding these academic…

  3. Platelet high-density lipoprotein activates transferrin-derived phagocytosis activators, MAPPs, following thrombin digestion.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Wu, Bin; Nagai, Yumiko; Tanaka, Sumiko; Onodera, Masayuki; Ogawa, Takafumi; Ueno, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Macromolecular activators of phagocytosis from platelets (MAPPs), transferrin-derived phagocytosis activators released from platelets, activate leukocytic phagocytosis via Fcγ receptors. It has been found that MAPPs can be prepared using stored platelets or their lysate. Using this artificial MAPP production system, it has been found that they can be produced from precursors (tetrameric and dimeric transferrins) following reaction with a low-molecular-weight (LMW) activator of MAPPs, which is liberated from a high-molecular-weight activator of MAPP (HMW activator) by reaction with thrombin. In this study, the HMW activator in platelet lysate was characterized by assaying phagocytosis of washed neutrophils. In an ultracentrifugation study of the platelet lysate, HMW activator activity was observed in the fraction corresponding to the density of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The activity was observed in the apolipoproteins obtained from the HDL fraction. Among the apolipoproteins tested only apolipoprotein CIII showed the activity to produce MAPP in vitro. Affinity chromatography of the apolipoproteins from the HDL fraction of the platelet lysate using an anti-apolipoprotein CIII column revealed that the substance that binds with the antibody showed MAPP-forming activity. In a gel filtration study of thrombin-treated apolipoprotein CIII, a peak of LMW activator activity was observed for fractions with a molecular size smaller than that of apolipoprotein CIII. Finally, MAPP-forming activity of HDL obtained from the plasma was examined. MAPP was formed only when delipidized HDL was used. In conclusion, it is suggested that platelet HDL is the HMW activator and that this activation is achieved via apolipoprotein CIII after thrombin reaction in platelets.

  4. Decay rates of human remains in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, A; Birkby, W H; Jones, A M; Henry, T E; Parks, B O

    1989-05-01

    The environment of southern Arizona with mild winters and hot, dry summers produces great variability in decay rates of human remains. Summer temperatures, which range well over 38 degrees C (100 degrees F), induce rapid bloating as a result of the accumulation of decompositional gases. However, in certain circumstances, the aridity can lead to extensive mummification, allowing preservation of remains for hundreds of years. A retrospective study of 189 cases, concentrating on remains found on the desert floor or in the surrounding mountains and on remains found within closed structures, outlines the time frame and sequences of the decay process. Remains can retain a fresh appearance for a considerable time in the winter, but the onset of marked decomposition is rapid in the summer months. Bloating of the body usually is present two to seven days following death. Following this, within structures, there is frequently rapid decomposition and skeletonization. With outdoor exposure, remains are more likely to pass through a long period of dehydration of outer tissues, mummification, and reduction of desiccated tissue. Exposure of large portions of the skeleton usually does not occur until four to six months after death. Bleaching and exfoliation of bone--the beginning stages of destruction of the skeletal elements--begins at about nine months' exposure. Insect activity, including that of maggot and beetle varieties, may accelerate decomposition, but this process is greatly affected by location of the body, seasonal weather, and accessibility of the soft tissues. Carnivores and other scavengers also are contributing factors, as are clothing or covering of the body, substrate, elevation, and latitude.

  5. The effect of high pressure homogenization on the activity of a commercial β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline A L; Augusto, Pedro E D; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    High pressure homogenization (HPH) has been proposed as a promising method for changing the activity and stability of enzymes. Therefore, this research studied the activity of β-galactosidase before and after HPH. The enzyme solution at pH values of 6.4, 7.0, and 8.0 was processed at pressures of up to 150 MPa, and the effects of HPH were determined from the residual enzyme activity measured at 5, 30, and 45 °C immediately after homogenization and after 1 day of refrigerated storage. The results indicated that at neutral pH the enzyme remained active at 30 °C (optimum temperature) even after homogenization at pressures of up to 150 MPa. On the contrary, when the β-galactosidase was homogenized at pH 6.4 and 8.0, a gradual loss of activity was observed, reaching a minimum activity (around 30 %) after HPH at 150 MPa and pH 8.0. After storage, only β-galactosidase that underwent HPH at pH 7.0 retained similar activity to the native sample. Thus, HPH did not affect the activity and stability of β-galactosidase only when the process was carried out at neutral pH; for the other conditions, HPH resulted in partial inactivation of the enzyme. Considering the use of β-galactosidase to produce low lactose milk, it was concluded that HPH can be applied with no deleterious effects on enzyme activity.

  6. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  7. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  8. TRPV1 activation prevents high-salt diet-induced nocturnal hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xinzhong; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhidan; He, Hongbo; Yu, Hao; Ma, Liqun; Ma, Shuangtao; Zhu, Tianqi; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2011-03-01

    High dietary salt-caused hypertension is associated with increasing reactive oxygen species generation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a specific receptor for capsaicin, is proposed to be involved in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension, as determined in acute or short-term experiments. However, it remains unknown whether activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin could prevent the vascular oxidative stress and hypertension induced by a high-salt diet. Here, we report that consumption of a high-salt diet blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries and elevated nocturnal blood pressure in mice. These effects were associated with increased superoxide anion generation and reduced NO levels in mesenteric vessels in mice on a high-salt diet. However, chronic administration of capsaicin reduced the high-salt diet-induced endothelial dysfunction and nocturnal hypertension in part by preventing the generation of superoxide anions and NO reduction of mesenteric arteries through vascular TRPV1 activation. Our findings provide new insights into the role of TRPV1 channels in the long-term regulation of blood pressure in response to high-salt intake. TRPV1 activation through chronic dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations with salt-sensitive hypertension.

  9. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  10. Remaining Pain in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated With Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Altawil, Reem; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Wedrén, Sara; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency of remaining pain in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 months of treatment with methotrexate as the only disease modifying antirheumatic drug, with a special focus on patients with a good clinical response. Methods The study base was cases reported to a population‐based early RA cohort who had followup data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (n = 1,241). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were used to evaluate clinical response to treatment as good, moderate, and no response. The primary end point was remaining pain at the 3‐months followup visit, defined as pain >20 mm on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results Remaining pain in spite of a EULAR good response at followup was associated with higher baseline disability, using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4–3.4] per unit increase), and less baseline inflammation, using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70–0.93] per 10‐mm increase). Similar associations were detected for remaining pain at followup in spite of low inflammatory activity, defined as a C‐reactive protein level <10. Increase in VAS pain during the treatment period was observed in 19% of the whole cohort, with frequencies in the EULAR response groups of 9% (good response), 15% (moderate response), and 45% (no response). Conclusion These results are in line with the hypothesis that a subgroup of early RA patients exhibits pain that is not inflammatory mediated, where alternative treatment strategies to traditional antiinflammatory medications need to be considered. PMID:26784398

  11. Strenuous physical exercise inhibits granulocyte activation induced by high altitude.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.

  12. Can phosphatidylserine enhance atheroprotective activities of high-density lipoprotein?

    PubMed

    Darabi, Maryam; Kontush, Anatol

    2016-01-01

    Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is well known to be protective against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, therapeutic interventions to raise HDL-cholesterol levels do not translate into reduction in cardiovascular risk. Due to the compositional complexity of HDL particles, molecular determinants of their atheroprotective function still remain to be clarified. Recent structural and functional data identify phospholipid as a major bioactive component of HDL. Such a role has recently been specifically evidenced for phosphatidylserine (PS); indeed, HDL content of PS displayed positive correlations with all metrics of HDL functionality assessed. This review summarizes current knowledge about HDL-associated PS; possible mechanisms for its atheroprotective role are discussed and potential applications of PS to HDL-based therapies are highlighted.

  13. Epithelial membrane protein 3 regulates TGF-β signaling activation in CD44-high glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Jun, Fu; Hong, Jidong; Liu, Qin; Guo, Yong; Liao, Yiwei; Huang, Jianghai; Wen, Sailan; Shen, Liangfang

    2016-08-05

    Although epithelial membrane protein 3 (EMP3) has been implicated as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for low grade glioma, its biological function in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) still remains poorly understood. Herein, we showed that EMP3 was highly expressed in CD44-high primary GBMs. Depletion of EMP3 expression suppressed cell proliferation, impaired in vitro tumorigenic potential and induced apoptosis in CD44-high GBM cell lines. We also identified TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway as a potential target of EMP3. EMP3 interacts with TGF-β receptor type 2 (TGFBR2) upon TGF-β stimulation in GBM cells. Consequently, the EMP3-TGFBR2 interaction regulates TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling activation and positively impacts on TGF-β-stimulated gene expression and cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Highly correlated protein expression of EMP3 and TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway components was also observed in GBM specimens, confirming the clinical relevancy of activated EMP3/TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in GBM. In conclusion, our findings revealed that EMP3 might be a potential target for CD44-high GBMs and highlight the essential functions of EMP3 in TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling activation and tumor progression.

  14. Highly Active Ice Nuclei from Tree Leaf Litters Retain Activity for Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R. C.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenic ice nuclei (IN) studied since the 1960s were first observed in tree leaf litters, in a few bacteria species and later in fungi and lichens. Recently, viable IN bacteria in precipitation have been used as a metric of their possible role in precipitation formation. Although bacterial IN activity is deactivated by a variety of common environmental stresses, we present data showing that IN found in a potpourri of decayed plant leaves, bacteria, molds and fungi etc. in plant litters are exceptionally stable and active over decades while in storage. As such, their atmospheric IN potential is worthy of further study due to their environmental persistence. In August 1970 litter collected in a grove of deciduous trees near Red Deer, AB, Canada was tested for IN (drop freezing technique). The sample initiated ice at -4C with 109 IN per gram of litter active at -10C. A few kilograms were stored in a plastic bag and tested every few years for IN content; the IN activity remained essentially unchanged over 40 years. In 2011, litter collected in the same grove had the same IN activity as the sample tested over the intervening 40 years. Boiling a gram sample of this litter in 100 grams of water deactivated 99 % of the IN activity down to -13C. None of 88 different bacteria cultures several of which appeared to Pseudomonads (common IN producing bacteria) from the fresh litter produced any active IN. A sample of the litter was placed on the top of a 15 cm column of laboratory grade kaolin and water dripped onto the litter. Ten days later the water reached the bottom of the column. The kaolin was dried and tested for IN. The prior essentially IN free kaolin now exhibited IN activity at -4C with 105 IN active at -10C. The litter exposed kaolin retained the IN activity for 25 years. Baking the kaolin removed the active IN. This suggests that IN activity attributed to kaolin particles sometimes seen at the nucleus of snow crystals could be of biological origin.

  15. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  16. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  17. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  18. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  19. High-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek

    1994-01-01

    Two recent findings concerning high-energy radiation properties of active galactic nuclei -- discovery of breaks in hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies, and discovery of huge fluxes of hard gamma rays from blazars -- seem to press us to change our standard views about radiation production in these objects. I review briefly the existing radiation models, confront them with the newest observations, and discuss newly emerging theoretical pictures which attempt to account for the discoveries.

  20. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  1. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  2. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    SciTech Connect

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Wilbur, D. Scott

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  3. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  4. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  5. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  6. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  7. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  8. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4–16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  9. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  10. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-01-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  11. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  12. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  13. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  14. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  15. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  16. Genetic analysis of modern and historical burned human remains.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Ringleb, Arne; Gebühr, Michael; Simeoni, Eva

    2005-03-01

    Burning of corpses is a well-known funeral procedure that has been performed for a long time in many cultures. Nowadays more and more corpses are burned in crematories and buried in urns, often for practical and financial reasons. In some scientific, criminal or civil cases even after cremation there is the need of genetic investigations for identification or paternity testing. Furthermore, burned remains are the only remains left in North Europe from 1200 BC to 500 AD. This makes genetic investigation of those materials interesting for anthropological reasons. We present on one hand a systematic investigation of 10 corpses before and after the cremation and on the other hand the analysis of seven historical remains representing the bronze age. We chose the ground bone powder and the less destroyed bone parts respectively and employed a slightly modified commercially available DNA extraction method. The presence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was tested by a simple but highly sensitive Duplex-PCR. DNA quantification was done using real time PCR, and genetic typing was tried out using the AmpFISTR Identifiler Multiplex Kit, followed by an automatic analysis on an AbiPrism310.

  17. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding

  18. Toward high-dynamic active mirrors for LGS refocusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Cuby, Jean Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the E-ELT-EAGLE instrument phase A studies, we designed a convex VCM able to compensate for the focus variation on the Laser Guide Star (LGS) wavefront sensor, due to the elevation of the telescope and the fixed sodium layer altitude. We present an original optical design including this active convex mirror, providing a large sag variation on a spherical surface with a 120mm clear aperture, with an optical quality better than lambda/5 RMS up to 820μm of sag and better than lambda/4 RMS up to 1000μm of sag. Finite element analysis (FEA) allowed an optimisation of the mirror's variable thickness distribution to compensate for geometrical and material non linearity. Preliminary study of the pre-stressing has also been performed by FEA, showing that a permanent deformation remains after removal of the loads. Results and comparison with the FEA are presented in the article of F.Madec et al (AS10-7736-119, this conference), with an emphasis on the system approach.

  19. Characterization of a highly active promoter, PBbgpd, in Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-gang; Fang, Wei-guo; Zhang, Yong-jun; Fan, Yan-hua; Wu, Xing-wei; Zhou, Qun; Pei, Yan

    2008-08-01

    The promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene from Aspergillus nidulans (PgpdA) is widely used to direct expression of target genes constitutively in fungi. However, in some species, a heterogeneous promoter is found to be of low efficiency. To obtain a high-efficiency promoter for transformation of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus widely used as an mycoinsecticide, a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (Bbgpd) promoter, was cloned and characterized. Four deletion constructs (-2118, -1153, -726, and -354) of the 5'-upstream sequence of Bbgpd linked to a bar::gus fusion gene (phosphinothricin-resistance::beta-glucuronidase fused gene), which were used as selected marker gene and report gene, respectively, were generated. GUS activities of transgenic strains harboring -726, -1153, and -2118 deletion constructs were much stronger than that of the promoter of Aspergillus nidulans gpdA (PgpdA), with a twofold to threefold increase over that in the PgpdA construct. The -726 fragment was necessary to direct GUS expression in B. bassiana. No -354 transgenic progenies were obtained, possibly because it failed to initiate the transcription of bar::gus fusion gene. A remarkable increase of GUS activity was found between the -1153 and -726 constructs, indicating that some active transcriptional elements were located in this region. With a high expression level and relatively short sequence, PBbgpd can be used to drive target genes in B. bassiana transgenic research.

  20. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  1. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles.

  2. Time-dependent regulation of muscle caveolin activation and insulin signalling in response to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; de Miguel, Carlos; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2009-10-06

    We studied the effect of high-fat diet on the expression and activation of the three caveolins in rat skeletal muscle and their association with the insulin signalling cascade. Initial response was characterized by increased signalling through Cav-1 and Cav-3 phosphorylation, suggesting that both participate in an initial acute response to the calorie surplus. Afterwards, Cav-1 signalling was slightly reduced, whereas Cav-3 remained active. Late chronic phase signalling through both proteins was impaired inducing a prediabetic state. Summarizing, caveolins seem to mediate a time-dependent regulation of insulin cascade in response to high-fat diet in muscle.

  3. Reduced autonomic activity during stepwise exposure to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Sevre, K; Bendz, B; Hankø, E; Nakstad, A R; Hauge, A; Kåsin, J I; Lefrandt, J D; Smit, A J; Eide, I; Rostrup, M

    2001-12-01

    Several studies have shown increased sympathetic activity during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. In a recent field study we found reduced plasma catecholamines during the first days after a stepwise ascent to high altitude. In the present study 14 subjects were exposed to a simulated ascent in a hypobaric chamber to test the hypothesis of a temporary reduction in autonomic activity. The altitude was increased stepwise to 4500 m over 3 days. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed continuously in seven subjects. Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) was determined in eight subjects with the 'Transfer Function' method at baseline, at 4500 m and after returning to baseline. Resting plasma catecholamines and cardiovascular- and plasma catecholamine- responses to cold pressor- (CPT) and mental stress-test (MST) were assessed daily in all and 12 subjects, respectively. Data are mean +/- SEM. Compared with baseline at 4500 m there were lower total power (TP) (35 457 +/- 26 302 vs. 15 001 +/- 11 176 ms2), low frequency (LF) power (3112 +/- 809 vs. 1741 +/- 604 ms2), high frequency (HF) power (1466 +/- 520 vs. 459 +/- 189 ms2) and HF normalized units (46 +/- 0.007 vs. 44 +/- 0.006%), P < or = 0.001. Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity decreased (15.6 +/- 2.1 vs. 9.5 +/- 2.6 ms mmHg(-1), P = 0.015). Resting noradrenaline (NA) decreased (522 +/- 98 vs. 357 +/- 60 pmol L(-1), P = 0.027). The increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and NA during mental stress was less pronounced (21 +/- 4 vs. 10 +/- 2% and 25 +/- 9 vs. -2 +/- 8%, respectively, P < 0.05). The increase in SBP during cold pressor test decreased (16 +/- 3 vs. 1 +/- 6%, P = 0.03). Diastolic blood pressure, HR and adrenaline displayed similar tendencies. We conclude that a transient reduction in parasympathetic and sympathetic activity was demonstrated during stepwise exposure to high altitude.

  4. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive.

  5. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  6. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namhee; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Han, Se Eun; Kim, Young Il; Nam-Goong, Il Seong; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-01-30

    Background Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Since contact system activation through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) has emerged as an important trigger of thrombosis, we hypothesized that the contact system is activated along with active NET formation in hyperthyroidism and that their markers correlate with disease severity. Materials and Methods In 61 patients with hyperthyroidism and 40 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, and factor VII, VIII, IX, XI, and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation assay (TGA) markers, NET formation markers (histone-DNA complex, double-stranded DNA, neutrophil elastase), and contact system markers (activated factor XII [XIIa], high-molecular-weight kininogen [HMWK], prekallikrein, and bradykinin) were measured. Results Patients with hyperthyroidism showed higher levels of fibrinogen [median (interquartile range), 315 (280-344) versus 262 (223-300), P=0.001], D-dimer [103.8 (64.8-151.5) versus 50.7 (37.4-76.0), P<0.001], peak thrombin [131.9 (102.2-159.4) versus 31.6 (14.8-83.7), P<0.001] and endogenous thrombin potential [649 (538-736) versus 367 (197-1147), P=0.021] in TGA with 1 pM tissue factor, neutrophil elastase [1.10 (0.39-2.18) versus 0.23 (0.20-0.35), P<0.001], factor XIIa [66.9 (52.8-87.0) versus 73.0 (57.1-86.6), P<0.001], HMWK [6.11 (4.95-7.98) versus 3.83 (2.60-5.68), P<0.001], prekallikrein [2.15 (1.00-6.36) versus 1.41 (0.63-2.22), P=0.026], and bradykinin [152.4 (137.6-180.4) versus 118.3 (97.1-137.9), P<0.001] than did normal controls. In age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis, fibrinogen, factor VIII, IX, and XIIa, D-dimer, peak thrombin, neutrophil elastase, HMWK, and bradykinin showed significant odds ratios representing hyperthyroidism's contribution to coagulation and contact system activation. Free T4 was significantly correlated with factors VIII and IX, D-dimer, double-stranded DNA, and bradykinin. Conclusion This study

  7. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  8. High Temperature Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanically actuated blade tip clearance control concept was evaluated in a nonrotating test rig to quantify secondary seal leakage at elevated temperatures. These tests were conducted to further investigate the feasibility of actively controlling the clearance between the rotor blade tips and the surrounding shroud seal in the high pressure turbine (HPT) section of a turbine engine. The test environment simulates the state of the back side of the HPT shroud seal with pressure differentials as high as 120 psig and temperatures up to 1000 F. As expected, static secondary seal leakage decreased with increasing temperature. At 1000 F, the test rig's calculated effective clearance (at 120 psig test pressure) was 0.0003 in., well within the industry specified effective clearance goal.

  9. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Lis; de Sousa, Bruno; Cabral, Lília; Cristiano, Maria LS; Nogueira, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART), artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites. PMID:27276364

  10. Active Control of High-Frequency Combustor Instability Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities-high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the combustor and turbine safe operating life. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Propulsion and Power Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Center, and Georgia Institute of Technology is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities.

  11. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Lis; Sousa, Bruno de; Cabral, Lília; Cristiano, Maria Ls; Nogueira, Fátima

    2016-06-07

    Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART), artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites.

  12. Efficient Killing of High Risk Neuroblastoma Using Natural Killer Cells Activated by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cordeau, Martine; Belounis, Assila; Lelaidier, Martin; Cordeiro, Paulo; Sartelet, Hervé; Duval, Michel

    2016-01-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma (NB) remains a major therapeutic challenge despite the recent advent of disialoganglioside (GD2)-antibody treatment combined with interleukin (IL)-2 and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Indeed, more than one third of the patients still die from this disease. Here, we developed a novel approach to improve the current anti-GD2 immunotherapy based on NK cell stimulation using toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). We demonstrated that this strategy led to the efficient killing of NB cells. When the expression of GD2 was heterogeneous on NB cells, the combination of pDC-mediated NK-cell activation and anti-GD2 treatment significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells against NB cells. Activation by pDCs led to a unique NK-cell phenotype characterized by increased surface expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), with increased expression of CD69 on CD56dim cytotoxic cells, and strong interferon-γ production. Additionally, NB-cell killing was mediated by the TRAIL death-receptor pathway, as well as by the release of cytolytic granules via the DNAX accessory molecule 1 pathway. NK-cell activation and lytic activity against NB was independent of cell contact, depended upon type I IFN produced by TLR-9-activated pDCs, but was not reproduced by IFN-α stimulation alone. Collectively, these results highlighted the therapeutic potential of activated pDCs for patients with high-risk NB. PMID:27716850

  13. High dielectric constant, low loss and high photocatalytic activity in Gd doped ZnO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya, N. K.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced photocatalytic activity and high dielectric constant values are achieved by gadolinium (Gd) doping in ZnO. The changes that happened to the wurtzite structure of ZnO on doping are depicted in detail by using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The chemical composition is confirmed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The influence of Gd incorporation in the emission spectra of ZnO is analysed from photoluminescence studies. The photocatalytic activity enhancement occurred in ZnO system on Gd doping was explored by kinetic rate analysis. The optimum incorporation of Gd has enhanced the dielectric constant value and decreased the loss of pristine. The high dielectric constant value and low loss make the system suitable for large scale of applications in microelectronics. The work also proposes large scale synthesis of highly efficient fluorescent Gd doped ZnO photocatalysts.

  14. Hydrogen effect on remaining life of hydroprocessing reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iwadate, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, J.

    1988-02-01

    Old vintage 2.25Cr-1Mo steels used for high-temperature/pressure hydroprocessing reactors have a high potential for temper embrittlement. The cracks caused by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) have been experienced in a stainless steel overlay and base metal of hydroprocessing reactors. In this paper, the temper embrittlement behavior during long-term service is discussed using the results of isothermal temper embrittlement tests up to 30,000 h of exposure. HE susceptibility of base metals, i.e., the threshold stress intensity factor K/sub IH/ and hydrogen-assisted crack growth rate behavior are also discussed. Based on the experimental data obtained, the remaining life assessment of a 2.25Cr-1Mo steel hydroprocessing reactor is analyzed from knowledge of HE.

  15. Remaining uncertainties in the use of Rn-222 as a quantitative tracer of submarine groundwater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, W.C.; Santos, I.R.; Weinstein, Y.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Herut, B.

    2007-01-01

    Research performed in many locations over the past decade has shown that radon is an effective tracer for quantifying submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The technique works because both fresh and saline groundwaters acquire radon from the subterranean environment and display activities that are typically orders of magnitude greater than those found in coastal seawaters. However, some uncertainties and unanswered problems remain. We focus here on three components of the mass balance, each of which has some unresolved issues: (1) End-member radon - what to do if groundwater Rn measurements are highly variable? (2) Atmospheric evasion -do the standard gas exchange equations work under high-energy coastal mixing scenarios? And (3) "mixing" losses - are there other significant radon losses (e.g. recharge of coastal waters into the aquifer) besides those attributed to mixing with lower-activity waters offshore? We address these issues using data sets collected from several different types of coastal environment. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  16. Human activities in Natura 2000 sites: a highly diversified conservation network.

    PubMed

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Apostolopoulou, Evangelia; Mazaris, Antonios D; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Drakou, Evangelia G; Pantis, John D

    2013-05-01

    The Natura 2000 network was established across the European Union's (EU) Member States with the aim to conserve biodiversity, while ensuring the sustainability of human activities. However, to what kind and to what extent Natura 2000 sites are subject to human activities and how this varies across Member States remains unspecified. Here, we analyzed 111,269 human activity records from 14,727 protected sites in 20 Member States. The frequency of occurrence of activities differs among countries, with more than 86 % of all sites being subjected to agriculture or forestry. Activities like hunting, fishing, urbanization, transportation, and tourism are more frequently recorded in south European sites than in northern or eastern ones. The observed variations indicate that Natura 2000 networks are highly heterogeneous among EU Member States. Our analysis highlights the importance of agriculture in European landscapes and indicates possible targets for policy interventions at national, European, or "sub-European" level. The strong human presence in the Natura 2000 network throughout Member States, shows that conservation initiatives could succeed only by combining social and ecological sustainability and by ensuring the integration of policies affecting biodiversity.

  17. Highly sensitive detection of E2 activity in ubiquitination using an artificial RING finger.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Sumida, Miho; Yuasa-Sunagawa, Mayumi; Saito, Kazuki

    2017-03-01

    The ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes of protein ubiquitination are associated with various diseases such as leukemia, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Rapid and accurate detection of E2 enzymatic activities remains poor. Here, we described the detection of E2 activity on a signal accumulation ISFET biosensor (AMIS sensor) using an artificial RING finger (ARF). The use of ARF enables the simplified detection of E2 activity without a substrate. The high-sensitivity quantitative detection of E2 activities was demonstrated via real-time monitoring over a response range of femtomolar to micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, the monitoring of E2 activities was successfully achieved using human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells following treatment with the anticancer drug bortezomib, which allowed the assessment of the pathological conditions. This strategy is extremely simple and convenient, and the present detection could be widely applied to specific E2s for various types of cancers. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Active tunable high contrast meta-structure Si waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lingjun; Anderson, Stephen; Taleb, Hussein; Huang, Zhaoran R.; Zhou, Weimin

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have designed a novel Si based 1-dimensional high contrast meta-structure waveguide that has slow light effect as well as phase tunability using p-n junction. The goal is to use such waveguide to design active optical devices such as high frequency modulators and tunable filters for analog RF-photonics or data communication applications. The Si ridge waveguide has a pair of high contrast grating wings adhered to the waveguide core in the center. Grating bars at two sides of the waveguide are doped P and N-type respectively, while a p-n junction region is formed in the middle of the waveguide core. By applying a voltage to bias the p-n junction, one can sweep the free carriers to change the effective index of the waveguide as well as the dispersion property of the grating. This metastructure Si waveguide is ideal in the design of high frequency optical modulators since the slow light effect can reduce the modulator waveguide length, increase the modulation efficiency as well as compensate other nonlinearity factors of the modulator for analog applications.

  19. Great expectations: different high-risk activities satisfy different motives.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew; Woodman, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2013-09-01

    Research on people's motives for engaging in high-risk activities has typically been viewed through the single-focused lens of sensation seeking. We provide evidence that comprehensively challenges that view. First, we develop and confirm the structure of a 3-factor measure of motives: the Sensation Seeking, Emotion Regulation, and Agency Scale (SEAS; Study 1). We then use the SEAS to provide evidence of differential motives for 2 high-risk activities: skydiving and mountaineering. The motive for skydiving is strongly associated with sensation seeking; the motive for mountaineering is strongly associated with emotion regulation and agency but not with sensation seeking (Study 2). We also show that these conclusions cannot be drawn from existing measures of personality and sensation seeking (Study 3). Finally, individuals who are motivated by emotion regulation and agency needs also have greater expectations regarding their emotion regulation and agency. It is these greater expectations that most successfully discriminate mountaineers from skydivers and control participants (Study 4). It is concluded that researchers should no longer consider risk takers as a homogenous sensation-seeking group and that they should consider risk taking as a potential model of human endeavor. The SEAS can be used as a measure of motives for behavior whenever sensation seeking, agency, or emotion regulation is thought to be at the core of such motives, and the results are discussed in the context of encouraging personality researchers to consider the specific spontaneous behaviors that motivate different people.

  20. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  1. Development of High Performance CFRP/Metal Active Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Haga, Osamu; Imori, Masataka

    This paper describes development of high performance CFRP/metal active laminates mainly by investigating the kind and thickness of the metal. Various types of the laminates were made by hot-pressing of an aluminum, aluminum alloys, a stainless steel and a titanium for the metal layer as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE/electric resistance heating material, a unidirectional KFRP prepreg as a low CTE/insulating material. The aluminum and its alloy type laminates have almost the same and the highest room temperature curvatures and they linearly change with increasing temperature up to their fabrication temperature. The curvature of the stainless steel type jumps from one to another around its fabrication temperature, whereas the titanium type causes a double curvature and its change becomes complicated. The output force of the stainless steel type attains the highest of the three under the same thickness. The aluminum type successfully increased its output force by increasing its thickness and using its alloys. The electric resistance of the CFRP layer can be used to monitor the temperature, that is, the curvature of the active laminate because the curvature is a function of temperature.

  2. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui

    2016-09-08

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies.

  3. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies. PMID:27604848

  4. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  5. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Monomucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-08-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2+ in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MeImpU and 2-MeImpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-linked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of internucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MeImpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  6. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Mononucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2- methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2(+) in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MelmpU and 2-MelmpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-Iinked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of intemucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MelmpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  7. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s-1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s-1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s-1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  8. Hierarchical nanostructured conducting polymer hydrogel with high electrochemical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lijia; Yu, Guihua; Zhai, Dongyuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Zhao, Wenting; Liu, Nian; Wang, Huiliang; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Shi, Yi; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymer hydrogels represent a unique class of materials that synergizes the advantageous features of hydrogels and organic conductors and have been used in many applications such as bioelectronics and energy storage devices. They are often synthesized by polymerizing conductive polymer monomer within a nonconducting hydrogel matrix, resulting in deterioration of their electrical properties. Here, we report a scalable and versatile synthesis of multifunctional polyaniline (PAni) hydrogel with excellent electronic conductivity and electrochemical properties. With high surface area and three-dimensional porous nanostructures, the PAni hydrogels demonstrated potential as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes with high specific capacitance (∼480 F·g-1), unprecedented rate capability, and cycling stability (∼83% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). The PAni hydrogels can also function as the active component of glucose oxidase sensors with fast response time (∼0.3 s) and superior sensitivity (∼16.7 μA·mM-1). The scalable synthesis and excellent electrode performance of the PAni hydrogel make it an attractive candidate for bioelectronics and future-generation energy storage electrodes. PMID:22645374

  9. High infrasonic goniometry applied to the detection of a helicopter in a high activity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chritin, Vincent; Van Lancker, Eric; Wellig, Peter; Ott, Beat

    2016-10-01

    A current concern of armasuisse is the feasibility of a fixed or mobile acoustic surveillance and recognition network of sensors allowing to permanently monitor the noise immissions of a wide range of aerial activities such as civil or military aviation, and other possible acoustic events such as transient events, subsonic or sonic booms or other. This objective requires an ability to detect, localize and recognize a wide range of potential acoustic events of interest, among others possibly parasitic acoustic events (natural and industrial events on the ground for example), and possibly high background noise (for example close to urban or high activity areas). This article presents a general discussion and conclusion about this problem, based on 20 years of experience totalizing a dozen of research programs or internal researches by IAV, with an illustration through one central specific experimental case-study carried out within the framework of an armasuisse research program.

  10. Effect of restricted motion in high temperature on enzymatic activity of the pancreas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdusattarov, A.; Smirnova, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of 30 day hypodynamia coupled with high temperature (35-36 C) on enzymatic activity of the pancreas of male adult rats were studied. The test animals were divided into four groups. Group one served as controls (freedom of movement and a temperature of 25-26 C, considered optimal). The remaining animals were divided into three additional groups: Group two freedom of movement but high temperature (35-36 C); group three hypodynamia but an optimal temperature; group four hypodynamia and 35-36 C. Considerable change in the enzymatic activity in the pancreas of the four groups is observed in three experimental groups (two, three, and four) as compared to the control (group one). The results indicate that adaption of the organism to the thermal factor and restricted movement is accompanied by a change in the enzymatic spectrum of the pancreas. With the combined effect of these two stresses under conditions of the adaption of the organism especially sharp shifts occur in the enzymatic activity.

  11. High activity of the stress promoter contributes to susceptibility to stress in the tree shrew

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Sun, Yun-Jun; Lv, Yan-Hong; Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Feng, Xiu-Yu; Wang, Yu; Shan, Qing-Hong; Zu, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stress is increasingly present in everyday life in our fast-paced society and involved in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric diseases. Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone (CRH) plays a pivotal role in regulating the stress responses. The tree shrews are highly vulnerable to stress which makes them the promising animal models for studying stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying their high stress-susceptibility remained unknown. Here we confirmed that cortisol was the dominate corticosteroid in tree shrew and was significantly increased after acute stress. Our study showed that the function of tree shrew CRH - hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was nearly identical to human that contributed little to their hyper-responsiveness to stress. Using CRH transcriptional regulation analysis we discovered a peculiar active glucocorticoid receptor response element (aGRE) site within the tree shrew CRH promoter, which continued to recruit co-activators including SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) to promote CRH transcription under basal or forskolin/dexamethasone treatment conditions. Basal CRH mRNA increased when the aGRE was knocked into the CRH promoter in human HeLa cells using CAS9/CRISPR. The aGRE functioned critically to form the “Stress promoter” that contributed to the higher CRH expression and susceptibility to stress. These findings implicated novel molecular bases of the stress-related diseases in specific populations. PMID:27125313

  12. Description of plastic remains found in the stomach contents of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas landed in Ecuador during 2014.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Luis, Rigoberto

    2016-12-15

    Squids are active and opportunistic predators that feed on a wide range of prey. Their active movements in the water column and their voracity promote a high consumption of food. In the pelagic environment off Ecuador, marine pollution is characterized by plastic debris with a mainland origin, including plastics trash of fishing gears. The objective of this work was to describe the presence of plastic remains in the stomach contents of Dosidicus gigas caught off the coast of Ecuador. Results demonstrated that 12% of the stomachs contained plastic remains. These plastics were identified as multifilament of polyethylene lines and polyvinyl chloride remains. Findings of this work could be related to an increase in the discharge of solid materials in the water column, increasing the probability to be ingested by the jumbo squid.

  13. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  14. Response of the high-latitude thermosphere to geomagnetic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, D.

    1985-01-01

    Fuller-Rowell and Rees (1980) and Roble et al. (1982) have developed three-dimensional, time-dependent models which simulate the structure and dynamics of the thermosphere with considerable realism. These models are particularly useful for the evaluation of the individual contributions of the many distinct elements of the geomagnetic forcing of the polar thermosphere. A description is given of simulations of the steady-state structure and dynamics of the thermosphere for a level of moderately high solar activity, at the December and June solstices, and for moderately quiet and rather disturbed geomagnetic conditions. In the present paper, the simulations are used for reference purposes. Attention is given to time-dependent simulations of the thermospheric response to large geomagnetic disturbances. 24 references.

  15. High-speed compressive range imaging based on active illumination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yangyang; Yuan, Xin; Pang, Shuo

    2016-10-03

    We report a compressive imaging method based on active illumination, which reconstructs a 3D scene at a frame rate beyond the acquisition speed limit of the camera. We have built an imaging prototype that projects temporally varying illumination pattern and demonstrated a joint reconstruction algorithm that iteratively retrieves both the range and high-temporal-frequency information from the 2D low-frame rate measurement. The reflectance and depth-map videos have been reconstructed at 1000 frames per second (fps) from the measurement captured at 200 fps. The range resolution is in agreement with the resolution calculated from the triangulation methods based on the same system geometry. We expect such an imaging method could become a simple solution to a wide range of applications, including industrial metrology, 3D printing, and vehicle navigations.

  16. Production of carboxylates from high rate activated sludge through fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cagnetta, C; Coma, M; Vlaeminck, S E; Rabaey, K

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the key parameters affecting fermentation of high rate activated A-sludge to carboxylates, including pH, temperature, inoculum, sludge composition and iron content. The maximum volatile fatty acids production was 141mgCg(-1) VSSfed, at pH 7. Subsequently the potential for carboxylate and methane production for A-sludge from four different plants at pH 7 and 35°C were compared. Initial BOD of the sludge appeared to be key determining carboxylate yield from A-sludge. Whereas methanogenesis could be correlated linearly to the quantity of ferric used for coagulation, fermentation did not show a dependency on iron presence. This difference may enable a strategy whereby A-stage sludge is separated to achieve fermentation, and iron dosing for phosphate removal is only implemented at the B-stage.

  17. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, Bradley S; Alcala, Benjamin S; Alcala, Scott; Eipeldauer, Mary D; Weil, Logan B

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  18. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  19. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE PAGES

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; ...

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  20. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  1. Dynamics of Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

    2000-01-01

    A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted at high Reynolds numbers on a generic separated configuration. The model simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick Glauert-Goldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. The main motivation for the experiments is to generate a comprehensive data base for validation of unsteady numerical simulation as a first step in the development of a CFD design tool, without which it would not be possible to effectively utilize the great potential of unsteady flow control. This paper focuses on the dynamics of several key features of the baseline as well as the controlled flow. It was found that the thickness of the upstream boundary layer has a negligible effect on the flow dynamics. It is speculated that separation is caused mainly by the highly convex surface while viscous effects are less important. The two-dimensional separated flow contains unsteady waves centered on a reduced frequency of 0.8, while in the three dimensional separated flow, frequencies around a reduced frequency of 0.3 and 1 are active. Several scenarios of resonant wave interaction take place at the separated shear-layer and in the pressure recovery region. The unstable reduced frequency bands for periodic excitation are centered on 1.5 and 5, but these reduced frequencies are based on the length of the baseline bubble that shortens due to the excitation. The conventional swept wing-scaling works well for the coherent wave features. Reproduction of these dynamic effects by a numerical simulation would provide benchmark validation.

  2. Highly active and efficient catalysts for alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kaiwu; Fang, Xianjie; Gülak, Samet; Franke, Robert; Spannenberg, Anke; Neumann, Helfried; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Carbonylation reactions of alkenes constitute the most important industrial processes in homogeneous catalysis. Despite the tremendous progress in this transformation, the development of advanced catalyst systems to improve their activity and widen the range of feedstocks continues to be essential for new practical applications. Herein a palladium catalyst based on 1,2-bis((tert-butyl(pyridin-2-yl)phosphanyl)methyl)benzene L3 (pytbpx) is rationally designed and synthesized. Application of this system allows a general alkoxycarbonylation of sterically hindered and demanding olefins including all kinds of tetra-, tri- and 1,1-disubstituted alkenes as well as natural products and pharmaceuticals to the desired esters in excellent yield. Industrially relevant bulk ethylene is functionalized with high activity (TON: >1,425,000 TOF: 44,000 h-1 for initial 18 h) and selectivity (>99%). Given its generality and efficiency, we expect this catalytic system to immediately impact both the chemical industry and research laboratories by providing a practical synthetic tool for the transformation of nearly any alkene into a versatile ester product.

  3. Highly active and efficient catalysts for alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kaiwu; Fang, Xianjie; Gülak, Samet; Franke, Robert; Spannenberg, Anke; Neumann, Helfried; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Carbonylation reactions of alkenes constitute the most important industrial processes in homogeneous catalysis. Despite the tremendous progress in this transformation, the development of advanced catalyst systems to improve their activity and widen the range of feedstocks continues to be essential for new practical applications. Herein a palladium catalyst based on 1,2-bis((tert-butyl(pyridin-2-yl)phosphanyl)methyl)benzene L3 (pytbpx) is rationally designed and synthesized. Application of this system allows a general alkoxycarbonylation of sterically hindered and demanding olefins including all kinds of tetra-, tri- and 1,1-disubstituted alkenes as well as natural products and pharmaceuticals to the desired esters in excellent yield. Industrially relevant bulk ethylene is functionalized with high activity (TON: >1,425,000; TOF: 44,000 h−1 for initial 18 h) and selectivity (>99%). Given its generality and efficiency, we expect this catalytic system to immediately impact both the chemical industry and research laboratories by providing a practical synthetic tool for the transformation of nearly any alkene into a versatile ester product. PMID:28120947

  4. High-. beta. operation and MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) activity on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.

    1990-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity within three zones (core, half- radius, and edge) of TFTR (Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (1986), (IAEA, Vienna, 1987), Vol. 1, P. 51) tokamak plasmas are discussed. Near the core of the plasma column, sawteeth are often observed. Two types of sawteeth are studied in detail: one with complete, and the other with incomplete magnetic reconnection. Their characteristics are determined by the shape of the q profile. Near the half-radius the m/n = 3/2 and 2/1 resistive ballooning modes are found to correlate with a beta collapse. The pressure and the pressure gradient at the mode rational surface are found to play an important role in stability. MHD activity is also studied at the plasma edge during limiter H-modes. The Edge Localized Mode (ELMs) are found to have a precursor mode with a frequency between 50--200 kHz and a mode number m/n = 1/0. The mode does not show a ballooning structure. While these instabilities have been studied on many other machines, on TFTR the studies have been extended to high pressure (plasma pressure greater than 4 {times} 10{sup 5} Pa) and low collisionality. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  5. High temperature active heat exchanger research for latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1982-02-01

    An active heat exchange method in a latent heat (salt) thermal energy storage system that prevents a low conductivity solid salt layer from forming on heat transfer surfaces was developed. An evaluation of suitable media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400 C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a choride eutectic (20.5KCL o 24.5NaCL o 55.MgCl2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C. Various active heat exchange concepts were given a technical and economic comparison to a passive tube shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t for 6 hours). Test hardware was then built for the most promising concept: a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counter flowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid (lead/Bismuth).

  6. High and dry? Comparing active dry EEG electrodes to active and passive wet electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Kyle E; Harrison, Tyler J L; Kizuk, Sayeed A D

    2017-01-01

    Dry electrodes are becoming popular for both lab-based and consumer-level electrophysiological-recording technologies because they better afford the ability to move traditional lab-based research into the real world. It is unclear, however, how dry electrodes compare in data quality to traditional electrodes. The current study compared three EEG electrode types: (a) passive-wet electrodes with no onboard amplification, (b) actively amplified, wet electrodes with moderate impedance levels, and low impedance levels, and (c) active-dry electrodes with very high impedance. Participants completed a classic P3 auditory oddball task to elicit characteristic EEG signatures and event-related potentials (ERPs). Across the three electrode types, we compared single-trial noise, average ERPs, scalp topographies, ERP noise, and ERP statistical power as a function of number of trials. We extended past work showing active electrodes' insensitivity to moderate levels of interelectrode impedance when compared to passive electrodes in the same amplifier. Importantly, the new dry electrode system could reliably measure EEG spectra and ERP components comparable to traditional electrode types. As expected, however, dry active electrodes with very high interelectrode impedance exhibited marked increases in single-trial and average noise levels, which decreased statistical power, requiring more trials to detect significant effects. This power decrease must be considered as a trade-off with the ease of application and long-term use. The current results help set constraints on experimental design with novel dry electrodes, and provide important evidence needed to measure brain activity in novel settings and situations.

  7. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  8. Doped titanium dioxide nanocrystalline powders with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.L.; Jumas, J.-C.; Costa, F.M.

    2009-07-15

    Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route preceded by a precipitation doping step. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed by powder XRD and TEM. Thermodynamic stability studies allowed to conclude that the anatase structure is highly stable for all doped TiO{sub 2} prepared compounds. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanopowders was tested and the results showed an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}, whereas no photocatalytic activity was detected for the Fe:TiO{sub 2} and Co:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. These results were correlated to the doping ions oxidation states, determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization data. - Graphical abstract: Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with highly stable anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the synthesized nanopowders were tested and the results show an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}.

  9. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    PubMed Central

    Lau, M C Y; Stackhouse, B T; Layton, A C; Chauhan, A; Vishnivetskaya, T A; Chourey, K; Ronholm, J; Mykytczuk, N C S; Bennett, P C; Lamarche-Gagnon, G; Burton, N; Pollard, W H; Omelon, C R; Medvigy, D M; Hettich, R L; Pfiffner, S M; Whyte, L G; Onstott, T C

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emission by carbon-rich cryosols at the high latitudes in Northern Hemisphere has been studied extensively. In contrast, data on the CH4 emission potential of carbon-poor cryosols is limited, despite their spatial predominance. This work employs CH4 flux measurements in the field and under laboratory conditions to show that the mineral cryosols at Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian high Arctic consistently consume atmospheric CH4. Omics analyses present the first molecular evidence of active atmospheric CH4-oxidizing bacteria (atmMOB) in permafrost-affected cryosols, with the prevalent atmMOB genotype in our acidic mineral cryosols being closely related to Upland Soil Cluster α. The atmospheric (atm) CH4 uptake at the study site increases with ground temperature between 0 °C and 18 °C. Consequently, the atm CH4 sink strength is predicted to increase by a factor of 5–30 as the Arctic warms by 5–15 °C over a century. We demonstrate that acidic mineral cryosols are a previously unrecognized potential of CH4 sink that requires further investigation to determine its potential impact on larger scales. This study also calls attention to the poleward distribution of atmMOB, as well as to the potential influence of microbial atm CH4 oxidation, in the context of regional CH4 flux models and global warming. PMID:25871932

  10. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols.

    PubMed

    Lau, M C Y; Stackhouse, B T; Layton, A C; Chauhan, A; Vishnivetskaya, T A; Chourey, K; Ronholm, J; Mykytczuk, N C S; Bennett, P C; Lamarche-Gagnon, G; Burton, N; Pollard, W H; Omelon, C R; Medvigy, D M; Hettich, R L; Pfiffner, S M; Whyte, L G; Onstott, T C

    2015-08-01

    Methane (CH4) emission by carbon-rich cryosols at the high latitudes in Northern Hemisphere has been studied extensively. In contrast, data on the CH4 emission potential of carbon-poor cryosols is limited, despite their spatial predominance. This work employs CH4 flux measurements in the field and under laboratory conditions to show that the mineral cryosols at Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian high Arctic consistently consume atmospheric CH4. Omics analyses present the first molecular evidence of active atmospheric CH4-oxidizing bacteria (atmMOB) in permafrost-affected cryosols, with the prevalent atmMOB genotype in our acidic mineral cryosols being closely related to Upland Soil Cluster α. The atmospheric (atm) CH4 uptake at the study site increases with ground temperature between 0 °C and 18 °C. Consequently, the atm CH4 sink strength is predicted to increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrate that acidic mineral cryosols are a previously unrecognized potential of CH4 sink that requires further investigation to determine its potential impact on larger scales. This study also calls attention to the poleward distribution of atmMOB, as well as to the potential influence of microbial atm CH4 oxidation, in the context of regional CH4 flux models and global warming.

  11. Danger and dementia: caregiver experiences and shifting social roles during a highly active hurricane season.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Janelle J; Castañeda, Heide

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disaster preparedness and decision-making by caregivers of community-dwelling persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's or a related dementia (ADRD). Interviews were conducted with 20 caregivers in South Florida. Twelve of these interviews include caregiving experiences during the highly active 2004-2005 hurricane seasons. Results indicate that persons in earlier stages of ADRD can, and often do, remain engaged in the disaster preparation and planning process. However, during the early stages, persons may also resist evacuation, even if the caregiver felt it was necessary. During later stages of the disease, caregivers reported less resistance to disaster-related decisions, however, with the tradeoff of less ability to assist with preparation.

  12. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Wistar and August rats with low and high motor activity (a cytochemical study).

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2014-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity was quantitatively evaluated by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus CA3 field) of August and Wistar rats demonstrating high and low motor activity in the open field test. In August rats, acetylcholinesterase activity in the analyzed brain structures prevailed in animals with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low motor activity. In Wistar rats, the differences between the animals demonstrating high and low motor activity were less pronounced, but varied depending on the experimental series of studies. Comparisons of August rats with low motor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (maximum difference of motor function in these animals) revealed significant excess of acetylcholinesterase activity in layer III of the sensorimotor cortex in August rats and no differences in other brain structures of the examined animals.

  13. High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Trimmer, Casey; Snyder, Lindsey L.; Mainland, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Odorants create unique and overlapping patterns of olfactory receptor activation, allowing a family of approximately 1,000 murine and 400 human receptors to recognize thousands of odorants. Odorant ligands have been published for fewer than 6% of human receptors1-11. This lack of data is due in part to difficulties functionally expressing these receptors in heterologous systems. Here, we describe a method for expressing the majority of the olfactory receptor family in Hana3A cells, followed by high-throughput assessment of olfactory receptor activation using a luciferase reporter assay. This assay can be used to (1) screen panels of odorants against panels of olfactory receptors; (2) confirm odorant/receptor interaction via dose response curves; and (3) compare receptor activation levels among receptor variants. In our sample data, 328 olfactory receptors were screened against 26 odorants. Odorant/receptor pairs with varying response scores were selected and tested in dose response. These data indicate that a screen is an effective method to enrich for odorant/receptor pairs that will pass a dose response experiment, i.e. receptors that have a bona fide response to an odorant. Therefore, this high-throughput luciferase assay is an effective method to characterize olfactory receptors—an essential step toward a model of odor coding in the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:24961834

  14. Integrating Laboratory Activity into a Junior High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a wind power system laboratory activity and an outline for evaluating student performance in this activity. The work described here was to design and implement the laboratory to assist teachers in achieving the teaching objective of this activity. The laboratory teaching activities introduce energy sources, wind energy…

  15. The Educational Value of High Risk Activities in the Physical Education Program: A Social Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Robert E. C.

    A growing number of schools and institutions in North America have begun offering training in high risk activities such as high element rope courses, rock climbing, white water kayaking and canoeing, and scuba diving in conjunction with their regular physical education activity programs. High risk activities are those activities which occur in or…

  16. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  17. Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 are highly active H+ transporters and highly nucleotide sensitive when activated by coenzyme Q (ubiquinone)

    PubMed Central

    Echtay, Karim S.; Winkler, Edith; Frischmuth, Karina; Klingenberg, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Based on the discovery of coenzyme Q (CoQ) as an obligatory cofactor for H+ transport by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) [Echtay, K. S., Winkler, E. & Klingenberg, M. (2000) Nature (London) 408, 609–613] we show here that UCP2 and UCP3 are also highly active H+ transporters and require CoQ and fatty acid for H+ transport, which is inhibited by low concentrations of nucleotides. CoQ is proposed to facilitate injection of H+ from fatty acid into UCP. Human UCP2 and 3 expressed in Escherichia coli inclusion bodies are solubilized, and by exchange of sarcosyl against digitonin, nucleotide binding as measured with 2′-O-[5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl]-GTP can be restored. After reconstitution into vesicles, Cl− but no H+ are transported. The addition of CoQ initiates H+ transport in conjunction with fatty acids. This increase is fully sensitive to nucleotides. The rates are as high as with reconstituted UCP1 from mitochondria. Maximum activity is at a molar ratio of 1:300 of CoQ:phospholipid. In UCP2 as in UCP1, ATP is a stronger inhibitor than ADP, but in UCP3 ADP inhibits more strongly than ATP. Thus UCP2 and UCP3 are regulated differently by nucleotides, in line with their different physiological contexts. These results confirm the regulation of UCP2 and UCP3 by the same factors CoQ, fatty acids, and nucleotides as UCP1. They supersede reports that UCP2 and UCP3 may not be H+ transporters. PMID:11171965

  18. Using Geochemical Indicators to Distinguish High Biogeochemical Activity in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenwell, A. M.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Prugue, R.; Spear, J. R.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial "hotspots") in subsurface environments by correlating microbial community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Statistical hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), simulated precipitation leachate, bioavailable Fe and Mn, total organic carbon (TOC), microbial community structure, grain size, bulk density and moisture content data were used to identify regions of the subsurface characterized by biogeochemical hotspots and sample characteristics indicative of these hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments. The methodology has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 33 sediment samples were taken from 8 sediment cores and at the East River 33 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders. The East River watershed exhibits characteristic fluvial progression and serves as a representative example of many headwater catchments with the upper Colorado River basin. Initial clustering revealed that operationally defined hotspots were characterized by high organic carbon, bioavailable iron and dark colors but not necessarily low hydraulic conductivity. Applying the method to identify hotspots in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits and their associated alluvial aquifers demonstrates the broad applicability of a geochemical indicator based approach.

  19. Mechanisms underlying obesity resistance associated with high spontaneous physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity resistance due to elevated orexin signaling is accompanied by high levels of spontaneous physical activity (SPA). The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying this observation have not been fully worked out. We determined the contribution of hypothalamic orexin receptors (OXR) to SPA stimulated by orexin A (OXA), whether OXA-stimulated SPA was secondary to arousal and whether voluntary wheel running led to compensations in 24-h SPA. We further tested whether orexin action on dopamine one receptors (DA1R) in the substantia nigra (SN) plays an important role in generation of SPA. To test this, SPA response was determined in lean and obese rats with cannulae targeted towards the rostral lateral hypothalamus (rLH) or SN. Sleep/wake states were also measured in rats with rLH cannula and EEG/EMG radiotelemetry transmitters. SPA in lean rats was more sensitive to antagonism of the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and in the early response to the orexin 2 agonist. OXA increased arousal equally in lean and obese rodents, which is discordant from the greater SPA response in lean rats. Obesity resistant rats ran more and wheel running was directly related to 24-h SPA levels. The OX1R antagonist, SB-334867-A, and the DA1R antagonist, SCH3390, in SN more effectively reduced SPA stimulated by OXA in OR rats. These data suggest OXA-stimulated SPA is not secondary to enhanced arousal, propensity for SPA parallels inclination to run and that orexin action on dopaminergic neurons in SN may participate in mediation of SPA and running wheel activity. PMID:24161277

  20. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  1. Body mass index changes during highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Denue, B A; Ikunaiye, P N Y; Denue, C B A

    2014-01-09

    Wasting remains an important condition in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In this study, 120 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were prospectively evaluated to determine the effect of HAART on body mass index (BMI). Eighty-nine (83.1%) patients gained weight, 5 (4.7%) had no weight change, and 13 (12.2%) lost weight. There was a significant increase in overweight and obese patients. On multivariate analysis, time-updated CD4 count and higher baseline BMI were associated with a greater increase in BMI. Anaemia at diagnosis was associated with a significant increase in BMI. There were no significant effects of age, sex, disease severity, viral load or educational status on BMI changes. About 27% of the HIV patients presented with weight loss, which emphasizes that weight loss and wasting remain important AIDS-defining conditions, despite the advent of HAART. A linear association was observed between time-updated CD4 count and increase in BMI. The association between time-updated CD4 count and greater increase in BMI suggests that BMI could be a surrogate for CD4 count in monitoring treatment response in resource-limited settings.

  2. What Is a Good Activity for Teaching World Literature to High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzano, Elaine; Baldwin, Anna E.; Cobbs, Lewis; Whitaker, Sandra; Parker, Jessica; Krajcovic, Frank J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents six educators' ideas for good activities for teaching world literature to high school students. Describes ideas, activities, and experiences with innovative ways to teach World Literature. (SG)

  3. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  4. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO(2) photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Paronyan, Tereza M; Kechiantz, A M; Lin, M C

    2008-03-19

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO(2) electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO(2):F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO(2) nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO(2) film follows the dense packed thin TiO(2) film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO(2) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pH<1 and hydrothermal growth at a temperature of 200 °C. The acidic nanoparticle gel was neutralized by basic ammonia and a TiO(2) gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO(2) films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO(2) gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100  mWcm(-2) simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO(2) gel.

  5. High voltage protection in active matrix flat-panel imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Joerg; Zhao, Wei

    2006-03-01

    Various direct and indirect active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPI) are being investigated for x-ray imaging. In both direct AMFPI and indirect AMFPI with avalanche gain, a bias potential up to several thousand volts is required to operate the photoconductor. Under the condition of a large amount of radiation exposure between subsequent readout, a potential >80 V could appear across the amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) and cause permanent damage. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a simple pixel design for high voltage protection. The pixel electrode acts as an additional gate for the top channel of an a-Si TFT to drain excess image charge from the pixel electrode until an equilibrium is reached where the TFT channel current equals the detector signal current at a predetermined safe maximum value V Pmax for the pixel potential. This "dual-gate" TFT structure without additional protective device simplifies the TFT array design and improves yield. However special care is required to understand the characteristics of both the top and the bottom gates to ensure sufficient detector dynamic range as well as reliable high voltage protection. A physical model for dual-gate a-Si TFTs was developed and device parameters were determined by fitting the model to measured characteristics from a dual-gate TFT array. Our results showed that compared to the bottom (normal) gate, the protective gate has a shallower transfer characteristics (i.e. channel current as a function of gate voltage) due to a higher density of states in the top interface. Nevertheless it provides adequate protection of the TFT with V Pmax of ~40 V for typical radiographic exposures.

  6. Active cooling of pulse compression diffraction gratings for high energy, high average power ultrafast lasers.

    PubMed

    Alessi, David A; Rosso, Paul A; Nguyen, Hoang T; Aasen, Michael D; Britten, Jerald A; Haefner, Constantin

    2016-12-26

    Laser energy absorption and subsequent heat removal from diffraction gratings in chirped pulse compressors poses a significant challenge in high repetition rate, high peak power laser development. In order to understand the average power limitations, we have modeled the time-resolved thermo-mechanical properties of current and advanced diffraction gratings. We have also developed and demonstrated a technique of actively cooling Petawatt scale, gold compressor gratings to operate at 600W of average power - a 15x increase over the highest average power petawatt laser currently in operation. Combining this technique with low absorption multilayer dielectric gratings developed in our group would enable pulse compressors for petawatt peak power lasers operating at average powers well above 40kW.

  7. Structural integrity evaluation of high activity moderator system evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.K.

    1994-05-01

    The High Activity Moderator (HAM) system is wanted in a batch mode in which the evaporator tank is filled with 70{degrees}F cold moderator (D{sub 2}O) every 4 hours. This operation induces thermal shock to the wall of the tank. Thermal and structural analyses are performed to evaluate the impact of this thermal shock on the 220{degrees}F hot evaporator tank walls. Conservative thermal models are analyzed. Case 1 analyzes a 4 in. wide strip of D{sub 2}O running down the tank walls during the filling process and Case 2 analyzes the tank being filled instantly with 70{degrees}F D{sub 2}O. It is found that Case 1 results in larger temperature gradients are then input into the structural model for calculating the thermal stresses. The structural analysis shows that the maximum stress intensity due to combined pressure and thermal loading is about 17240 psi which is well below the yield stress (21000 psi) of the evaporator tank wall material, stainless steel 304L. The fatigue life is evaluated in accordance with the criteria given in ASME Code, Section VIII. It is found that at the stress level of 17240 psi plus any residual stresses that might be present at the welded attachments to the tank wall, the fatigue life is about 4{times}10{sup 6} cycles. If the evaporator tank is filled every 4 hours, the tank fatigue life is well above the anticipated batch operation period of 2 years.

  8. Removal of trichlorobenzene using 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; He, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Ma, Shuangchen

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash, industry lime and an additive, Ca(ClO2)2 (C) were used to prepare the 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent (HAA). The influencing factors for removal of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) using this absorbent such as reaction temperature, simulating gas flow rate, oxygen content, etc. were studied in a self-designed reactor. The optimum experimental conditions of removing 1,2,4-TCB are that the content of an oxidizing additive in the absorbent is 3% (wt), simulating gas flow rate is 100 mL/min, reaction temperature is 250 degrees C, and the content of oxygen in simulating gas is 6%. The maximum removal efficiency is 81.71% in 10 mins. The absorption capacity of the absorbent is 0.000111 g/g. The reaction products were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS), 2,6-Bis-[1,1-Dimethylethyl]-4-methyl-Phenol is considered to be the major intermediate product. The reaction route was revealed.

  9. High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

  10. Human autonomic activity and its response to acute oxygen supplement after high altitude acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xuping; Kennedy, Brian P; Hopkins, Susan R; Bogaard, Harm J; Wagner, Peter D; Ziegler, Michael G

    2002-11-29

    It is well established that after acclimatization at high altitude, many sympathetic pathways are hyperactive yet heart rate (HR) remains unchanged. In this study, we attempted to determine if this unchanged heart rate is due to compensatory mechanisms such as changes in parasympathetic activity or levels of receptors for autonomic neurotransmitters. We also examined the role played by hypoxia in these autonomic adaptations to high altitude. Three experiments were carried out on five healthy lowlanders both at sea level (SL) and after 2 weeks of acclimatization at 3800 m (Post-Ac) with: (a) placebo (control); (b) acute beta-adrenergic receptor blockade by propranolol (PRO), or (c) acute parasympathetic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate (GLY). Compared with SL control values, post-Ac venous norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine increased by 96% (p < 0.001) and 55% (p < 0.05), but epinephrine and HR did not change. PRO resulted in a smaller decrease in HR (bpm) Post-Ac than at SL (15 +/- 6 vs. 21 +/- 6, p < 0.05), while GLY caused a greater increase in HR Post-Ac than at SL (59 +/- 8 vs. 45 +/- 6, p < 0.05). Breathing oxygen at SL concentration while at altitude did not decrease NE, or alter the effect of PRO on HR, but reduced the chronotropic effect of GLY by 14% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that after acclimatization to altitude, increased parasympathetic neurotransmitter release and decreased beta-adenoreceptor activity account for the unchanged HR despite enhanced sympathetic activity. Acute oxygen replacement rapidly counteracted the parasympathetic, but not sympathetic hyperactivity that occurs at high altitude.

  11. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  12. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  13. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  14. Compact and highly active next-generation libraries for CRISPR-mediated gene repression and activation

    PubMed Central

    Horlbeck, Max A; Gilbert, Luke A; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Adamson, Britt; Pak, Ryan A; Chen, Yuwen; Fields, Alexander P; Park, Chong Yon; Corn, Jacob E; Kampmann, Martin; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2016-01-01

    We recently found that nucleosomes directly block access of CRISPR/Cas9 to DNA (Horlbeck et al., 2016). Here, we build on this observation with a comprehensive algorithm that incorporates chromatin, position, and sequence features to accurately predict highly effective single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for targeting nuclease-dead Cas9-mediated transcriptional repression (CRISPRi) and activation (CRISPRa). We use this algorithm to design next-generation genome-scale CRISPRi and CRISPRa libraries targeting human and mouse genomes. A CRISPRi screen for essential genes in K562 cells demonstrates that the large majority of sgRNAs are highly active. We also find CRISPRi does not exhibit any detectable non-specific toxicity recently observed with CRISPR nuclease approaches. Precision-recall analysis shows that we detect over 90% of essential genes with minimal false positives using a compact 5 sgRNA/gene library. Our results establish CRISPRi and CRISPRa as premier tools for loss- or gain-of-function studies and provide a general strategy for identifying Cas9 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19760.001 PMID:27661255

  15. Influence of different fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, I. V.; Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    as 106%. The most pronounced promoting effect on soil enzymatic activity was observed for biopreparation and its combination with Lignohumate where peroxidise activity was as much as 180% and 425% respectively. Moreover, for the above supplements enhancement of laccase activity was also observed, while ammonium nitrate or Lignohumate did not affect that parameter. Treatment of soil with biopreparation led to increase of laccase activity to 265% of blank value, and combined introduction of biopreparation with Lignohumate to 390%. That finding was evident for high potential of soil treated with biopreparation or its combination with Lignohumate to decompose cereal stubble remains. The latter was confirmed by direct measurements of cellulose contents in soil. The most dramatic decrease in plant residue cellulose content was registered for soils treated with biopreparation and Lignohumate where it was 32.4 and 44.3% of blank value respectively. Conclusions Effects of mineral and organic supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil were determined. Among supplements studied, the most efficient treatment was combined application of biopreparation with Lignohumate. Acknowledgements Authors express their deepest appreciation to O.A. Gladkov and SPA RET for the field trials. References 1. Childs R.E., Bardsley W.G. Biochem. J. 1975, 145, 93-103 2. Solomon E.J., Sundaram U.M., Machonkin T.E. Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 2563-2605 3. Dubois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A., Smith F. Analyt. Chem. 1956, 28, 350-356.

  16. High-resolution imagery of active faulting offshore Al Hoceima, Northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Acremont, E.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Rabaute, A.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Lafosse, M.; Poort, J.; Ammar, A.; Tahayt, A.; Le Roy, P.; Smit, J.; Do Couto, D.; Cancouët, R.; Prunier, C.; Ercilla, G.; Gorini, C.

    2014-09-01

    Two recent destructive earthquakes in 1994 and 2004 near Al Hoceima highlight that the northern Moroccan margin is one of the most seismically active regions of the Western Mediterranean area. Despite onshore geodetic, seismological and tectonic field studies, the onshore-offshore location and extent of the main active faults remain poorly constrained. Offshore Al Hoceima, high-resolution seismic reflection and swath-bathymetry have been recently acquired during the Marlboro-2 cruise. These data at shallow water depth, close to the coast, allow us to describe the location, continuity and geometry of three active faults bounding the offshore Nekor basin. The well-expressed normal-left-lateral onshore Trougout fault can be followed offshore during several kilometers with a N171°E ± 3° trend. Westward, the Bousekkour-Aghbal normal-left-lateral onshore fault is expressed offshore with a N020°E ± 4° trending fault. The N030°E ± 2° Bokkoya fault corresponds to the western boundary of the Plio-Quaternary offshore Nekor basin in the Al Hoceima bay and seems to define an en échelon tectonic pattern with the Bousekkour-Aghbal fault. We propose that these three faults are part of the complex transtensional system between the Nekor fault and the Al-Idrissi fault zone. Our characterization of the offshore expression of active faulting in the Al Hoceima region is consistent with the geometry and nature of the active fault planes deduced from onshore geomorphological and morphotectonic analyses, as well as seismological, geodetic and geodynamic data.

  17. Highly antioxidant carotene-lipid nanocarriers: synthesis and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Ovidiu, Oprea; Bojin, Dionezie; Meghea, Aurelia

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene—Sq and grape seed oil—GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers—NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive β-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index <0.19. The developed carotene-NLCs presented an excellent physical stability with almost all zeta potential values ranging between -29 ÷ -40 mV. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the β-carotene incorporation has led to a perturbation of solid lipid matrix with a less ordered arrangement. By UV-Vis spectroscopy it was evidenced that after encapsulation β-carotene adopts a supramolecular structure demonstrated by appearance of a shoulder at 530 nm related to a β-carotene triplet-triplet absorption. The carotene-NLCs have been also evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant properties. The presence of Sq and GSO produced a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of developed NLCs. The samples prepared with GSO and Tween 80 as main surfactant showed the highest antioxidant activity (AA %) against free oxygen radicals, exhibiting an enhancement of 35 % for loaded NLCs, as comparing to pure carotene. In addition to these properties, the ability of NLCs to manifest antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a higher extent on the

  18. High resolution studies of complex solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na

    Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are energetic events, which can even impact the near-Earth environment and are the principal source of space weather. Most of them originate in solar active regions. The most violent events are produced in sunspots with a complex magnetic field topology. Studying their morphology and dynamics is helpful in understanding the energy accumulation and release mechanisms for flares and CMEs, which are intriguing problems in solar physics. The study of complex active regions is based on high-resolution observations from space missions and new instruments at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Adaptive optics (AO) in combination with image restoration techniques (speckle masking imaging) can achieve improved image quality and a spatial resolution (about 100 km on the solar surface) close to the diffraction limit of BBSO's 65 cm vacuum telescope. Dopplergrams obtained with a two-dimensional imaging spectrometer combined with horizontal flow maps derived with Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field in sunspots. Magnetic field measurements from ground- and space-based instruments complement these data. At the outset of this study, the evolution and morphology of a typical round sunspot are described in some detail. The sunspot was followed from disk center to the limb, thus providing some insight into the geometry of the magnetic flux system. Having established a benchmark for a stable sunspot, the attention is turned to changes of the sunspot structure associated with flares and CMEs. Rapid penumbral decay and the strengthening of sunspot umbrae are manifestations of photospheric magnetic field changes after a flare. These sudden intensity changes are interpreted as a result of magnetic reconnection during the flare, which causes the magnetic field lines to be turned from more inclined to more vertical. Strong photospheric shear flows along the flaring magnetic

  19. High-protein-PUFA supplementation, red blood cell membranes, and plasma antioxidant activity in volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Marco; Baldini, Marta; Angeloni, Cristina; Biagi, Pierluigi; Hrelia, Silvana

    2008-06-01

    The authors evaluated the role of a high-protein, low-calorie, polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) -supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte-membrane fatty-acid composition, and plasma antioxidant defenses of nonprofessional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n = 5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n = 6) followed a high-protein, low-calorie diet with a 3-g/day fish-oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body-mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant increase in erythrocyte-membrane PUFA content and in the unsaturation index value (UI) because of the fish-oil supplementation.A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fish-oil-supplemented diet seems to be useful only when the aim of the diet is to obtain weight loss in a short-term period. The significant increase in the UI of erythrocyte membranes indicates the potential for harm, because a high intake of PUFA might increase susceptibility to lipid peroxidation not counterbalanced by a higher increase in TAA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be the better choice.

  20. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized.

  1. Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Sarah E.; Deering, Chad D.; Bachmann, Olivier; Huber, Christian; Gutiérrez, Francisco J.

    2014-10-01

    The formation of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite via extraction of interstitial melt from an upper crustal mush predicts the complementary formation of large amounts of (typically unerupted) silicic cumulates. However, identification of these cumulates remains controversial. One hindrance to our ability to identify them is a lack of clear predictions for complementary chemical signatures between extracted melts and their residues. To address this discrepancy, we present a generalized geochemical model tracking the evolution of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently experiencing crystallization and extraction of interstitial melt. Our method uses a numerical solution rather than analytical, thereby allowing for various dependencies between crystallinity, partition coefficients for variably compatible and/or incompatible elements, and melt extraction efficiency. Results reveal unambiguous fractionation signatures for the extracted melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. Our model is first applied to a well-constrained example (Searchlight pluton, USA), and provides a good fit to geochemical data. We then extrapolate our results to understanding the relationship between volcanic and plutonic silicic suites on a global scale. Utilizing the NAVDAT database to identify crystal accumulation or depletion signatures for each suite, we suggest that many large granitoids are indeed silicic cumulates, although their crystal accumulation signature is expected to be subtle.

  2. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  3. Our Understanding of Ion Outflows from Earth and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of energetic ion beams and conics by Shelley et al. and transversely accelerated ions by Klumpar in the 1970's heralded the extensive satellite, rocket, and radar observations of ion outflows over the past four decades. This body of observation has shaped our contemporary view on ion outflows and their important role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The variety of ion outflows may be categorized into thermal and suprathermal outflows. Both categories of outflows are strongly influenced by solar EUV irradiance and solar wind energy input, and the state of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and (at times) plasmasphere. Several important challenges remain in our quest for a fully quantitative, multi-scale understanding of ion outflows. These include the detection of the lowest-energy ions in the tenuous sunlit magnetosphere; the influence of these hidden ions in the magnetosphere; ion transit between low and high altitudes at quiet times; the role of microscale processes; the simultaneous monitoring of different outflow populations and their circulation and redistributions in the magnetosphere; the influence of solar energy input, the thermosphere and the plasmasphere on outflow composition, characteristics, and variability; and the effects of this variability on the coupling between thermal and suprathermal outflows and on the overall magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  4. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  5. High School Students' Participation in Music Activities beyond the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the music activities that high school band students are involved in and how these activities might lead to lifelong music participation. Specific research questions were the following: (a) In what activities are high school band students involved? (b) What are high school band directors…

  6. Molecular Basis of Regulating High Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels by S-Nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng-Hua; Bavencoffe, Alexis; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in a variety of physiological processes, such as vasoregulation and neurotransmission, and has a complex role in the regulation of pain transduction and synaptic transmission. We have shown previously that NO inhibits high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels in primary sensory neurons and excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this inhibitory action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of S-nitrosylation in the NO regulation of high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) rapidly reduced N-type currents when Cav2.2 was coexpressed with the Cavβ1 or Cavβ3 subunits in HEK293 cells. In contrast, SNAP only slightly inhibited P/Q-type and L-type currents reconstituted with various Cavβ subunits. SNAP caused a depolarizing shift in voltage-dependent N-type channel activation, but it had no effect on Cav2.2 protein levels on the membrane surface. The inhibitory effect of SNAP on N-type currents was blocked by the sulfhydryl-specific modifying reagent methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium. Furthermore, the consensus motifs of S-nitrosylation were much more abundant in Cav2.2 than in Cav1.2 and Cav2.1. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that Cys-805, Cys-930, and Cys-1045 in the II-III intracellular loop, Cys-1835 and Cys-2145 in the C terminus of Cav2.2, and Cys-346 in the Cavβ3 subunit were nitrosylation sites mediating NO sensitivity of N-type channels. Our findings demonstrate that the consensus motifs of S-nitrosylation in cytoplasmically accessible sites are critically involved in post-translational regulation of N-type Ca(2+) channels by NO. S-Nitrosylation mediates the feedback regulation of N-type channels by NO.

  7. Senior High Career Maturity Activities. Report No. 33-A-58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Virginia; And Others

    The activities in this curriculum guide are designed to facilitate self-evaluation, goal setting, and educator-student planning of learning experiences relating to career maturity. It is suggested that the career maturity measurement activity worksheets can be included in the student's school record and used as a reference base for future…

  8. Assessing High School Student Learning on Science Outreach Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hands-on laboratory activities on secondary student learning was examined. Assessment was conducted over a two-year period, with 262 students participating the first year and 264 students the second year. Students took a prequiz, performed a laboratory activity (gas chromatography of alcohols, or photosynthesis and respiration), and…

  9. JOSHUA: Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Highly Available HPC Job and Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlemann, Kai; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's HPC systems employ a single head node for control, which represents a single point of failure as it interrupts an entire HPC system upon failure. Furthermore, it is also a single point of control as it disables an entire HPC system until repair. One of the most important HPC system service running on the head node is the job and resource management. If it goes down, all currently running jobs loose the service they report back to. They have to be restarted once the head node is up and running again. With this paper, we present a generic approach for providing symmetric active/active replication for highly available HPC job and resource management. The JOSHUA solution provides a virtually synchronous environment for continuous availability without any interruption of service and without any loss of state. Replication is performed externally via the PBS service interface without the need to modify any service code. Test results as well as a reliability analysis of our proof-of-concept prototype implementation show that continuous availability can be provided by JOSHUA with an acceptable performance trade-off.

  10. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  11. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  12. Self-assembly of a thin highly reduced graphene oxide film and its high electrocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhou, An-Wei; Li, Hai-Wai; Zhang, Yu; Luong, John H T; Cui, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-10

    A thin highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film was self-assembled at the dimethyl formamide (DMF)-air interface through evaporation-induced water-assisted thin film formation at the pentane-DMF interface, followed by complete evaporation of pentane. The thin film was transferred onto various solid substrates for film characterization and electrochemical sensing. UV-visible spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemistry techniques were used to characterize the film. An rGO film showing 82.8% of the transmittance at 550 nm corresponds to a few layers of rGO nanosheets. The rGO nanosheets cross-stack with each other, lying approximately in the plane of the film. An rGO film collected on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode exhibited improved electrical conductivity compared to GC, with the electrode charge-transfer resistance (Rct) reduced from 31 Ω to 22 Ω. The as-formed rGO/GC electrode was mechanically very stable, exhibiting significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity to H(2)O(2) and dopamine. Multiple layers of the rGO films on the GC electrode showed even stronger electrocatalytic activity to dopamine than that of the single rGO film layer. The controllable formation of a stable rGO film on various solid substrates has potential applications for nanoelectronics and sensors/biosensors.

  13. Self-assembly of a thin highly reduced graphene oxide film and its high electrocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhou, An-Wei; Li, Hai-Wai; Zhang, Yu; Luong, John H. T.; Cui, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    A thin highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film was self-assembled at the dimethyl formamide (DMF)-air interface through evaporation-induced water-assisted thin film formation at the pentane-DMF interface, followed by complete evaporation of pentane. The thin film was transferred onto various solid substrates for film characterization and electrochemical sensing. UV-visible spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemistry techniques were used to characterize the film. An rGO film showing 82.8% of the transmittance at 550 nm corresponds to a few layers of rGO nanosheets. The rGO nanosheets cross-stack with each other, lying approximately in the plane of the film. An rGO film collected on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode exhibited improved electrical conductivity compared to GC, with the electrode charge-transfer resistance (Rct) reduced from 31 Ω to 22 Ω. The as-formed rGO/GC electrode was mechanically very stable, exhibiting significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity to H2O2 and dopamine. Multiple layers of the rGO films on the GC electrode showed even stronger electrocatalytic activity to dopamine than that of the single rGO film layer. The controllable formation of a stable rGO film on various solid substrates has potential applications for nanoelectronics and sensors/biosensors.

  14. Identification of Tumor Endothelial Cells with High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity and a Highly Angiogenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Maishi, Nako; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Iida, Junichiro; Shindoh, Masanobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hida, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. It has been reported that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) exhibit highly angiogenic phenotypes compared with those of normal endothelial cells (NECs). TECs show higher proliferative and migratory abilities than those NECs, together with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Furthermore, compared with NECs, stem cell markers such as Sca-1, CD90, and multidrug resistance 1 are upregulated in TECs, suggesting that stem-like cells exist in tumor blood vessels. In this study, to reveal the biological role of stem-like TECs, we analyzed expression of the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in TECs and characterized ALDHhigh TECs. TECs and NECs were isolated from melanoma-xenografted nude mice and normal dermis, respectively. ALDH mRNA expression and activity were higher in TECs than those in NECs. Next, ALDHhigh/low TECs were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to compare their characteristics. Compared with ALDHlow TECs, ALDHhigh TECs formed more tubes on Matrigel-coated plates and sustained the tubular networks longer. Furthermore, VEGFR2 expression was higher in ALDHhigh TECs than that in ALDHlow TECs. In addition, ALDH was expressed in the tumor blood vessels of in vivo mouse models of melanoma and oral carcinoma, but not in normal blood vessels. These findings indicate that ALDHhigh TECs exhibit an angiogenic phenotype. Stem-like TECs may have an essential role in tumor angiogenesis. PMID:25437864

  15. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  16. Activation of Renal (Pro)Renin Receptor Contributes to High Fructose-Induced Salt Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanming; Lu, Aihua; Lu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Linlin; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Li; Yang, Tianxin

    2017-02-01

    A high-fructose diet is shown to induce salt-sensitive hypertension, but the underlying mechanism largely remains unknown. The major goal of the present study was to test the role of renal (pro)renin receptor (PRR) in this model. In Sprague-Dawley rats, high-fructose intake increased renal expression of full-length PRR, which were attenuated by allopurinol. High-fructose intake also upregulated renal mRNA and protein expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and Na/K/2Cl cotransporter, as well as in vivo Na/K/2Cl cotransporter activity, all of which were nearly completely blocked by a PRR decoy inhibitor PRO20 or allopurinol treatment. Parallel changes were observed for indices of intrarenal renin-angiotensin-system including renal and urinary renin and angiotensin II levels. Radiotelemetry demonstrated that high-fructose or a high-salt diet alone did not affect mean arterial pressure, but the combination of the 2 maneuvers induced a ≈10-mm Hg increase of mean arterial pressure, which was blunted by PRO20 or allopurinol treatment. In cultured human kidney 2 cells, both fructose and uric acid increased protein expression of soluble PRR in a time- and dose-dependent manner; fructose-induced PRR upregulation was inhibited by allopurinol. Taken together, our data suggest that fructose via uric acid stimulates renal expression of PRR/soluble PRR that stimulate sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and Na/K/2Cl cotransporter expression and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system to induce salt-sensitive hypertension.

  17. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents.

  18. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  19. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  20. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  1. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  3. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  4. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  5. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  6. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  8. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  9. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  10. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  11. 20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  12. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often resorted to violent means, while women turned to poisoning, drowning, study ... likely to attempt suicide, but males used more violent methods. And all attempts were most common in ...

  14. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  15. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  16. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  18. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  1. 15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ON NORTH SIDE, STONE WALL AND METAL RAILING ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Lake Street Bridge, Spanning Ruddiman Creek at Lake Shore Drive, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  2. Early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapies for AIDS: dynamic choice with endogenous and exogenous learning.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, Pierre; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2006-05-01

    Criteria for initiation of highly active antiretroviral treatments (HAART) in HIV-infected patients remain a matter of debate world-wide because short-term benefits have to be balanced with costs of these therapies, and restrictions placed on future treatment options if resistant viral strains develop. On the other hand, postponing the introduction of HAART may involve a therapeutic opportunity cost if a patient's health is allowed to deteriorate to such an extent of becoming unable to benefit from new treatments currently under development when they become available. We introduce a two period model where period one treatment adoption is an irreversible act with future, but uncertain, consequences. New information, both endogenous and exogenous, arises over time and shapes the conditions surrounding the second period therapeutic decision. A surprising result is that, under conditions that appear close to those surrounding the HAART debate, the magnitude of the feared resistance effect has no effect on leaves the optimal treatment decision as far as it is high enough.

  3. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    PubMed

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies.

  4. Could High Volume of Physical Activities in Early Pregnancy Interfere with Deep Placentation?

    PubMed Central

    Vachon-Marceau, Chantale; Girard, Mario; Bisson, Michèle; Demers, Suzanne; Marc, Isabelle; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy on obstetrical outcomes remains controversial. We followed pregnant women who reported more than 3 hours of sustained PA per week during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cases Total five eligible women were followed. We observed small placenta from the first trimester (median: 0.68; interquartile [IQ]: 0.62–0.97 multiples of median [MoM]) to delivery (median: 0.82; IQ: 0.71–0.94 MoM), high uterine artery pulsatility index in the first (median: 1.82; IQ: 1.68–1.99 MoM) and second trimesters (median: 1.33; IQ: 1.11–1.56 MoM) of pregnancy. Placenta pathology revealed deep vasculopathy in three (60%) cases. However, all participants delivered at term and none of them experienced preeclampsia. Conclusion This small case series suggest that high PA volume in first trimester could interfere with deep placentation. PMID:27924247

  5. Highly active carbonaceous nanofibers: a versatile scaffold for constructing multifunctional free-standing membranes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Ma, Yi-Ni; Cao, Xiang; Guan, Qing-Fang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2011-10-25

    Translating the unique characteristics of individual nanoscale components into macroscopic materials such as membranes or sheets still remains a challenge, as the engineering of these structures often compromises their intrinsic properties. Here, we demonstrate that the highly active carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs), which are prepared through a template-directed hydrothermal carbonization process, can be used as a versatile nanoscale scaffold for constructing macroscopic multifunctional membranes. In order to demonstrate the broad applicability of the CNF scaffold, we fabricate a variety of CNF-based composite nanofibers, including CNFs-Fe(3)O(4), CNFs-TiO(2), CNFs-Ag, and CNFs-Au through various chemical routes. Importantly, all of them inherit unique dimensionality (high aspect ratio) and mechanical properties (flexibility) of the original CNF scaffolds and thus can be assembled into macroscopic free-standing membranes through a simple casting process. We also demonstrate the wide application potentials of these multifunctional composite membranes in magnetic actuation, antibiofouling filtration, and continuous-flow catalysis.

  6. Promising operational stability of high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Nakanotani, Hajime; Masui, Kensuke; Nishide, Junichi; Shibata, Takumi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2013-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are attractive for next-generation displays and lighting applications because of their potential for high electroluminescence (EL) efficiency, flexibility and low-cost manufacture. Although phosphorescent emitters containing rare metals such as iridium or platinum produce devices with high EL efficiency, these metals are expensive and their blue emission remains unreliable for practical applications. Recently, a new route to high EL efficiency using materials that emit through thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) was demonstrated. However, it is unclear whether devices that emit through TADF, which originates from the contributions of triplet excitons, are reliable. Here we demonstrate highly efficient, stable OLEDs that emit via TADF by controlling the position of the carrier recombination zone, resulting in projected lifetimes comparable to those of tris(2-phenylpyridinato)iridium(III)-based reference OLEDs. Our results indicate that TADF is intrinsically stable under electrical excitation and optimization of the surrounding materials will enhance device reliability. PMID:23820465

  7. The Slopes Remain the Same: Reply to Wolfe (2016)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Wolfe (2016) responds to my article (Kristjánsson, 2015), arguing among other things, that the differences in slope by response method in my data reflect speed accuracy trade-offs. But when reaction times and errors are combined in one score (inverse efficiency) to sidestep speed accuracy trade-offs, slope differences still remain. The problem that slopes, which are thought to measure search speed, differ by response type therefore remains. PMID:27872743

  8. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  10. Active cooling solutions for high power laser diodes stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karni, Yoram; Klumel, Genady; Levy, Moshe; Berk, Yuri; Openhaim, Yaki; Gridish, Yaakov; Elgali, Asher; Avisar, Meir; Blonder, Moshe; Sagy, Hila; Gertsenshtein, Alex

    2008-02-01

    High power water cooled diode lasers find increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where very high brightness and power are required. The high brightness is achieved either by increasing the power of each bar or by reducing the emitting area of the stacks. Two new products will be presented: Horizontal CW stacks with output power as high as 1kW using 80 W bars with emitting area width as low as 50 μm Vertical QCW stacks with output power as high as 1.2kW using 120 W bars. Heat removal from high power laser stacks often requires microchannel coolers operated with finely filtered deionized (DI) water. However, for certain industrial applications the reliability of this cooling method is widely considered insufficient due to leakage failures caused the highly corrosive DI water. Two solutions to the above problem will be discussed. A microchannel cooler-based package, which vastly reduces the corrosion problem, and a novel high-power laser diode stack that completely eliminates it. The latter solution is especially effective for pulsed applications in high duty cycle range.

  11. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  12. High-frequency, resonance-enhanced microactuators with active structures for high-speed flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreth, Phillip Andrew

    The need for actuators that are adaptable for use in a wide array of applications has been the motivation behind actuator development research over the past few years. Recent developments at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at Florida State University have produced a microactuator that uses the unsteadiness of a small-scale impinging jet to produce pulsed, supersonic microjets -- this is referred to as the Resonance-Enhanced Microjet (REM) actuator. Prior studies on these actuators at AAPL have been somewhat limited in that the actuator response has only been characterized through pressure/acoustic measurements and qualitative flow visualizations. Highly-magnified particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to measure the velocity fields of both a 1 mm underexpanded jet and an REM actuator. The results demonstrate that this type of microactuator is capable of producing pulsed, supersonic microjets that have velocities of approximately 400 m/s that are sustained for significant portions of their cycles (> 60 %). These are the first direct velocity measurements of these flowfields, and they allow for a greater understanding of the flow physics associated with this microactuator. The previous studies on the REM actuators have shown that the microactuator volume is among the principal parameters in determining the actuator's maximum-amplitude frequency component. In order to use this actuator in a closed-loop, feedback control system, a modified design that incorporates smart materials is studied. The smart materials (specifically piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators) have been implemented into the microactuator to actively change its geometry, thus permitting controllable changes in the microactuator's resonant frequency. The distinct feature of this design is that the smart materials are not used to produce the primary perturbation or flow from the actuator (which has in the past limited the control authority of other designs) but to

  13. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  14. Caveolin expression and activation in retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipocytes: influence of a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The effect of a high-fat diet on the expression of the three main isoforms of caveolins in adipocytes isolated from rat retroperitoneal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue was investigated. Two distinct phases can be distinguished on a time-dependent response in adipocytes from both locations. The early stage affects only to retroperitoneal adipocytes and implies caveolin-1 activation and caveolin-2 inactivation, together with increased expression of insulin signaling intermediaries. This initial response would be aimed to counterbalance the energy overload. Continued exposure to the high-fat diet produces an increase in circulating glucose and insulin levels, inducing a late stage in which adipocytes from both locations are affected. This late stage is characterized by general increased caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 expression; while on the other hand, the insulin signaling intermediaries are downregulated, with the noticeable exception of GLUT-4, whose expression remains high. Therefore, it seems that at this stage caveolins and GLUT-4 are regulated independently of the insulin pathway, through a mechanism that could be mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress associated with obesity. Although this GLUT-4 upregulation suggests a response against the raise in circulating glucose, this might not be the case, since the developing insulin resistance at this stage indicates a prediabetic state. We have also found that the high-fat diet is able to induce the expression of muscle-specific caveolin-3 in retroperitoneal adipocytes since the initial phase. This observation is similar to what we reported previously in skeletal muscle (Gómez-Ruiz et al., 2009, FEBS Lett 583:3259-3264), suggesting a similar regulatory mechanism for this isoform.

  15. Raman active high energy excitations in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhot, Jonathan; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Piekarz, Przemysław; Lapertot, Gérard; Aoki, Dai; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu2Si2 single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm-1 and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the Eg symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A1g symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  16. Has Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Increased the Time to Seroreversion in HIV Exposed but Uninfected Children?

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mavel; Ludwig, David A.; Khan, Safia S.; Chaparro, Aida A.; Rivera, Delia M.; Cotter, Amanda M.; Scott, Gwendolyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in pregnancy in the United States, the time of seroreversion in infants born to HIV-infected mothers has not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the timing of clearance of HIV antibodies and to identify any associated biological and clinical factors. Methods. A retrospective analysis of infants who remained uninfected after perinatal HIV exposure was performed. Infant and maternal medical records from January 2000 to December 2007 were reviewed and the time of seroreversion was estimated using methods for censored survival data. Results. In total, 744 infants were included in the study, with prenatal data available for 551 mothers. The median age of seroreversion was 13.9 months, and 14% of infants remained seropositive after 18 months, 4.3% after 21 months, and 1.2% after 24 months. Earlier age of seroreversion was associated with higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels at 3–7 months of age (P = .0029) and a higher rate of IgG change over the next 6 months of life (P = .003). Infants born by vaginal delivery were more likely to serorevert at a younger age (P = .0052), and maternal exposure to protease inhibitors was associated with a later age of seroreversion (P = .026). Conclusions. Clearance of HIV antibodies in uninfected infants was found to occur at a later age than has been previously reported. Fourteen percent of the infants had persistence of HIV antibodies at or beyond 18 months of age. PMID:22851494

  17. Broad Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705): Protection from Highly Lethal Inhalational Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Caroline, Amy L.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Oury, Tim D.; Reed, Douglas S.; Hartman, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of antiviral drugs that have broad-spectrum activity against a number of viral infections would be of significant benefit. Due to the evolution of resistance to currently licensed antiviral drugs, development of novel anti-influenza drugs is in progress, including Favipiravir (T-705), which is currently in human clinical trials. T-705 displays broad-spectrum in vitro activity against a number of viruses, including Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV). RVF is an important neglected tropical disease that causes human, agricultural, and economic losses in endemic regions. RVF has the capacity to emerge in new locations and also presents a potential bioterrorism threat. In the current study, the in vivo efficacy of T-705 was evaluated in Wistar-Furth rats infected with the virulent ZH501 strain of RVFV by the aerosol route. Methodology/Principal Findings Wistar-Furth rats are highly susceptible to a rapidly lethal disease after parenteral or inhalational exposure to the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. In the current study, two experiments were performed: a dose-determination study and a delayed-treatment study. In both experiments, all untreated control rats succumbed to disease. Out of 72 total rats infected with RVFV and treated with T-705, only 6 succumbed to disease. The remaining 66 rats (92%) survived lethal infection with no significant weight loss or fever. The 6 treated rats that succumbed survived significantly longer before succumbing to encephalitic disease. Conclusions/Significance Currently, there are no licensed antiviral drugs for treating RVF. Here, T-705 showed remarkable efficacy in a highly lethal rat model of Rift Valley Fever, even when given up to 48 hours post-infection. This is the first study to show protection of rats infected with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Our data suggest that T-705 has potential to be a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. PMID:24722586

  18. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-09-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented.

  19. Beware: Recruitment of Muscle Activity by the EEG-Neurofeedback Trainings of High Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Katarzyna; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Rogala, Jacek; Krauz, Rafał; Szczypińska, Marta; Mikicin, Mirosław; Wróbel, Andrzej; Kublik, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    EEG-neurofeedback (NFB) became a very popular method aimed at improving cognitive and behavioral performance. However, the EMG frequency spectrum overlies the higher EEG oscillations and the NFB trainings focusing on these frequencies is hindered by the problem of EMG load in the information fed back to the subjects. In such a complex signal, it is highly probable that the most controllable component will form the basis for operant conditioning. This might cause different effects in the case of various training protocols and therefore needs to be carefully assessed before designing training protocols and algorithms. In the current experiment a group of healthy adults (n = 14) was trained by professional trainers to up-regulate their beta1 (15-22 Hz) band for eight sessions. The control group (n = 18) underwent the same training regime but without rewards for increasing beta. In half of the participants trained to up-regulate beta1 band (n = 7) a systematic increase in tonic EMG activity was identified offline, implying that muscle activity became a foundation for reinforcement in the trainings. The remaining participants did not present any specific increase of the trained beta1 band amplitude. The training was perceived effective by both trainers and the trainees in all groups. These results indicate the necessity of proper control of muscle activity as a requirement for the genuine EEG-NFB training, especially in protocols that do not aim at the participants' relaxation. The specificity of the information fed back to the participants should be of highest interest to all therapists and researchers, as it might irreversibly alter the results of the training.

  20. Beware: Recruitment of Muscle Activity by the EEG-Neurofeedback Trainings of High Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Paluch, Katarzyna; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Rogala, Jacek; Krauz, Rafał; Szczypińska, Marta; Mikicin, Mirosław; Wróbel, Andrzej; Kublik, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    EEG-neurofeedback (NFB) became a very popular method aimed at improving cognitive and behavioral performance. However, the EMG frequency spectrum overlies the higher EEG oscillations and the NFB trainings focusing on these frequencies is hindered by the problem of EMG load in the information fed back to the subjects. In such a complex signal, it is highly probable that the most controllable component will form the basis for operant conditioning. This might cause different effects in the case of various training protocols and therefore needs to be carefully assessed before designing training protocols and algorithms. In the current experiment a group of healthy adults (n = 14) was trained by professional trainers to up-regulate their beta1 (15–22 Hz) band for eight sessions. The control group (n = 18) underwent the same training regime but without rewards for increasing beta. In half of the participants trained to up-regulate beta1 band (n = 7) a systematic increase in tonic EMG activity was identified offline, implying that muscle activity became a foundation for reinforcement in the trainings. The remaining participants did not present any specific increase of the trained beta1 band amplitude. The training was perceived effective by both trainers and the trainees in all groups. These results indicate the necessity of proper control of muscle activity as a requirement for the genuine EEG-NFB training, especially in protocols that do not aim at the participants’ relaxation. The specificity of the information fed back to the participants should be of highest interest to all therapists and researchers, as it might irreversibly alter the results of the training. PMID:28373836

  1. High Tide, Low Tide. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snively, Gloria

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  2. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  3. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  4. Active simultaneous uplift and margin-normal extension in a forearc high, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Brandon, M. T.; Fassoulas, C.

    2014-07-01

    The island of Crete occupies a forearc high in the central Hellenic subduction zone and is characterized by sustained exhumation, surface uplift and extension. The processes governing orogenesis and topographic development here remain poorly understood. Dramatic topographic relief (2-6 km) astride the southern coastline of Crete is associated with large margin-parallel faults responsible for deep bathymetric depressions known as the Hellenic troughs. These structures have been interpreted as both active and inactive with either contractional, strike-slip, or extensional movement histories. Distinguishing between these different structural styles and kinematic histories here allows us to explore more general models for improving our global understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic processes of syn-convergent extension. We present new observations from the south-central coastline of Crete that clarifies the role of these faults in the late Cenozoic evolution of the central Hellenic margin and the processes controlling Quaternary surface uplift. Pleistocene marine terraces are used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminesce dating and correlation to the Quaternary eustatic curve to document coastal uplift and identify active faults. Two south-dipping normal faults are observed, which extend offshore, offset these marine terrace deposits and indicate active N-S (margin-normal) extension. Further, marine terraces preserved in the footwall and hanging wall of both faults demonstrate that regional net uplift of Crete is occurring despite active extension. Field mapping and geometric reconstructions of an active onshore normal fault reveal that the subaqueous range-front fault of south-central Crete is synthetic to the south-dipping normal faults on shore. These findings are inconsistent with models of active horizontal shortening in the upper crust of the Hellenic forearc. Rather, they are consistent with topographic growth of the forearc in a viscous orogenic

  5. Synthesis of a high specific activity methyl sulfone tritium isotopologue of fevipiprant (NVP-QAW039).

    PubMed

    Luu, Van T; Goujon, Jean-Yves; Meisterhans, Christian; Frommherz, Matthias; Bauer, Carsten

    2015-05-15

    The synthesis of a triple tritiated isotopologue of the CRTh2 antagonist NVP-QAW039 (fevipiprant) with a specific activity >3 TBq/mmol is described. Key to the high specific activity is the methylation of a bench-stable dimeric disulfide precursor that is in situ reduced to the corresponding thiol monomer and methylated with [(3)H3]MeONos having per se a high specific activity. The high specific activity of the tritiated active pharmaceutical ingredient obtained by a build-up approach is discussed in the light of the specific activity usually to be expected if hydrogen tritium exchange methods were applied.

  6. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  7. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  8. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach.

  9. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  10. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  11. Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammy, Mo

    2010-01-01

    Active flow control is often used to manipulate flow instabilities to achieve a desired goal (e.g. prevent separation, enhance mixing, reduce noise, etc.). Instability frequencies normally scale with flow velocity scale and inversely with flow length scale (U/l). In a laboratory setting for such flow experiments, U is high, but l is low, resulting in high instability frequency. In addition, high momentum and high background noise & turbulence in the flow necessitate high amplitude actuation. Developing a high amplitude and high frequency actuator is a major challenge. Ironically, these requirements ease up in application (but other issues arise).

  12. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  13. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  14. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  15. Mesoscale infraslow spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations recapitulate high-frequency activity cortical motifs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Allen W; Mohajerani, Majid H; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Wang, Yu Tian; Murphy, Timothy H

    2015-07-20

    Neuroimaging of spontaneous, resting-state infraslow (<0.1 Hz) brain activity has been used to reveal the regional functional organization of the brain and may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers of neurological disease. However, these imaging studies generally rely on indirect measures of neuronal activity and the nature of the neuronal activity correlate remains unclear. Here we show, using wide-field, voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the mesoscale spatiotemporal structure and pharmacological dependence of spontaneous, infraslow cortical activity in anaesthetized and awake mice. Spontaneous infraslow activity is regionally distinct, correlates with electroencephalography and local field potential recordings, and shows bilateral symmetry between cortical hemispheres. Infraslow activity is attenuated and its functional structure abolished after treatment with voltage-gated sodium channel and glutamate receptor antagonists. Correlation analysis reveals patterns of infraslow regional connectivity that are analogous to cortical motifs observed from higher-frequency spontaneous activity and reflect the underlying framework of intracortical axonal projections.

  16. Mesoscale infraslow spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations recapitulate high-frequency activity cortical motifs

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Allen W.; Mohajerani, Majid H.; LeDue, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Yu Tian; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging of spontaneous, resting-state infraslow (<0.1 Hz) brain activity has been used to reveal the regional functional organization of the brain and may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers of neurological disease. However, these imaging studies generally rely on indirect measures of neuronal activity and the nature of the neuronal activity correlate remains unclear. Here we show, using wide-field, voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the mesoscale spatiotemporal structure and pharmacological dependence of spontaneous, infraslow cortical activity in anaesthetized and awake mice. Spontaneous infraslow activity is regionally distinct, correlates with electroencephalography and local field potential recordings, and shows bilateral symmetry between cortical hemispheres. Infraslow activity is attenuated and its functional structure abolished after treatment with voltage-gated sodium channel and glutamate receptor antagonists. Correlation analysis reveals patterns of infraslow regional connectivity that are analogous to cortical motifs observed from higher-frequency spontaneous activity and reflect the underlying framework of intracortical axonal projections. PMID:26190168

  17. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed.

  18. Intolerance of uncertainty in emotional disorders: What uncertainties remain?

    PubMed

    Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara Ann; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The current paper presents a future research agenda for intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor for emotional disorders. In light of the accumulating interest and promising research on IU, it is timely to emphasize the theoretical and therapeutic significance of IU, as well as to highlight what remains unknown about IU across areas such as development, assessment, behavior, threat and risk, and relationships to cognitive vulnerability factors and emotional disorders. The present paper was designed to provide a synthesis of what is known and unknown about IU, and, in doing so, proposes broad and novel directions for future research to address the remaining uncertainties in the literature.

  19. Mammalian intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as highly active exopolyphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Schröder, H C

    2001-06-11

    Recent results revealed that inorganic polyphosphates (polyP), being energy-rich linear polymers of orthophosphate residues known from bacteria and yeast, also exist in higher eukaryotes. However, the enzymatic basis of their metabolism especially in mammalian cells is still uncertain. Here we demonstrate for the first time that alkaline phosphatase from calf intestine (CIAP) is able to cleave polyP molecules up to a chain length of about 800. The enzyme acts as an exopolyphosphatase degrading polyP in a processive manner. The pH optimum is in the alkaline range. Divalent cations are not required for catalytic activity but inhibit the degradation of polyP. The rate of hydrolysis of short-chain polyP by CIAP is comparable to that of the standard alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The specific activity of the enzyme decreases with increasing chain length of the polymer both in the alkaline and in the neutral pH range. The K(m) of the enzyme also decreases with increasing chain length. The mammalian tissue non-specific isoform of AP was not able to hydrolyze polyP under the conditions applied while the placental-type AP and the bacterial (Escherichia coli) AP displayed polyP-degrading activity.

  20. Unique Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates as a Highly Active SERS Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzberg, A M; Grant, C D; Wolcott, A; Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Bogomolni, R; Zhang, J Z

    2004-04-06

    A unique gold nanoparticle aggregate (GNA) system has been shown to be an excellent substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Rhodamine 6G (R6G), a common molecule used for testing SERS activity on silver, but generally difficult to detect on gold substrates, has been found to readily bind to the GNA and exhibit strong SERS activity due to the unique surface chemistry afforded by sulfur species on the surface. This GNA system has yielded a large SERS enhancement of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} in bulk solution for R6G, on par with or greater than any previously reported gold SERS substrate. SERS activity has also been successfully demonstrated for several biological molecules including adenine, L-cysteine, L-lysine, and L-histidine for the first time on a gold SERS substrate, showing the potential of this GNA as a convenient and powerful SERS substrate for biomolecular detection. In addition, SERS spectrum of R6G on single aggregates has been measured. We have shown that the special surface properties of the GNA, in conjunction with strong near IR absorption, make it useful for SERS analysis of a wide variety of molecules.

  1. Activated Metal Oxide Surfaces as Highly Reactive Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    underway. " Synthesis of Ultra-High Surface Area Fe203 by Precipitation Methods Yong-Xi Li A series of precipitations of Fe(OH) 3 (from FeCl 3) at...Progress was also made on developing new aerogel procedures for synthesis of ultra-high surface area magnesium oxide. Finally,’ome metal oxide molecules...were studied in chemical reactions and by theoretical methods .-) Three students earned Ph.D. degrees and one an M.S. degree. A visiting professor and

  2. Examination of the vocal fold activity using ultra high speed filming: archival recordings by Paul Moore and Hans von Leden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Vaughan, Laura

    2012-02-01

    We present excerpts from three archival ultra high-speed films on the function of the human larynx by Paul Moore, Ph. D. and Hans von Leden, M.D. The films received two awards for best scientific cinematography from two different international film festivals in Italy in 1957. These films present ultra high-speed cinematographic accounts on the workings of the human vocal folds during various phonatory and ventilatory activities. These films were captured at speeds of 2000 to 5000 frames-per-second via an ingeniously arranged laryngeal mirror viewing device. Such speeds were revolutionary six decades ago. Technology currently allows us to film laryngeal behavior at speeds of up to 16,000 frames-per-second using digital recordings. However, the ultra high-speed films by Paul and Hans remain a beacon for anyone sincerely interested in how the smallest instrument of sound production works, and how it is subjected to failure by intrinsic or extrinsic factors.

  3. Attitudinal and Behavioral Characteristics Predict High Risk Sexual Activity in Rural Tanzanian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Aichele, Stephen R.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12–26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421

  4. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  5. Student Activism in the High Schools of New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haake, Bernard F.; Langworthy, Philip B.

    The purpose of nine regional meetings between New York State Education Department personnel, educators and students from selected secondary school districts was to obtain information about unrest and the changing expectations of high school students. The following conclusions were made: (1) rising expectations of students are part of the "times,"…

  6. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  7. Global Issues: Activities and Resources for the High School Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Kenneth A.; Mulloy, Paul T.

    The book is an introduction to teaching about contemporary global concerns in the high school social studies classroom. It contains background and lesson plans for seven units in addition to 39 reproducible student handouts, annotated lists of other good classroom resources, and a guide to sources of teaching materials on global issues. Topics…

  8. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  9. Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain About SPR Drawdown and Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    and to the ARCO ter- minal in Texas City , Texas. These terminals provide connections to two marine terminals and nine refineries in Texas. 0 Texoma...RCED-91-16 Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain Chater 2 DOE’s Egbleatis of Crient Drawdown Capabllity Appear Reamnable, but Tankeir MAmilability Col

  10. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  11. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. BLAST FURNACE No. 1 IS ON THE RIGHT, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) end and clerestory monitor of Machine Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Machine Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  18. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Remaining True to the Vision: Promoting Research in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Ann P.; Burgess, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for family and consumer sciences professionals to generate new knowledge through research and then share findings with diverse groups. Specific Action Steps describe methods to incorporate research into university curricula to promote this role. The ultimate goal is to inspire new professionals to remain true to the…

  20. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  1. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  2. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  3. 6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL BUILDING AND UTILITY BRIDGE TO BUILDING ACROSS NINTH STREET HABS No. IA-160-AR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Klauer Manufacturing Company Factory, 301 Ninth Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. 22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains of machinery house platform east of drawspan; note cables (still connected to drawspan) coming off the winding drum; view to north. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  6. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  7. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  8. 8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street Pump House. Ashes would be removed via a dump truck driven under the hopper above the garage door. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  10. 1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  11. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  13. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  14. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  15. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  16. Highly conserved tyrosine stabilizes the active state of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Joseph A; South, Kieron; Ahuja, Shivani; Zaitseva, Ekaterina; Opefi, Chikwado A; Eilers, Markus; Vogel, Reiner; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O

    2010-11-16

    Light-induced isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the visual pigment rhodopsin triggers displacement of the second extracellular loop (EL2) and motion of transmembrane helices H5, H6, and H7 leading to the active intermediate metarhodopsin II (Meta II). We describe solid-state NMR measurements of rhodopsin and Meta II that target the molecular contacts in the region of the ionic lock involving these three helices. We show that a contact between Arg135(3.50) and Met257(6.40) forms in Meta II, consistent with the outward rotation of H6 and breaking of the dark-state Glu134(3.49)-Arg135(3.50)-Glu247(6.30) ionic lock. We also show that Tyr223(5.58) and Tyr306(7.53) form molecular contacts with Met257(6.40). Together these results reveal that the crystal structure of opsin in the region of the ionic lock reflects the active state of the receptor. We further demonstrate that Tyr223(5.58) and Ala132(3.47) in Meta II stabilize helix H5 in an active orientation. Mutation of Tyr223(5.58) to phenylalanine or mutation of Ala132(3.47) to leucine decreases the lifetime of the Meta II intermediate. Furthermore, the Y223F mutation is coupled to structural changes in EL2. In contrast, mutation of Tyr306(7.53) to phenylalanine shows only a moderate influence on the Meta II lifetime and is not coupled to EL2.

  17. Active Physics Problem Based Learning for High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    Active Physics bridges research and practice. This NSF supported curriculum project uses a 7E instructional model and a problem based learning approach. Students learn physics on a need to know basis as they construct solutions to challenges such as developing a sport that can be played on the moon, creating an appliance package for developing countries, designing a light and sound show, or building a museum exhibit. In addition to meeting the content requirements of an introductory physics course, there is also an emphasis on engineering design principles and on essential questions. The excitement and frustration of trying to bridge research and practice will be discussed.

  18. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change.

  19. Top-down modulation of hippocampal encoding activity as measured by high-resolution functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Carr, Valerie A; Engel, Stephen A; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2013-08-01

    Memory formation is known to be critically dependent upon the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Despite this well-characterized role, it remains unclear whether and how MTL encoding processes are affected by top-down goal states. Here, we examined the manner in which task demands at encoding affect MTL activity and its relation to subsequent memory performance. Participants were scanned using high-resolution neuroimaging of the MTL while engaging in two incidental encoding tasks: one that directed participants' attention to stimulus distinctiveness, and the other requiring evaluation of similarities across stimuli. We hypothesized that attending to distinctiveness would lead to the formation of more detailed memories and would more effectively engage the hippocampal circuit than attending to similarity. In line with our hypotheses, higher rates of subsequent recollection were observed for stimuli studied under the Distinctiveness than Similarity task. Critically, within the hippocampus, CA1 and the subiculum demonstrated an interaction between memory performance and task such that a significant subsequent memory effect was found only when task goals required attention to stimulus distinctiveness. To this end, robust engagement of the hippocampal circuit may underlie the observed behavioral benefits of attending to distinctiveness. Taken together, these findings advance understanding of the effects of top-down intentional information on successful memory formation across subregions of the MTL.

  20. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Wendy B; Little, Richard F; Wilson, Wyndham H; Yarchoan, Robert

    2006-07-01

    Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, malignancies have been an important feature of this disease. Several cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and cervical cancer, are considered AIDS-defining when they occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Most AIDS-defining tumors are associated with one of 3 DNA viruses: KS-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or human papillomavirus. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS and certain lymphomas has decreased, whereas that of other tumors, such as cervical cancer, has undergone little change. Several new drugs and therapies have been developed for KS and AIDS-related lymphomas, and these treatments, plus the development of HAART, have contributed to improvements in morbidity and mortality. At the same time, the improved overall survival of patients with HAART has contributed to an increase in the number of patients living with AIDS in developed countries such as the United States. With the development of HAART and improved prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, an increasing percentage of the deaths in AIDS patients have been from malignancies. Strategies for prevention, screening, and therapy remain important areas of research in this developing field.

  1. Myelinating satellite oligodendrocytes are integrated in a glial syncytium constraining neuronal high-frequency activity

    PubMed Central

    Battefeld, Arne; Klooster, Jan; Kole, Maarten H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite oligodendrocytes (s-OLs) are closely apposed to the soma of neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons but their properties and functional roles remain unresolved. Here we show that s-OLs form compact myelin and action potentials of the host neuron evoke precisely timed Ba2+-sensitive K+ inward rectifying (Kir) currents in the s-OL. Unexpectedly, the glial K+ inward current does not require oligodendrocytic Kir4.1. Action potential-evoked Kir currents are in part mediated by gap–junction coupling with neighbouring OLs and astrocytes that form a syncytium around the pyramidal cell body. Computational modelling predicts that glial Kir constrains the perisomatic [K+]o increase most importantly during high-frequency action potentials. Consistent with these predictions neurons with s-OLs showed a reduced probability for action potential burst firing during [K+]o elevations. These data suggest that s-OLs are integrated into a glial syncytium for the millisecond rapid K+ uptake limiting activity-dependent [K+]o increase in the perisomatic neuron domain. PMID:27161034

  2. Frequencies of Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Differentially Affect Brain Activity: Positive and Negative Hypersonic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10–13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  3. Expression of xylanase with high specific activity from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis A1 in transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Peilong; Wang, Yaru; Bai, Yingguo; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Yuan, Tiezheng; Fan, Yunliu; Yao, Bin

    2007-04-01

    The gene, xynB, from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis A1 encoding xylanase, XYNB, with a high specific activity for xylan, was transformed into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The integration of xynB into genomic DNA was confirmed by PCR and reverse transcriptase-PCR. The gene was expressed under the control of a constitutive double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Both SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis showed high levels of expression of the 21 kDa and 31 kDa XYNB proteins in transgenic potato plants transformed by the binary vectors pBinXy and signal peptide contained pBinSPXy, respectively. The recombinant XYNB protein was present at up to 5% of total soluble leaf protein in the cytoplasm. In transgenic leaf and tuber extracts, xylanase activity was up to 87 micromol min(-1) g(-1) fresh leaf (9.7 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) total soluble protein). The xylanase was stable at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C in buffers (pH 5.2) for 5 min. Furthermore, the xylanase enzymatic activity remained virtually unchanged over several generations of potato. These results demonstrate that the transgenic potato can be used to produce recombinant xylanase with high specific enzyme activity and can potentially be an alternative to present-day xylanase additives to animal feed.

  4. Sodium citrate assisted facile synthesis of AuPd alloy networks for ethanol electrooxidation with high activity and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yanling; Zhu, Zhijun; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhou, H. Susan

    2016-10-01

    The direct ethanol fuel cell is an emerging energy conversion device for which palladium is considered as the one of the most effective components for anode catalyst, however, its widespread application has been still limited by the activity and durability of the anode catalyst. In this work, AuPd alloy networks (NWs) are synthesized using H2PdCl4 and HAuCl4 as precursors reduced by NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate (SC). The results reveal that SC plays significant role in network structure, resulting in the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst. This self-supported AuPd NWs catalyst exhibits much higher electrochemical catalytic activity than commercial Pd/C catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. Significantly, AuPd NWs catalyst shows extremely high durability at the beginning of the chronoamperometry test, and as high as 49% of the mass current density (1.41 A/mgPd) remains after 4000 s current-time test at -0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in N2-saturated KOH-ethanol solution. This strategy provides a facile method for the preparation of alloy networks with high electrochemical activity, and can be potentially expanded to a variety of electrochemical applications.

  5. Highly sensitive and robust peroxidase-like activity of porous nanorods of ceria and their application for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhimin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyun; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Xuemei; Qu, Yongquan

    2015-08-01

    Porous nanorods of ceria (PN-Ceria), a novel ceria nanostructure with a large surface area and a high surface Ce(3+) fraction, exhibited strong intrinsic peroxidase activity toward a classical peroxidase substrate in the presence of H2O2. Peroxidase-like activity of ceria originated from surface Ce(3+) species as the catalytic center, thereby explaining the high performance of PN-Ceria as an artificial enzyme mimicking peroxidase. Compared with the natural enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), PN-Ceria showed several advantages such as low cost, easy storage, high sensitivity, and, prominently, chemical and catalytic stability under harsh conditions. Importantly, the enzymatic activity of PN-Ceria remained nearly constant and stable over a wide range of temperature and pH values, ensuring the accuracy and reliability of measurements of its peroxidase-like activity. A PN-Ceria based novel diagnostic system was developed for breast cancer detection with a higher sensitivity than the standard HRP detection system. Our work has laid a solid foundation for the development of PN-Ceria as a novel diagnostic tool for clinical use.

  6. Activated Carbon Fiber Paper Based Electrodes with High Electrocatalytic Activity for Vanadium Flow Batteries with Improved Power Density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Xianfeng; Xu, Chi; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-02-08

    Vanadium flow batteries (VFBs) have received high attention for large-scale energy storage due to their advantages of flexibility design, long cycle life, high efficiency, and high safety. However, commercial progress of VFBs has so far been limited by its high cost induced by its low power density. Ultrathin carbon paper is believed to be a very promising electrode for VFB because it illustrates super-low ohmic polarization, however, is limited by its low electrocatalytic activity. In this paper, a kind of carbon paper (CP) with super-high electrocatalytic activity was fabricated via a universal and simple CO2 activation method. The porosity and oxygen functional groups can be easily tuned via this method. The charge transfer resistance (denoting the electrochemical polarization) of a VFB with CP electrode after CO2 activation decreased dramatically from 970 to 120 mΩcm(2). Accordingly, the energy efficiency of a VFB with activated carbon paper as the electrode increased by 13% as compared to one without activation and reaches nearly 80% when the current density is 140 mAcm(-2). This paper provides an effective way to prepare high-performance porous carbon electrodes for VFBs and even for other battery systems.

  7. High-throughput design of low-activation, high-strength creep-resistant steels for nuclear-reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are prime candidate materials for structural applications in nuclear power reactors. However, their creep strength is much lower than that of creep-resistant steel developed for conventional fossil-fired power plants as alloying elements with a high neutron activation cannot be used. To improve the creep strength and to maintain a low activation, a high-throughput computational alloy design model coupling thermodynamics, precipitate-coarsening kinetics and an optimization genetic algorithm, is developed. Twelve relevant alloying elements with either low or high activation are considered simultaneously. The activity levels at 0-10 year after the end of irradiation are taken as optimization parameter. The creep-strength values (after exposure for 10 years at 650 °C) are estimated on the basis of the solid-solution strengthening and the precipitation hardening (taking into account precipitate coarsening). Potential alloy compositions leading to a high austenite fraction or a high percentage of undesirable second phase particles are rejected automatically in the optimization cycle. The newly identified alloys have a much higher precipitation hardening and solid-solution strengthening at the same activity level as existing reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels.

  8. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  9. Ultrasound-assisted Micro-emulsion Synthesis of a Highly Active Nano-particle Catalyst

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted Micro -emulsion Synthesis of a Highly Active Nano -particle Catalyst by Rongzhong Jiang and Charles Rong ARL-TR-5114...ARL-TR-5114 March 2010 Ultrasound-assisted Micro -emulsion Synthesis of a Highly Active Nano -particle Catalyst Rongzhong Jiang and...TYPE DRI 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2009 to 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrasound-assisted Micro -emulsion Synthesis of a Highly Active Nano

  10. Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides on immune and antioxidant activities in high-fat mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ying-Kai; Wu, Hua-Tao; Ma, Tao; Liu, Wei-Juan; He, Xue-Jun

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immune and antioxidant activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides (GGP) in rats fed high-fat diet. The experiment was performed on four groups of growing Kunming mice. The results of the experiment showed a statistically significant decrease in serum antioxidant enzyme activities in high-fat group. Administration of GGP dose-dependently significantly enhanced immune and antioxidant enzyme activities in the GGP-treated mice compared to the high-fat model mice. It is concluded that GGP treatment can enhance immune activities, and reduce oxidative stress in high-fat mice.

  11. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  12. High-throughput imaging of neuronal activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Larsch, Johannes; Ventimiglia, Donovan; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Albrecht, Dirk R.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal responses to sensory inputs can vary based on genotype, development, experience, or stochastic factors. Existing neuronal recording techniques examine a single animal at a time, limiting understanding of the variability and range of potential responses. To scale up neuronal recordings, we here describe a system for simultaneous wide-field imaging of neuronal calcium activity from at least 20 Caenorhabditis elegans animals under precise microfluidic chemical stimulation. This increased experimental throughput was used to perform a systematic characterization of chemosensory neuron responses to multiple odors, odor concentrations, and temporal patterns, as well as responses to pharmacological manipulation. The system allowed recordings from sensory neurons and interneurons in freely moving animals, whose neuronal responses could be correlated with behavior. Wide-field imaging provides a tool for comprehensive circuit analysis with elevated throughput in C. elegans. PMID:24145415

  13. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  14. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1992-02-07

    Results of the pyridine adsorption, studies on native and K-doped alumina provide fundamental grounding for the observed methanol dehydration activity of these samples. Both the reactor studies and the pyridine adsorption studies support the conclusion that the K-doped sample had reduced Lewis acidity. Moreover, we were able to measurably alter the acidity of the support surface by our ion exchange treatment. More significantly, when reactor results for transition-metal loaded samples are reconsidered in combination with their surface characteristics suggested by our pyridine adsorption studies, our hypothesis that Rh and Mo have ultimately titrated the support surface seems all the more convincing. Hence, in light of the pyridine adsorption results, the attenuation of a transition-metal based decomposition pathway for methanol on the metal-loaded samples-as seen in the reactor testing-is all the more reasonable.

  15. High temperature sensor/microphone development for active noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    The industrial and scientific communities have shown genuine interest in electronic systems which can operate at high temperatures, among which are sensors to monitor noise, vibration, and acoustic emissions. Acoustic sensing can be accomplished by a wide variety of commercially available devices, including: simple piezoelectric sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges, proximity sensors, and fiber optics. Of the several sensing mechanisms investigated, piezoelectrics were found to be the most prevalent, because of their simplicity of design and application and, because of their high sensitivity over broad ranges of frequencies and temperature. Numerous piezoelectric materials are used in acoustic sensors today; but maximum use temperatures are imposed by their transition temperatures (T(sub c)) and by their resistivity. Lithium niobate, in single crystal form, has the highest operating temperature of any commercially available material, 650 C; but that is not high enough for future requirements. Only two piezoelectric materials show potential for use at 1000 C; AlN thin film reported to be piezoactive at 1150 C, and perovskite layer structure (PLS) materials, which possess among the highest T(sub c) (greater than 1500 C) reported for ferroelectrics. A ceramic PLS composition was chosen. The solid solution composition, 80% strontium niobate (SN) and 20% strontium tantalate (STa), with a T(sub c) approximately 1160 C, was hot forged, a process which concurrently sinters and renders the plate-like grains into a highly oriented configuration to enhance piezo properties. Poled samples of this composition showed coupling (k33) approximately 6 and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) approximately 3. Piezoactivity was seen at 1125 C, the highest temperature measurement reported for a ferroelectric ceramic. The high temperature piezoelectric responses of this, and similar PLS materials, opens the possibility of their use in electronic devices operating at temperatures up to

  16. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H2O2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H2O2 addition with O2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O2 injected and H2O2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  17. Characterization of Cardiac-Resident Progenitor Cells Expressing High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roehrich, Marc-Estienne; Spicher, Albert; Milano, Giuseppina; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity has been associated with stem and progenitor cells in various tissues. Human cord blood and bone marrow ALDH-bright (ALDHbr) cells have displayed angiogenic activity in preclinical studies and have been shown to be safe in clinical trials in patients with ischemic cardiovascular disease. The presence of ALDHbr cells in the heart has not been evaluated so far. We have characterized ALDHbr cells isolated from mouse hearts. One percent of nonmyocytic cells from neonatal and adult hearts were ALDHbr. ALDHvery-br cells were more frequent in neonatal hearts than adult. ALDHbr cells were more frequent in atria than ventricles. Expression of ALDH1A1 isozyme transcripts was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHbr cells, and lowest in ALDHdim cells. ALDH1A2 expression was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHdim cells, and lowest in ALDHbr cells. ALDH1A3 and ALDH2 expression was detectable in ALDHvery-br and ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, albeit at lower levels compared with ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2. Freshly isolated ALDHbr cells were enriched for cells expressing stem cell antigen-1, CD34, CD90, CD44, and CD106. ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, could be grown in culture for more than 40 passages. They expressed sarcomeric α-actinin and could be differentiated along multiple mesenchymal lineages. However, the proportion of ALDHbr cells declined with cell passage. In conclusion, the cardiac-derived ALDHbr population is enriched for progenitor cells that exhibit mesenchymal progenitor-like characteristics and can be expanded in culture. The regenerative potential of cardiac-derived ALDHbr cells remains to be evaluated. PMID:23484127

  18. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  19. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  20. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal

  1. Multiple Methods for Identifying Outcomes of a High Challenge Adventure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Curt; Ewert, Alan; Chang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide insight into what occurs in moments of high challenge within participants during an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program. Given the inherent risk and remote locations often associated with OAE programs, it has remained challenging to measure selected psychological constructs while the program is taking…

  2. NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

  3. 78 FR 56222 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance AGENCY... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance OMB... disadvantaged students) are taught by teachers participating in an alternative route to certification...

  4. Diagnosis of aortic dextroposition on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Costea, Georgică; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2012-03-01

    The fine macroscopic observation of a young adult female skeleton recovered from a Roman graveyard in Romania revealed distinctive flattening of the vertebra related to a right-sided aorta. Associated bone anomalies may be related to a Kartagener syndrome. This case highlights the fact that visceral anomalies may be diagnosed even on skeletal remains. Such lesions could be useful for osteo-archaeologists, of course, but also for forensic anthropologist investigators dealing with skeletonized remains (for example during the identification process of a dead body, through comparison with known medical data for missing people). More, hypotheses about cause and/or manner of death may be given, and a possibility of genetic confirmation exists.

  5. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  6. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date.

  7. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Girish, Kl; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-07-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  8. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  9. Remaining useful life prediction based on known usage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.

    2003-08-01

    Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has developed a novel statistical approach to estimating the remaining useful life of aircraft components based on known usage monitoring data. The analysis technique is known as the Remaining Useful Life Estimation (RULE) methodology. The basic premise of RULE is to determine conservative predictions for the component loads and fatigue life values from Monte Carlo simulations based on a desired component reliability. Then, as the aircraft's usage is monitored, the component life can be calculated with a known reliability based on the conservative predictions generated by the Monte Carlo simulation. The RULE methodology, which has been successfully tested on small-scale analytical problems, is ideally suited to be integrated into both rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. Furthermore, modifications to the technology may prove to be applicable to wide variety of health and prognostic problems.

  10. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages.

  11. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  12. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  13. Hominid mandibular remains from Sangiran: 1952-1986 collection.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Aziz, Fachroel; Baba, Hisao

    2005-11-01

    Eight hominid mandibular and associated dental remains discovered between 1952-1986 from the Early Pleistocene deposits of Sangiran, Central Java, are described. Although the specimens are surface finds, their original stratigraphic positions can be reasonably inferred on the basis of coincidental sources of information. These specimens significantly increase the dento-gnathic sample available for intensive morphological investigation of the earliest Javanese hominids [Kaifu et al., 2005].

  14. Prevalence of and Associated Risk Factors for High Risk Human Papillomavirus among Sexually Active Women, Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Dlamini, Xolisile; Almonte, Maribel; Herrero, Rolando; Jolly, Pauline E.; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Broutet, Nathalie; Sartorius, Benn

    2017-01-01

    Background High risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection and the dual burden of HIV remains a huge challenge in some low-income countries (LICs) such as Swaziland with limited or no data. We estimated the prevalence and investigated determinants of hr-HPV, including HIV infection among sexually active women in Swaziland. Methods A total of 655 women aged between 15 and 49 years from five health facilities were randomly enrolled using a cross-sectional study design. Cervical cells were tested for hr-HPV types using GeneXpert HPV Assays. Results The overall weighted hr-HPV prevalence was 46.2% (95%CI: 42.8–49.5). Of hr-HPV infected women, 12.4% (95%CI: 8.6–17.5) were HPV16-positive, 13.8% (95%CI:12.0–15.8) were positive for HPV18/45, 26.7% (95%CI: 24.2–29.3) for HPV31/33/35/52/58, 7.6% (95%CI: 7.6–11.9) for HPV51/59 and 11.0%, (95%CI: 7.9–15.3) for HPV39/56/66/68. Prevalence of hr-HPV decreased with increasing age. Overall HIV prevalence remained high (42.7%; 95%CI: 35.7–46.2). HIV infection was associated with hr-HPV infection (Adjusted OR = 4.9, 95%CI: 3.043–7.8, p<0.001). Overall hr-HPV/HIV co-infection was 24.4% (95%CI: 20.3–29.1) which was significantly higher among younger age groups (p<0.001). Prevalence of multiple group hr-HPV infection was significantly higher in HIV-positive versus -negative women (27.7% and 12.7% respectively, p<0.001). The presence, absence or unknown of history of STI with HIV did not appear to modify the relationship with hr-HPV (OR = 4.2, 95%CI: 2.6–7.1, OR = 4.6, 95%CI: 2.8–7.7, p<0.001, p<0.001 and OR = 4.1, 95%CI: 1.3–13.4, p<0.021 respectively). Conclusion The prevalence of hr-HPV infection was high and significantly associated with HIV among sexually active women. Furthermore, the study has provided essential information about the HIV link with hr-HPV infections which may explain the high prevalence among HIV infected women. This can contribute to policy development and planning of prevention

  15. High glucose activates Raw264.7 macrophages through RhoA kinase-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng-I; Chen, Po-Han; Lin, Yu-Chun; Kao, Ying-Hsien

    2015-02-01

    Hyperglycemia has been shown to accelerate atherogenesis, an inflammation process resulting from macrophage activation. Although high glucose (HG) was previously demonstrated to accentuate ROCK activity in macrophages and enhance their activation in vitro, the role of ROCK signaling in HG-mediated macrophage activation remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate potential signal transduction pathways of HG-mediated ROCK upregulation and macrophage activation, including c-Jun or NF-κB pathways. A macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was used to investigate the atherogenic effects of HG on RhoA/ROCK activity and macrophage functions. Exposure to HG significantly induced RhoA membrane translocation, RhoA-kinase activity, and phosphorylation of myosin-binding subunit, a RhoA-kinase substrate. Macrophage behaviors, including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and TNF-α de novo synthesis, were also increased by HG exposure. However, pharmacological ROCK inhibition by hydroxyfasudil attenuated the HG-enhanced adhesion and TNF-α production. Nuclear translocation of c-Jun and transcription factor NF-κB was simultaneously noted after HG stimulation. Pharmacological ROCK inhibition by hydroxyfasudil and siRNA-mediated ROCK1 or ROCK2 gene silencing confirmed the ROCK-dependent JNK and ERK phosphorylation, but not NF-κB activation in macrophages. In addition, both interventions effectively ameliorated the HG-mediated macrophage activation under the conditions mimicking diabetes. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia activates macrophages mainly through ROCK/JNK and ROCK/ERK pathways, which results in a more pro-inflammatory phenotype and eventually contributes to atherogenesis. In conclusion, ROCK inhibition might become a novel therapeutic strategy in atherosclerosis treatment and prevention in diabetic patients.

  16. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  17. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  18. Hospital nurses' intentions to remain: exploring a northern context.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Rick; Bruning, Nealia S

    2005-01-01

    Retaining nurses is of significant concern to all hospitals but even more of a concern to northern and rural hospital managers. This study provides insights into factors related to nurses' intentions to remain. A sample of 122 nurses from 13 northern hospitals in Western Canada participated in the study. The nurses completed questionnaires and participated in structured interviews. A model was proposed which suggested that work experiences (job and decision latitude, feedback, perceptions of how viewed and treated by others, fairness of policies, and safety of the job environment) would be related to job satisfaction and then affective commitment. Age and tenure, and ties to the community were proposed as predictors of continuance commitment. Both affective and continuance commitments were expected to be related to intention to remain in the hospital. The model was partially supported by regression analyses. Work experiences predicted job satisfaction and affective commitment. Affective commitment, continuance commitment, and ties to the community are related to nurses' intentions to remain. Supplemental analyses indicated that the strongest relationships were found for management's views and treatment of nurses, knowledge and ability utilization, safe environment, and fairness of organizational policies.

  19. Etiology and pharmacologic management of noninfectious diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    MacArthur, Rodger D; DuPont, Herbert L

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhea remains a common problem for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) and can negatively affect patient quality of life and lead to discontinuation or switching of HAART regimens. In the era of HAART, diarrhea from opportunistic infections is uncommon, and HIV-associated diarrhea often has noninfectious causes, including HAART-related adverse events and HIV enteropathy. Diarrhea associated with HAART is typically caused by protease inhibitors (eg, ritonavir), which may damage the intestinal epithelial barrier (leaky-flux diarrhea) and/or alter chloride ion secretion (secretory diarrhea). HIV enteropathy may result from direct effects of HIV on gastrointestinal tract cells and on the gastrointestinal immune system and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which may be active sites of HIV infection and ongoing inflammation and mucosal damage. New therapies targeting the pathogenic mechanisms of noninfectious diarrheas are needed.

  20. High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan Plateau fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan Plateau is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan Plateau to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan Plateau levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high

  1. Highly bacterial resistant silver nanoparticles: synthesis and antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Mehta, R. V.; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we describe a simple one-pot rapid synthesis route to produce uniform silver nanoparticles by thermal reduction of AgNO3 using oleylamine as reducing and capping agent. To enhance the dispersal ability of as-synthesized hydrophobic silver nanoparticles in water, while maintaining their unique properties, a facile phase transfer mechanism has been developed using biocompatible block co-polymer pluronic F-127. Formation of silver nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Hydrodynamic size and its distribution are obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS). Hydrodynamic size and size distribution of as-synthesized and phase transferred silver nanoparticles are 8.2 ± 1.5 nm (σ = 18.3%) and 31.1 ± 4.5 nm (σ = 14.5%), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of hydrophilic silver nanoparticles is tested against two Gram positive ( Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus), and three Gram negative ( Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Shigella sonnei) bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained in the present study for the tested microorganisms are found much better than those reported for commercially available antibacterial agents.

  2. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  3. High activity redox catalysts synthesized by chemical vapor impregnation.

    PubMed

    Forde, Michael M; Kesavan, Lokesh; Bin Saiman, Mohd Izham; He, Qian; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Antonio; Jenkins, Robert L; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2014-01-28

    The use of precious metals in heterogeneous catalysis relies on the preparation of small nanoparticles that are stable under reaction conditions. To date, most conventional routes used to prepare noble metal nanoparticles have drawbacks related to surface contamination, particle agglomeration, and reproducibility restraints. We have prepared titania-supported palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) catalysts using a simplified vapor deposition technique termed chemical vapor impregnation (CVI) that can be performed in any standard chemical laboratory. These materials, composed of nanoparticles typically below 3 nm in size, show remarkable activity under mild conditions for oxidation and hydrogenation reactions of industrial importance. We demonstrate the preparation of bimetallic Pd-Pt homogeneous alloy nanoparticles by this new CVI method, which show synergistic effects in toluene oxidation. The versatility of our CVI methodology to be able to tailor the composition and morphology of supported nanoparticles in an easily accessible and scalable manner is further demonstrated by the synthesis of Pdshell-Aucore nanoparticles using CVI deposition of Pd onto preformed Au nanoparticles supported on titania (prepared by sol immobilization) in addition to the presence of monometallic Au and Pd nanoparticles.

  4. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  5. Active Resistive Wall Mode Stabilization in Low Rotation, High Beta NSTX Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, S. A.

    2006-10-01

    An active feedback system to stabilize the resistive wall mode (RWM) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is used to maintain plasma stability for greater than 90 RWM growth times. These experiments are the first to demonstrate RWM active stabilization in high beta, low aspect ratio tokamak plasmas with toroidal plasma rotation significantly below the critical rotation profile for passive stability and in the range predicted for ITER. Actively stabilized, low rotation plasmas reached normalized beta of 5.6, and the ratio of normalized beta to the toroidal mode number, n = 1 and 2 ideal no-wall stability limits reached 1.2 and 1.15 respectively, determined by DCON stability analysis of the time-evolving reconstructed experimental equilibria. The significant, controlled reduction of the plasma rotation to less than one percent of the Alfven speed was produced by non-resonant magnetic braking by an applied n = 3 field. The observed plasma rotation damping is in quantitative agreement with neoclassical toroidal viscosity theory including trapped particle effects [1]. The active stabilization system employs a mode control algorithm using RWM sensor input analyzed to distinguish the amplitude and phase of the n = 1 mode. During n = 1 stabilization, the n = 2 mode amplitude increases and surpasses the n = 1 amplitude, but the mode remains stable. By varying the system gain, and relative phase between the measured n = 1 RWM phase and the applied control field, both positive and negative feedback were demonstrated. Contrary to past experience in moderate aspect ratio tokamaks with poloidally continuous stabilizing structure, the RWM can become unstable in certain cases by deforming poloidally, an important consideration for feedback system sensor and control coil design in future devices such as ITER and KSTAR. **In collaboration with R.E. Bell, J.E. Menard, D.A. Gates, A.C. Sontag, J.M. Bialek, B.P. LeBlanc, F.M. Levinton, K. Tritz, H. Yuh. [1] W. Zhu, S

  6. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE PAGES

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; ...

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  7. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  8. Isolation of PCR ready-human DNA using copper nanoparticles from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Anand; Ansari, Niha; Shah, Shahil; Rao, M V; Menon, Shobhana K

    2017-01-01

    Present study represents a novel approach of PCR ready-human DNA extraction method from skeletal remains using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for personnel identification. To achieve rapid, cost effective, sensitive and non-hazardous method for DNA extraction we utilized CuNPs synthesized using microwave. The applicability of this approach was first tested in blood samples and afterwards, this system was extended to skeletal remains' samples also. This method yields good quality DNA that are ready for PCR reactions from small quantities of blood and skeletal remains. Consequently, even small quantities of nanoparticles could be potentially utilized for a highly efficient isolation of DNA from skeletal remains as well as from ancient archaeological samples. The present method has the advantages that it is quick with high yield, inexpensive, robust, environment friendly and does not require use of hazardous organic solvents.

  9. Differential skeletal muscle proteome of high- and low-active mice

    PubMed Central

    Dangott, Lawrence J.; Schmitt, Emily E.; Vellers, Heather L.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer. While the literature is clear that there is genetic regulation of physical activity with existing gene knockout data suggesting that skeletal muscle mechanisms contribute to the regulation of activity, actual differences in end-protein expression between high- and low-active mice have not been investigated. This study used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry to evaluate the proteomic differences between high-active (C57L/J) and low-active (C3H/HeJ) mice in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Furthermore, vivo-morpholinos were used to transiently knockdown candidate proteins to confirm their involvement in physical activity regulation. Proteins with higher expression patterns generally fell into the calcium-regulating and Krebs (TCA) cycle pathways in the high-active mice (e.g., annexin A6, P = 0.0031; calsequestrin 1; P = 0.000025), while the overexpressed proteins in the low-active mice generally fell into cytoskeletal structure- and electron transport chain-related pathways (e.g., ATPase, P = 0.031; NADH dehydrogenase, P = 0.027). Transient knockdown of annexin A6 and calsequestrin 1 protein of high-active mice with vivo-morpholinos resulted in decreased physical activity levels (P = 0.001). These data suggest that high- and low-active mice have unique protein expression patterns and that each pattern contributes to the peripheral capability to be either high- or low-active, suggesting that different specific mechanisms regulate activity leading to the high- or low-activity status of the animal. PMID:24505100

  10. Highly porous activated carbons from resource-recovered Leucaena leucocephala wood as capacitive deionization electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liu, Nei-Ling; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Highly porous activated carbons were resource-recovered from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. wood through combined chemical and physical activation (i.e., KOH etching followed by CO2 activation). This invasive species, which has severely damaged the ecological economics of Taiwan, was used as the precursor for producing high-quality carbonaceous electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI). Carbonization and activation conditions strongly influenced the structure of chars and activated carbons. The total surface area and pore volume of activated carbons increased with increasing KOH/char ratio and activation time. Overgasification induced a substantial amount of mesopores in the activated carbons. In addition, the electrochemical properties and CDI electrosorptive performance of the activated carbons were evaluated; cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements revealed a typical capacitive behavior and electrical double layer formation, confirming ion electrosorption in the porous structure. The activated-carbon electrode, which possessed high surface area and both mesopores and micropores, exhibited improved capacitor characteristics and high electrosorptive performance. Highly porous activated carbons derived from waste L. leucocephala were demonstrated to be suitable CDI electrode materials.

  11. Histoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Review of New Developments and Remaining Gaps.

    PubMed

    Adenis, Antoine A; Aznar, Christine; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for histoplasmosis, a fungal disease with worldwide distribution that can affect both immunocompromised and imunocompetent individuals. During the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, morbidity and mortality due to histoplasmosis remained a public heatlh problem in low-income and high-income countries. The true burden of HIV-associated histoplasmosis is either not fully known or neglected since it is not a notifiable disease. Progress has been made in DNA patterns of strains and understanding of pathogenesis, and hopefully these will help identify new therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, histoplasmosis is still widely mistaken for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, leading to numerous avoidable deaths, even if they are easily distinguishable. The new diagnostic tools and therapeutics developments have still not been made available in most endemic regions. Still, recent developments are promising because of their good clinical characteristics and also because they will be commercially available and affordable. This review of published data and gaps may help define and guide future research.

  12. Oxidative stress causes hypertension and activation of nuclear factor-κB after high-fructose and salt treatments

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Waleska C.; Cardoso, Leonardo M.; Silva, Maísa; Machado, Natália L. S.; Chianca-Jr., Deoclécio A.; Alzamora, Andréia C.; Lima, Wanderson G.; Lagente, Vincent; Silva, Marcelo E.

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that diets rich in salt or simple sugars as fructose are associated with abnormalities in blood pressure regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt- and fructose-induced kidney damage and/or consequent hypertension yet remain largely unexplored. Here, we tested the role of oxidative state as an essential factor along with high salt and fructose treatment in causing hypertension. Fischer male rats were supplemented with a high-fructose diet (20% in water) for 20 weeks and maintained on high-salt diet (8%) associate in the last 10 weeks. Fructose-fed rats exhibited a salt-dependent hypertension accompanied by decrease in renal superoxide dismutase activity, which is the first footprint of antioxidant inactivation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolic changes and the hypertensive effect of the combined fructose-salt diet (20 weeks) were markedly reversed by a superoxide scavenger, Tempol (10 mg/kg, gavage); moreover, Tempol (50 mM) potentially reduced ROS production and abolished nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells incubated with L-fructose (30 mM) and NaCl (500 mosmol/kg added). Taken together, our data suggested a possible role of oxygen radicals and ROS-induced activation of NF-κB in the fructose- and salt-induced hypertension associated with the progression of the renal disease.

  13. High activity of an indium alkoxide complex toward ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    PubMed

    Quan, Stephanie M; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2015-06-14

    An indium complex supported by a ferrocene-derived Schiff base ligand has an unprecedented high activity toward ε-caprolactone, δ-valerolactone, and β-butyrolactone. l-Lactide, d,l-lactide, and trimethylene carbonate polymerizations also showed moderate to high activity.

  14. Factors Associated with Sexual Activity among High-School Students in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The high level of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has led to an increased interest in understanding the determinants of sexual activity among young people, who are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections. The present study examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with heterosexual activity among a…

  15. Highly dispersed buckybowls as model carbocatalysts for C–H bond activation

    DOE PAGES

    Soykal, I. Ilgaz; Wang, Hui; Park, Jewook; ...

    2015-03-19

    Buckybowl fractions dispersed on mesoporous silica constitute an ideal model for studying the catalysis of graphitic forms of carbon since the dispersed carbon nanostructures contain a high ratio of edge defects and curvature induced by non-six-membered rings. Dispersion of the active centers on an easily accessible high surface area material allowed for high density of surface active sites associated with oxygenated structures. This report illustrates a facile method of creating model polycyclic aromatic nano-structures that are not only active for alkane C-H bond activation and oxidative dehydrogenation but also can be practical catalysts to be eventually used in industry.

  16. Self-Directed Activity-Based Learning and Achievement in High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Meighan M.; Martinez, James; Martin, Ellice P.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of student-directed activity-based learning (SDABL) were examined in two high school chemistry classes. Students in the SDABL class were given pretest results, a list of standards to be mastered, and a chart of learning activities categorized by difficulty level. They selected activities to meet their needs and preferences.…

  17. Influence of High School Physical Education on University Student's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jessica; Jenkins, Jayne; Wallhead, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Lifelong Physical Activity (LLPA) framework to examine the influence of high school physical education (PE) on university students' level of physical activity (PA). Participants included 365 undergraduate students from the Rocky Mountain West of the USA enrolled in a university physical activity course.…

  18. Global health inequity: scientific challenges remain but can be solved

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Carol A.; Yamada, Tadataka

    2008-01-01

    Advances in science and technology have transformed the health of the populations of the developed world, with substantial increases in life expectancy and reductions in morbidity. These advances have not, however, touched the lives of the poorest people of the world — the billions living in developing countries. This Review Series on global health highlights the key factors contributing to inequity in health across the globe and the scientific questions that remain unanswered but are critical to creating effective and appropriate health solutions. The gaps in knowledge identified in this series point the way for scientists to contribute to a changed world. PMID:18382736

  19. [Identification of the cadaveric remains of Josef Mengele].

    PubMed

    Helmer, R

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined in order to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently in all details to the exhumed skull.

  20. Identification of the cadaver remains of Josef Mengele.

    PubMed

    Helmer, R P

    1987-11-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently to the exhumed skull.

  1. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  2. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  3. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  4. Remaining challenges in childhood cancer and newer targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm A; Reaman, Gregory H

    2015-02-01

    Despite the enormously important and gratifying advances in cancer treatment outcomes for children with cancer, cancer remains the biggest cause of death from disease in children. Because the etiology and biology of cancers that occur in children differ dramatically from those that occur in adults, the immediate extrapolation of efficacy and safety of new cancer drugs to childhood cancer indications is not possible. We discuss factors that will play key roles in guiding pediatric oncologists as they select lines of research to pursue in their quest for more effective treatments for children with cancer.

  5. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  6. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  7. On the origin of high activity of hcp metals for ammonia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Shideh; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2016-02-21

    Structure and activity of nanoparticles of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals are studied using first-principles calculations. Results show that, in contact with a nitrogen environment, high-index {134[combining macron]2} facets are formed on hcp metal nanoparticles. Nitrogen molecules dissociate easily at kink sites on these high-index facets (activation barriers of <0.2 eV). Analysis of the site blocking effect and adsorption energies on {134[combining macron]2} facets explains the order of activity of hcp metals for ammonia synthesis: Re < Os < Ru. Our results indicate that the high activity of hcp metals for ammonia synthesis is due to the N-induced formation of {134[combining macron]2} facets with high activity for the dissociation of nitrogen molecules. However, quite different behavior for adsorption of dissociated N atoms leads to distinctive activity of hcp metals.

  8. Successful Geoscience Pipeline Activities for High School and College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, T.; Fail, C. F.; Adewumi, M.; Bralower, T.; Guertin, L.

    2004-12-01

    The proportion of African-American students in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences (EMS) at Penn State is 3.3 percent, only slightly lower than the overall University Park campus proportion of 4 percent. Retention rates within EMS are excellent; a recent survey found that EMS ranks highest in student satisfaction overall at the University Park campus. Our goal to increase diversity in EMS disciplines requires us to attract new students to Penn State rather than recruiting from other areas within the institution. We have implemented three programs that appear successful in this regard, and are thus likely to form a viable pipeline from high school through graduate school. These programs operate at a college-wide level and are co-sponsored by AESEDA (Alliance for Earth Science, Engineering and Development in Africa). SEEMS (Summer Experience in EMS) is a partnership with Upward Bound Math and Science, adding 30 hours of directed research to their existing enrichment program. Students identified in 9th grade spend 6 weeks each summer in residence at PSU, where they receive classroom instruction in core academic areas in addition to a group research project led by faculty and graduate students. SEEMS students are likely PSU recruits: all are accepted to college, 85 percent plan to attend college within PA, and all have strong family support for education as well as for careers in EMS. Pre- and post-experience surveys indicate strong positive changes in perception of EMS careers, particularly with regard to levels of intellectual challenge and starting salary. We maintain personal contact with these students and encourage them to attend PSU when they graduate. SROP (Summer Research Opportunity Program) is administered by the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, the academic arm of the Big 10, and provides residential research internships for students from HBCU and MSI campuses. EMS participates in SROP by funding research interns and providing strong individual

  9. High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Irawaty, W; Hindarso, H; Ismadji, S

    2006-03-01

    Cassava is one of the most important commodities in Indonesia, an agricultural country. Cassava is one of the primary foods in our country and usually used for traditional food, cake, etc. Cassava peel is an agricultural waste from the food and starch processing industries. In this study, this solid waste was used as the precursor for activated carbon preparation. The preparation process consisted of potassium hydroxide impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 450-750 degrees C for 1-3 h. The results revealed that activation time gives no significant effect on the pore structure of activated carbon produced, however, the pore characteristic of carbon changes significantly with impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature. The maximum surface area and pore volume were obtained at impregnation ratio 5:2 and carbonization temperature 750 degrees C.

  10. Extending neutron activation analysis to materials with high concentrations of neutron absorbing elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilian, Cornelia

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epithermal neutron self-shielding for all nuclides used in Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA. The study started with testing the theory and measuring the nuclear factors characterizing thermal and epithermal self-shielding for 1 mL cylindrical samples containing the halogens Cl, Br and I irradiated in a mixed thermal and epithermal neutron spectrum. For mono-element samples, both thermal and epithermal experimental self-shielding factors were well fitted by sigmoid functions. As a result, to correct thermal neutron self-shielding, the sigmoid uses a single parameter, mth, which can be directly calculated for any element from the sample size, the weighted sum of the thermal absorption cross-sections, sigmaabs, of the elements in the sample and a constant kth characteristic of the irradiation site. However, to correct epithermal self-shielding, the parameter mep, a function of sample geometry and composition, irradiation conditions and nuclear characteristics, needs to be measured for each activated nuclide. Since the preliminary tests were positive and showed that self-shielding, as high as 30%, could be corrected with an accuracy of about 1%, except in cases with significant epithermal shielding of one element by another, we pursued the study with the verification of two additional aspects. First, the dependency of the self-shielding parameters mth, and mep, on the properties of the irradiation site was evaluated using three different irradiation sites of a SLOWPOKE reactor, and it was concluded that the amount of both thermal and epithermal self-shielding varied by less than 10% from one site to another. Second, the variation of the self-shielding parameters, mth, and mep, with the size of the cylinder, as r( r+h), was tested for h/r ratios from 0.02 to 6.0, and this geometry dependence was confirmed even in slightly non-isotropic neutron fields. These results allowed separating from the mep parameter the amount of

  11. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. •High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. •Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 2–5), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation.

  12. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangxi; Li, Shuang; Han, Yuhong; Tong, Chao; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yongbin; Jiang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-family protein Smoothened (Smo). Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II) in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail). We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo.

  13. Decrease of Obesity by Allantoin via Imidazoline I1-Receptor Activation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsien-Hui; Lee, Kung Shing

    2013-01-01

    The activation of the imidazoline I1-receptor (I1R) is known to regulate appetite. Allantoin, an active ingredient in the yam, has been reported to improve lipid metabolism in high fat diet- (HFD-)fed mice. However, the effect of allantoin on obesity remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of allantoin on HFD-induced obesity. The chronic administration of allantoin to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks significantly decreased their body weight, and this effect was reversed by efaroxan at a dose sufficient to block I1R. The epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) cell size and weight in HFD-fed mice were also decreased by allantoin via the activation of I1R. In addition, allantoin significantly decreased the energy intake of HFD-fed mice, and this reduction was associated with a decrease in the NPY levels in the brain. However, no inhibitory effect of allantoin on energy intake was observed in db/db mice. Moreover, allantoin lowered HFD-induced hyperleptinemia, and this activity was abolished by I1R blockade with efaroxan. Taken together, these data suggest that allantoin can ameliorate energy intake and eWAT accumulation by activating I1R to improve HFD-induced obesity. PMID:23606885

  14. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  15. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  16. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.

  17. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  18. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  19. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  1. Noninvasive Imaging of the High Frequency Brain Activity in Focal Epilepsy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yunfeng; Worrell, Gregory A.; Zhang, Huishi Clara; Yang, Lin; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Nelson, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    High frequency (HF) activity represents a potential biomarker of the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients, the removal of which is considered to be crucial for seizure-free surgical outcome. We proposed a high frequency source imaging (HFSI) approach to noninvasively image the brain sources of scalp recorded high frequency EEG activity. Both computer simulation and clinical patient data analysis were performed to investigate the feasibility of using the HFSI approach to image the sources of HF activity from noninvasive scalp EEG recordings. The HF activity was identified from high-density scalp recordings after high-pass filtering the EEG data and the EEG segments with HF activity were concatenated together to form repetitive HF activity. Independent component analysis was utilized to extract the components corresponding to the HF activity. Noninvasive EEG source imaging using realistic geometric boundary element head modeling was then applied to image the sources of the pathological HF brain activity. Five medically intractable focal epilepsy patients were studied and the estimated sources were found to be concordant with the surgical resection or intracranial recordings of the patients. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that source imaging from the scalp HF activity could help to localize the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and provide a novel noninvasive way of studying the epileptic brain in humans. This study also indicates the potential application of studying HF activity in the pre-surgical planning of medically intractable epilepsy patients. PMID:24845275

  2. Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel blockers protect against high glucose-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes via autophagy activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Shen, Mingzhi; Guo, Xiaowang; Wang, Bo; Xia, Yuesheng; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Qian; Jia, Lintao; Wang, Xiaoming

    2017-03-16

    Hyperglycemia is a well-characterized contributing factor for cardiac dysfunction and heart failure among diabetic patients. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes plays a major role during the onset and pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nonetheless, the molecular machinery underlying hyperglycemia-induced cardiac damage and cell death remains elusive. In the present study, we found that chloride channel blockers, 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'- disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), inhibited high glucose-activated volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channel and improved the viability of cardiomyocytes. High glucose induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by suppressing the autophagic stress, which can be reversed via blockade of VSOR Cl(-) channel. VSOR activation in high glucose-treated cardiomyocytes was attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, our study unraveled a role of VSOR chloride currents in impaired autophagy and increased apoptosis of high glucose-exposed cardiomyocyte, and has implications for a therapeutic potential of VSOR chloride channel blockers in DCM.

  3. Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel blockers protect against high glucose-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes via autophagy activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Shen, Mingzhi; Guo, Xiaowang; Wang, Bo; Xia, Yuesheng; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Qian; Jia, Lintao; Wang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a well-characterized contributing factor for cardiac dysfunction and heart failure among diabetic patients. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes plays a major role during the onset and pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nonetheless, the molecular machinery underlying hyperglycemia-induced cardiac damage and cell death remains elusive. In the present study, we found that chloride channel blockers, 4,4′-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2′- disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), inhibited high glucose-activated volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channel and improved the viability of cardiomyocytes. High glucose induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by suppressing the autophagic stress, which can be reversed via blockade of VSOR Cl− channel. VSOR activation in high glucose-treated cardiomyocytes was attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, our study unraveled a role of VSOR chloride currents in impaired autophagy and increased apoptosis of high glucose-exposed cardiomyocyte, and has implications for a therapeutic potential of VSOR chloride channel blockers in DCM. PMID:28300155

  4. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  5. High levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C further increase platelet activation in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, L W; Luo, X P; Ni, H C; Shi, H M; Liu, L; Wen, Z C; Gu, X Y; Qiao, J; Li, J

    2015-02-01

    High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) enhance platelet activation, whereas high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exert a cardioprotective effect. However, the effects on platelet activation of high levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C (HLC) have not yet been reported. We aimed to evaluate the platelet activation marker of HLC patients and investigate the antiplatelet effect of atorvastatin on this population. Forty-eight patients with high levels of LDL-C were enrolled. Among these, 23 had HLC and the other 25 had high levels of LDL-C combined with normal levels of HDL-C (HNC). A total of 35 normocholesterolemic (NOMC) volunteers were included as controls. Whole blood flow cytometry and platelet aggregation measurements were performed on all participants to detect the following platelet activation markers: CD62p (P-selectin), PAC-1 (GPIIb/IIIa), and maximal platelet aggregation (MPAG). A daily dose of 20 mg atorvastatin was administered to patients with high levels of LDL-C, and the above assessments were obtained at baseline and after 1 and 2 months of treatment. The expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was increased in HNC patients compared to NOMC volunteers (P<0.01 and P<0.05). Furthermore, the surface expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was greater among HLC patients than among HNC patients (P<0.01 and P<0.05). Although the expression of CD62p and PAC-1 decreased significantly after atorvastatin treatment, it remained higher in the HLC group than in the HNC group (P<0.05 and P=0.116). The reduction of HDL-C further increased platelet activation in patients with high levels of LDL-C. Platelet activation remained higher among HLC patients regardless of atorvastatin treatment.

  6. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  7. When seeing the same physician, highly activated patients have better care experiences than less activated patients.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca; Overton, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    Measures of the patient care experience are now routinely used in public reports and increasingly influence health provider payment. We examined data from 5,002 patients of forty-nine primary care providers to explore the relationship between patient activation-a term referring to the knowledge, skills, and confidence a patient has for managing his or her health care-and the patient care experience. We found that patients at higher levels of activation had more positive experiences than patients at lower levels seeing the same clinician. The observed differential was maintained when we controlled for demographic characteristics and health status. We did not find evidence that patients at higher levels of activation selected providers who were more patient-centric. The findings suggest that the care experience is transactional, shaped by both providers and patients. Strategies to improve the patient experience, therefore, should focus not only on providers but also on improving patients' ability to elicit what they need from their providers.

  8. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  9. Storm-Related Postmortem Damage to Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Maijanen, Heli; Wilson-Taylor, Rebecca J; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-05-01

    In April 2011, human skeletons were exposed to heavy storms at the outdoor Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) in Knoxville, Tennessee. Of the approximate 125 skeletons at the ARF in April 2011, 30 donations exhibited postmortem damage that could be attributed to the storms. At least 20 of the affected donations exhibit postmortem damage clearly associated with hailstones due to the oval shape and similar small size of the defects observed. The irregular shape and larger size of other defects may be a product of other falling objects (e.g., tree branches) associated with the storms. Storm-related damage was observed throughout the skeleton, with the most commonly damaged skeletal elements being the scapula and ilium, but more robust elements (i.e., femora and tibiae) also displayed characteristic features of hailstone damage. Thus, hailstone damage should be considered when forensic practitioners observe unusual postmortem damage in skeletal remains recovered from the outdoor context.

  10. Advances and remaining challenges in adult literacy research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners.

  11. Spinal diastematomyelia: a means of identification of charred remains.

    PubMed

    Beggan, Caitlin; Towers, Mark; Farrell, Michael; Jaber, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of medico legal autopsy examination is the positive identification of the deceased in addition to the determination of the cause of death in most jurisdictions and additionally the manner of death in many jurisdictions. Notwithstanding the established and recognised value of DNA analysis in human identification, in the case of significant and extensive thermal injury in victims of fire, DNA analysis may prove difficult. Fire fatality identification can be assisted by alternative methods in this situation, including correlation between ante mortem and post mortem radiological investigations, identification of rare medical disease and or dental record examinations, where available. We describe a case where identification of charred human remains from a car fire was securely determined by demonstration of the presence of a rare congenital abnormality of the spinal cord, Diastematomyelia.

  12. Mining Cancer Transcriptomes: Bioinformatic Tools and the Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Milan, Thomas; Wilhelm, Brian T

    2017-02-22

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has had a profound impact on the field of cancer genomics. With the enormous quantities of data being generated from tumor samples, researchers have had to rapidly adapt tools or develop new ones to analyse the raw data to maximize its value. While much of this effort has been focused on improving specific algorithms to get faster and more precise results, the accessibility of the final data for the research community remains a significant problem. Large amounts of data exist but are not easily available to researchers who lack the resources and experience to download and reanalyze them. In this article, we focus on RNA-seq analysis in the context of cancer genomics and discuss the bioinformatic tools available to explore these data. We also highlight the importance of developing new and more intuitive tools to provide easier access to public data and discuss the related issues of data sharing and patient privacy.

  13. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices PMID:25417648

  14. Knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of Toxocara: the enigma remains.

    PubMed

    Holland, C V

    2017-01-01

    Toxocara species infect a wide range of companion, domestic and wild animals as definitive and paratenic hosts, via multiple routes of transmission, producing long-lived tissue-inhabiting larvae and resistant eggs that can survive in the external environment. Therefore Toxocara and the disease it causes in humans, toxocariasis, represents an ideal aetiological agent for the development of the one health approach. However, despite increasing awareness of the public health significance of toxocariasis, gaps in our understanding of certain key aspects of the parasite's biology and epidemiology remain. These gaps hinder our ability to integrate research effort within the veterinary, medical and environmental disciplines. This review will highlight key deficits in our understanding of nine dimensions of Toxocara epidemiology and discuss a potential scenario to develop a more integrated, one health approach to improve our understanding of the prevention and control of this complex and cryptic zoonosis.

  15. In vitro activity of older and newer fluoroquinolones against efflux-mediated high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Daporta, Matilde Trigo; Muñoz Bellido, Juan Luis; Guirao, Genoveva Yagüe; Hernández, Manuel Segovia; García-Rodríguez, José Angel

    2004-08-01

    The effect of high-level efflux activity on the MICs of fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of topoisomerase mutations leading to fluoroquinolones resistance was investigated. A S. pneumoniae ATCC 46619-derived strain with high-level efflux activity was obtained (SP-25A). Both the parent and obtained strains were tested against efflux substrates acriflavine (Acr) and ethidium bromide (EtBr), and against norfloxacin (NFX), ciprofloxacin (CFX), levofloxacin (LFX), moxifloxacin (MFX), trovafloxacin (TVX) and sitafloxacin (SFX), in presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor reserpine. gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE QRDR genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced. MICs of NFX and CFX against SP-25A were 64-fold higher than parent strain MICs (256 mg/L versus 4 mg/L and 64 mg/L versus 1mg/L, respectively). MIC of LFX increased from 1 to 4 mg/L and MICs of MFX, TVX and SFX remained virtually unchanged (0.1-0.2 mg/L). MICs of Acr and EtBr against SP-25A were 8- and 16-fold higher than against parent strains. In both cases, reserpine reverted MICs to the parent strain values (1 and 0.2 mg/L). Only parE showed two mutations leading to a Pro(454) --> Ser and Glu(443) changes, which have previously been shown not to lead to significant fluoroquinolones MIC increases. SP-25A showed a significant increase of MICs of the hydrophilic fluoroquinolones, apparently derived only from efflux activity. Efflux activity, at these high levels, can lead to high-level resistance to older hydrophilic fluoroquinolones, but does affect newer fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin and sitafloxacin.

  16. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4– and IL-13–stimulated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Binger, Katrina J.; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A.; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D.; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N.

    2015-01-01

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt–induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis. PMID:26485286

  17. Consciously controlled breathing decreases the high-frequency component of heart rate variability by inhibiting cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Konosuke; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate, comprises sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities of the heart. HRV analysis is used to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. Since respiration could be a confounding factor in HRV evaluation, some studies recommend consciously controlled breathing to standardize the method. However, it remains unclear whether controlled breathing affects HRV measurement. We compared the effects of controlled breathing on HRV with those of spontaneous breathing. In 20 healthy volunteers, we measured respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume, and blood pressure (BP) and recorded electrocardiograms during spontaneous breathing (14.8 ± 0.7 breaths/min) and controlled breathing at 15 (0.25 Hz) and 6 (0.10 Hz) breaths/min. Compared to spontaneous breathing, controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz showed a higher heart rate and a lower high-frequency (HF) component, an index of parasympathetic nerve activity, although the f was the same. During controlled breathing at 0.10 Hz, the ratio of the low frequency (LF) to HF components (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nerve activity, increased greatly and HF decreased, while heart rate and BP remained almost unchanged. Thus, controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz, which requires mental concentration, might inhibit parasympathetic nerve activity. During controlled breathing at 0.10 Hz, LF/HF increases because some HF subcomponents are synchronized with f and probably move into the LF band. This increment leads to misinterpretation of the true autonomic nervous regulation. We recommend that the respiratory pattern of participants should be evaluated before spectral HRV analysis to correctly understand changes in autonomic nervous regulation.

  18. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  19. 76 FR 30391 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; High Growth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; High Growth and Community-Based Job Training Grants... Administration (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``High Growth and Community-Based Job... INFORMATION: This information collection request implements reporting requirements for High Growth...

  20. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  1. A facile reflux procedure to increase active surface sites form highly active and durable supported palladium@platinum bimetallic nanodendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Li, Yingjun; Liu, Baocang; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A series of well-dispersed bimetallic Pd@Pt nanodendrites uniformly supported on XC-72 carbon black are fabricated by using different capping agents. These capping agents are essential for the branched morphology control. However, the surfactant adsorbed on the nanodendrites surface blocks the access of reactant molecules to the active surface sites, and the catalytic activities of these bimetallic nanodendrites are significantly restricted. Herein, a facile reflux procedure to effectively remove the capping agent molecules without significantly affecting their sizes is reported for activating supported nanocatalysts. More significantly, the structure and morphology of the nanodendrites can also be retained, enhancing the numbers of active surface sites, catalytic activity and stability toward methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions. The as-obtained hot water reflux-treated Pd@Pt/C catalyst manifests superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities, as compared to the untreated catalysts and the commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts. We anticipate that this effective and facile removal method has more general applicability to highly active nanocatalysts prepared with various surfactants, and should lead to improvements in environmental protection and energy production.

  2. Highly reliable high-power superluminescent diodes with three single-mode active channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, E. V.; Il'chenko, S. N.; Kurnyavko, Yu V.; Luk'yanov, V. N.; Shidlovskii, V. R.; Yakubovich, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    We report superluminescent diodes (SLDs) with three ridged active channels, each having a width of 3.5 μm, based on one 'bulk' and two quantum-well heterostructures. At a cw output power greater than 100 mW, the emission spectra of these SLDs possess a quasi-Gaussian shape with centre wavelengths near 840, 860 and 1060 nm and widths about 15, 25 and 40 nm, respectively. In the above operating conditions, the median service life of the SLDs amounted to approximately 50000, 25000 and more than 60000 h, respectively.

  3. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  4. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  5. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A.; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  6. High firing rate of neonatal hippocampal interneurons is caused by attenuation of afterhyperpolarizing potassium currents by tonically active kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Segerstråle, Mikael; Juuri, Juuso; Lanore, Frédéric; Piepponen, Petteri; Lauri, Sari E; Mulle, Christophe; Taira, Tomi

    2010-05-12

    In the neonatal hippocampus, the activity of interneurons shapes early network bursts that are important for the establishment of neuronal connectivity. However, mechanisms controlling the firing of immature interneurons remain elusive. We now show that the spontaneous firing rate of CA3 stratum lucidum interneurons markedly decreases during early postnatal development because of changes in the properties of GluK1 (formerly known as GluR5) subunit-containing kainate receptors (KARs). In the neonate, activation of KARs by ambient glutamate exerts a tonic inhibition of the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) by a G-protein-dependent mechanism, permitting a high interneuronal firing rate. During development, the amplitude of the apamine-sensitive K+ currents responsible for the mAHP increases dramatically because of decoupling between KAR activation and mAHP modulation, leading to decreased interneuronal firing. The developmental shift in the KAR function and its consequences on interneuronal activity are likely to have a fundamental role in the maturation of the synchronous neuronal oscillations typical for adult hippocampal circuitry.

  7. Health Benefits In 2016: Family Premiums Rose Modestly, And Offer Rates Remained Stable.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Long, Michelle; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Foster, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2016, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,435 for single coverage and $18,142 for family coverage. The family premium in 2016 was 3 percent higher than that in 2015. On average, workers contributed 18 percent of the premium for single coverage and 30 percent for family coverage. The share of firms offering health benefits (56 percent) and of workers covered by their employers' plans (62 percent) remained statistically unchanged from 2015. Employers continued to offer financial incentives for completing wellness or health promotion activities. Almost three in ten covered workers were enrolled in a high-deductible plan with a savings option-a significant increase from 2014. The 2016 survey included new questions on cost sharing for specialty drugs and on the prevalence of incentives for employees to seek care at alternative settings.

  8. Active Control of Flow Separation on a High-Lift System with Slotted Flap at High Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah; Washburn, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) airfoil was tested at NASA Langley's Low- Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) to assess the effectiveness of distributed Active Flow Control (AFC) concepts on a high-lift system at flight scale Reynolds numbers for a medium-sized transport. The test results indicate presence of strong Reynolds number effects on the high-lift system with the AFC operational, implying the importance of flight-scale testing for implementation of such systems during design of future flight vehicles with AFC. This paper describes the wind tunnel test results obtained at the LTPT for the EET high-lift system for various AFC concepts examined on this airfoil.

  9. Ionic Polymer-Coated Laccase with High Activity and Enhanced Stability: Application in the Decolourisation of Water Containing AO7

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment. PMID:25652843

  10. Preclinical activity of anti-CCR7 immunotherapy in patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Mateos, Carlos; Loscertales, Javier; Kreutzman, Anna; Colom-Fernández, Beatriz; Portero-Sáinz, Itxaso; Pérez-Villar, Juan José; Terrón, Fernando; Muñoz-Calleja, Cecilia

    2015-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with deletions of the p53 locus on chromosome 17 and/or refractory to fludarabine chemoimmunotherapy remains a major clinical problem with few therapeutic options. Currently, these types of CLL are treated with approaches that do not target the p53 pathway, such as small molecules and monoclonal antibodies (mAb). We have previously postulated anti-CCR7 mAb therapy as a novel CLL treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of anti-CCR7 mAb as a single agent in CLL patients with high-risk cytogenetics and/or refractory to fludarabine, by measuring CCR7 surface expression and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that CCR7 is highly expressed in challenging and heavily treated CLL patients. In addition, the complement-mediated mechanism of action of this mAb effectively eradicates CLL cells while sparing subsets of T cells in these patients. Moreover, this mAb outperformed the activity of alemtuzumab, the mAb with the highest efficacy in these groups. Finally, in vitro activity was also demonstrated in patients with a disease refractory to both fludarabine and alemtuzumab, and patients harboring 11q22 deletion. Our results propose that anti-CCR7 mAb is an effective and promising future treatment in high-risk CLL.

  11. Ionic Polymer-Coated Laccase with High Activity and Enhanced Stability: Application in the Decolourisation of Water Containing AO7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-02-01

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment.

  12. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging.

  13. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, B. Gary; Fisher, Daniel C.; Borns, Harold W.; Churchill-Dickson, Lisa L.; Dorion, Christopher C.; Weddle, Thomas K.

    2004-05-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) dated at 12,200 ± 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ± 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea.

  14. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  15. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  16. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyle, B.G.; Fisher, D.C.; Borns, H.W.; Churchill-Dickson, L. L.; Dorion, C.C.; Weddle, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ) dated at 12,200 ?? 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ?? 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  17. ABO blood typing of human skeletal remains in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, I

    1984-03-01

    The author reports about the theoretical effects of his paleoserologic investigations on some historical population genetics problems. First he refers to the essence of the two modifications by the help of which the fluorescent antibody method can be made suitable for blood typing or archeological skeletal remains and determines his working units (sample, series, "population") used in the paleoserologic researches. The benefits of the projection of the ABO blood typing results on the map of the cemetaries are demonstrated. The distribution of the several phenotypes are collated to the character or richness of the grave goods and to the taxonomic features of the late individuals. The thorough examination of the serogenetic distances among the several samples of a given historical period may cast more light on the ethnic interrelations of the earlier populations living in the same geographic area. Following up the serogenetic changes of a population during subsequent historical periods, new ideas can be gained about the importance of the environmental, economic, and demographic factors shaping the serogenetic profile of the population.

  18. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  19. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  20. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.