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Sample records for activity remained unaltered

  1. ROMK expression remains unaltered in a mouse model of familial hyperkalemic hypertension caused by the CUL3Δ403-459 mutation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Meena; Kurz, Thimo; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt) is a rare inherited form of salt-dependent hypertension caused by mutations in proteins that regulate the renal Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter NCC Mutations in four genes have been reported to cause FHHt including CUL3 (Cullin3) that encodes a component of a RING E3 ligase. Cullin-3 binds to WNK kinase-bound KLHL3 (the substrate recognition subunit of the ubiquitin ligase complex) to promote ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of WNK kinases. Deletion of exon 9 from CUL3 (affecting residues 403-459, CUL3(Δ403-459)) causes a severe form of FHHt (PHA2E) that is recapitulated closely in a knock-in mouse model. The loss of functionality of CUL3(Δ403-459) and secondary accumulation of WNK kinases causes substantial NCC activation. This accounts for the hypertension in FHHt but the origin of the hyperkalemia is less clear. Hence, we explored the impact of CUL3(Δ403-459) on expression of the distal secretory K channel, ROMK, both in vitro and in vivo. We found that expressing wild-type but not the CUL3(Δ403-459) mutant form of CUL3 prevented the suppression of ROMK currents by WNK4 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The mutant CUL3 protein was also unable to affect ROMK-EGFP protein expression at the surface of mouse M-1 cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells. The effects of CUL3 on ROMK expression in both oocytes and M-1 CCD cells was reduced by addition of the neddylation inhibitor, MLN4924. This confirms that neddylation is important for CUL3 activity. Nevertheless, in our knock-in mouse model expressing CUL3(Δ403-459) we could not show any alteration in ROMK expression by either western blotting whole kidney lysates or confocal microscopy of kidney sections. This suggests that the hyperkalemia in our knock-in mouse and human PHA2E subjects with the CUL3(Δ403-459) mutation is not caused by reduced ROMK expression in the distal nephron. PMID:27378813

  2. The locus of motor activity in the superior colliculus of the rhesus monkey is unaltered during saccadic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Quessy, Stephan; Quinet, Julie; Freedman, Edward G

    2010-10-20

    The location of motor-related activity in the deeper layers of the superior colliculus (SC) is thought to generate a desired displacement command specifying the amplitude and direction of saccadic eye movements. However, the amplitude of saccadic eye movements made to visual targets can be systematically altered by surreptitiously moving the target location after the saccade has been initiated. Depending on whether the target is moved closer to or further from the fixation location, adaptation of saccade amplitude results in movements that are either smaller or larger than control movements. It remains an open question whether the SC specifies the desired movement to the original target location or whether SC activity specifies the vector of the amplitude-altered movement that is observed as adaptation progresses. We investigated this question by recording the activity of saccade-related burst neurons in the SC of head-restrained rhesus monkeys during both backward and forward saccadic adaptation. During adaptation in each direction, we find no evidence that is consistent with a change in the locus of SC activity despite changes in saccade amplitude; the location of SC motor-related activity does not appear to be remapped during either forward or backward saccadic adaptation. These data are inconsistent with hypotheses that propose a key role for the SC in mediating the changes in saccade amplitude observed during adaptation.

  3. Unaltered Angiogenesis-Regulating Activities of Platelets in Mild Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus despite a Marked Platelet Hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xinyan; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Zhangsen

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with platelet dysfunction and impaired angiogenesis. Aim of the study is to investigate if platelet dysfunction might hamper platelet angiogenic activities in T2DM patients. Sixteen T2DM patients and gender/age-matched non-diabetic controls were studied. Flow cytometry and endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) tube formation on matrigel were used to assess platelet reactivity and angiogenic activity, respectively. Thrombin receptor PAR1-activating peptide (PAR1-AP) induced higher platelet P-selectin expression, and evoked more rapid and intense platelet annexin V binding in T2DM patients, seen as a more rapid increase of annexin V+ platelets (24.3±6.4% vs 12.6±3.8% in control at 2 min) and a higher elevation (30.9±5.1% vs 24.3±3.0% at 8 min). However, PAR1-AP and PAR4-AP induced similar releases of angiogenic regulators from platelets, and both stimuli evoked platelet release of platelet angiogenic regulators to similar extents in T2DM and control subjects. Thus, PAR1-stimulated platelet releasate (PAR1-PR) and PAR4-PR similarly enhanced capillary-like network/tube formation of ECFCs, and the enhancements did not differ between T2DM and control subjects. Direct supplementation of platelets to ECFCs at the ratio of 1:200 enhanced ECFC tube formation even more markedly, leading to approximately 100% increases of the total branch points of ECFC tube formation, for which the enhancements were also similar between patients and controls. In conclusion, platelets from T2DM subjects are hyperreactive. Platelet activation induced by high doses of PAR1-AP, however, results in similar releases of angiogenic regulators in mild T2DM and control subjects. Platelets from T2DM and control subjects also demonstrate similar enhancements on ECFC angiogenic activities. PMID:27612088

  4. Unaltered Angiogenesis-Regulating Activities of Platelets in Mild Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus despite a Marked Platelet Hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xinyan; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Zhangsen; Li, Nailin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with platelet dysfunction and impaired angiogenesis. Aim of the study is to investigate if platelet dysfunction might hamper platelet angiogenic activities in T2DM patients. Sixteen T2DM patients and gender/age-matched non-diabetic controls were studied. Flow cytometry and endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) tube formation on matrigel were used to assess platelet reactivity and angiogenic activity, respectively. Thrombin receptor PAR1-activating peptide (PAR1-AP) induced higher platelet P-selectin expression, and evoked more rapid and intense platelet annexin V binding in T2DM patients, seen as a more rapid increase of annexin V+ platelets (24.3±6.4% vs 12.6±3.8% in control at 2 min) and a higher elevation (30.9±5.1% vs 24.3±3.0% at 8 min). However, PAR1-AP and PAR4-AP induced similar releases of angiogenic regulators from platelets, and both stimuli evoked platelet release of platelet angiogenic regulators to similar extents in T2DM and control subjects. Thus, PAR1-stimulated platelet releasate (PAR1-PR) and PAR4-PR similarly enhanced capillary-like network/tube formation of ECFCs, and the enhancements did not differ between T2DM and control subjects. Direct supplementation of platelets to ECFCs at the ratio of 1:200 enhanced ECFC tube formation even more markedly, leading to approximately 100% increases of the total branch points of ECFC tube formation, for which the enhancements were also similar between patients and controls. In conclusion, platelets from T2DM subjects are hyperreactive. Platelet activation induced by high doses of PAR1-AP, however, results in similar releases of angiogenic regulators in mild T2DM and control subjects. Platelets from T2DM and control subjects also demonstrate similar enhancements on ECFC angiogenic activities. PMID:27612088

  5. Unaltered Network Activity and Interneuronal Firing During Spontaneous Cortical Dynamics In Vivo in a Mouse Model of Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    De Stasi, Angela Michela; Farisello, Pasqualina; Marcon, Iacopo; Cavallari, Stefano; Forli, Angelo; Vecchia, Dania; Losi, Gabriele; Mantegazza, Massimo; Panzeri, Stefano; Carmignoto, Giorgio; Bacci, Alberto; Fellin, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) is associated with loss of function of the SCN1A gene encoding the NaV1.1 sodium channel isoform. Previous studies in Scn1a−/+ mice during the pre-epileptic period reported selective reduction in interneuron excitability and proposed this as the main pathological mechanism underlying SMEI. Yet, the functional consequences of this interneuronal dysfunction at the circuit level in vivo are unknown. Here, we investigated whether Scn1a−/+ mice showed alterations in cortical network function. We found that various forms of spontaneous network activity were similar in Scn1a−/+ during the pre-epileptic period compared with wild-type (WT) in vivo. Importantly, in brain slices from Scn1a−/+ mice, the excitability of parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SST) interneurons was reduced, epileptiform activity propagated more rapidly, and complex synaptic changes were observed. However, in vivo, optogenetic reduction of firing in PV or SST cells in WT mice modified ongoing network activities, and juxtasomal recordings from identified PV and SST interneurons showed unaffected interneuronal firing during spontaneous cortical dynamics in Scn1a−/+ compared with WT. These results demonstrate that interneuronal hypoexcitability is not observed in Scn1a−/+ mice during spontaneous activities in vivo and suggest that additional mechanisms may contribute to homeostatic rearrangements and the pathogenesis of SMEI. PMID:26819275

  6. Structure–Activity Relationship of 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridine ALK2 Inhibitors Reveals Unaltered Binding Affinity for Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva Causing Mutants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no effective therapies for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a debilitating and progressive heterotopic ossification disease caused by activating mutations of ACVR1 encoding the BMP type I receptor kinase ALK2. Recently, a subset of these same mutations of ACVR1 have been identified in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) tumors. Here we describe the structure–activity relationship for a series of novel ALK2 inhibitors based on the 2-aminopyridine compound K02288. Several modifications increased potency in kinase, thermal shift, or cell-based assays of BMP signaling and transcription, as well as selectivity for ALK2 versus closely related BMP and TGF-β type I receptor kinases. Compounds in this series exhibited a wide range of in vitro cytotoxicity that was not correlated with potency or selectivity, suggesting mechanisms independent of BMP or TGF-β inhibition. The study also highlights a potent 2-methylpyridine derivative 10 (LDN-214117) with a high degree of selectivity for ALK2 and low cytotoxicity that could provide a template for preclinical development. Contrary to the notion that activating mutations of ALK2 might alter inhibitor efficacy due to potential conformational changes in the ATP-binding site, the compounds demonstrated consistent binding to a panel of mutant and wild-type ALK2 proteins. Thus, BMP inhibitors identified via activity against wild-type ALK2 signaling are likely to be of clinical relevance for the diverse ALK2 mutant proteins associated with FOP and DIPG. PMID:25101911

  7. Structure-activity relationship of 3,5-diaryl-2-aminopyridine ALK2 inhibitors reveals unaltered binding affinity for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva causing mutants.

    PubMed

    Mohedas, Agustin H; Wang, You; Sanvitale, Caroline E; Canning, Peter; Choi, Sungwoon; Xing, Xuechao; Bullock, Alex N; Cuny, Gregory D; Yu, Paul B

    2014-10-01

    There are currently no effective therapies for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a debilitating and progressive heterotopic ossification disease caused by activating mutations of ACVR1 encoding the BMP type I receptor kinase ALK2. Recently, a subset of these same mutations of ACVR1 have been identified in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) tumors. Here we describe the structure-activity relationship for a series of novel ALK2 inhibitors based on the 2-aminopyridine compound K02288. Several modifications increased potency in kinase, thermal shift, or cell-based assays of BMP signaling and transcription, as well as selectivity for ALK2 versus closely related BMP and TGF-β type I receptor kinases. Compounds in this series exhibited a wide range of in vitro cytotoxicity that was not correlated with potency or selectivity, suggesting mechanisms independent of BMP or TGF-β inhibition. The study also highlights a potent 2-methylpyridine derivative 10 (LDN-214117) with a high degree of selectivity for ALK2 and low cytotoxicity that could provide a template for preclinical development. Contrary to the notion that activating mutations of ALK2 might alter inhibitor efficacy due to potential conformational changes in the ATP-binding site, the compounds demonstrated consistent binding to a panel of mutant and wild-type ALK2 proteins. Thus, BMP inhibitors identified via activity against wild-type ALK2 signaling are likely to be of clinical relevance for the diverse ALK2 mutant proteins associated with FOP and DIPG.

  8. Identification of a cellular repressor of transcription of the adenoviral late IVa(2) gene that is unaltered in activity in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, H J; Flint, S J

    2000-11-25

    The gene encoding the adenovirus type 2 IVa(2) protein, a sequence-specific activator of transcription from the viral major late promoter, is itself transcribed only during the late phase of infection. We previously identified a cellular protein (IVa(2)-RF) that binds specifically to an intragenic sequence of the IVa(2) transcription unit. We now report that precise substitutions within the IVa(2)-RF-binding site that decreased binding affinity increased the efficiency of IVa(2) transcription in in vitro reactions containing IVa(2)-RF. Consistent with the conclusion that this cellular protein represses IVa(2) transcription, mutations that led to more efficient transcription in the presence of IVa(2)-RF were without effect in reactions lacking this cellular protein. No change in the concentration or activity of IVa(2)-RF could be detected in adenovirus-infected cells during the period in which the IVa(2) gene is transcribed. We therefore propose that restriction of IVa(2) transcription to the late phase is the result of titration of this cellular repressor as the number of copies of the IVa(2) promoter increases upon replication of the viral genome.

  9. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  10. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca(2+)] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  11. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  12. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds.

  13. The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals and topical disinfectants on the microbial flora of human remains.

    PubMed

    Burke, P A; Sheffner, A L

    1976-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals an topical disinfectants was evaluated to determine the degree of disinfection achieved during the embalming of human remains. The administration of arterial and cavity embalming chemicals resulted in a 99% reduction of the postmortem microbial population after 2 hours of contact. This level of disinfection was maintained for the 24 hours test period. Topical disinfection of the body orifices was also observed. Therefore, it is probable that present embalming practices reduce the hazard from transmission of potentially infectious microbial agents within the immediate environment of embalmed human remains.

  14. The hippocampus remains activated over the long term for the retrieval of truly episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Harand, Caroline; Bertran, Françoise; La Joie, Renaud; Landeau, Brigitte; Mézenge, Florence; Desgranges, Béatrice; Peigneux, Philippe; Eustache, Francis; Rauchs, Géraldine

    2012-01-01

    The role of the hippocampus in declarative memory consolidation is a matter of intense debate. We investigated the neural substrates of memory retrieval for recent and remote information using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 18 young, healthy participants learned a series of pictures. Then, during two fMRI recognition sessions, 3 days and 3 months later, they had to determine whether they recognized or not each picture using the "Remember/Know" procedure. Presentation of the same learned images at both delays allowed us to track the evolution of memories and distinguish consistently episodic memories from those that were initially episodic and then became familiar or semantic over time and were retrieved without any contextual detail. Hippocampal activation decreased over time for initially episodic, later semantic memories, but remained stable for consistently episodic ones, at least in its posterior part. For both types of memories, neocortical activations were observed at both delays, notably in the ventromedial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These activations may reflect a gradual reorganization of memory traces within neural networks. Our data indicate maintenance and strengthening of hippocampal and cortico-cortical connections in the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memories over time, in line with the Multiple Trace theory (Nadel and Moscovitch, 1997). At variance, memories becoming semantic over time consolidate through strengthening of cortico-cortical connections and progressive disengagement of the hippocampus. PMID:22937055

  15. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  16. Remaining Uncertainties in the Causes of Past and Future Atlantic Hurricane Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is no debate that hurricane activity in the North Atlantic has increased substantially since the relatively quiescent period of the 1970s and 1980s, but there is still uncertainty in the dominant cause of the increase. Increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (aGHG) have contributed to the observed increase in tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) over the past century, while shorter-term decadal variability in regions where hurricanes form and track is generally dominated by 1) internal variability, 2) natural factors such as volcanic eruptions and mineral aerosol variability, and 3) changes in anthropogenic aerosols. Direct SST warming from globally well-mixed aGHG is understood to have a much smaller effect on hurricane formation and intensification compared to the effect of regional warming due to changes in the three factors noted above. While most recent papers implicate both internal and external anthropogenic causes for the presently heightened Atlantic hurricane activity, some show that internal variability dominates and others show that anthropogenic factors dominate. In the Atlantic, model projection-based consensus indicates no change in storm frequency over the next century but the uncertainty is large and spans -50% to +50%. Mean storm intensity and rainfall rates are projected to increase with continued warming, and the models tend to agree better when projecting these measures of activity. Models that are capable of producing very strong hurricanes usually project increases in the frequency of the most intense hurricanes. This measure is highly relevant to physical and societal impacts. In the Atlantic, model-based consensus indicates substantial increases in the strongest hurricanes, but the uncertainty is large and spans -100% to +200% change over the next century.

  17. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  18. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point. PMID:26796756

  19. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies.

  20. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies. PMID:25791284

  1. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  2. Cardiac activation heat remains inversely dependent on temperature over the range 27-37°C.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The relation between heat output and stress production (force per cross-sectional area) of isolated cardiac tissue is a key metric that provides insight into muscle energetic performance. The heat intercept of the relation, termed "activation heat," reflects the metabolic cost of restoring transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and K(+) following electrical excitation, and myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration following its release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At subphysiological temperatures, activation heat is inversely dependent on temperature. Thus one may presume that activation heat would decrease even further at body temperature. However, this assumption is prima facie inconsistent with a study, using intact hearts, which revealed no apparent change in the combination of activation and basal metabolism between 27 and 37°C. It is thus desired to directly determine the change in activation heat between 27 and 37°C. In this study, we use our recently constructed high-thermal resolution muscle calorimeter to determine the first heat-stress relation of isolated cardiac muscle at 37°C. We compare the relation at 37°C to that at 27°C to examine whether the inverse temperature dependence of activation heat, observed under hypothermic conditions, prevails at body temperature. Our results show that activation heat was reduced (from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 2.3 ± 0.3 kJ/m(3)) at the higher temperature. This leads us to conclude that activation metabolism continues to decline as temperature is increased from hypothermia to normothermia and allows us to comment on results obtained from the intact heart by previous investigators.

  3. Cardiac activation heat remains inversely dependent on temperature over the range 27-37°C.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The relation between heat output and stress production (force per cross-sectional area) of isolated cardiac tissue is a key metric that provides insight into muscle energetic performance. The heat intercept of the relation, termed "activation heat," reflects the metabolic cost of restoring transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and K(+) following electrical excitation, and myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration following its release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At subphysiological temperatures, activation heat is inversely dependent on temperature. Thus one may presume that activation heat would decrease even further at body temperature. However, this assumption is prima facie inconsistent with a study, using intact hearts, which revealed no apparent change in the combination of activation and basal metabolism between 27 and 37°C. It is thus desired to directly determine the change in activation heat between 27 and 37°C. In this study, we use our recently constructed high-thermal resolution muscle calorimeter to determine the first heat-stress relation of isolated cardiac muscle at 37°C. We compare the relation at 37°C to that at 27°C to examine whether the inverse temperature dependence of activation heat, observed under hypothermic conditions, prevails at body temperature. Our results show that activation heat was reduced (from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 2.3 ± 0.3 kJ/m(3)) at the higher temperature. This leads us to conclude that activation metabolism continues to decline as temperature is increased from hypothermia to normothermia and allows us to comment on results obtained from the intact heart by previous investigators. PMID:27016583

  4. Comparison of species composition and richness of fish assemblages in altered and unaltered littoral habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poe, T.P.; Hatcher, C.O.; Brown, C.L.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Species composition and richness of fish assemblages in altered and unaltered littoral habitats in Lake St. Clair, Michigan, differed between areas. A percid-cyprinid-cyprinodontid assemblage dominated in the unaltered area, Muscamoot Bay, which has a natural shoreline (with almost no alteration due to dredging or bulkheading), high water quality, and high species richness of aquatic macrophytes. A centrarchid assemblage dominated in the altered area, Belvidere Bay, which has a bulkheaded shoreline, many dredged areas, reduced water quality due to inputs of nutrients from a nearby river, and relatively low species richness of aquatic macrophytes. Habitat factors, species richness and abundance of aquatic macrophytes, had the most influence on fish community structure in both areas. The percid-cyprinid-cyprinodontid assemblage was significantly correlated with six species of macrophytes whereas the centrarchid assemblage was significantly correlated with only four. These patterns suggest that preference for diverse habitats was higher, and tolerance to habitat alteration lower, in percid-cyprinid-cyprinodontid assemblages than in centrarchid assemblages.

  5. The alteration of intracellular enzymes. III. The effect of temperature on the kinetics of altered and unaltered yeast catalase.

    PubMed

    FRASER, M J; KAPLAN, J G

    1955-03-20

    1. The very large increase in catalase activity (Euler effect) which follows treatment of yeast cells with CHCl(3), UV and n-propanol is accompanied by highly significant changes in kinetic properties. With respect to the enzymatic decomposition of H(2)O(2), the thermodynamic constants of the activation process micro, DeltaHdouble dagger, DeltaSdouble dagger, DeltaFdouble dagger, decrease, following treatment of the intracellular enzyme, by 4.5 kcal., 4.5 kcal., 10.1 e.u. and 1.7 kcal., respectively, all these differences being significant at the 1 per cent level. 2. Similar differences exist between the untreated, intracellular enzyme on the one hand, and the extracted yeast and crystalline beef liver catalases on the other. Significant differences in these thermodynamic constants do not exist among the treated intracellular, extracted yeast, and crystalline liver catalases. 3. These data provide unequivocal confirmation of the phenomenon of enzyme alteration reported previously, and confirm previous evidence that the extracted and crystalline enzymes have also undergone enzyme alteration and have properties which are identical with, or very similar to, those of the catalase altered in situ. 4. With respect to the process of heat destruction of catalase, the greatly diminished stability to heat of the altered enzymes, previously reported, has been confirmed. The thermodynamic constants of activation of this process have likewise changed following alteration, in the case of micro, DeltaHdouble dagger, and DeltaSdouble dagger an increase of 20.6 kcal., 20.6 kcal., and 70 e.u., respectively, and of DeltaFdouble dagger a decrease of 2.8 kcal. 5. All these data have been shown to be consistent with, and in some cases predictable from, the interfacial hypothesis, which states that the unaltered catalase exists within the cell adsorbed to some interface, in a partially, but reversibly, unfolded configuration of relatively low specificity; enzyme alteration consists, in

  6. Aerobic exercise capacity remains normal despite impaired endothelial function in the micro- and macrocirculation of physically active IDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Veves, A; Saouaf, R; Donaghue, V M; Mullooly, C A; Kistler, J A; Giurini, J M; Horton, E S; Fielding, R A

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if diabetes in the absence of neuropathy affects the exercising capacity of IDDM patients, and whether regular, intense training has a beneficial effect on endothelial function. Five groups of subjects were studied: 23 healthy control subjects who exercised regularly (age 33 +/- 6 years), 23 nonneuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who exercised regularly (age 33 +/- 6 years, IDDM duration 11 +/- 8 years), 7 neuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who exercised regularly (age 36 +/- 7 years, IDDM duration 22 +/- 8 years), 18 healthy subjects who did not exercise regularly (age 34 +/- 7 years), and 5 nonneuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who did not exercise regularly (age 31 +/- 4 years, IDDM duration 20 +/- 3 years). All groups were matched for age, sex, and body weight. No differences existed in the energy expenditure per week in physical activity among the three exercising groups or between the two nonexercising groups. The maximal oxygen uptake was similar between control and diabetic nonneuropathic exercisers, and among diabetic neuropathic exercisers, control nonexercisers, and diabetic nonexercisers; however, a significant difference existed between the first two and the last three groups (P < 0.0001). A stepwise increase was found in the resting heart rate among the groups, ranging from the lowest in control exercisers to the highest in diabetic nonexercisers, but the maximal heart rate was lower only in diabetic neuropathic exercisers compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Assessments of endothelial function in both macro- and microcirculation were performed in 12 control exercisers, 10 diabetic nonneuropathic exercisers, 5 diabetic neuropathic exercisers, 17 control nonexercisers, and 4 diabetic nonexercisers. When all diabetic patients were considered as one group and all control subjects as another, the microcirculation endothelial function in the diabetic group was reduced compared with the control subjects

  7. Toxins vapC and pasB from prokaryotic TA modules remain active in mammalian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wieteska, Łukasz; Skulimowski, Aleksander; Cybula, Magdalena; Szemraj, Janusz

    2014-10-01

    Among the great number of addictive modules which have been discovered, only a few have been characterized. However, research concerning the adoption of toxins from these systems shows their great potential as a tool for molecular biology and medicine. In our study, we tested two different toxins derived from class II addictive modules, pasAB from plasmid pTF-FC2 (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) and vapBC 2829Rv (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), in terms of their usefulness as growth inhibitors of human cancer cell lines, namely KYSE 30, MCF-7 and HCT 116. Transfection of the pasB and vapC genes into the cells was conducted with the use of two different expression systems. Cellular effects, such as apoptosis, necrosis and changes in the cell cycle, were tested by applying flow cytometry with immunofluorescence staining. Our findings demonstrated that toxins VapC and PasB demonstrate proapoptotic activity in the human cancer cells, regardless of the expression system used. As for the toxin PasB, observed changes were more subtle than for the VapC. The level of expression for both the genes was monitored by QPCR and did not reveal statistically significant differences within the same cell line.

  8. Unaltered cocaine self-administration in the prenatal LPS rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Santos-Toscano, Raquel; Borcel, Érika; Ucha, Marcos; Orihuel, Javier; Capellán, Roberto; Roura-Martínez, David; Ambrosio, Emilio; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    Although cocaine abuse is up to three times more frequent among schizophrenic patients, it remains unclear why this should be the case and whether sex influences this relationship. Using a maternal immune activation model of schizophrenia, we tested whether animals at higher risk of developing a schizophrenia-like state are more prone to acquire cocaine self-administration behavior, and whether they show enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing actions of cocaine or if they are resistant to extinction. Pregnant rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide on gestational day 15 and 16, and the offspring (both male and female) were tested in working memory (T-maze), social interaction and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response) paradigms. After performing these tests, the rats were subjected to cocaine self-administration regimes (0.5mg/kg), assessing their dose-response and extinction. Male rats born to dams administered lipopolysaccharide showed impaired working memory but no alterations to their social interactions, and both male and female rats showed prepulse inhibition deficits. Moreover, similar patterns of cocaine self-administration acquisition, responsiveness to dose shifts and extinction curves were observed in both control and experimental rats. These results suggest that the higher prevalence of cocaine abuse among schizophrenic individuals is not due to a biological vulnerability directly associated to the disease and that other factors (social, educational, economic, familial, etc.) should be considered given the multifactorial nature of this illness. PMID:27089985

  9. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  10. Estimation of unaltered daily mean streamflow at ungaged streams of New York, excluding Long Island, water years 1961-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gazoorian, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    A graphical user interface, with an integrated spreadsheet summary report, has been developed to estimate and display the daily mean streamflows and statistics and to evaluate different water management or water withdrawal scenarios with the estimated monthly data. This package of regression equations, U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data, and spreadsheet application produces an interactive tool to estimate an unaltered daily streamflow hydrograph and streamflow statistics at ungaged sites in New York. Among other uses, the New York Streamflow Estimation Tool can assist water managers with permitting water withdrawals, implementing habitat protection, estimating contaminant loads, or determining the potential affect from chemical spills.

  11. Increased hair testosterone but unaltered hair cortisol in female patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Spitzer, Carsten; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have reported on dysfunctions in steroid secretion, including altered cortisol and testosterone levels in borderline personality disorder (BDP) patients compared to healthy controls. The present study extends findings from blood and saliva studies to the cumulative measure of hair steroids. We investigated women with BPD (n=18) and age- and education-matched healthy women (n=17). We did not find differences between BPD patients and healthy women (p=0.40) concerning hair cortisol levels but increased hair testosterone levels among BPD patients compared to controls (p=0.03). These results remained when restricting the analyses to unmedicated patients. Our data indicate altered long-term testosterone but not cortisol levels in females with BPD. Future studies should address the possible impact of altered testosterone on medical illness processes including metabolic syndrome in this population. PMID:27290653

  12. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  13. Comparison of subyearling fall chinook salmon's use of riprap revetments and unaltered habitats in Lake Wallula of the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garland, R.D.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Clark, L.O.

    2002-01-01

    Subyearling fall chinook salmon's Oncorhynchus tshawytscha use of unaltered and riprap habitats in Lake Wallula of the Columbia River was determined with point abundance data collected by electrofishing in May 1994 and 1995. We documented the presence or absence of subyearlings at 277 sample sites and collected physical habitat information at each site. Based on logistic regression, we found that the probability of fish presence was greater in unaltered shoreline habitats than in riprap habitats. Substrate size was the most important factor in determining fish presence, with dominant substrates larger than 256 mm having the lowest probability of fish presence. Water velocity, also included in our model due to its biological importance, was not a significant factor affecting presence or absence (P = 0.1102). The correct prediction rate of fish presence or absence in our sample sites using cross validation was 67%. Our model showed that substrate was the most important factor determining subyearling habitat use, but the model did not include other habitat variables known to be important to subyearlings in more diverse systems. We suggest that resource managers consider alternative methods of bank stabilization that are compatible with the habitat requirements of the fish that use them.

  14. Isotopic and trace element variability in altered and unaltered tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Spengler, R.W.; Singer, F.R.; Dickerson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Reference stratigraphic sections near Yucca Mountain, Nevada were established and sampled in outcrop areas where the volcanic rocks have been minimally altered. Isotopic and trace element analyses obtained for these reference sections are baseline data for assessing the degree and extent of element mobility attendant with past zonal alteration of the rock mass. In agreement with earlier studies, zeolitization is shown to have occurred under wholesale open-system conditions. Calcium was increased by two three times the baseline values and strontium up to twenty times. In contrast, barium displays less variability, and the high-field strength elements zirconium and titanium were the least mobile during zeolitization. The data reported here establish the usefulness of reference sections of assessing past elements mobility. The information gained will be helpful in predicting possible future element mobility induced by thermally activated fluids in the near field of a potential repository.

  15. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  16. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  17. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  18. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  19. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  20. Pancreatic stem cells remain unresolved.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin-secreting islet β cells. An ideal treatment of diabetes would, therefore, be to replace the lost or deficient β cells, by transplantation of donated islets or differentiated endocrine cells or by regeneration of endogenous islet cells. Due to their ability of unlimited proliferation and differentiation into all functional lineages in our body, including β cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are ideally placed as cell sources for a diabetic transplantation therapy. Unfortunately, the inability to generate functional differentiated islet cells from pluripotent stem cells and the poor availability of donor islets have severely restricted the broad clinical use of the replacement therapy. Therefore, endogenous sources that can be directed to becoming insulin-secreting cells are actively sought after. In particular, any cell types in the developing or adult pancreas that may act as pancreatic stem cells (PSC) would provide an alternative renewable source for endogenous regeneration. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress and knowledge of such PSC, and discuss ways that facilitate the future development of this often controversial, but crucial research.

  1. Visible and infrared properties of unaltered to weathered rocks from Precambrian granite-greenstone terrains of the West African Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Václav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark W.; Naba, Séta

    2015-12-01

    In situ and laboratory 0.35 μm-2.5 μm spectra of rocks from a Paleoproterozoic granite-greenstone terrain along with its Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover and derived regolith materials were examined in western Burkina Faso. The reflectance spectra show the influence of typical arid to semi-arid weathering with the formation of desert varnish, iron films, and dust coatings. Fe and Mg-OH absorption features related to chlorite, amphibole, pyroxene, epidote, and biotite are observable in the mafic and intermediate meta-volcanic rocks as well as in the granodiorites and tonalites. Al-OH absorption caused by kaolinite, smectite, illite/muscovite are typical for meta-volcano-sedimentary schists, Tarkwaian-type detrital meta-sediments, sandstones of the Taoudeni basin, all of the weathered surfaces and regolith materials. Ferric and ferrous iron absorptions related to both primary rock-forming minerals and secondary weathering minerals (goethite, hematite) were observed in most of the sampled materials. The results show that although weathering alters the spectral signature of the fresh rock, indicative absorption features located in the short wave infrared region remain detectable. In addition, spectra of soils partially reflect the mineral composition of the weathered rock surfaces. The analysis of the hyperspectral data shows the potential of differentiating between the sampled surfaces. The library presents a primary database for the geological and regolith analysis of remote sensing data in West Africa.

  2. Impaired exercise capacity, but unaltered mitochondrial respiration in skeletal or cardiac muscle of mice lacking cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Nico, Patrícia Barreto Costa; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Landemberger, Michele Christine; Marques, Wilson; Tasca, Carla I; de Mello, Carlos Fernando; Walz, Roger; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Brentani, Ricardo R; Sakamoto, Américo C; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt

    2005-11-01

    The studies of physiological roles for cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) have focused on possible functions of this protein in the CNS, where it is largely expressed. However, the observation that PrP(c) is expressed also in muscle tissue suggests that the physiological role of PrP(c) might not be limited to the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated possible functions of PrP(c) in muscle using PrP(c) gene (Prnp) null mice (Prnp(0/0)). For this purpose, we submitted Prnp(0/0) animals to different protocols of exercise, and compared their performance to that of their respective wild-type controls. Prnp(0/0) mice showed an exercise-dependent impairment of locomotor activity. In searching for possible mechanisms associated with the impairment observed, we evaluated mitochondrial respiration (MR) in skeletal or cardiac muscle from these mice during resting or after different intensities of exercise. Baseline MR (states 3 and 4), respiratory control ratio (RCR) and mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) were evaluated and were not different in skeletal or cardiac muscle tissue of Prnp(0/0) mice when compared with wild-type animals. We concluded that Prnp(0/0) mice show impairment of swimming capacity, perhaps reflecting impairment of muscular activity under more extreme exercise conditions. In spite of the mitochondrial abnormalities reported in Prnp(0/0) mice, our observation seems not to be related to MR. Our results indicate that further investigations should be conducted in order to improve our knowledge about the function of PrP(c) in muscle physiology and its possible role in several different neuromuscular pathologies.

  3. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  4. [DNA depolymerase activity in rat spleen following flight on the "Kosmos-605= satellite].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, V F; Komolova, G S; Serova, L V; Belikova, E V; Egorov, I A

    1976-01-01

    The activity of enzymes involved in DNA disintegration (acid and alkaline DNA-ases) was measured in the spleen of rats flown onboard the Cosmos-605 biosatellite for 22 days. The activity of alkaline DNA-ase remained unaltered whereas that of acid DNA-ase increased more than twice. The activity of acid DNA-ase returned to the normal 26 days postflight. The study of characteristic viscosity (eta) of native and denatured DNA showed that enzyme activation was not followed by degradation changes in the DNA molecule.

  5. A New Modal Analysis Method to put Constraints on the Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites and Estimate the Unaltered CR Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gounelle, M.; Schwandt, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    carbonaceous chondrites are of the major interest since they contain one of the most primitive organic matters. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needed to be assessed. That was done in the present study by comparing the mineralogy of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2, Renazzo. Their modal analyses were achieved thanks to a new method, based on X-ray elemental maps acquired on electron microprobe, and on IDL image treatment. It allowed the collection of new data on the composition of Renazzo and confirmed the classification of GRO 95577 as a CR1. New alteration products for CRs, vermiculite and clinochlore, were observed. The homogeneity of the Fe-poor clays in the CR1 and the distinctive matrix composition in the two chondrites suggest a wide-range of aqueous alteration on CRs. The preservation of the outlines of the chondrules in GRO 95577 and the elemental transfers of Al, Fe and Ca throughout the chondrule and of Fe and S from the matrix to the chondrule favor the idea of an asteroidal location of the aqueous alteration. From their mineralogical descriptions and modal abundances, the element repartitions in Renazzo and GRO 95577 were computed. It indicates a possible relationship between these two chondrites via an isochemical alteration process. Knowing the chemical reactions that occurred during the alteration, it was thus possible to decipher the mineralogical modal abundances in the unaltered CR body.

  6. A New Modal Analysis Method to put Constraints on the Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites and Estimate the Unaltered CR Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gounelle, M.; Schwandt, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    CR carbonaceous chondrites are of the major interest since they contain one of the most primitive organic matters. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needed to be assessed. That was done in the present study by comparing the mineralogy of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2, Renazzo. Their modal analyses were achieved thanks to a new method, based on X-ray elemental maps acquired on electron microprobe, and on IDL image treatment. It allowed the collection of new data on the composition of Renazzo and confirmed the classification of GRO 95577 as a CR1. New alteration products for CRs, vermiculite and clinochlore, were observed. The homogeneity of the Fe-poor clays in the CR1 and the distinctive matrix composition in the two chondrites suggest a wide-range of aqueous alteration on CRs. The preservation of the outlines of the chondrules in GRO 95577 and the elemental transfers of Al, Fe and Ca throughout the chondrule and of Fe and S from the matrix to the chondrule favor the idea of an asteroidal location of the aqueous alteration. From their mineralogical descriptions and modal abundances, the element repartitions in Renazzo and GRO 95577 were computed. It indicates a possible relationship between these two chondrites via an isochemical alteration process. Knowing the chemical reactions that occurred during the alteration, it was thus possible to decipher the mineralogical modal abundances in the unaltered CR body.

  7. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  8. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  9. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Values for Unaltered and Hydrothermally Altered Samples from the Cretaceous Linga Plutonic Complex of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith near Ica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, L. U.; Holk, G. J.; Clausen, B. L.; Poma Porras, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    A portion of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith near Ica, Peru is being studied using stable isotopes to determine the source of hydrothermal fluids that caused propylitic, phyllic, and potassic alteration in the mineralized Linga plutonic complex. Sources of hydrothermal fluids and water/rock ratios are estimated to understand the role of such fluids in alteration during cooling. A set of 64 mineral analysis from 18 igneous samples, 7 unaltered and 11 altered, were analyzed for D/H and 18O/16O isotopes. The δ18O values for whole rocks with no apparent alteration vary from +6.8‰ to +7.9‰, with sets of δ18O mineral values indicating isotopic equilibrium at closure temperatures from 571°C to 651°C, and no interaction with meteoric water. This conclusion is bolstered by hornblende (-87‰ to -64‰) and biotite (-81‰ to -74‰) δD values Most δ18O values for samples with hydrothermal alteration suggest that alteration results from magmatic fluids; however, several analyses indicate interaction with other fluids. The high δ18O values for plagioclase (+9.3‰) and hornblende (+6.3‰) from a metamorphic aureole in volcanic host rock near a plutonic intrusion may be due to interaction with metamorphic or low temperature magmatic fluids. Plagioclase (+2.6‰) and biotite (+0.1‰) δ18O values in a sample from the Jurassic volcanic envelope indicate a significant effect from meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. An altered monzonite yielded δ18O values for quartz (+5.5‰), K-spar (+5.6‰), and magnetite (+0.4‰), also suggesting interaction with meteoric fluids. A diorite from an area with strong epidotization produced an epidote δD value of -25.8‰ and a monzonite from a highly veined area has an epidote δD value of -36.1‰ suggesting interaction with sea water. This new data indicate that the Linga complex was primarily influenced by magmatic hydrothermal fluids, but metamorphic, meteoric, and sea water may have had some influence in producing alteration

  10. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  11. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  12. Identification of infant skeletal remains: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of infant skeletal remains were described from the view point of personal identification. The age was exactly estimated from union of ossification centers, dental calcification and eruption. While, the sex estimation was not highly reliable, because sex differences had not clearly appeared in infant skeletons, and it was rather difficult in some cases. In infant skeletal remains, age estimation is especially important to help personal identification. The most recent photograph of a presumed person should be used for personal identification by superimposition technique since the size and proportion of infant skull constantly change as a result of its development.

  13. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  14. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  15. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  16. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  17. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  18. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses. PMID:15277721

  19. Plant stanol content remains stable during storage of cholesterol-lowering functional foods.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, V; Laakso, P; Kuusisto, P; Niemelä, J; Laitinen, K

    2016-04-01

    Plant stanols reduce the absorption of both dietary and biliary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to examine the stability of plant stanols in the form of plant stanol esters in spreads and biscuits stored under typical storage conditions. The plant stanol content of two commercial margarine-type spreads, containing 35% and 60% absorbable fat, was 6.5 and 6.4 g/100 g after production and remained unaltered when stored at 6 °C for a shelf life of 18 and 22 weeks, respectively. Comparable results were obtained for plant stanol ester ingredient stored under the same conditions and for plant stanol ester-containing biscuits stored at room temperature for up to 74 weeks. Furthermore, the peroxide value and free fatty acids showed that the quality of the food products remained good. The present study demonstrated that plant stanol esters as an ingredient and when added in food products, are stable whilst stored under the appropriate conditions.

  20. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  1. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  2. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  3. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  4. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  5. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  6. Inhaler devices: what remains to be done?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian J; Bell, John; Bowman, Nic; Everard, Mark; Stein, Stephen; Weers, Jeffry G

    2010-12-01

    The 1000 Years of Pharmaceutical Aerosols Conference convened posing the question; "what remains to be done?" When applying this question to the topic of inhaler devices, two hugely different perspectives could be taken. On the one hand, it could be argued that because there is an array of delivery systems available and the industry, prescribing physicians and patients alike have considerable choice, why would we believe it necessary to do anything further? On the other hand, as an industry, we are constantly reminded by our "customers" that the inhaler devices available are less than adequate, and in some cases woefully inadequate, that they are not "patient" friendly, not intuitive to use and importantly do nothing to encourage the patient to take the medication as intended and as prescribed. So, taking the second point of view as more reflective of reality--the Voice of the Customer--our starting point must be that there is still much to do in the field of inhaler devices. The purpose of this article is to outline some key basic requirements for inhaler design and perhaps to question some of the entrenched thinking that has pervaded inhaler product design for too many years.

  7. The atypical iron-coordination geometry of cytochrome f remains unchanged upon binding to plastocyanin, as inferred by XAS

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Moreno, Sofía; Subías, Gloria; De la Rosa, Miguel A.; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The transient complex between cytochrome f and plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7119 has been analysed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in solution, using both proteins in their oxidized and reduced states. Fe K-edge data mainly shows that the atypical metal coordination geometry of cytochrome f, in which the N-terminal amino acid acts as an axial ligand of the heme group, remains unaltered upon binding to its redox partner, plastocyanin. This fact suggests that cytochrome f provides a stable binding site for plastocyanin and minimizes the reorganization energy required in the transient complex formation, which could facilitate the electron transfer between the two redox partners. PMID:17111237

  8. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  9. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  10. Moving house: long-term dynamics of corticosterone secretion are unaltered in translocated populations of a rare reptile (the tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lindsay E.; Cree, Alison; Towns, David R.; Nelson, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Translocations are an important conservation tool used to restore at-risk species to their historical range. Unavoidable procedures during translocations, such as habitat disturbance, capture, handling, processing, captivity, transport and release to a novel environment, have the potential to be stressful for most species. In this study, we examined acute and chronic stress (through the measurement of the glucocorticoid corticosterone) in a rare reptile (the tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus). We found that: (i) the acute corticosterone response remains elevated during the initial translocation process but is not amplified by cumulative stressors; and (ii) the long-term dynamics of corticosterone secretion are similar in translocated and source populations. Taken together, our results show that translocated tuatara are generally resistant to cumulative acute stressors and show no hormonal sign of chronic stress. Translocation efforts in tuatara afford the potential to reduce extinction risk and restore natural ecosystems. PMID:27293699

  11. Unaltered ratio of circulating levels of growth hormone/GH isoforms in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome after GHRH plus arginine administration.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, A E; Grugni, G; Marazzi, N; Bini, S; Bidlingmaier, M; Sartorio, A

    2015-08-01

    for 22 kDa- and 20 kDa-GH, respectively). The GH responses for both isoforms were significantly higher in nonobese than in obese PWS patients (at 45 and 60 min for 22 kDa-GH and at 45, 60, 90 and 120 min for 20 kDa-GH, p<0.05), while no differences were detected between GHD vs. nonGHD groups. As previously reported in healthy subjects, the ratios of circulating levels of 22 kDa- to 20 kDa-GH remained constant after GHRH plus ARG both in obese/non-obese and GHD/non-GHD groups, thus suggesting the preservation of a normal balance in GH isoforms in PWS. PMID:26059749

  12. A transient reversal of miRNA-mediated repression controls macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Anup; Bose, Mainak; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N

    2013-11-01

    In mammalian macrophages, the expression of a number of cytokines is regulated by miRNAs. Upon macrophage activation, proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs are translated, although the expression of miRNAs targeting these mRNAs remains largely unaltered. We show that there is a transient reversal of miRNA-mediated repression during the early phase of the inflammatory response in macrophages, which leads to the protection of cytokine mRNAs from miRNA-mediated repression. This derepression occurs through Ago2 phosphorylation, which results in its impaired binding to miRNAs and to the corresponding target mRNAs. Macrophages expressing a mutant, non-phosphorylatable AGO2--which remains bound to miRNAs during macrophage activation--have a weakened inflammatory response and fail to prevent parasite invasion. These findings highlight the relevance of the transient relief of miRNA repression for macrophage function.

  13. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  14. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  15. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  16. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  17. Forensic approach to an archaeological casework of "vampire" skeletal remains in Venice: odontological and anthropological prospectus.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Borrini, Matteo

    2010-11-01

    During the years 2006-2007, the Archeological Superintendent of Veneto (Italy) promoted a research project on mass graves located on Nuovo Lazzaretto in Venice, where the corpses of plague deaths were buried during the 16th and 17th centuries. The burials were of different stages and are believed to be the remains of plague victims from the numerous outbreaks of pestilence, which occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. Among the fragmented and commingled human bones, an unusual burial was found. The body was laid supine, with the top half of the thorax intact, arms parallel to the rachis axis, the articulations were anatomically unaltered. Both the skull morphology and the dimensions of the caput omeris suggest the body was a woman. A brick of moderate size was found inside the oral cavity, keeping the mandible wide open. The data collected by the anthropologist were used to generate a taphonomic profile, which precluded the positioning of the brick being accidental. Likewise, the probability of the brick having come from the surrounding burial sediment was rejected, as the only other inclusions found were bone fragments from previous burials in the same area. The data collected by the odontologist were employed for age estimation and radiological dental assessment. The forensic profile was based conceptually on the "circumstances of death" and concluded that the positioning of the brick was intentional, and attributed to a symbolic burial ritual. This ritual confirms the intimate belief held at those times, between the plague and the mythological character of the vampire.

  18. Forensic approach to an archaeological casework of "vampire" skeletal remains in Venice: odontological and anthropological prospectus.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Borrini, Matteo

    2010-11-01

    During the years 2006-2007, the Archeological Superintendent of Veneto (Italy) promoted a research project on mass graves located on Nuovo Lazzaretto in Venice, where the corpses of plague deaths were buried during the 16th and 17th centuries. The burials were of different stages and are believed to be the remains of plague victims from the numerous outbreaks of pestilence, which occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. Among the fragmented and commingled human bones, an unusual burial was found. The body was laid supine, with the top half of the thorax intact, arms parallel to the rachis axis, the articulations were anatomically unaltered. Both the skull morphology and the dimensions of the caput omeris suggest the body was a woman. A brick of moderate size was found inside the oral cavity, keeping the mandible wide open. The data collected by the anthropologist were used to generate a taphonomic profile, which precluded the positioning of the brick being accidental. Likewise, the probability of the brick having come from the surrounding burial sediment was rejected, as the only other inclusions found were bone fragments from previous burials in the same area. The data collected by the odontologist were employed for age estimation and radiological dental assessment. The forensic profile was based conceptually on the "circumstances of death" and concluded that the positioning of the brick was intentional, and attributed to a symbolic burial ritual. This ritual confirms the intimate belief held at those times, between the plague and the mythological character of the vampire. PMID:20707834

  19. [Stress deformations of skeletal remains from prehistoric cremation burials].

    PubMed

    Kühl, I

    1986-01-01

    Vertebrae and parts of joints from long bones from prehistoric cremations of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age are presented, showing marked deformations caused by pressure during cremation when bones exposed to temperatures of 400 degrees-500 degrees Centigrade display minimal hardness. The vertebrae with deformation of the arcus parts are only from the lower vertebral column; on account of the weight of this body region, this suggests that the corpse lay in the dorsal position at the place of cremation. The fact that there were deformed arches only on one side might suggest an irregular structure of the surface on which the corpse lay. In the prone position, i.e. in the absence of pressure caused by body weight, all vertebrae should be unaltered; alternatively, if cremation wood was piled on top of the corpse, the arches of thoracic and cervical vertebrae are also likely to be deformed. Deformations resulting from weight bearing were found in the joints of extremities only, with flattening of the heads of joints as well as fissures in the external layers of bones and compression into folds. Some bones show distinct even grooves caused by direct pressure, possibly resulting from the fixation of joint regions for cremation? Evidently the deformations caused by the weighting down of different skeletal regions provide hints that may help in the recognition of cremation rites. It would be helpful if experimental cremations could be performed to establish the pressure necessary to cause deformations.

  20. Effects of pentylenetetrazole kindling on mitogen-activated protein kinases levels in neocortex and hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Ben, Juliana; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The epileptogenesis process involves cell signaling events associated with neuroplasticity. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) integrate signals originating from a variety of extracellular stimuli and may regulate cell differentiation, survival, cell death and synaptic plasticity. Here we compared the total and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38(MAPK)) levels in the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Swiss male mice quantified by western blotting analysis 48 h after the last injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), according to the kindling protocol (35 mg/kg, i.p., on alternated days, with a total of eight injections). The total levels of the investigated MAPKs and the phospho-p38(MAPK) in the neocortex and hippocampus were not affected by the PTZ injections. The MAPKs phosphorylation levels remain unaltered in PTZ-treated animals without convulsive seizures. The phospho-JNK2 phosphorylation, but not the phospho-JNK1, was increased in the hippocampus of PTZ-treated animals showing 1-3 days with convulsive seizures, whereas no significant changes were observed in those animals with more than 3 days with convulsive seizures. The phospho-ERK1/2 phosphorylation decreased in the neocortex and increased in the hippocampus of animals with 1-4 days with convulsive seizures and became unaltered in mice that showed convulsive seizures for more than 4 days. These findings indicate that resistance to PTZ kindling is associated with unaltered ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation levels in the neocortex and hippocampus. Moreover, when the PTZ kindling-induced epileptogenesis manifests behaviorally, the activation of the different MAPKs sub-families shows a variable and non-linear pattern in the neocortex and hippocampus.

  1. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  2. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  3. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  4. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  5. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  6. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  7. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  8. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  9. Detection of the Remaining Files Copied from Removable Storage Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    This paper proposes a method for detecting remaining files copied from removable storage medium. The proposed method logs events that the database of a file system, “Folder”, is changed. The remaining file can be detected by tracing the sequence of logs using path/file-name matching. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the computer.

  10. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  11. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are kept open for the submission of new and pertinent evidence by any interested person. If the Board finds...

  12. Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Capelli, Cristian; Lari, Martina; Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Milani, Lucio; Pilli, Elena; Guimaraes, Silvia; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Marin, Vito Terribile Wien; Casoli, Antonella; Stanyon, Roscoe; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido

    2007-11-15

    We report on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of the supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca exhumed in November 2003, from the S. Maria Assunta church, in Arquà Padua (Italy) where he died in 1374. The optimal preservation of the remains allowed the retrieval of sufficient mtDNA for genetic analysis. DNA was extracted from a rib and a tooth and mtDNA sequences were determined in multiple clones using the strictest criteria currently available for validation of ancient DNA sequences, including independent replication. MtDNA sequences from the tooth and rib were not identical, suggesting that they belonged to different individuals. Indeed, molecular gender determination showed that the postcranial remains belonged to a male while the skull belonged to a female. Historical records indicated that the remains were violated in 1630, possibly by thieves. These results are consistent with morphological investigations and confirm the importance of integrating molecular and morphological approaches in investigating historical remains.

  13. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  14. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  15. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  16. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  17. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING OVER RECEIVING HOPPER, ON TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE TO SMALL HOPPER, GRAIN LEGS, AND CONVEYOR DRIVE SHAFT FROM TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  4. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  5. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  6. 33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL HEADING, ARIZONA DAM, LOOKING EAST Photographer: Mark Durben, December 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE SOUTH OF BRIDGE, EAST END - Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railroad Bridge, Abandonned Penn Central Route, spanning Tom's Run, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  8. 12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF SEVEN-PISTON UNDERFEED STOKER - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  9. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  10. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  11. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  12. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  13. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  14. View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to the northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  15. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the north - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  16. View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  17. View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  19. 6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF THE MILL TABLE IS VISIBLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  3. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  4. Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone brick pattern from earlier cooking fireplace at back, southeast wall looking southeast - Kingston-Upon-Hill, Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Kent County, DE

  5. Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining stone inlay to provide traction surface. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Ramps Nos. 2, 3 & 4, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  6. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  7. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  8. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  9. Looking northeast at the remains of the steam Jenny which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast at the remains of the steam Jenny which drove the boiler stokes. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  10. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  11. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  12. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  13. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  14. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  15. Fluvial transport of human remains in the lower Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Helen E; Manhein, Mary H

    2002-07-01

    The Mississippi River has claimed many lives over the last several decades. A better understanding of the universal dynamics of its fluvial system can help direct the production of a predictive model regarding the transportation of human remains in the river. The model may then be applied to situations where the location and the identification of water victims are necessarily part of the recovery process. Results from the preliminary phase of a longitudinal project involving the transport of human remains in the Mississippi River are presented and represent the analyses of 233 case files of river victims. A provisional model for fluvial transport of human remains in the Mississippi River is proposed and examined. This model indicates that time in the river and distance a body travels are related. Such a model may assist in pinpointing entry location for unidentified human remains found in the river or on its banks. Further, it has the potential to provide local and regional law enforcement agencies, the United States Coast Guard, and other search and rescue organizations with primary search areas when someone is missing in the river. Other results from this study indicate that a relationship exists between the side of the river where victims enter the water and the side of the river where the remains are recovered. Finally, relationships are established between the length of time before recovery of the remains and state of preservation exhibited by those remains. A secondary benefit from this study is a database of river victims that can be used by a variety of different agencies.

  16. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. PMID:25572078

  17. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  18. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  19. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  20. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  1. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. PMID:25381919

  2. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  3. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  4. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. 8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. BLAST FURNACE No. 1 IS ON THE RIGHT, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  11. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  12. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  13. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Downsized Weather Satellite Program on Track, But Uncertainty Remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) was downsized after a review that was required when the program far exceeded its budget and schedule. A year later, NPOESS-a major civilian and military weather satellite program-appears to be proceeding well with its new schedule and budget. However, whether the program will remain on track is uncertain.

  15. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  16. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  17. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  18. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  19. Liposomes remain intact when complexed with polycationic brushes.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A; Sybachin, Andrei V; Schrinner, Marc; Ballauff, Matthias; Tsarkova, Larisa; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M

    2010-05-01

    Anionic liposomes adsorb onto the surface of spherical polymer particles bearing grafted linear cationic macromolecules. The size, shape, and encapsulation ability of the liposomes remain unchanged upon adsorption, thus providing immobilized self-organizing containers that have potential applications in the biomedical field. PMID:20387892

  20. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  1. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  2. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  4. MDs remain sceptical as chelation therapy goes mainstream in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, M

    1997-01-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan recently agreed to allow physicians to administer chelation therapy. Supporters, relying on anecdotal evidence, say it works wonders in overcoming heart disease, but many physicians remain profoundly sceptical. In Saskatchewan, the college decision has proved popular with patients but has drawn an angry reaction from doctors. PMID:9307563

  5. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  6. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  7. Exercise, training and neutrophil microbicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Telford, R D; Mason, I B; Weidemann, M J

    1990-06-01

    The concentration in human plasma of putative neutrophil-"priming" cytokines like endogenous pyrogens is known to increase significantly in response to moderate exercise (11). This is characteristic of an acute-phase response. The ability of blood neutrophils isolated from both trained and untrained human subjects (n = 11, 9) to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence both before and after one hour of aerobic exercise at 60% VO2max. Irrespective of training and stimulus concentration, exercise nearly always caused significant "priming" of the capacity of neutrophils to produce H2O2 and HOCl upon stimulation with opsonized zymosan (P less than 0.01); however, compared to their untrained counterparts, the activity of cells isolated from trained individuals was depressed about 50% at unit stimulus concentration, both before and after exercise (P less than 0.075), whilst remaining unaltered at saturating concentrations. Although neutrophil oxygenation activity is only one parameter that contributes to immunological status, regular episodes of moderate exercise may increase resistance to infection by priming the "killing capacity" of neutrophils. In contrast, prolonged periods of intensive training may lead to increased susceptibility to common infections by diminishing this activity. PMID:2115507

  8. The Effects of Soil Texture on the Ability of Human Remains Detection Dogs to Detect Buried Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Wescott, Daniel J; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    Despite technological advances, human remains detection (HRD) dogs still remain one of the best tools for locating clandestine graves. However, soil texture may affect the escape of decomposition gases and therefore the effectiveness of HDR dogs. Six nationally credentialed HRD dogs (three HRD only and three cross-trained) were evaluated on novel buried human remains in contrasting soils, a clayey and a sandy soil. Search time and accuracy were compared for the clayey soil and sandy soil to assess odor location difficulty. Sandy soil (p < 0.001) yielded significantly faster trained response times, but no significant differences were found in performance accuracy between soil textures or training method. Results indicate soil texture may be significant factor in odor detection difficulty. Prior knowledge of soil texture and moisture may be useful for search management and planning. Appropriate adjustments to search segment sizes, sweep widths and search time allotment depending on soil texture may optimize successful detection.

  9. 30 CFR 285.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain... Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? Your ROW grant or RUE grant will remain in effect for as long as the...

  10. 30 CFR 585.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? Your ROW grant or RUE grant will remain in effect for as long as the associated activities are...

  11. 30 CFR 585.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? Your ROW grant or RUE grant will remain in effect for as long as the associated activities are...

  12. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    PubMed Central

    Girish, KL; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains. PMID:21731342

  13. Identifying and Reducing Remaining Stocks of Rinderpest Virus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Keith; Visser, Dawid; Evans, Brian; Vallat, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. Rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. However, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are committed to destroying remaining stocks of infectious material or ensuring that it is stored under international supervision in a limited number of approved facilities. To facilitate this commitment and maintain global freedom from rinderpest, World Organisation for Animal Health Member Countries must report annually on rinderpest material held in their countries. The first official surveys, conducted during 2013-2015, revealed that rinderpest material was stored in an unacceptably high number of facilities and countries. PMID:26584400

  14. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  15. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  16. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  17. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    PubMed

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  18. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  19. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. PMID:24112343

  20. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  1. Cardiac work remains high after strength exercise in elderly.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A C C; Kanegusuku, H; Chehuen, M R; Costa, L A R; Wallerstein, L F; Dias da Silva, V J; Mello, M T; Ugrinowitsch, C; Forjaz, C L M

    2013-05-01

    Moderate- to high-intensity strength training is recommended for healthy adults. In young subjects, a single session of strength training decreases blood pressure, while heart rate and cardiac work remain elevated afterwards. However, these effects have not been clearly demonstrated in elderly subjects. To investigate this issue, 16 elderly subjects each underwent a Control and an Exercise (3 sets, 8 RM, 9 exercises) session conducted in random order. Haemodynamic variables and heart rate variability were measured before and after the interventions. Systolic blood pressure did not change after the exercise session but did increase after the control session (+8.1±1.6 mm Hg, P≤0.05). Diastolic blood pressure, as well as systemic vascular resistance increased similarly after both sessions. Cardiac output and stroke volume decreased, while heart rate, rate-pressure product and the low- to high-frequency ratio of heart rate variability increased only after the exercise session ( - 0.5±0.1 L/min, - 9.3±2.0 ml,+3.8±1.6 bpm, +579.3±164.1 mmHg.bpm and +0.71±0.34, P≤0.05). Ambulatory blood pressure was similar after both sessions, while heart rate and rate pressure product remained higher after the exercise session for up to 4.5 h. After a single session of strength training, cardiac sympathetic modulation and heart rate remain elevated in elderly subjects, keeping cardiac work elevated for a long period of time.

  2. Latissimus dorsi flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Erez G; Perdikis, Galen; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Terkonda, Sarvam P; Waldorf, James C

    2006-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi flap has been unfairly relegated to a second option in breast reconstruction. One hundred consecutive latissimus dorsi muscle flaps (LDMF) with tissue-expander reconstruction were studied, mean follow-up 34.5 months (range, 1-175), 50 immediate, 50 delayed. With attention to a few technical details, excellent esthetic, soft reconstructions were achieved. Complications included 1 partial flap loss; 2 patients required inframammary fold revision; and 6 patients required surgery for capsular contracture. Donor-site seroma occurred in 34 patients; 6 required operative revision. Results were similar in the immediate versus the delayed groups. LDMF remains an esthetic, reliable, safe reconstructive choice.

  3. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  4. Remaining challenges in childhood cancer and newer targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm A; Reaman, Gregory H

    2015-02-01

    Despite the enormously important and gratifying advances in cancer treatment outcomes for children with cancer, cancer remains the biggest cause of death from disease in children. Because the etiology and biology of cancers that occur in children differ dramatically from those that occur in adults, the immediate extrapolation of efficacy and safety of new cancer drugs to childhood cancer indications is not possible. We discuss factors that will play key roles in guiding pediatric oncologists as they select lines of research to pursue in their quest for more effective treatments for children with cancer.

  5. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  6. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  7. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  8. Why assisted suicide must remain illegal in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Vicky; Scott, Helen

    Many people with life-limiting disease are vulnerable to emotional distress associated with physical, spiritual, psychological and social stressors. Psychological stress and affective disorders have the potential to influence decision making, particularly at the end of life. This article discusses the main reasons why assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) should remain illegal in the UK. In particular, it explores the problems associated with safeguarding 'vulnerable' patient groups and assessing mental capacity. The article also examines guidance for nurses regarding what to do if a patient asks for assistance to die or for information on assisted suicide and PAS. PMID:22272539

  9. Major remaining technical issues in coal-fired MHD technology

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.; Johnson, T.R.; Petrick, M.; Redman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    A recent assessment of the current status of MHD technology has revealed significant progress in recent years toward establishing the technical base required for commercial coal-fired MHD power plants. The review also identified the many major technical issues that remain. Here attention is directed only to these major areas, to provide perspective regarding the diversity of additional development work required, and to indicate those aspects deserving priority. The underlying assumption is that a systematic development of a sound and broad technical base will be more cost-effective than initially building a large-scale integrated system to acquire operating experience.

  10. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  11. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  12. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  13. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease. PMID:27400066

  14. Why assisted suicide must remain illegal in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Vicky; Scott, Helen

    Many people with life-limiting disease are vulnerable to emotional distress associated with physical, spiritual, psychological and social stressors. Psychological stress and affective disorders have the potential to influence decision making, particularly at the end of life. This article discusses the main reasons why assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) should remain illegal in the UK. In particular, it explores the problems associated with safeguarding 'vulnerable' patient groups and assessing mental capacity. The article also examines guidance for nurses regarding what to do if a patient asks for assistance to die or for information on assisted suicide and PAS.

  15. A Maillard reaction product enhances eNOS activity in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christoph A; Heiss, Elke H; Schachner, Daniel; Aristei, Yasmin; Severin, Theodor; Dirsch, Verena M

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Although dietary factors can modulate eNOS activity, putative effects of processed food are barely investigated. We aimed to examine whether the model Maillard reaction product 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl-4(1H)-pyridone (HMPP), formed from maltol or starch and propylamine, affects the eNOS system. Incubation of EA.hy926 endothelial cells with 30-300 microM HMPP for 18 h enhanced endothelial NO release measured with the fluorescent probe diaminofluorescein-2 and eNOS activity determined by the [14C]L-arginine-[14C]L-citrulline conversion assay. HMPP increased NO production also in two different types of primary human endothelial cells. Protein levels of eNOS and inducible NO synthase remained unaltered by HMPP. HMPP inhibited eNOS activity within the first 2-4 h, whereas it potently increased eNOS activity after 12-24 h. Levels of eNOS phosphorylation, expression of heat-shock protein 90, caveolin-1 and various antioxidant enzymes were not affected. Intracellular reactive oxygen species remained unchanged by HMPP. This is the first study to demonstrate positive effects of a Maillard reaction product on eNOS activity and endothelial NO production, which is considered favourable for cardiovascular protection. PMID:20112298

  16. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Odontological identification of human remains from mass graves in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Brkic, H; Strinovic, D; Kubat, M; Petrovecki, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the results and methods of dental identification of 1000 human remains exhumed from mass graves in Croatia up to July 1998. Personal identification of the victims was performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminology at the School of Medicine in Zagreb. A forensic odontologist participated in the identification process by carrying out the dental identification. A total of 824 victims were positively identified, while 176 victims remained unidentified. Dental identification based on available dental antemortem data was achieved in 25% of the cases. Dental identification based on dental charts was achieved in 35%, on x-rays in 15%, on photographs of teeth in 22%, on interviews in 18%, and on confirmation by odontologists in 10% of the cases. Teeth, in combination with anthropological parameters, age, sex and height, as well as other specific characteristics such as tattoos, personal identification cards, clothes, jewellery and DNA, were helpful for identification of 64% of the victims, but the significance for the identification was not dominant. Only in 11% of the cases was identification achieved by other relevant means and teeth not used at all. Identification procedures in Croatia will continue until another 1700 people who are still missing or kept as prisoners of war since the aggression on Croatia in 1991 are found and/or identified. PMID:11197622

  18. Usefulness of protein analysis for detecting pathologies in bone remains.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Cristina; Prieto-Bonete, Gemma; Pérez-Cárceles, María D; Luna, Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Forensic pathology often uses osteobiography, which involves biological profiles based on a determination of the age, sex, constitution, pathological states and other anomalies (paleopathology) of subjects for identification purposes. In this paper, proteins were analysed in bone remains. A total of 45 long bones from 45 different cadavers (29 males, 16 females) with a mean age of 66.31 years (S.D.=19.48, range 20-97) were used to search for pathological biomarkers which are closely related to several diseases. The bones were removed from the cement niches of a cemetery in Murcia (south-eastern Spain), where they had lain for between 18 and 45 years (mean time 25.84 years, S.D.=8.91). After a specific extraction using Tris-Urea buffer, were measured using HPLC/MS/MS. Our results show that proteins resulting from tumoral diseases and bacterial and viral pathogens can be detected and identified in the skeletal remains, making them useful pathological biomarkers for constructing biological profiles.

  19. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  20. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  1. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  2. 25 CFR 139.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 139.4 Section 139.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION...

  3. 25 CFR 138.4 - Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferment of assessments on lands remaining in Indian ownership. 138.4 Section 138.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT,...

  4. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices.

  5. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  6. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  7. Advances and remaining challenges in adult literacy research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners. PMID:20179305

  8. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  9. Remaining Creep Life Assessment Techniques Based on Creep Cavitation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankit, Kumar

    2009-05-01

    The boiler and its components are built with assumed nominal design and reasonable life of operation about two to three decades (one or two hundred thousand hours). These units are generally replaced or life is extended at the end of this period. Under normal operating conditions, after the initial period of teething troubles, the reliability of these units remains fairly constant up to about two decades of normal operation. The failure rate then increases as a result of their time-dependent material damage. Further running of these units may become uneconomical and dangerous in some cases. In the following article, step-by-step methodology to quantify creep cavitation based on statistical probability analysis and continuum damage mechanics has been described. The concepts of creep cavity nucleation have also been discussed with a special emphasis on the need for development of a model based on creep cavity growth kinetics.

  10. High CJD infectivity remains after prion protein is destroyed.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Emmerling, Kaitlin; Manuelidis, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis that host prion protein (PrP) converts into an infectious prion form rests on the observation that infectivity progressively decreases in direct proportion to the decrease of PrP with proteinase K (PK) treatment. PrP that resists limited PK digestion (PrP-res, PrP(sc)) has been assumed to be the infectious form, with speculative types of misfolding encoding the many unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent strains. Recently, a PK sensitive form of PrP has been proposed as the prion. Thus we re-evaluated total PrP (sensitive and resistant) and used a cell-based assay for titration of infectious particles. A keratinase (NAP) known to effectively digest PrP was compared to PK. Total PrP in FU-CJD infected brain was reduced to ≤0.3% in a 2 h PK digest, yet there was no reduction in titer. Remaining non-PrP proteins were easily visualized with colloidal gold in this highly infectious homogenate. In contrast to PK, NAP digestion left 0.8% residual PrP after 2 h, yet decreased titer by >2.5 log; few residual protein bands remained. FU-CJD infected cells with 10× the infectivity of brain by both animal and cell culture assays were also evaluated. NAP again significantly reduced cell infectivity (>3.5 log). Extreme PK digestions were needed to reduce cell PrP to <0.2%, yet a very high titer of 8 logs survived. Our FU-CJD brain results are in good accord with the only other report on maximal PrP destruction and titer. It is likely that one or more residual non-PrP proteins may protect agent nucleic acids in infectious particles.

  11. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  12. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  13. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  14. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging.

  15. Estimation of body size and physique from hominin skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Porter, A M W

    2002-01-01

    Three methods of measuring stature from skeletal remains are reviewed: the reconstructed skeletal length, the correspondence of long bone length to stature and the regression of stature on long bone length. Each involves problems and difficulties. For the anthropologist, there is the additional problem of applying findings from extant taxa to extinct taxa with potentially different morphologies and limb proportions. Of the various studies involving regression of the stature the findings of Trotter and Gleser are judged the most robust and useful notwithstanding problems and limitations. The lumbar vertebrae are potentially important as stature predictors. Estimation of body mass from the skeleton is also beset with problems. Eight methods are reviewed: Hartwig-Scherer's taxon independent solution, four methods involving measurements from the weight-bearing appendicular skeleton, Ruff's method using the length of the reconstructed skeleton and an estimate of body breadth, estimates from the total skeletal mass and estimates from the body mass index when the stature is known approximately. Lumbar vertebrae provide reasonable estimates of both body mass and stature and thus by derivation the body mass index. At present both forensic scientists and anthropologists lack adequate data and methods to estimate body size and shape from hominin skeletons. A further large and well-designed study using magnetic resonance imaging is required.

  16. Rummaging through Earth's Attic for Remains of Ancient Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, John C.; Wells, Llyd E.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2002-11-01

    We explore the likelihood that early remains of Earth, Mars, and Venus have been preserved on the Moon in high enough concentrations to motivate a search mission. During the Late Heavy Bombardment, the inner planets experienced frequent large impacts. Material ejected by these impacts near the escape velocity would have had the potential to land and be preserved on the surface of the Moon. Such ejecta could yield information on the geochemical and biological state of early Earth, Mars, and Venus. To determine whether the Moon has preserved enough ejecta to justify a search mission, we calculate the amount of terran material incident on the Moon over its history by considering the distribution of ejecta launched from the Earth by large impacts. In addition, we make analogous estimates for Mars and Venus. We find, for a well-mixed regolith, that the median surface abundance of terran material is roughly 7 ppm, corresponding to a mass of approximately 20,000 kg of terran material over a 10×10-square-km area. Over the same area, the amount of material transferred from Venus is 1-30 kg and material from Mars as much as 180 kg. Given that the amount of terran material is substantial, we estimate the fraction of this material surviving impact with intact geochemical and biological tracers.

  17. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyle, B.G.; Fisher, D.C.; Borns, H.W.; Churchill-Dickson, L. L.; Dorion, C.C.; Weddle, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ) dated at 12,200 ?? 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ?? 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  18. Prions Adhere to Soil Minerals and Remain Infectious

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J; Phillips, Kristen E; Schramm, Peter T; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd M; Pedersen, Joel A

    2006-01-01

    An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs]) in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrPSc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrPSc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrPSc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrPSc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrPSc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrPSc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent. PMID:16617377

  19. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  20. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. PMID:27364268

  1. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  2. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  3. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  4. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  5. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  6. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  7. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  8. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  9. Mammalian gonocyte and spermatogonia differentiation: recent advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Manku, Gurpreet; Culty, Martine

    2015-03-01

    The production of spermatozoa relies on a pool of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), formed in infancy from the differentiation of their precursor cells, the gonocytes. Throughout adult life, SSCs will either self-renew or differentiate, in order to maintain a stem cell reserve while providing cells to the spermatogenic cycle. By contrast, gonocytes represent a transient and finite phase of development leading to the formation of SSCs or spermatogonia of the first spermatogenic wave. Gonocyte development involves phases of quiescence, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Spermatogonia, on the other hand, remain located at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules throughout their successive phases of proliferation and differentiation. Apoptosis is an integral part of both developmental phases, allowing for the removal of defective cells and the maintenance of proper germ-Sertoli cell ratios. While gonocytes and spermatogonia mitosis are regulated by distinct factors, they both undergo differentiation in response to retinoic acid. In contrast to postpubertal spermatogenesis, the early steps of germ cell development have only recently attracted attention, unveiling genes and pathways regulating SSC self-renewal and proliferation. Yet, less is known on the mechanisms regulating differentiation. The processes leading from gonocytes to spermatogonia have been seldom investigated. While the formation of abnormal gonocytes or SSCs could lead to infertility, defective gonocyte differentiation might be at the origin of testicular germ cell tumors. Thus, it is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. This review summarizes and compares the present knowledge on the mechanisms regulating mammalian gonocyte and spermatogonial differentiation. PMID:25670871

  10. Fertility remains high in Guatemala despite increasing use of contraception.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    With a total fertility rate of 5.1, Guatemala has one of the highest levels of fertility in Latin America, according to findings from the 1995 DHS survey in Guatemala (Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil--ENSMI-95). Fertility is lower among educated women, urban women, and Ladino women. The differences are most striking by education: on average, women with no formal education will have 7 children, compared with 2 or 3 children among women with at least some secondary education. Contraceptive use among currently married women increased from 23% in 1987 to 32% in 1995; however, this level of use is still low compared with other countries in the region. Almost half of contraceptive users (15%) rely on female sterilization; relatively few use the pill (4%) or the IUD (3%). It is estimated that 24% of married women want to space or limit their births but are not using a contraceptive method. The survey indicates that there have been improvements in most indicators of maternal and child health, but many challenges remain. Only about half of the women receive antenatal care and just one-third receive assistance at delivery from trained medical personnel. Less than half of the children aged 12-23 months have received all the recommended vaccinations, and half of the children under 5 years are malnourished (stunted). At the same time, infant mortality has shown a steady decline. In the 5-year period preceding the survey the infant mortality rate was 51/1000 live births (under-five mortality was 68/1000). The ENSMI-95 was implemented by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. A total of 12,403 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed. The final report and summary report are available in Spanish.

  11. L-Cysteine and glutathione restore the reduction of rat hippocampal Na+, K+-ATPase activity induced by aspartame metabolites.

    PubMed

    Simintzi, Irene; Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Angelogianni, Panagoula; Liapi, Charis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2007-07-31

    Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) ingestion in neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities after incubation with ASP or each of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (MeOH) and aspartic acid (asp) separately. Suckling rat hippocampal homogenates or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were incubated with ASP metabolites. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Incubation of hippocampal or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with ASP concentrations (expected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) after ASP consumption of 34, 150 or 200mg/kg resulted in hippocampal enzyme activity reduction of 26%, 50% or 59%, respectively, whereas pure enzyme was remarkably stimulated. Moreover, incubation with hippocampal homogenate of each one of the corresponding in the CSF ASP metabolites related to the intake of common, high/abuse doses of the sweetener, inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, while pure enzyme was activated. Hippocampal Mg(2+)-ATPase remained unaltered. Addition of l-cysteine (cys) or reduced glutathione (GSH) in ASP mixtures, related with high/toxic doses of the sweetener, completely or partially restored the inactivated membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whereas the activated pure enzyme activity returned to normal. CSF concentrations of ASP metabolites related to common, abuse/toxic doses of the additive significantly reduced rat hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas pure enzyme was activated. Cys or GSH completely or partially restored both enzyme activities.

  12. Child health and survival remains poor in Malawi.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The results of the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Malawi show that Malawi still has one of the highest levels of mortality for less than 5 year old children in the world ( 5 mortality = 25%). During the last 10 years, an increase in postneonatal mortality has offset the modest decrease in neonatal mortality. Infant mortality has hovered around 135/1000 live births since the early 1980s. More children in Malawi suffer from chronic undernutrition (stunting) than in any African country surveyed by DHS. In fact, almost 50% of all less than 5 year old children are stunted. Another 6.7% suffer from wasting (acute undernutrition). Poor infant feeding practices contribute to undernutrition and increased vulnerability to death. Just 3% of less than 4 month old infants are exclusively breast fed. 75% of 2-3 month olds receive supplementary feedings. On the other hand, progress has occurred in the provision of basic maternal and child health services. Just 3% of 12-23 month old children have had no vaccinations. 85% have received all their vaccinations. 97% have received their BCG vaccine and the first dose of DPT and polio vaccine. A trained health professional has provided prenatal care to mothers for 90% of recent births. 86% of mothers have had at least 1 dose of tetanus toxoid during pregnancy. More than 50% of recent births occurred at a health facility. The maternal mortality ratio is still high (620/100,000 births). Even though contraceptive use is increasing and fertility is falling (1984-1992, 1-7% using a modern method and 7.5-6.7, respectively), fertility is still high. Ideal family size has fallen from 5 to 6 between 1984 and 1992. Age at first marriage and age at first birth have increased slightly. These findings suggest that Malawi is just entering the demographic transition. AIDS remains a serious public health problem with many people having little knowledge about it, about modes of transmission, and about means of prevention.

  13. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  14. Effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on free radical generation, glutathione content and microsomal oxidase activities in rat liver microsomes induced either by ethanol or acetone.

    PubMed

    Sadovnichy, V; Müller, D; Buko, V

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on parameters related to microsomal metabolism (free radical production and lipid peroxidation, glutathione content and activity of microsomal oxidases) after an induction by ethanol or acetone combined with starvation. Long-term ethanol administration led to a significant increase in lipid peroxide formation and NADPH-dependent chemiluminescence amplified by luminol and lucigenin. At the same time hydrogen peroxide production and NADPH-stimulated lipid peroxidation were enhanced although the effect did not reach the level of statistical significance. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver was decreased 2-fold, whereas oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content remained unaltered. Ethanol intoxication resulted in an increase in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), 7-benzyloxycoumarin-O-deethylase (BCOD) and 7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities, whereas 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) and ethylmorphin-N-demethylase (EMND) activities were unaltered. The combination of acetone treatment with starvation resulted in a significant increase in lipid and hydrogen peroxide formation, NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence. GSH and GSSG concentration in the liver dramatically decreased 5- and 3-fold, respectively. The acetone treatment led to significant increase in EROD, ECOD, BCOD, PROD and EMND activities. The treatment of ethanol-intoxicated rats with prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) exerted more pronounced prooxidant effect on liver than action of alcohol itself. At the same time, PGF2 alpha improved most of parameters changed by acetone treatment combined with starvation, decreasing lipid peroxide and radical formation and enhancing GSH and GSSG contents.

  15. 'Bacoside B'--the need remains for establishing identity.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Amit, Agarwal

    2013-06-01

    Bacopa monnieri is fast gaining popularity for its beneficial effects on cognition and memory. The active constituents of the plant were putatively identified as 'bacosides A and B' in older publications. Subsequently 'bacoside A' was identified as a mixture of four saponins [bacoside A3 (1), bacopaside II (2), bacopasaponin C (3) and the jujobogenin isomer of the latter (4)] and was considered as part of major constituents of the herb along with bacopaside I (5). These major saponins now form part of analytical monographs in many Pharmacopoeia. However identity of 'bacoside B' still appears controversial with seemingly contradictory information available in the scientific literature. At the same time quality of many extracts and herbal products derived from the plant is still being determined based on the content of 'bacosides A and B'. We have elaborated these issues in this article along with our recommendations to move forward towards achieving scientific clarity on the subject.

  16. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giancaspero, Teresa A; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina M; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in a broad spectrum of biological activities, among which energetic metabolism and chromatin remodeling. Subcellular localisation of FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2, FADS), the second enzyme in the FAD forming pathway, is addressed here in HepG2 cells by confocal microscopy, in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalyzed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesizing activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone." The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) or a mitochondrial dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4). Both enzymes carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, in which tetrahydrofolate is converted into 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells. PMID:25954742

  17. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin.

    PubMed

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-04-01

    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  18. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient’s baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs’ function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  19. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspero, Teresa A.; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina M.; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in a broad spectrum of biological activities, among which energetic metabolism and chromatin remodeling. Subcellular localisation of FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2, FADS), the second enzyme in the FAD forming pathway, is addressed here in HepG2 cells by confocal microscopy, in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalyzed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesizing activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD “chaperone.” The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) or a mitochondrial dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4). Both enzymes carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, in which tetrahydrofolate is converted into 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells. PMID:25954742

  20. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient's baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs' function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  1. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal

  2. Chemical Loss of Polar Ozone: Present Understanding and Remaining Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, Ross; Canty, Tim; Cunnold, Derek; Dorf, Marcel; Frieler, Katja; Godin-Beekman, Sophie; Newchurch, Michael; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Stimpfle, Rick; Streibel, Martin; vonderGathen, Peter; Weisenstein, Debra; Yan, Eun-Su

    2005-01-01

    Not long after the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was established that halogen compounds, supplied to the atmosphere mainly by anthropogenic activities, are the primary driver of polar ozone loss. We will briefly review the chemical mechanisms that cause polar ozone loss and the early evidence showing the key role played by anthropogenic halogens. Recently, stratospheric halogen loading has leveled off, due to adherence to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments that has essentially banned CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and other halocarbons. We will describe recent reports of the first stage of recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole (e.g., a statistically significant slowing of the downward trend), associated with the leveling off of stratospheric halogens. Despite this degree of understanding, we will discuss the tendency of photochemical models to underestimate the observed rate of polar ozone loss and a hypothesis that has recently been put forth that might resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we will briefly discuss chemical loss of Arctic ozone, which

  3. DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

    2007-12-01

    In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the

  4. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina Maria; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in energetic metabolism, epigenetics, protein folding, as well as in a number of diverse regulatory processes. The problem of localisation of flavin cofactor synthesis events and in particular of the FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2) in HepG2 cells is addressed here by confocal microscopy in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalysed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesising activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone". The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear or a mitochondrial enzyme that is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, EC 1.-.-.-) and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4), respectively which carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, assisted by tetrahydrofolate used to form 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  5. Nimodipine activates TrkB neurotrophin receptors and induces neuroplastic and neuroprotective signaling events in the mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne; Matsui, Nobuaki; Umemori, Juzoh; Rantamäki, Tomi; Castrén, Eero

    2015-03-01

    The L-type calcium channel blocker nimodipine improves clinical outcome produced by delayed cortical ischemia or vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. While vasoactive mechanisms are strongly implicated in these therapeutic actions of nimodipine, we sought to test whether nimodipine might also regulate neurotrophic and neuroplastic signaling events associated with TrkB neurotrophin receptor activation. Adult male mice were acutely treated with vehicle or nimodipine (10 mg/kg, s.c., 1.5 h) after which the phosphorylation states of TrkB, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) and p70S6 kinase (p70S6k) from prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were assessed. Nimodipine increased the phosphorylation of the TrkB catalytic domain and the phosphoslipase-Cγ1 (PLCγ1) domain, whereas phosphorylation of the TrkB Shc binding site remained unaltered. Nimodipine-induced TrkB phosphorylation was associated with increased phosphorylation levels of Akt and CREB in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus whereas phosphorylation of ERK, mTor and p70S6k remained unaltered. Nimodipine-induced TrkB signaling was not associated with changes in BDNF mRNA or protein levels. These nimodipine-induced changes on TrkB signaling mimic those produced by antidepressant drugs and thus propose common mechanisms and long-term functional consequences for the effects of these medications. This work provides a strong basis for investigating the role of TrkB-associated signaling underlying the neuroprotective and neuroplastic effects of nimodipine in translationally relevant animal models of brain trauma or compromised synaptic plasticity.

  6. Modern hunting behavior in the early Middle Paleolithic: faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Reuven; Bar-Oz, Guy; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the behavioral adaptations and subsistence strategies of Middle Paleolithic humans is critical in the debate over the evolution and manifestations of modern human behavior. The study of faunal remains plays a central role in this context. Until now, the majority of Levantine archaeofaunal evidence was derived from late Middle Paleolithic sites. The discovery of faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel (>200 ka), allowed for detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological analyses of these early Middle Paleolithic remains. The Misliya Cave faunal assemblage is overwhelmingly dominated by ungulate taxa. The most common prey species is the Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), followed closely by the mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella). Some aurochs (Bos primigenius) remains are also present. Small-game species are rare. The fallow deer mortality pattern is dominated by prime-aged individuals. A multivariate taphonomic analysis demonstrates (1) that the assemblage was created solely by humans occupying the cave and was primarily modified by their food-processing activities; and (2) that gazelle carcasses were transported complete to the site, while fallow deer carcasses underwent some field butchery. The new zooarchaeological data from Misliya Cave, particularly the abundance of meat-bearing limb bones displaying filleting cut marks and the acquisition of prime-age prey, demonstrate that early Middle Paleolithic people possessed developed hunting capabilities. Thus, modern large-game hunting, carcass transport, and meat-processing behaviors were already established in the Levant in the early Middle Paleolithic, more than 200 ka ago. PMID:17669471

  7. Antioxidant enzymes expression and activity in liver of stressed wistar rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjević, J.; Nićiforović, A.; Radojčić, M. B.

    2009-09-01

    Altered activities of antioxidant defence system enzymes and the levels of free radicals scavengers have been found to correlate with various physiological or pathological conditions, including stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic 21 day isolation stress on antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) expression and activity in Wistar rat liver tissue. The serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose (GLU) levels were also measured, as one of the most important indicators of stress. Our data revealed that in chronic stress conditions, when both CORT and GLU were low, the AOEs expression was markedly induced. This increase in MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase exhibited similar trend implying efficient detoxification of O_2^{ - .} and H2O2. However, this trend was not followed by the respective enzyme activity. While the total SOD activity was induced by the stress, catalase activity remained unaltered. This discrepancy led us to a conclusion that chronic isolation stress may cause oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in rat liver tissue, favoring H2O2 accumulation.

  8. In vitro neuronal network activity in NMDA receptor encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-NMDA-encephalitis is caused by antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and characterized by a severe encephalopathy with psychosis, epileptic seizures and autonomic disturbances. It predominantly occurs in young women and is associated in 59% with an ovarian teratoma. Results We describe effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from an anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis patient on in vitro neuronal network activity (ivNNA). In vitro NNA of dissociated primary rat cortical populations was recorded by the microelectrode array (MEA) system. The 23-year old patient was severely affected but showed an excellent recovery following multimodal immunomodulatory therapy and removal of an ovarian teratoma. Patient CSF (pCSF) taken during the initial weeks after disease onset suppressed global spike- and burst rates of ivNNA in contrast to pCSF sampled after clinical recovery and decrease of NMDAR antibody titers. The synchrony of pCSF-affected ivNNA remained unaltered during the course of the disease. Conclusion Patient CSF directly suppresses global activity of neuronal networks recorded by the MEA system. In contrast, pCSF did not regulate the synchrony of ivNNA suggesting that NMDAR antibodies selectively regulate distinct parameters of ivNNA while sparing their functional connectivity. Thus, assessing ivNNA could represent a new technique to evaluate functional consequences of autoimmune encephalitis-related CSF changes. PMID:23379293

  9. Taphonomy of child-sized remains: a study of scattering and scavenging in Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Morton, Robert J; Lord, Wayne D

    2006-05-01

    Child-sized pig carcasses (Sus scrofa) were placed in surface deposit and buried scenarios in a wooded area of Virginia from May 1998 through December 2000, to examine the taphonomic effects of decompositional changes, predator scavenging, and the extent of remains scattering. Changes were observed through on-site examination, charting of remains, and recorded video imaging. Analysis of data revealed that utilization of corpses as food sources by vertebrates was dependent upon invertebrate colonization. Vertebrates avoided feeding on the corpses while invertebrate colonization was active, and would feed before invertebrates successfully colonized a corpse, or would wait until the invertebrate populations migrated away from the corpse. Among vertebrates, there was no apparent succession order for the animals utilizing the remains as a food source. Different vertebrates would feed at different times based upon diurnal or nocturnal predilection. Analysis noted an accidental cooperative relationship between the invertebrates and vertebrates scavenging on the corpses. Certain vertebrates gained access to the internal tissues by utilizing openings in the corpses caused by invertebrate and other vertebrate scavenging. Alternately, carrion-frequenting insects were afforded access to previously inaccessible colonization sites as a result of scavenging vertebrate activities.

  10. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldaña; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2013-08-01

    Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria populations (proximal and transverse), SCFA concentrations (proximal, transverse and distal) and decreased ammonia concentrations in the distal vessel. Furthermore, the fermentation supernatant significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TER of a Caco-2 cell monolayer (%) and decreased fluorescein-based paracellular flux, suggesting enhanced barrier function and reduced epithelial barrier permeability (proximal and distal vessel). While cytotoxicity and genotoxicity remained unaltered in response to the presence of Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:23714623

  11. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldaña; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2013-08-01

    Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria populations (proximal and transverse), SCFA concentrations (proximal, transverse and distal) and decreased ammonia concentrations in the distal vessel. Furthermore, the fermentation supernatant significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TER of a Caco-2 cell monolayer (%) and decreased fluorescein-based paracellular flux, suggesting enhanced barrier function and reduced epithelial barrier permeability (proximal and distal vessel). While cytotoxicity and genotoxicity remained unaltered in response to the presence of Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis.

  12. Evaluating PAI-1 as a biomarker for stress in diving: human serum total PAI-1 is unaltered after 2 h dry exposures to 280 kPa hyperbaric air

    PubMed Central

    Eftedal, Ingrid; Fredriksen, Hallvard Aglen; Hjelde, Astrid; Møllerløkken, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is induced in the vasculature and secreted into the vascular lumen in response to inflammation and oxidative stress. We have previously reported a fivefold increase in plasma PAI-1 from rats exposed to 708 kPa hyperbaric air. In the current study we assess the potential of human serum total PAI-1 as a biomarker for stress in compressed air diving. Eleven recreational divers, nine males and two females, completed four 2 h hyperbaric air exposures to 280 kPa in a pressure chamber over a period of 2 weeks. The air pressure corresponds to a diving depth of 18 m in water. Serum was collected before the study and again 3 h 30 min after completion of each hyperbaric exposure. All samples were taken in the afternoon to minimize the contribution of circadian variation. The analysis revealed no change in serum total PAI-1 after hyperbaric exposures within the group of divers (P = 0.064), but significant interindividual differences persisted throughout the study (P < 0.0005). A case of decompression sickness after the third round of hyperbaric exposure did not affect PAI-1. In conclusion, compressed air exposure to 280 kPa does not affect serum total PAI-1, and significant interindividual variation in PAI-1 levels may limit its usefulness as a biomarker. This does, however, not give a complete answer regarding PAI-1 in physiologically stressful dives. Further studies with different exposures and timing are needed for that. PMID:26109191

  13. Influence of different fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, I. V.; Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recently, many farmers have converted to low-disturbance tillage land cultivation as disk or plow fields can result in water and wind erosion of soil. So, crop residue and plant crowns and roots are left to hold the soil. However, low-disturbance tillage can be a challenge to manage since the key to crop production still requires good seed-to-soil contact. Therefore, decomposition of stubble in agricultural soils in situ is an issue of the day of modern agriculture. The aim of the present study was to compare different organic and inorganic fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil. Materials and methods Field trials were conducted in Krasnodar region, Russia. To promote stubble decomposition, a biopreparation that was cultural liquid obtained during cultivation of white-rot fungi Coriolus hirsutus 075 (Wulf Ex. Fr.) Quel. was used at the dosage of 150 ml/ha. The other tested supplements included ammonium nitrate (34 kg/ha), commercially available humate LignohumateTM (0.2 kg/ha) and combination of Lignohumate and biopreparation. Test plots were treated once after wheat harvesting. Non-treated ploughed plot was used as a blank. Soil samples were collected within 2 and 14 weeks after soil treatment. To control soil potential for stubble remains decomposition enzymatic activity is soil was determined. To perform soil analysis, stubble remains were carefully separated from soils followed by soil extraction with 0.14 M phosphate buffer pH 7.1 and analysis of the extracts for laccase and peroxidase activities [1,2]. Estimation of stubble decomposition in soil was performed by cellulose contents determination [3]. Results and discussion The obtained results demonstrated after 14 weeks of treatment increase of soil enzymatic activity due to soil supplementation was observed. Introduction of ammonium nitrate resulted in 108% of peroxidise activity as compared to blank. That value for Lignohumate variant was estimated

  14. Proteinase K activity determination with β-galactosidase as sensitive macromolecular substrate.

    PubMed

    Ghéczy, Nicolas; Küchler, Andreas; Walde, Peter

    2016-11-15

    Proteinase K from Engyodontium album (proK) is a relatively unspecific serine endopeptidase which is known to attack proteins yet in their native states. If the attacked protein is an enzyme, even a partial hydrolysis by proK may lead to an inactivation of the enzyme, which can be monitored by measuring the loss of catalytic activity of the attacked enzyme. E. coli β-galactosidase (β-Gal) was used in this work as such enzyme. It was found to be a convenient and sensitive macromolecular model substrate for comparing the "native protein-attacking ability" of free and immobilized proK at pH = 7.0 and 23 °C. The β-Gal activity was measured spectrophotometrically with o-nitrophenyl-β-galactopyranoside. Reproducible proK determinations were possible for as little as 4.3 ng proK by using a proK analyte solution of 10 nM. Compared to free proK, immobilized proK was much less efficient in inactivating β-Gal, most likely due to a decreased mobility of immobilized proK and a restricted accessibility of β-Gal to the active site of proK. Worth noting is, that under conditions at which β-Gal was completely inactivated by proK, the activity of hen egg lysozyme, horseradish peroxidase, or Aspergillus sp. glucose oxidase remained unaltered. PMID:27594349

  15. Proteinase K activity determination with β-galactosidase as sensitive macromolecular substrate.

    PubMed

    Ghéczy, Nicolas; Küchler, Andreas; Walde, Peter

    2016-11-15

    Proteinase K from Engyodontium album (proK) is a relatively unspecific serine endopeptidase which is known to attack proteins yet in their native states. If the attacked protein is an enzyme, even a partial hydrolysis by proK may lead to an inactivation of the enzyme, which can be monitored by measuring the loss of catalytic activity of the attacked enzyme. E. coli β-galactosidase (β-Gal) was used in this work as such enzyme. It was found to be a convenient and sensitive macromolecular model substrate for comparing the "native protein-attacking ability" of free and immobilized proK at pH = 7.0 and 23 °C. The β-Gal activity was measured spectrophotometrically with o-nitrophenyl-β-galactopyranoside. Reproducible proK determinations were possible for as little as 4.3 ng proK by using a proK analyte solution of 10 nM. Compared to free proK, immobilized proK was much less efficient in inactivating β-Gal, most likely due to a decreased mobility of immobilized proK and a restricted accessibility of β-Gal to the active site of proK. Worth noting is, that under conditions at which β-Gal was completely inactivated by proK, the activity of hen egg lysozyme, horseradish peroxidase, or Aspergillus sp. glucose oxidase remained unaltered.

  16. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of unaltered biological specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, N.

    1987-05-01

    A scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the National Synchrotron Light Source was used to image fresh, wet biological specimens at 32 Angstroms, with resolution better than 750 Angstroms. A gold Fresnel zone plate (outer zone width 500 Angstroms) was used to focus the undulator radiation, and the sample was scanned through the spot. Absorption data was recorded digitally as a gridded array. The major accomplishment of the experiment was the demonstration of the ability to image biological samples in their natural state with high resolution and natural elemental contrast mechanisms. This was achieved through the design of a sample holder that maintains an aqueous environment for the sample, yet is transparent to x-rays at 32 Angstroms. The specimens used were isolated zymogen granules (approximately 1 micron diameter) from the pancreatic acinar cells of rats. The absorption data were correlated to protein concentration, and estimates of the protein concentrations within the granules were obtained. The data also yields some information about the spatial organization of the protein in the granules, and our data is compared to models for the internal structure. The success of this experiment points toward future opportunities for dynamical studies on living systems. 6 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  18. Elimination of interleukin 6 attenuates coagulation activation in experimental endotoxemia in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Levi, M; Hack, C E; ten Cate, H; van Deventer, S J; Eerenberg, A J; de Groot, E R; Jansen, J; Gallati, H; Büller, H R

    1994-04-01

    The role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the toxic sequelae of sepsis is controversial. To assess the part of IL-6 in inflammatory responses to endotoxin, we investigated eight chimpanzees after either a bolus intravenous injection of Escherichia coli endotoxin (n = 4; 4 ng/kg) or after the same dose of endotoxin with a simultaneous bolus intravenous injection of an anti-IL-6 mAb (30 mg; n = 4). Anti-IL-6 did not affect the induction of the cytokine network (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], soluble TNF receptors types I and II, and IL-8) by endotoxin, nor did it influence the occurrence of a neutrophilic leukocytosis and neutrophil degranulation, as monitored by the measurement of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes. In contrast, anti-IL-6 markedly attenuated endotoxin-induced activation of coagulation, monitored with the plasma levels of the prothrombin fragment F1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, whereas activation of fibrinolysis, determined with the plasma concentrations of plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes, remained unaltered. We conclude that IL-6 does not have a feedback effect on the release of other cytokines after injection of endotoxin, and that it is not involved in endotoxin-induced neutrophilia or neutrophil degranulation. IL-6 is, however, an important intermediate factor in activation of coagulation in low grade endotoxemia in chimpanzees.

  19. Activation of TRESK channels by the inflammatory mediator lysophosphatidic acid balances nociceptive signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kollert, Sina; Dombert, Benjamin; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2015-01-01

    In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons TRESK channels constitute a major current component of the standing outward current IKSO. A prominent physiological role of TRESK has been attributed to pain sensation. During inflammation mediators of pain e.g. lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are released and modulate nociception. We demonstrate co-expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in DRG neurons. Heterologous expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes revealed augmentation of basal K+ currents upon LPA application. In DRG neurons nociception can result from TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or LPA. Upon co-expression in Xenopus oocytes LPA simultaneously increased both depolarising TRPV1 and hyperpolarising TRESK currents. Patch-clamp recordings in cultured DRG neurons from TRESK[wt] mice displayed increased IKSO after application of LPA whereas under these conditions IKSO in neurons from TRESK[ko] mice remained unaltered. Under current-clamp conditions LPA application differentially modulated excitability in these genotypes upon depolarising pulses. Spike frequency was attenuated in TRESK[wt] neurons and, in contrast, augmented in TRESK[ko] neurons. Accordingly, excitation of nociceptive neurons by LPA is balanced by co-activation of TRESK channels. Hence excitation of sensory neurons is strongly controlled by the activity of TRESK channels, which therefore are good candidates for the treatment of pain disorders. PMID:26224542

  20. Activation of TRESK channels by the inflammatory mediator lysophosphatidic acid balances nociceptive signalling.

    PubMed

    Kollert, Sina; Dombert, Benjamin; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2015-07-30

    In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons TRESK channels constitute a major current component of the standing outward current IKSO. A prominent physiological role of TRESK has been attributed to pain sensation. During inflammation mediators of pain e.g. lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are released and modulate nociception. We demonstrate co-expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in DRG neurons. Heterologous expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes revealed augmentation of basal K(+) currents upon LPA application. In DRG neurons nociception can result from TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or LPA. Upon co-expression in Xenopus oocytes LPA simultaneously increased both depolarising TRPV1 and hyperpolarising TRESK currents. Patch-clamp recordings in cultured DRG neurons from TRESK[wt] mice displayed increased IKSO after application of LPA whereas under these conditions IKSO in neurons from TRESK[ko] mice remained unaltered. Under current-clamp conditions LPA application differentially modulated excitability in these genotypes upon depolarising pulses. Spike frequency was attenuated in TRESK[wt] neurons and, in contrast, augmented in TRESK[ko] neurons. Accordingly, excitation of nociceptive neurons by LPA is balanced by co-activation of TRESK channels. Hence excitation of sensory neurons is strongly controlled by the activity of TRESK channels, which therefore are good candidates for the treatment of pain disorders.

  1. Activation of TRESK channels by the inflammatory mediator lysophosphatidic acid balances nociceptive signalling.

    PubMed

    Kollert, Sina; Dombert, Benjamin; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2015-01-01

    In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons TRESK channels constitute a major current component of the standing outward current IKSO. A prominent physiological role of TRESK has been attributed to pain sensation. During inflammation mediators of pain e.g. lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are released and modulate nociception. We demonstrate co-expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in DRG neurons. Heterologous expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes revealed augmentation of basal K(+) currents upon LPA application. In DRG neurons nociception can result from TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or LPA. Upon co-expression in Xenopus oocytes LPA simultaneously increased both depolarising TRPV1 and hyperpolarising TRESK currents. Patch-clamp recordings in cultured DRG neurons from TRESK[wt] mice displayed increased IKSO after application of LPA whereas under these conditions IKSO in neurons from TRESK[ko] mice remained unaltered. Under current-clamp conditions LPA application differentially modulated excitability in these genotypes upon depolarising pulses. Spike frequency was attenuated in TRESK[wt] neurons and, in contrast, augmented in TRESK[ko] neurons. Accordingly, excitation of nociceptive neurons by LPA is balanced by co-activation of TRESK channels. Hence excitation of sensory neurons is strongly controlled by the activity of TRESK channels, which therefore are good candidates for the treatment of pain disorders. PMID:26224542

  2. Small angle neutron scattering reveals pH-dependent conformational changes in Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I: implications for enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh M; McGaughey, Joseph; Urban, Volker S; Rempe, Caroline S; Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C; Evans, Barbara R; Heller, William T

    2011-09-16

    Cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) of the fungus Trichoderma reesei (now classified as an anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose to soluble sugars, making it of key interest for producing fermentable sugars from biomass for biofuel production. The activity of the enzyme is pH-dependent, with its highest activity occurring at pH 4-5. To probe the response of the solution structure of Cel7A to changes in pH, we measured small angle neutron scattering of it in a series of solutions having pH values of 7.0, 6.0, 5.3, and 4.2. As the pH decreases from 7.0 to 5.3, the enzyme structure remains well defined, possessing a spatial differentiation between the cellulose binding domain and the catalytic core that only changes subtly. At pH 4.2, the solution conformation of the enzyme changes to a structure that is intermediate between a properly folded enzyme and a denatured, unfolded state, yet the secondary structure of the enzyme is essentially unaltered. The results indicate that at the pH of optimal activity, the catalytic core of the enzyme adopts a structure in which the compact packing typical of a fully folded polypeptide chain is disrupted and suggest that the increased range of structures afforded by this disordered state plays an important role in the increased activity of Cel7A through conformational selection.

  3. The effect of basketball training on the players' erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase, (Na+,K+)-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Parthimos, T; Tsopanakis, C; Angelogianni, P; Schulpis, K H; Parthimos, N; Tsakiris, S

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the activities of erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na (+),K (+))-ATPase and Mg (2+)-ATPase are modulated by a basketball training. Blood was obtained from 10 basketball players pre- and postexercise. Total antioxidant status (TAS), lactate and pyruvate concentrations were determined with kits, while the enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Post-training blood lactate and pyruvate concentrations as well as AChE (2.90 +/- 0.05 vs. 3.98 +/- 0.09 Delta OD/min . mg protein, p < 0.01) and Na (+),K (+)-ATPase (0.58 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.27 +/- 0.12 micromol Pi/h . mg protein, p < 0.001) activities were remarkably increased, whereas TAS was significantly decreased. Mg (2+)-ATPase activity remained unaltered at the end of the training. In conclusion, the stimulation of AChE and Na (+),K (+)-ATPase by the training may be due to the rise of blood catecholamine oxidation contributing to TAS decrease and/or the increase of serotonin levels. This stress condition may modulate cholinergic and catecholaminergic/serotoninergic functions in players.

  4. Unidentified bodies and human remains: an Italian glimpse through a European problem.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Porta, D; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Poppa, P; Grandi, M

    2010-02-25

    The identification of cadavers (the main activity of forensic odontologists and anthropologists) is a crucial issue in forensic pathology, but the official entity of this problem is still poorly known in most countries, apart from a few American reports. In this article the authors present a descriptive study of unidentified decedents over a 14-year period (1995-2008) in Milan. The number of cadavers or human remains arriving at the morgue with no identity amounts to 454 - 3.1% of all autopsies at the Institute of Legal Medicine, with a mean of 32 unidentified subjects every year; 62% reached a positive identification in a period of time ranging from a few days to 10 years. 17% on an average remain unidentified. Most identification processes involved forensic odontology and anthropology. This study aims at revealing the problem and hopefully may provide some food for thought for forensic pathologists, anthropologists and odontologists so that they may focus on this issue and on possible solutions in their countries.

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A4: RECENT ADVANCES AND REMAINING PROBLEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sevrioukova, Irina F.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) represent a diverse group of heme-thiolate proteins found in almost all organisms. CYPs share a common protein fold but differ in substrate selectivity and catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions via activation of molecular oxygen. Among 57 human P450s, the 3A4 isoform (CYP3A4) is the most abundant and the most important because it metabolizes the majority of the administered drugs. A remarkable feature of CYP3A4 is its extreme promiscuity in substrate specificity and cooperative substrate binding, which often leads to undesirable drug-drug interactions and toxic side effects. Owing to its importance in drug development and therapy, CYP3A4 has been the most extensively studied mammalian P450. In this review we provide an overview on recent progress and remaining problems in the CYP3A4 research. PMID:23018626

  6. Stress protein response and catalase activity in freshwater planarian Dugesia (Girardia) schubarti exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Guecheva, Temenouga N; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Benfato, Mara S; Henriques, João A P

    2003-11-01

    The hsp60 expression pattern and catalase activity in the freshwater planarian Dugesia schubarti exposed to copper under laboratory conditions were investigated. In the hsp60 induction experiments, planarians were exposed to a range of copper concentrations (0-960 microgCu/L) for 4 or 24h, to concentrations of 50 or 100 microgCu/L for 2, 4, 8, and 24h at 19 degrees C, and to heat shock at 27 degrees C for 24h. The concentrations of hsp60 in whole-body homogenates were determined immunochemically by Western blotting. Stress protein induction was detected only after 24h treatment at 27 degrees C. The tissue concentration of hsp60 remained unaltered in Cu-exposed planarians under the experimental conditions used. Catalase activity was significantly induced at concentrations of 40, 80, and 160 microgCu/L after 24h exposure. Our results suggest that catalase levels in planarians could represent biomarkers of interest for the estimation of copper effects in freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide. PMID:14979339

  8. Deletion of the presynaptic scaffold CAST reduces active zone size in rod photoreceptors and impairs visual processing.

    PubMed

    tom Dieck, Susanne; Specht, Dana; Strenzke, Nicola; Hida, Yamato; Krishnamoorthy, Vidhyasankar; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Inoue, Eiji; Ishizaki, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka-Okamoto, Miki; Miyoshi, Jun; Hagiwara, Akari; Brandstätter, Johann H; Löwel, Siegrid; Gollisch, Tim; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Moser, Tobias

    2012-08-29

    How size and shape of presynaptic active zones are regulated at the molecular level has remained elusive. Here we provide insight from studying rod photoreceptor ribbon-type active zones after disruption of CAST/ERC2, one of the cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ) proteins. Rod photoreceptors were present in normal numbers, and the a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG)--reflecting their physiological population response--was unchanged in CAST knock-out (CAST(-/-)) mice. Using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we found that the size of the rod presynaptic active zones, their Ca(2+) channel complement, and the extension of the outer plexiform layer were diminished. Moreover, we observed sprouting of horizontal and bipolar cells toward the outer nuclear layer indicating impaired rod transmitter release. However, rod synapses of CAST(-/-) mice, unlike in mouse mutants for the CAZ protein Bassoon, displayed anchored ribbons, normal vesicle densities, clustered Ca(2+) channels, and essentially normal molecular organization. The reduction of the rod active zone size went along with diminished amplitudes of the b-wave in scotopic ERGs. Assuming, based on the otherwise intact synaptic structure, an unaltered function of the remaining release apparatus, we take our finding to suggest a scaling of release rate with the size of the active zone. Multielectrode-array recordings of retinal ganglion cells showed decreased contrast sensitivity. This was also observed by optometry, which, moreover, revealed reduced visual acuity. We conclude that CAST supports large active zone size and high rates of transmission at rod ribbon synapses, which are required for normal vision.

  9. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall be... minutes of remaining service life. (c) Timers shall be readable by sight and by touch during use by the... period of 7 seconds or more after the preset time has elapsed. (e) Remaining service-life indicators...

  10. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  11. 25 CFR 166.805 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 166.805 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same conduct identified in that...

  12. 43 CFR 3809.332 - How long does my notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How long does my notice remain in effect... notice remain in effect? If you filed your complete notice on or after January 20, 2001, it remains in effect for 2 years, unless extended under § 3809.333, or unless you notify BLM beforehand that...

  13. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  14. 25 CFR 166.805 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 166.805 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same conduct identified in that...

  15. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  16. 25 CFR 166.805 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 166.805 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same conduct identified in that...

  17. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  18. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  19. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  20. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  1. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  2. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  3. Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

  4. Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1994-11-01

    Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

  5. Zooxanthellae Harvested by Ciliates Associated with Brown Band Syndrome of Corals Remain Photosynthetically Competent▿

    PubMed Central

    Ulstrup, Karin E.; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  6. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M.; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  7. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED.

  8. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  9. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Reveals pH-Dependent Conformational Changes in Trichoderma reesei Cellobiohydrolase I: Implications for Enzymatic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; McGaughey, Joseph; Urban, Volker S; Rempe, Caroline S; Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C; Evans, Barbara R; Heller, William T

    2011-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) of the fungus Trichoderma reesei (now classified as an anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose to soluble sugars, making it of key interest for producing fermentable sugars from biomass for biofuel production. The activity of the enzyme is pH-dependent, with its highest activity occurring at pH 4 5. To probe the response of the solution structure of Cel7A to changes in pH, we measured small angle neutron scattering of it in a series of solutions having pH values of 7.0, 6.0, 5.3, and 4.2. As the pH decreases from 7.0 to 5.3, the enzyme structure remains well defined, possessing a spatial differentiation between the cellulose binding domain and the catalytic core that only changes subtly. At pH 4.2, the solution conformation of the enzyme changes to a structure that is intermediate between a properly folded enzyme and a denatured, unfolded state, yet the secondary structure of the enzyme is essentially unaltered. The results indicate that at the pH of optimal activity, the catalytic core of the enzyme adopts a structure in which the compact packing typical of a fully folded polypeptide chain is disrupted and suggest that the increased range of structures afforded by this disordered state plays an important role in the increased activity of Cel7A through conformational selection.

  10. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. PMID:26344461

  11. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases.

  12. Invasive swallow-worts: an allelopathic role for -(-) antofine remains unclear.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Donna M; Vaughan, Richard H; Milbrath, Lindsey R

    2015-02-01

    was found in root exudates and in the growing medium in the nM range. The concentrations in exudate were much lower than that needed for biological activity (μM) although they might be an underestimate of what may accumulate over time in an undisturbed rhizosphere. Based on these various results, it remains uncertain as to whether -(-) antofine could play a significant allelopathic role for invasive swallow-worts. PMID:25653045

  13. Identification and site of action of the remaining four putative pseudouridine synthases in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Del Campo, M; Kaya, Y; Ofengand, J

    2001-01-01

    There are 10 known putative pseudouridine synthase genes in Escherichia coli. The products of six have been previously assigned, one to formation of the single pseudouridine in 16S RNA, three to the formation of seven pseudouridines in 23S RNA, and three to the formation of three pseudouridines in tRNA (one synthase makes pseudouridine in 23S RNA and tRNA). Here we show that the remaining four putative synthase genes make bona fide pseudouridine synthases and identify which pseudouridines they make. RluB (formerly YciL) and RluE (formerly YmfC) make pseudouridine2605 and pseudouridine2457, respectively, in 23S RNA. RluF (formerly YjbC) makes the newly discovered pseudouridine2604 in 23S RNA, and TruC (formerly YqcB) makes pseudouridine65 in tRNA(Ile1) and tRNA(Asp). Deletion of each of these synthase genes individually had no effect on exponential growth in rich media at 25 degrees C, 37 degrees C, or 42 degrees C. A strain lacking RluB and RluF also showed no growth defect under these conditions. Mutation of a conserved aspartate in a common sequence motif, previously shown to be essential for the other six E. coli pseudouridine synthases and several yeast pseudouridine synthases, also caused a loss of in vivo activity in all four of the synthases studied in this work. PMID:11720289

  14. The influence of body position and microclimate on ketamine and metabolite distribution in decomposed skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cornthwaite, H M; Watterson, J H

    2014-10-01

    The influence of body position and microclimate on ketamine (KET) and metabolite distribution in decomposed bone tissue was examined. Rats received 75 mg/kg (i.p.) KET (n = 30) or remained drug-free (controls, n = 4). Following euthanasia, rats were divided into two groups and placed outdoors to decompose in one of the three positions: supine (SUP), prone (PRO) or upright (UPR). One group decomposed in a shaded, wooded microclimate (Site 1) while the other decomposed in an exposed sunlit microclimate with gravel substrate (Site 2), roughly 500 m from Site 1. Following decomposition, bones (lumbar vertebrae, thoracic vertebra, cervical vertebrae, rib, pelvis, femora, tibiae, humeri and scapulae) were collected and sorted for analysis. Clean, ground bones underwent microwave-assisted extraction using acetone : hexane mixture (1 : 1, v/v), followed by solid-phase extraction and analysis using GC-MS. Drug levels, expressed as mass normalized response ratios, were compared across all bone types between body position and microclimates. Bone type was a main effect (P < 0.05) for drug level and drug/metabolite level ratio for all body positions and microclimates examined. Microclimate and body position significantly influenced observed drug levels: higher levels were observed in carcasses decomposing in direct sunlight, where reduced entomological activity led to slowed decomposition.

  15. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently. PMID:9300340

  16. Moving SDM forward in Canada: milestones, public involvement, and barriers that remain.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Stacey, Dawn; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Coutu, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Canada's approach to shared decision making (SDM) is as disparate as its healthcare system; a conglomerate of 14 public plans at various administrative levels. SDM initiatives are taking place in different pockets of the country and are in different stages of development. The most advanced provincial initiative is occurring in Saskatchewan, where in 2010 the provincial government prepare to introduce patient decision aids into certain surgical specialties. With regard to decision support tools for patients, perhaps the most active entity is the Patient Decision Aids Research Group in Ottawa, Ontario. This group maintains a public inventory of decision aids ranked according to International Patient Decision Aid Standards and has developed the generic Ottawa Personal Decision Guide, as well as a toolkit for integrating decision aids in clinical practice. All of these tools are publicly available free of charge. Professional interest in SDM in Canada is not yet widespread, but Canada's principal health research funding agency is sponsoring several important SDM projects. Researchers from institutions across the country are promoting SDM through continuing professional development programs and other interventions in fields as varied as primary care, dietary medicine and workplace rehabilitation. Still, the future of SDM in Canada remains uncertain. Canada's provincially based structure obliges promoters to work with each province separately, and the recent growth of private healthcare risks dissipating efforts to implement SDM.

  17. Identification and site of action of the remaining four putative pseudouridine synthases in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Kaya, Y; Ofengand, J

    2001-11-01

    There are 10 known putative pseudouridine synthase genes in Escherichia coli. The products of six have been previously assigned, one to formation of the single pseudouridine in 16S RNA, three to the formation of seven pseudouridines in 23S RNA, and three to the formation of three pseudouridines in tRNA (one synthase makes pseudouridine in 23S RNA and tRNA). Here we show that the remaining four putative synthase genes make bona fide pseudouridine synthases and identify which pseudouridines they make. RluB (formerly YciL) and RluE (formerly YmfC) make pseudouridine2605 and pseudouridine2457, respectively, in 23S RNA. RluF (formerly YjbC) makes the newly discovered pseudouridine2604 in 23S RNA, and TruC (formerly YqcB) makes pseudouridine65 in tRNA(Ile1) and tRNA(Asp). Deletion of each of these synthase genes individually had no effect on exponential growth in rich media at 25 degrees C, 37 degrees C, or 42 degrees C. A strain lacking RluB and RluF also showed no growth defect under these conditions. Mutation of a conserved aspartate in a common sequence motif, previously shown to be essential for the other six E. coli pseudouridine synthases and several yeast pseudouridine synthases, also caused a loss of in vivo activity in all four of the synthases studied in this work.

  18. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072555

  19. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  20. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative. PMID:22049659

  1. Metachronal activity of cultured mucociliary epithelium under normal and stimulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Gheber, L; Priel, Z

    1994-01-01

    In the present work we measured in real time the metachronism and degree of correlation between beating cilia from cultured mucociliary epithelium. The method is based on simultaneous measurement of ciliary beat frequency, phase shifts, and correlation factors in two directions: parallel and perpendicular to the effective stroke direction (ESD). From the phase shifts the lengths of wave components, and consequently the metachronal wavelength and direction, were evaluated. On active ciliary areas of cultured frog esophagus under normal conditions, a relatively high degree of correlation is observed, but cilia are more correlated in direction parallel to ESD which is also the direction of the mucus propulsion. The length of the wave component parallel to ESD is more than twice as large as that of the perpendicular component. The metachronal wavelength was found to be in the range of 5-9 microns, and the direction of the wave propagation was in the range of 90 degrees-125 degrees clockwise to the ESD. When ciliary beat frequency was rapidly increased by extracellular ATP or acetylcholine, only minor effects were observed on the degree of correlation between beating cilia. The length of the wave component parallel to ESD showed the most dramatic effect increasing up to tenfold. The perpendicular to ESD component was not affected by the stimulation. Consequently, the metachronism became more laeoplectic with the angle between the ESD and the wave directions decreasing by 10 degrees-30 degrees, and the metachronal wavelength remained unaltered.

  2. Is anaerobic digestion effective for the removal of organic micropollutants and biological activities from sewage sludge?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, L; Papa, M; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Pedrazzani, R; Bertanza, G; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge has been widely reported; nevertheless, their fate during sludge treatment remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the fate of OMPs during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD), the most common processes used for sludge stabilization, by using raw sewage sludge without spiking OMPs. Moreover, the results of analytical chemistry were complemented with biological assays in order to verify the possible adverse effects (estrogenic and genotoxic) on the environment and human health in view of an agricultural (re)use of digested sludge. Musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB), ibuprofen (IBP) and triclosan (TCS) were the most abundant compounds detected in sewage sludge. In general, the efficiency of the AD process was not dependent on operational parameters but compound-specific: some OMPs were highly biotransformed (e.g. sulfamethoxazole and naproxen), while others were only slightly affected (e.g. IBP and TCS) or even unaltered (e.g. AHTN and HHCB). The MCF-7 assay evidenced that estrogenicity removal was driven by temperature. The Ames test did not show point mutation in Salmonella typhimurium while the Comet test exhibited a genotoxic effect on human leukocytes attenuated by AD. This study highlights the importance of combining chemical analysis and biological activities in order to establish appropriate operational strategies for a safer disposal of sewage sludge. Actually, it was demonstrated that temperature has an insignificant effect on the disappearance of the parent compounds while it is crucial to decrease estrogenicity. PMID:27344252

  3. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  4. Dependence on nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) levels discriminates conventional T cells from Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Vaeth, Martin; Schliesser, Ulrike; Müller, Gerd; Reissig, Sonja; Satoh, Kazuki; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Jonuleit, Helmut; Waisman, Ari; Müller, Martin R; Serfling, Edgar; Sawitzki, Birgit S; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike

    2012-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) to control regulatory T cells: thymus-derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTreg) depend on calcium signals, the Foxp3 gene harbors several NFAT binding sites, and the Foxp3 (Fork head box P3) protein interacts with NFAT. Therefore, we investigated the impact of NFAT on Foxp3 expression. Indeed, the generation of peripherally induced Treg (iTreg) by TGF-β was highly dependent on NFAT expression because the ability of CD4(+) T cells to differentiate into iTreg diminished markedly with the number of NFAT family members missing. It can be concluded that the expression of Foxp3 in TGF-β-induced iTreg depends on the threshold value of NFAT rather than on an individual member present. This is specific for iTreg development, because frequency of nTreg remained unaltered in mice lacking NFAT1, NFAT2, or NFAT4 alone or in combination. Different from expectation, however, the function of both nTreg and iTreg was independent on robust NFAT levels, reflected by less nuclear NFAT in nTreg and iTreg. Accordingly, absence of one or two NFAT members did not alter suppressor activity in vitro or during colitis and transplantation in vivo. This scenario emphasizes an inhibition of high NFAT activity as treatment for autoimmune diseases and in transplantation, selectively targeting the proinflammatory conventional T cells, while keeping Treg functional.

  5. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... culturally unidentifiable human remains and associated funerary objects: (i) Within 90 days of receiving...

  6. Veteran Special Education Teachers' Perspectives on Factors that Influenced Them to Remain in the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Kimberly M.

    2009-01-01

    Literature indicates a shortage of qualified special educators in schools across the United States. This shortage is likely to grow if current trends of attrition continue. There remains an important gap in the current literature regarding the factors that influence veteran special educators to remain in their profession. This information is…

  7. Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs: A Self-Management Skills Program for Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Peter Hughes

    The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…

  8. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  9. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented.

  10. Salinity influences glutathione S-transferase activity and lipid peroxidation responses in the Crassostrea gigas oyster exposed to diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Juliano; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; da Silva, Angela Zaccaron; Guzenski, João; Ferreira, Jaime Fernando; Di Mascio, Paolo; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2011-04-15

    Biochemical responses in bivalve mollusks are commonly employed in environmental studies as biomarkers of aquatic contamination. The present study evaluated the possible influence of salinity (35, 25, 15 and 9ppt) in the biomarker responses of Crassostrea gigas oysters exposed to diesel at different nominal concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1mL.L(-1)) using a semi-static exposure system. Salinity alone did not resulted in major changes in the gill's catalase activity (CAT), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) and lipid peroxidation levels (measured as malondialdehyde, MDA), but influenced diesel related responses. At 25ppt salinity, but not at the other salinity levels, oysters exposed to diesel showed a strikingly positive concentration-dependent GST response. At 25ppt and 1mL.L(-1) diesel, the GST activity in the gills remained elevated, even after one week of depuration in clean water. The increased MDA levels in the oysters exposed to diesel comparing to control groups at 9, 15 and 35ppt salinities suggest the occurrence of lipid peroxidation in those salinities, but not at 25ppt salinity. The MDA quickly returned to basal levels after 24h of depuration. CAT activity was unaltered by the treatments employed. High toxicity for 1mL.L(-1) diesel was observed only at 35ppt salinity, but not in the other salinities. Results from this study strongly suggest that salinity influences the diesel related biomarker responses and toxicity in C. gigas, and that some of those responses remain altered even after depuration.

  11. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate. PMID:23579680

  12. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented. PMID:22776751

  13. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  14. Potential enzyme activities in cryoturbated organic matter of arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, J.; Wild, B.; Rusalimova, O.; Mikutta, R.; Guggenberger, G.; Richter, A.

    2012-12-01

    An estimated 581 Gt organic carbon is stored in arctic soils that are affected by cryoturbtion, more than in today's atmosphere (450 Gt). The high amount of organic carbon is, amongst other factors, due to topsoil organic matter (OM) that has been subducted by freeze-thaw processes. This cryoturbated OM is usually hundreds to thousands of years old, while the chemical composition remains largely unaltered. It has therefore been suggested, that the retarded decomposition rates cannot be explained by unfavourable abiotic conditions in deeper soil layers alone. Since decomposition of soil organic material is dependent on extracellular enzymes, we measured potential and actual extracellular enzyme activities in organic topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material from three different tundra sites, in Zackenberg (Greenland) and Cherskii (North-East Siberia). In addition we analysed the microbial community structure by PLFAs. Hydrolytic enzyme activities, calculated on a per gram dry mass basis, were higher in organic topsoil horizons than in cryoturbated horizons, which in turn were higher than in mineral horizons. When calculated on per gram carbon basis, the activity of the carbon acquiring enzyme exoglucanase was not significantly different between cryoturbated and topsoil organic horizons in any of the three sites. Oxidative enzymes, i.e. phenoloxidase and peroxidase, responsible for degradation of complex organic substances, showed higher activities in topsoil organic and cryoturbated horizons than in mineral horizons, when calculated per gram dry mass. Specific activities (per g C) however were highest in mineral horizons. We also measured actual cellulase activities (by inhibiting microbial uptake of products and without substrate addition): calculated per g C, the activities were up to ten times as high in organic topsoil compared to cryoturbated and mineral horizons, the latter not being significantly different. The total amount of PLFAs, as a proxy for

  15. Potent inhibition of human neutrophil activations by bractelactone, a novel chalcone from Fissistigma bracteolatum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yang-Chang; Sureshbabu, Munisamy; Fang, Yao-Ching; Wu, Yi-Hsiu; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chang, Ya-Wen; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-02-01

    Fissistigma bracteolatum is widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. However, its active components and mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, (3Z)-6,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-(phenylmethylidene)-5-(3-phenylpropanoyl) -1-benzofuran-2(3H) (bractelactone), a novel chalcone from F. bracteolatum, showed potent inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) production, elastase release, and CD11b expression in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced human neutrophils. However, bractelactone showed only weak inhibition of phorbol myristate acetate-caused O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The peak cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) was unaltered by bractelactone in FMLP-induced neutrophils, but the decay time of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was significantly shortened. In a calcium-free solution, changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} caused by the addition of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} were inhibited by bractelactone in FMLP-activated cells. In addition, bractelactone did not alter the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, or AKT or the concentration of cAMP. These results suggest that bractelactone selectively inhibits store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In agreement with this concept, bractelactone suppressed sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} changes in thapsigargin-activated neutrophils. Furthermore, bractelactone did not alter FMLP-induced formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of bractelactone, an active ingredient of F. bracteolatum, in human neutrophils are through the selective inhibition of SOCE. Highlights: ► Bractelactone isolated from Fissistigma bracteolatum. ► Bractelactone inhibited FMLP-induced human neutrophil activations. ► Bractelactone had no effect on IP3 formation. ► Bractelactone did not alter MAPKs, AKT, and cAMP pathways. ► Bractelactone inhibited store-operated calcium entry.

  16. Advances and remaining uncertainties in the epidemiology of Burkholderia pseudomallei and melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2008-03-01

    Major advances have been made in molecular studies of Burkholderia pseudomallei and the immunology of melioidosis. However, there remain large gaps in understanding of the epidemiology of this enigmatic disease. Identified global distribution boundaries of melioidosis continue to expand. Recent data suggest Australian strains of B. pseudomallei may be ancestral to those from Southeast Asia, but the ecology of this environmental bacterium remains elusive. Despite the potential for rapidly progressive septicaemia, the critical virulence factors in B. pseudomallei remain to be clarified. Inhalation following aerosolization of B. pseudomallei may account for the high mortality when melioidosis occurs after severe weather events.

  17. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. IET control building (TAN620). remains of periscope connections and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). remains of periscope connections and control console at far west wall of control room. facing westerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  20. View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking east - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by fire. 'Noble Castle' stood atop the ridge near Lakes Grace and Nora, overlooking Volta. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  2. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  3. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    PubMed

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline.

  5. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans remain compositionally equivalent to conventional soybeans (Glycine max L.) during three years of field testing.

    PubMed

    McCann, Melinda C; Liu, Keshun; Trujillo, William A; Dobert, Raymond C

    2005-06-29

    Previous studies have shown that the composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) and selected processed fractions was substantially equivalent to that of conventional soybeans over a wide range of analytes. This study was designed to determine if the composition of GTS remains substantially equivalent to conventional soybeans over the course of several years and when introduced into multiple genetic backgrounds. Soybean seed samples of both GTS and conventional varieties were harvested during 2000, 2001, and 2002 and analyzed for the levels of proximates, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones. The measured analytes are representative of the basic nutritional and biologically active components in soybeans. Results show a similar range of natural variability for the GTS soybeans as well as conventional soybeans. It was concluded that the composition of commercial GTS over the three years of breeding into multiple varieties remains equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

  6. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  7. Development of Method for Remaining Life Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tetsuro; Nakahara, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Urabe, Noboru; Itoh, Masayoshi

    This paper presents a method for remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformers using analyzable structured neural networks. Remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformer is very important. Furfural method is conventionally used for such an assessment. In the furfural method, the average degree of polymerization is determined by considering the nonlinear correlation between the furfural and average degree of polymerization. The remaining life is estimated by considering the average degree of polymerization. However, a range of estimates of the remaining life is obtained when the furfural method is used, making accurate estimation difficult. The proposed method can be used to estimate the remaining life of an oil-immersed transformer accurately; this method involves analyzable structured neural networks and ensemble method. In the proposed method, not only furfural but also oil temperature, operational status, cooling type, etc., are considered. Since various factors are considered as input variables and a nonlinear model, i.e., artificial neural networks are used, accurate estimation of the remaining life has been realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation using actual measured data.

  8. Post-burning fragmentation of calcined bone: implications for remains recovery from fatal fire scenes.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Kathryn

    2013-11-01

    This research assesses how short term delays in time-until-recovery can affect the quality and quantity of burnt bone recovered from a fatal fire scene. Knowledge of trends in post-burning remains fragmentation will enable investigators to prioritise remains recovery and implement recovery protocols appropriately. By comparing calcined bone fragments recovered 0, 24, 56 and 168 h (1 week) after experimental burns, this research describes remains fragmentation over time. Sus scrofa (domestic pig) limbs were burnt in a series of wood fuelled fires with calcined remains recovered at the specified time intervals. Bone fragments were sorted into 12 size based categories and the proportional weight of each category compared to observe differences in fragmentation over time. Results reveal marked increases in fragmentation when recovery is delayed by 24 h but less change in fragmentation between 24 and 56 h delay when breakage is reduced in the larger fragments. Between 56 and 168 h delay large increases in fragmentation occurred across all fragment sizes. These results indicate that short term recovery delays (24 h) can be detrimental to remains condition, but if remains recovery cannot be completed soon after the fire intermediate delays (56 h) are less significant. Longer term delays (168 h) are again potentially highly detrimental.

  9. An Analysis of the Alleged Skeletal Remains of Carin Göring

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  10. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  11. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  12. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  13. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  14. Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening our understanding

    PubMed Central

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Cummings, Greta; Cranley, Lisa A; Ferron, Era Mae; Harvey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Title Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening ourunderstanding. Aim This paper is a report of a study to identify nurse reported determinants of intention to remain employed and to develop a model explaining determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed. Background A worsening shortage of nurses globally suggests that efforts must be made to promote retention of nurses. However, effective retention promotion strategies depend on understanding the factors influencing nurse retention. Methods A descriptive study using focus group methodology was implemented. Thirteen focus groups including 78 nurses were carried out in two Canadian provinces in 2007. Thematic analysis strategies were incorporated to analyse the data. Findings Eight thematic categories reflecting factors nurses described as influencing their intentions to remain employed emerged from focus groups: (1) relationships with co-workers, (2) condition of the work environment, (3) relationship with and support from one’s manager, (4) work rewards, (5) organizational support and practices, (6) physical and psychological responses to work, (7) patient relationships and other job content, and (8) external factors. A model of determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed is hypothesized. Conclusion Findings were both similar to and different from previous research. The overriding concept of job satisfaction was not found. Rather, nurse assessments of satisfaction within eight thematic categories were found to influence intentions to remain employed. Further testing of the hypothesized model is required to determine its global utility. Understanding determinants of intention to remain employed can lead to development of strategies that strengthen nurse retention. Incorporation of this knowledge in nurse education programmes is essential. PMID:20423434

  15. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction.

  16. Undesirable Consequences of Insecticide Resistance following Aedes aegypti Control Activities Due to a Dengue Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Avendanho, Fernando Campos; Santos, Rosangela; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Valle, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Background During a dengue outbreak with co-circulation of DENV-1 and -2 in the city of Boa Vista, one patient was diagnosed with DENV-4, a serotype supposed absent from Brazil for almost 30 years. The re-emergence of DENV-4 triggered the intensification of mechanical and chemical Aedes aegypti control activities in order to reduce vector density and avoid DENV-4 dissemination throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings Vector control activities consisted of (a) source reduction, (b) application of diflubenzuron against larvae and (c) vehicle-mounted space spraying of 2% deltamethrin to eliminate adults. Control activity efficacy was monitored by comparing the infestation levels and the number of eggs collected in ovitraps before and after interventions, performed in 22 Boa Vista districts, covering an area of ∼80% of the city and encompassing 56,837 dwellings. A total of 94,325 containers were eliminated or treated with diflubenzuron. The most frequently positive containers were small miscellaneous receptacles, which corresponded to 59% of all positive breeding sites. Insecticide resistance to deltamethrin was assessed before, during and after interventions by dose-response bioassays adopting WHO-based protocols. The intense use of the pyrethroid increased fourfold the resistance ratio of the local Ae. aegypti population only six months after the beginning of vector control. Curiously, this trend was also observed in the districts in which no deltamethrin was applied by the public health services. On the other hand, changes in the resistance ratio to the organophosphate temephos seemed less influenced by insecticide in Boa Vista. Conclusions Despite the intense effort, mosquito infestation levels were only slightly reduced. Besides, the median number of eggs in ovitraps remained unaltered after control activity intensification. The great and rapid increase in pyrethroid resistance levels of natural Ae. aegypti populations is discussed in the context of

  17. Lipophilization of somatostatin analog RC-160 with long chain fatty acid improves its antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, P; Mukherjee, R

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the somatostatin analogue RC-160 having antiproliferative activity, is limited by its short serum half life. To overcome this limitation, fatty acids namely butanoic acid and myristic acid were conjugated to the N-terminal residue of RC-160. The lipophilized derivatives of RC-160 were synthesized, purified by reverse phase HPLC and characterized by ES-mass spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of lipophilized derivatives of RC-160 on the growth of MIA-PaCa2 (human pancreatic carcinoma), DU145 (human prostate carcinoma), ECV304 (human umbilical chord endothelioma), as well as their antiangiogenic activity was evaluated in vitro. The relative stability of myristoyl-RC-160 towards degradation by proteases and serum was also determined. Myristoyl-RC-160 exhibited significantly higher antiproliferative efficacy than RC-160, on the above cell lines (P<0.01). Receptor binding assays, demonstrated that the affinity of RC-160 towards somatostatin receptors remains unaltered by myristoylation. Unlike RC-160, the myristoylated derivative was found to have significantly greater resistance to protease and serum degradation (P<0.01). Myristoyl-RC-160 exhibited significantly greater antiproliferative activity on ECV304, than RC-160 (P<0.01). Myristoyl RC-160 could also inhibit capillary tube formation more efficiently than RC-160 in a dose dependent manner, suggesting that it possessed enhanced antiangiogenic activity in vitro (P<0.001). Lipophilization of RC-160 with long chain fatty acids like myristic acid endows it with improved antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity, stability and therapeutic index. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 109, 101 - 109

  18. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; Rooyackers, Olav; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids (EAAs). Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied EAAs with leucine, EAAs without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAAs and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.

  19. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly. PMID:26691792

  20. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  1. Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gill, P; Ivanov, P L; Kimpton, C; Piercy, R; Benson, N; Tully, G; Evett, I; Hagelberg, E; Sullivan, K

    1994-02-01

    Nine skeletons found in a shallow grave in Ekaterinburg, Russia, in July 1991, were tentatively identified by Russian forensic authorities as the remains of the last Tsar, Tsarina, three of their five children, the Royal Physician and three servants. We have performed DNA based sex testing and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and confirm that a family group was present in the grave. Analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA reveals an exact sequence match between the putative Tsarina and the three children with a living maternal relative. Amplified mtDNA extracted from the remains of the putative Tsar has been cloned to demonstrate heteroplasmy at a single base within the mtDNA control region. One of these sequences matches two living maternal relatives of the Tsar. We conclude that the DNA evidence supports the hypothesis that the remains are those of the Romanov family.

  2. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  3. Comparison of morphological and molecular genetic sex-typing on mediaeval human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Niederstätter, Harald; McGlynn, George; Stadler, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    Archaeological excavations conducted at an early mediaeval cemetery in Volders (Tyrol, Austria) produced 141 complete skeletal remains dated between the 5th/6th and 12th/13th centuries. These skeletons represent one of the largest historical series of human remains ever discovered in the East Alpine region. Little historical information is available for this region and time period. The good state of preservation of these bioarchaeological finds offered the opportunity of performing molecular genetic investigations. Adequate DNA extraction methods were tested in the attempt to obtain as high DNA yields as possible for further analyses. Molecular genetic sex-typing using a dedicated PCR multiplex ("Genderplex") gave interpretable results in 88 remains, 78 of which had previously been sexed based on morphological features. We observed a discrepancy in sex determination between the two methods in 21 cases. An unbiased follow-up morphological examination of these finds showed congruence with the DNA results in all but five samples.

  4. Some social and forensic aspects of exhumation and reinterment of industrial revolution remains.

    PubMed

    Duff, E J; Johnson, J S

    1974-03-23

    The aetiological aspects of exhumed remains from two burial sites were examined using 1839 and 1879 as years of comparison. We tried to discover whether the sample of recovered remains was representative of those buried. The state of the remains varied according to the type of soil and coffin material in which they were buried. At the earlier date most deaths were caused by infectious lesions rather than degenerative ones and 76% of those who died were below employable age-whereas in 1879 the commonest causes of death were tuberculosis ("phthisis") and bronchitis, and 42% died before they could be employed. The registration of deaths were recorded more accurately at the later date, and it was easier to build up a picture of the age, sex, and occupation of the people who died.

  5. Cu-sil dentures – a novel approach to conserve few remaining teeth: Case reports

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Jayesh Kumar; Prabhu, C R Allama; Zahrane, Mohammed Al; Esawy, Mohammed Sayed Al; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Pal, Kapil Singh

    2015-01-01

    The present prime concern in dentistry is on preservation of remaining natural teeth. Presence of few teeth in oral cavity help in preserving alveolar ridge integrity, maintain the proprioception, and gives psychological benefit to the patient. Transitional denture provides us with alternative treatment plan for the patients willing to replace their missing teeth while retaining their very few remaining teeth. A relatively newer type of transitional denture is Cu-sil denture. A Cu-sil denture is a denture with holes, lined by a gasket of silicone rubber, the holes thus providing space for remaining natural teeth to emerge into the oral cavity through the denture. Cu-sil denture is the simplest removable partial denture, but its fabrication requires special armamentarium and material. This case report represents a simple chairside technique to fabricate Cu-sil dentures in usual dental set-up. PMID:26464557

  6. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  7. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing.

  8. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. PMID:17632802

  9. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the blood of rats co-treated with vanadium (V(+5)) and chromium (Cr (+3)).

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Zaporowska, Halina; Wolińska, Agnieszka; Ostrowski, Jarosław

    2010-12-01

    Selected biochemical parameters were studied in the blood of outbred, male Wistar rats which daily received to drink deionized water (Group I, control) or solutions of: sodium metavanadate (SMV; 0.100 mg V/mL)-Group II; chromium chloride (CC; 0.004 mg Cr/mL)-Group III; and SMV-CC (0.100 mg V and 0.004 mg Cr/mL)-Group IV for a 12-week period. The diet and fluid intake, body weight gain, and food efficiency ratio (FER) diminished significantly in the rats of Groups II and IV, compared with Groups I and III. The plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) as well as the MDA and the L: -ascorbic acid level in the erythrocytes (RBCs) remained unchanged in all the groups, whereas the plasma L: -ascorbic acid concentration decreased markedly in Group II, compared with Group III. The activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), cellular glutathione peroxidase (cGSH-Px), and glutathione reductase (GR) in RBCs remained unaltered in all the treated rats. However, the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in RBCs decreased and increased, respectively, in Groups II, III, and IV, compared with Group I. A vanadium-chromium interaction which affected the GST activity was also found. To summarize, SMV and CC administered separately or in combination in drinking water for 12 weeks did not alter either lipid peroxidation (LPO) or the activities of Cu,Zn-SOD, CAT, cGSH-Px, and GR, which allows a conclusion that both metals in the doses ingested did not reveal their pro-oxidant potential on RBCs.

  10. Longitudinal Study of Institutional Downsizing: Effects on Individuals Who Remain in the Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Hayden, Mary F.

    1998-01-01

    A four-year study investigated the effects of deinstitutionalization programs on 71 individuals who remained in institutions being downsized. Results found downsizing was associated with decreased community integration, decreased availability of therapy services, and many residential and day program moves within the institution. Per person…

  11. 31. VIEW EAST IN BASEMENT OF BUILDING 41A; NOTE REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW EAST IN BASEMENT OF BUILDING 41A; NOTE REMAINS OF SUPPORTS FOR OVERHEAD TROLLEY SYSTEM AT LEFT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH; TROLLEY SYSTEM WAS USED TO CARRY BASKETS OF SMALL PARTS ALONG THE ELECTROPLATING LINE - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  12. 1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND INCLUDING SUPPORT BUILDING (BACKGROUND), FLAME TRENCH (FOREGROUND) RECENT ADDITION (O-RING FACILITY) OVER OTHER FLAME TRENCH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Point Cloud Metrics for Separating Standing Archaeological Remains and Low Vegetation in ALS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, R.; Nuninger, L.

    2013-07-01

    The integration of Airborne Laser Scanning survey into archaeological research and cultural heritage management has substantially added to our knowledge of archaeological remains in forested areas, and is changing our understanding of how these landscapes functioned in the past. While many types of archaeological remains manifest as micro-topography, several important classes of features commonly appear as standing remains. The identification of these remains is important for archaeological prospection surveys based on ALS data, and typically represent structures from the Roman, Medieval and early Modern periods. Standing structures in mixed scenes with vegetation are not well addressed by standard classification approaches developed to identify bare earth (terrain), individual trees or plot characteristics, or buildings (roofed structures). In this paper we propose an approach to the identification of these structures in the point cloud based on multi-scale measures of local density, roughness, and normal orientation. We demonstrate this approach using discrete-return ALS data collected in the Franche-Comte region of France at a nominal point density of 8 pts/m2, a resolution which, in coming years, will become increasingly available to archaeologists through government supported mapping schemes.

  14. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  15. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  16. 49. Taken from highline; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Taken from high-line; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; no longer used, "McKinley hat was open receptacle with bell below. Hat carried charge to furnace top, dumping it to bell; bell locked onto furnace top, dropping charge into furnace. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  17. Showing up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience among Students of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests…

  18. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  19. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  20. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  1. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  2. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  3. Teacher Leadership: Preparing New Teachers with Effective Strategies to Remain in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was is to identify factors that are significant indicators of teachers' reasons for remaining in an urban school district. In an effort to understand the problem of retaining teachers in urban areas there have been countless research that have been conducted concentrating in the area of teacher retention in urban…

  4. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  5. DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haverić, Sanin; Kalamujić, Belma; Kovačević, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin; Pojskić, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Bajrović, Kasim; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Drobnič, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306

  6. Contemporary management of aortic stenosis: surgical aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; Blumenstein, Johannes; van Linden, Arnaud; Kempfert, Jörg

    2012-11-01

    Aortic valve disease is the most frequent acquired heart valve lesion in humans. In western communities, approximately 90% of patients present with aortic stenosis (AS), predominantly of a calcific degenerative aetiology. The remaining approximately 10% of patients predominantly present with aortic valve incompetence.

  7. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  8. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Missimer, David M.; Summer, Michael E.; Fink, Samuel D.

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  9. Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.

    2004-07-01

    The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

  10. 8. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Remains of cabinetry and electrical switch panel in one of rooms. Ineel photo no. 1-11. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Female College Presidents: Characteristics to Become and Remain Chief Executive Officer of a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balram, Arlette

    2012-01-01

    Through an ethnographic approach, the perceptions of female college presidents from the northeastern region of the United States regarding leadership styles and the characteristics to become and remain the chief executive officer of a college were investigated. Six presidents from various types of four-year colleges were interviewed. Themes,…

  12. 17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR DRIVEN BY A SMALL STEAM ENGINE LOCATED EAST OF PUMP NO. 4; THIS UNIT REPLACED AN EARLIER GENERATOR INSTALLED IN 1909 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Who Escapes or Remains a Victim of Bullying in Primary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; Woods, Sarah; Samara, Muthanna

    2009-01-01

    The stability of both direct and relational victimization and factors that contribute to remaining, escaping or becoming a victim of bullying were investigated. 663 children at baseline aged 6-9 (years 2-4) were interviewed about their bullying experiences and parents completed a behaviour and health measure. Children's perception of the degree…

  14. An Exploration of Factors Influencing Effective Teachers' Decisions to Remain in Urban School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizzle, Alison L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing problems identified in the literature on teacher retention and resilience include (a) a gap in understanding factors influencing urban teacher retention; (b) lack of clarity on multiple factors swaying teachers' decisions to remain despite challenges; (c) overlapping definitions of teacher retention, attrition, and resilience; and (d)…

  15. The effect of victim age on burnt bone fragmentation: implications for remains recovery.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Kathryn

    2013-09-10

    This research investigates how victim bone age affects the fragmentation and subsequent recovery of burnt bone. It could be inferred that the lower density and higher organic content of bone from younger individuals results in more significant bone breakdown compared to bone from older individuals. Previous research has suggested that while neonate bone can be difficult to destroy in a burn environment it is more fragile post-burning. Results comparing fragmentation of calcined piglet and fattening-pig remains reveal that, while consisting of smaller fragments, the younger material is less fragmented with more complete or almost complete bone elements. These observations have significant implications for remains recovery, especially of younger remains, as it highlights the value of this material as well as the importance of utilising search and recovery strategies that minimise post-burning disturbance. Younger bone responds differently to the burn environment and, therefore; it needs to be taken into consideration when planning remains discovery and retrieval to ensure maximum benefit to the investigation and individuals involved. PMID:23683947

  16. 30 CFR 1227.111 - Do existing delegation agreements remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do existing delegation agreements remain in effect? 1227.111 Section 1227.111 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE DELEGATION TO STATES Existing Delegations § 1227.111...

  17. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001). A reassessment of the inventory during tribal... group identity with the human remains and associated funerary objects. In the Federal Register (66 FR...) Nation, Oklahoma'' wherever the latter occurs. In the Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18,...

  18. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  19. Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of skeet range shooting stations (posts) in foreground. This was one of North Base's few recreational features. In the distance is a debris field of spent clay pigeons - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Skeet Range, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  1. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  2. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  3. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  4. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  5. 28 CFR 58.20 - Minimum qualifications agencies shall meet to become and remain approved agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... qualifications agencies shall meet to become and remain approved agencies. To meet the minimum qualifications set forth in § 58.19, and in addition to the other requirements set forth in this part, agencies and... any limited English proficient client; (4) The agency's funding sources; (5) The...

  6. Influences of the Heart: Novice and Experienced Teachers Remaining in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan V.; Brown, John J., Jr.; Kirby-Smith, Antionette; Severson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a phenomenological inquiry that described factors that influenced two novice and two experienced teachers' decisions to remain in the teaching field. These teachers taught in both Title I and non-Title I elementary schools, and their teaching experiences ranged from four months to 38 years. Data for this research…

  7. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  8. Optimization of DNA Recovery and Amplification from Non-Carbonized Archaeobotanical Remains

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated decisions as to which one to use for a given task. The experimental findings should prove useful to the aDNA and archaeological communities by guiding future research methodologies and ensuring precious archaeobotanical remains are studied in optimal ways, and may thereby yield important new perspectives on the interactions between humans and past plant communities. PMID:24475182

  9. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Cabo, Helena; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Viña, Jose; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules with regulatory functions, and in young and adult organisms, the formation of ROS is increased during skeletal muscle contractions. However, ROS can be deleterious to cells when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the antioxidant system. Aging is associated with accumulation of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Given the pro-oxidant effect of skeletal muscle contractions, this effect of age could be a result of excessive ROS formation. We evaluated the effect of acute exercise on changes in blood redox state across the leg of young (23 ± 1 years) and older (66 ± 2 years) sedentary humans by measuring the whole blood concentration of the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of the antioxidant glutathione. To assess the role of physical activity, lifelong physically active older subjects (62 ± 2 years) were included. Exercise increased the venous concentration of GSSG in an intensity-dependent manner in young sedentary subjects, suggesting an exercise-induced increase in ROS formation. In contrast, venous GSSG levels remained unaltered during exercise in the older sedentary and active groups despite a higher skeletal muscle expression of the superoxide-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase. Arterial concentration of GSH and expression of antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle of older active subjects were increased. The potential impairment in exercise-induced ROS formation may be an important mechanism underlying skeletal muscle and vascular dysfunction with sedentary aging. Lifelong physical activity upregulates antioxidant systems, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lack of exercise-induced increase in GSSG.

  10. Reduced task-induced variations in the distribution of activity across back muscle regions in individuals with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Tschapek, Marika; Erlenwein, Joachim; Petzke, Frank

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated change in the distribution of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity and pressure pain sensitivity across the low back in individuals with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from multiple locations over the lumbar erector spinae muscle with a 13×5 grid of electrodes from 19 people with chronic nonspecific LBP and 17 control subjects as they performed a repetitive lifting task. The EMG root mean square (RMS) was computed for each location of the grid to form a map of the EMG amplitude distribution. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded before and after the lifting task over a similar area of the back. For the control subjects, the EMG RMS progressively increased more in the caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae during the repetitive task, resulting in a shift in the distribution of muscle activity. In contrast, the distribution of muscle activity remained unaltered in the LBP group despite an overall increase in EMG amplitude. PPT was lower in the LBP group after completion of the repetitive task compared to baseline (average across all locations: pre: 268.0±165.9 kPa; post: 242.0±166.7 kPa), whereas no change in PPT over time was observed for the control group (320.1±162.1 kPa; post: 322.0±179.5 kPa). The results demonstrate that LBP alters the normal adaptation of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity to exercise, which occurs in the presence of exercise-induced hyperalgesia. Reduced variability of muscle activity may have important implications for the provocation and recurrence of LBP due to repetitive tasks.

  11. Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Allen, Marie; Branicki, Wojciech; Lembring, Maria; Gajewska, Marta; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2009-07-28

    We report the results of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses of skeletal remains exhumed in 2005 at Frombork Cathedral in Poland, that are thought to be those of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). The analyzed bone remains were found close to the altar Nicolaus Copernicus was responsible for during his tenure as priest. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles from 3 upper molars and the femurs were identical, suggesting that the remains originate from the same individual. Identical mtDNA profiles were also determined in 2 hairs discovered in a calendar now exhibited at Museum Gustavianum in Uppsala, Sweden. This calendar was the property of Nicolaus Copernicus for much of his life. These findings, together with anthropological data, support the identification of the human remains found in Frombork Cathedral as those of Nicolaus Copernicus. Up-to-now the particular mtDNA haplotype has been observed only 3 times in Germany and once in Denmark. Moreover, Y-chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeat markers were analyzed in one of the tooth samples, that was much better preserved than other parts of the skeleton. Molecular sex determination revealed that the skeleton is from a male individual, and this result is consistent with morphological investigations. The minimal Y-chromosomal haplotype determined in the putative remains of Nicolaus Copernicus has been observed previously in many countries, including Austria, Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. Finally, an analysis of the SNP located in the HERC2 gene revealed the C/C genotype that is predominant in blue-eyed humans, suggesting that Copernicus may have had a light iris color.

  12. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork.

  13. (210)Po poisoning as possible cause of death: forensic investigations and toxicological analysis of the remains of Yasser Arafat.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Bochud, François; Baechler, Sébastien; Castella, Vincent; Augsburger, Marc; Bailat, Claude; Michaud, Katarzyna; Straub, Marietta; Pecchia, Marco; Jenk, Theo M; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    The late president of the Palestinian Authority, Yasser Arafat, died in November 2004 in Percy Hospital, one month after having experienced a sudden onset of symptoms that included severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain and which were followed by multiple organ failure. In spite of numerous investigations performed in France, the pathophysiological mechanisms at the origin of the symptoms could not be identified. In 2011, we found abnormal levels of polonium-210 ((210)Po) in some of Arafat's belongings that were worn during his final hospital stay and which were stained with biological fluids. This finding led to the exhumation of Arafat's remains in 2012. Significantly higher (up to 20 times) activities of (210)Po and lead-210 ((210)Pb) were found in the ribs, iliac crest and sternum specimens compared to reference samples from the literature (p-value <1%). In all specimens from the tomb, (210)Po activity was supported by a similar activity of (210)Pb. Biokinetic calculations demonstrated that a (210)Pb impurity, as identified in a commercial source of 3MBq of (210)Po, may be responsible for the activities measured in Arafat's belongings and remains 8 years after his death. The absence of myelosuppression and hair loss in Mr Arafat's case compared to Mr Litvinenko's, the only known case of malicious poisoning with (210)Po, could be explained by differences in the time delivery-scheme of intake. In conclusion, statistical Bayesian analysis combining all the evidence gathered in our forensic expert report moderately supports the proposition that Mr Arafat was poisoned by (210)Po. PMID:26707208

  14. (210)Po poisoning as possible cause of death: forensic investigations and toxicological analysis of the remains of Yasser Arafat.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Bochud, François; Baechler, Sébastien; Castella, Vincent; Augsburger, Marc; Bailat, Claude; Michaud, Katarzyna; Straub, Marietta; Pecchia, Marco; Jenk, Theo M; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    The late president of the Palestinian Authority, Yasser Arafat, died in November 2004 in Percy Hospital, one month after having experienced a sudden onset of symptoms that included severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain and which were followed by multiple organ failure. In spite of numerous investigations performed in France, the pathophysiological mechanisms at the origin of the symptoms could not be identified. In 2011, we found abnormal levels of polonium-210 ((210)Po) in some of Arafat's belongings that were worn during his final hospital stay and which were stained with biological fluids. This finding led to the exhumation of Arafat's remains in 2012. Significantly higher (up to 20 times) activities of (210)Po and lead-210 ((210)Pb) were found in the ribs, iliac crest and sternum specimens compared to reference samples from the literature (p-value <1%). In all specimens from the tomb, (210)Po activity was supported by a similar activity of (210)Pb. Biokinetic calculations demonstrated that a (210)Pb impurity, as identified in a commercial source of 3MBq of (210)Po, may be responsible for the activities measured in Arafat's belongings and remains 8 years after his death. The absence of myelosuppression and hair loss in Mr Arafat's case compared to Mr Litvinenko's, the only known case of malicious poisoning with (210)Po, could be explained by differences in the time delivery-scheme of intake. In conclusion, statistical Bayesian analysis combining all the evidence gathered in our forensic expert report moderately supports the proposition that Mr Arafat was poisoned by (210)Po.

  15. Extracellular Na+ levels regulate formation and activity of the NaX/alpha1-Na+/K+-ATPase complex in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Berret, Emmanuelle; Smith, Pascal Y.; Henry, Mélaine; Soulet, Denis; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Toth, Katalin; Mouginot, Didier; Drolet, Guy

    2014-01-01

    MnPO neurons play a critical role in hydromineral homeostasis regulation by acting as sensors of extracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]out). The mechanism underlying Na+-sensing involves Na+-flow through the NaX channel, directly regulated by the Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform which controls Na+-influx by modulating channel permeability. Together, these two partners form a complex involved in the regulation of intracellular sodium ([Na+]in). Here we aim to determine whether environmental changes in Na+ could actively modulate the NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase complex activity. We investigated the complex activity using patch-clamp recordings from rat MnPO neurons and Neuro2a cells. When the rats were fed with a high-salt-diet, or the [Na+] in the culture medium was increased, the activity of the complex was up-regulated. In contrast, drop in environmental [Na+] decreased the activity of the complex. Interestingly under hypernatremic condition, the colocalization rate and protein level of both partners were up-regulated. Under hyponatremic condition, only NaX protein expression was increased and the level of NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase remained unaltered. This unbalance between NaX and Na+/K+-ATPase pump proportion would induce a bigger portion of Na+/K+-ATPase-control-free NaX channel. Thus, we suggest that hypernatremic environment increases NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform activity by increasing the number of both partners and their colocalization rate, whereas hyponatremic environment down-regulates complex activity via a decrease in the relative number of NaX channels controlled by the pump. PMID:25538563

  16. ADAR-related activation of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Witman, Nevin M; Behm, Mikaela; Ohman, Marie; Morrison, Jamie I

    2013-08-15

    Urodele amphibians possess an amazing regenerative capacity that requires the activation of cellular plasticity in differentiated cells and progenitor/stem cells. Many aspects of regeneration in Urodele amphibians recapitulate development, making it unlikely that gene regulatory pathways which are essential for development are mutually exclusive from those necessary for regeneration. One such post-transcriptional gene regulatory pathway, which has been previously shown to be essential for functional metazoan development, is RNA editing. RNA editing catalyses discrete nucleotide changes in RNA transcripts, creating a molecular diversity that could create an enticing connection to the activated cellular plasticity found in newts during regeneration. To assess whether RNA editing occurs during regeneration, we demonstrated that GABRA3 and ADAR2 mRNA transcripts are edited in uninjured and regenerating tissues. Full open-reading frame sequences for ADAR1 and ADAR2, two enzymes responsible for adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, were cloned from newt brain cDNA and exhibited a strong resemblance to ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) enzymes discovered in mammals. We demonstrated that ADAR1 and ADAR2 mRNA expression levels are differentially expressed during different phases of regeneration in multiple tissues, whereas protein expression levels remain unaltered. In addition, we have characterized a fascinating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of ADAR1 in a variety of different cell types during regeneration, which could provide a mechanism for controlling RNA editing, without altering translational output of the editing enzyme. The link between RNA editing and regeneration provides further insights into how lower organisms, such as the newt, can activate essential molecular pathways via the discrete alteration of RNA sequences. PMID:23534823

  17. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an "uninhabited" island.

    PubMed

    Steadman, D W; Olson, S L

    1985-09-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with (14)C dates of approximately 800 and approximately 500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention.

  18. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an "uninhabited" island.

    PubMed

    Steadman, D W; Olson, S L

    1985-09-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with (14)C dates of approximately 800 and approximately 500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention. PMID:16593606

  19. Peritonsillar abscess: risk of disease in the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J A; Godballe, C; Andersen, N H; Jørgensen, K

    1991-06-01

    The occurrence of disease in the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess, was studied in 536 patients. No patient had a history of previous severe tonsillitis at the time of the unilateral tonsillectomy, 6.1 per cent of the patients were readmitted for surgery of the remaining tonsil during the follow-up period. Ninety-seven per cent of these patients were younger than 30 years of age. Previous investigations have shown increasing frequency by age of pharyngitis after bilateral tonsillectomy. We suggest bilateral tonsillectomy in all cases of patients younger than 30 years old who suffer from peritonsillar abscess irrespective of previous tonsillar disease. Patients older than 30 should be treated with unilateral ablation, unless there is a clear indication for bilateral tonsillectomy. PMID:2072012

  20. [Peritonsillar abscess. Occurrence of disease requiring surgery in the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Sørensen, J A; Andersen, N H; Jørgensen, K E

    1991-09-23

    The occurrence of disease requiring surgery of the remaining tonsil after unilateral tonsillectomy à chaud in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was studied in 536 patients. None of the patients histories of previous severe tonsillitis at the time of the unilateral had tonsillectomy. 9.3% of the patients under 30 years of age were readmitted for surgery on the remaining tonsil during the follow up period. Only 0.5% of the patients over 30 years were readmitted. Previous investigations have shown increasing frequency of pharyngitis after bilateral tonsillectomy. The present authors suggest bilateral tonsillectomy in all patients under 30 years of age who suffer from peritonsillar abscess irrespectively of previous tonsillar disease. In patients over 30 years, unilateral ablation is recommended unless clear indication for bilateral tonsillectomy are present. PMID:1949288

  1. Remaining Technical Challenges and Future Plans for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of Oil-Free technologies (foil gas bearings, solid lubricants and advanced analysis and predictive modeling tools) to advanced turbomachinery has been underway for several decades. During that time, full commercialization has occurred in aircraft air cycle machines, turbocompressors and cryocoolers and ever-larger microturbines. Emerging products in the automotive sector (turbochargers and superchargers) indicate that high volume serial production of foil bearings is imminent. Demonstration of foil bearings in APU s and select locations in propulsion gas turbines illustrates that such technology also has a place in these future systems. Foil bearing designs, predictive tools and advanced solid lubricants have been reported that can satisfy anticipated requirements but a major question remains regarding the scalability of foil bearings to ever larger sizes to support heavier rotors. In this paper, the technological history, primary physics, engineering practicalities and existing experimental and experiential database for scaling foil bearings are reviewed and the major remaining technical challenges are identified.

  2. The human cranial remains from Gran Dolina Lower Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Muñoz, A; Alonso, O; Gallego, J

    1999-01-01

    In this article we study the cranial remains of the late Lower Pleistocene human fossils from Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), assigned to the new species Homo antecessor. The cranial remains belong to at least five individuals, both juveniles and adults. The most outstanding feature is the totally modern human morphology of the very complete face ATD6-69, representing the earliest occurrence of the modern face in the fossil record. The Gran Dolina fossils show in the face a suite of modern human apomorphies not found in earlier hominids nor in contemporary or earlier Homo erectus fossils. There are also traits in the Gran Dolina fossils shared with both Neandertals and modern humans, which reinforce the hypothesis that Neandertals and modern humans form a clade, and that the Gran Dolina fossils are a common ancestor to both lineages. PMID:10496996

  3. Microscopic analysis of feather and hair fragments associated with human mummified remains from Kagamil Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.; Frohlich, Bruno; Harper, Albert B.; Gilberg, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    Human mummified remains of 34 different infant and adult individuals from Kagamil Island, Alaska, are accessioned in the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Kagamil Island is one of the small islands in the Island of Four Mountains group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and is well known for the mummy caves located on the southwest coast of the island. The Kagamil mummy holdings at the Smithsonian represent one of the largest, best documented and preserved collections of this type. Although these specimens are stored in ideal conditions, many small feather and hair fragments have become loose or disassociated from the actual mummies over the years. This preliminary investigation of fragmentary fiber material retrieved from these artifacts is the first attempt to identify bird and mammal species associated with the mummified remains of the Kagamil Island, Alaska collection and is part of the ongoing research connected with these artifacts.

  4. Shark-inflicted trauma: a case study of unidentified remains recovered from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Maria T; Manhein, Mary H; Burgess, George H

    2012-11-01

    Here, we present a case of an unidentified male whose remains, except for the right arm, were recovered from the Gulf of Mexico 10 years prior to osteological analysis by forensic anthropologists. After the poorly preserved soft tissue was removed and the bones cleaned, forensic analysis revealed an unusual series of hard tissue trauma later attributed by a shark expert as shark scavenging and/or predation. Identified were five unique hard tissue trauma patterns that are bite mark artifacts produced by sharks: punctures without fractures, punctures with associated fractures, striations with bone shaving, overlapping striations, and incised bone gouges. The cooperation among experts provided a comprehensive death case analysis and a better understanding of shark-inflicted trauma on human skeletal remains.

  5. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  6. Reliability in age determination by pulp/tooth ratio in upper canines in skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Brogi, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Luigi; Mirtella, Dora; Vultaggio, Claudia; Cingolani, Mariano; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-07-01

    Estimation of age of skeletal remains is one of the most complex questions for anthropologists. The most common macroscopic methods are based on dental wear and histological evaluation of bone remodeling. These methods are often qualitative, require great technical expertise, and have proved inexact in the estimation of ages over 50 years. Certain dental methods investigate the apposition of secondary dentine, in the study of tooth cross-sections, and X-rays to study width, height, and pulp area. The primary author previously proposed a method of estimating the age of a living person based on the pulp/tooth ratio (PTR) method in the upper canines. The aim of the present study is to verify whether the PTR method can also be used to estimate the age at death of skeletal remains. This paper investigates the study of historical samples of known age as a means to validate the proposed method.

  7. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia.

  8. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  9. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian

    2013-07-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed.

  10. Despite small improvement, black nursing home residents remain less likely than whites to receive flu vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shubing; Feng, Zhanlian; Fennell, Mary L; Mor, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Vaccination is a key deterrent to influenza and its related complications and outcomes, including hospitalization and death. Using 2006-09 data, we found a small improvement in vaccination rates among nursing home residents, particularly for blacks. Nonetheless, overall vaccination rates remained well below the 90 percent target for high-quality care, and black nursing home residents remained less likely to be vaccinated than whites. Blacks were less likely to be vaccinated than were whites in the same facility and were more likely to live in facilities with lower vaccination rates. Blacks were also more likely to be noted as refusing vaccination. Strategies are needed to ensure that facilities offer vaccination to all residents and to make vaccination more acceptable to black residents and their families. PMID:21976338

  11. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives. PMID:23691472

  12. {13C }/{12C } ratios of pleistocene mummified remains from beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, Miguel; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    1985-01-01

    During the Quaternary glacial episodes, when sea level was considerably lower, Asia and North America were linked by large extensions of circumarctic land (Beringia), which remained unglaciated. This land mass served not only as a biogeographical bridge for plants, animals, and humans, but also supported a biome very different from present tundra or boreal coniferous forests, which was dominated by steppes and a rich mammalian megafauna. Carbon stable isotope ratios of Beringian late Pleistocene mummified remains of bison, equids, mammoth, caribou, musk-ox, moose, woolly rhino, and other undetermined species, found preserved in permafrost, indicate that these megaherbivores fed exclusively on C 3 plants, and that C 4 grasses were not differentially ingested by bison, as previously suggested. Paleoclimatic constraints probably prevented the formation of a warm-season (C 4) guild during the later part of the growing season in the steppes of Beringia during the last glaciation.

  13. Constant negotiating: managing work-related musculoskeletal disorders while remaining at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Smith-Young, Joanne; Solberg, Shirley; Gaudine, Alice

    2014-02-01

    We used grounded theory to explore processes and strategies used by workers affected by work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) while they remained in the workplace, and we developed a theory to describe the overall process. Participants included 25 workers affected by WMSDs who were currently employed in various workplaces in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The theoretical model has five main phases: (a) becoming concerned, (b) getting medical help, (c) dealing with the workplace, (d) making adjustments to lifestyle, and (e) taking charge, each with separate subphases. Constant negotiating was the core variable that explained the overall process, with workers engaged in negotiations with others in occupational, health, and social contexts. Using a two-dimensional figure, we illustrate the negotiation strategies workers used. We discuss implications for health care, workplaces, education, and research for creating a culture of understanding and respect for injured workers who wish to remain working after developing WMSDs.

  14. Spectral analysis of pharmaceutical formulations prepared according to ancient recipes in comparison with old museum remains.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, M Cristina; Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Baraldi, P

    2011-10-01

    A study of the composition of the remains of ancient ointments from museums was undertaken to enable understanding of the preparation techniques. Comparison of ancient recipes from different historical periods and spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic and/or organic remains recovered in museum vessels enabled preparation of ancient pharmaceutical-cosmetic formulations. Farmacopea Augustana by Occo was one the most important books studied for the 14 formulations prepared in the laboratory. Three formulations are discussed in detail and raw materials and new preparations were proposed for ozone ageing. The most important micro Raman results are discussed. The spectra of the raw materials lipids, beeswax, and resins are discussed; beeswax and pig suet (axŭngia) Raman spectra were found to be similar, but different from those of the aged oils. SERS was applied to ancient ointments and galbanum and the Raman spectra are reported and discussed for the first time.

  15. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia. PMID:22610966

  16. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  17. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-02-17

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet") yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd) c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1(st) c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  18. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories.

  19. Behavioral inferences from the Skhul/Qafzeh early modern human hand remains

    PubMed Central

    Niewoehner, Wesley A.

    2001-01-01

    Two groups of humans are found in the Near East ≈100,000 years ago, the late archaic Neanderthals and the early modern Skhul/Qafzeh humans. Observations that Neanderthals were more heavily muscled, had stronger upper-limb bones, and possessed unusual shapes and orientations of some upper-limb joint complexes relative to the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, have led some researchers to conclude that significant between-group upper-limb-related behavioral differences must have been present, despite the association of the two groups with similar Middle Paleolithic archeological complexes. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the hand remains of the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, Neanderthals, early and late Upper Paleolithic humans, and Holocene humans supports the dichotomy. The Skhul/Qafzeh carpometacarpal remains do not have any unique morphologies relative to the other fossil samples remains examined. However, in the functionally significant metacarpal 1 and 3 bases they resemble Upper Paleolithic humans, not Neanderthals. Furthermore, the Skhul/Qafzeh sample differs significantly from the Neanderthals in many other aspects of hand functional anatomy. Given the correlations between changes in tool technologies and functional adaptations seen in the hands of Upper Paleolithic humans, it is concluded that the Skhul/Qafzeh hand remains were adapted to Upper Paleolithic-like manipulative repertoires. These results support the inference of significant behavioral differences between Neanderthals and the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids and indicate that a significant shift in human manipulative behaviors was associated with the earliest stages of the emergence of modern humans. PMID:11248017

  20. US Public Health Preparedness for Zika and Other Threats Remains Vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    The unanticipated global outbreak of Zika virus infection is the most current but certainly not the last emerging infectious disease challenge to confront the US public heath system. Despite a number of such threats in recent years, significant gaps remain in core areas of public health system readiness. Stable, sustained investments are required to establish a solid foundation for achieving necessary national public health emergency preparedness and response capacity.

  1. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories. PMID:26615474

  2. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Casañas-Sánchez, Verónica; Pérez, José A; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc, and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx), glutathione-S-reductase (GSR), and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD), were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells. PMID:27512374

  3. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Casañas-Sánchez, Verónica; Pérez, José A; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc, and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx), glutathione-S-reductase (GSR), and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD), were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells.

  4. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Casañas-Sánchez, Verónica; Pérez, José A.; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc, and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx), glutathione-S-reductase (GSR), and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD), were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells. PMID:27512374

  5. Dating human skeletal remains using a radiometric method: biogenic versus diagenetic 90Sr and 210Pb in vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2012-07-10

    In forensic science, there is a strong interest in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains up to 50 years after death. Currently, there are no reliable methods to resolve PMI, the determination of which relies almost exclusively on the experience of the investigating expert. Here we measured (90)Sr and (210)Pb ((210)Po) incorporated into bones through a biogenic process as indicators of the time elapsed since death. We hypothesised that the activity of radionuclides incorporated into trabecular bone will more accurately match the activity in the environment and the food chain at the time of death than the activity in cortical bone because of a higher remodelling rate. We found that determining (90)Sr can yield reliable PMI estimates as long as a calibration curve exists for (90)Sr covering the studied area and the last 50 years. We also found that adding the activity of (210)Po, a proxy for naturally occurring (210)Pb incorporated through ingestion, to the (90)Sr dating increases the reliability of the PMI value. Our results also show that trabecular bone is subject to both (90)Sr and (210)Po diagenesis. Accordingly, we used a solubility profile method to determine the biogenic radionuclide only, and we are proposing a new method of bone decontamination to be used prior to (90)Sr and (210)Pb dating.

  6. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:23490263

  7. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-02-29

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  8. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-01-01

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:26923764

  9. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease-some answers, but questions remain.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc G W; Maguire, Graeme P

    2015-07-01

    Despite being preventable, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a significant global cause of cardiovascular disease. Echocardiographic screening for early detection of RHD has the potential to enable timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt progression to severe valvular disease. However, a number of issues remain to be addressed regarding its feasibility. The natural history of Definite RHD without a prior history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and Borderline RHD are both unclear. Even if they are variants of RHD it is not known whether secondary antibiotic prophylaxis will prevent disease progression as it does in "traditionally" diagnosed RHD. False positives can also have a detrimental impact on individuals and their families as well as place substantial burdens on health care systems. Recent research suggests that handheld echocardiography (HAND) may offer a cheaper and more convenient alternative to standard portable echocardiography (STAND) in RHD screening. However, while HAND is sensitive for the detection of Definite RHD, it is less sensitive for Borderline RHD and is relatively poor at detecting mitral stenosis (MS). Given its attendant limited specificity, potential cases detected with HAND would require re-examination by standard echocardiography. For now, echocardiographic screening for RHD should remain a subject of research rather than routine health care. PMID:26835376

  10. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results.

  11. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Lindauer, Susanne; Tomasto-Cagigao, Elsa; Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960's provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960's. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations.

  12. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  13. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    PubMed

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article.

  14. Hand and foot remains from the Gran Dolina Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C; Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

    1999-01-01

    We report here the study of the 22 hand and foot remains from the Early Pleistocene level TD6 of the Gran Dolina site at Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) recovered from 1994 to 1996. These remains are paratypes of Homo antecessor. All of the elements are briefly described and compared with other fossil hominids. The capitate has a constricted neck, well developed head, strong attachment for the ligamentum interosseum trapezoid-capitate, a palmarly placed trapezoid facet with a distinctive small dorsal trapezoid facet, a highly curved and oblique orientation of the second metacarpal facet, and a transversally oriented dorsodistal border. A hamate with a moderately projecting and lightly built hamulus; an inferred reduced styloid process on the third metacarpal base; a wide second metacarpal head; and middle phalanges with well marked insertions for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and wide heads. The morphology and dimensions of the pedal remains from TD6 are very similar to modern humans; but the base, proximal articular surface and shafts of the proximal hallucal phalanges are more rounded and the midshaft of the proximal toe phalanx is wider. PMID:10496998

  15. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally.

  16. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains. PMID:25563601

  17. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOEpatents

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  18. Urine immunofixation electrophoresis remains important and is complementary to serum free light chain.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Stanley S

    2011-11-01

    Articles have debated whether or not urine analysis remains valuable for identifying monoclonal gammopathies. A general impression is that the newer serum free light chain (FLC) assay is more analytically sensitive, more quantitative and simpler to perform. Many laboratory directors may have seized on the idea of eliminating urine analysis because it is a tedious procedure and requires expert interpretation while most laboratories can perform automated serum FLC assay. Others have concluded that urine immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) optimizes the diagnostic sensitivity and should be included when there is a clinical indication. Here, I show that papers faulting urine analysis often used inappropriate urine methodology and this helps explain why there was misinterpretation. Moreover, the literature, shows urine IFE is often more sensitive for identifying low-level monoclonal FLC than the serum assay because urine IFE is as sensitive when performed appropriately and generally more specific. Besides, the reference range for serum FLC assay is unclear which is a great problem in assessing response to treatment and in identifying diseases when there is low concentration monoclonal FLC. I conclude that urine IFE remains important and is complementary to serum FLC assay, although the best algorithms for use remains to be elucidated.

  19. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally. PMID:24331083

  20. Remaining teeth, oral dryness and dental health habits in middle-aged Norwegian rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Arneberg, P; Bjertness, E; Storhaug, K; Glennås, A; Bjerkhoel, F

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) upon dental health. A questionnaire was mailed to all seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients aged 44-56 yr in the files of the two main departments of rheumatology in South Eastern Norway. Data were obtained from 125 patients, constituting 91% of the target group. The number of remaining teeth in these patients was not related to disease duration or physical dysfunction, whereas a relationship to prolonged use of medication for pain relief was indicated. Factors known to affect tooth loss in the general population, such as smoking habits, dental attendance, interdental cleaning habits, previous dental disease, and place of residence were found to be important in RA patients as well. The RA patients from Oslo had a mean number of 25 remaining teeth, which is the same as reported for the general Oslo population at this age. Oral dryness was reported by more than 50% of the RA patients, but was not related to the number of teeth. The conclusion is that serious and long lasting rheumatoid arthritis had little influence on the number of remaining teeth in this middle-aged group of Norwegians. PMID:1424551

  1. Dental health of children: where we are today and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common disease in man and presents a tremendous health-affecting challenge and fiscal burden to both developed and underdeveloped countries. Changing demographics including increased number of ethnic minorities, cultural practices and diet, the number of children living in poverty or near poverty, and the special needs of medically compromised children have made solutions more complex and evasive. Systemic and topical fluoride contacts remain the most cost-effective public health response to preventing caries among children. The time-honored impact of reducing sugars and carbohydrates in the diet and improving oral hygiene practices also remain essential. New technology has the potential of offering remineralization strategies. The dental profession is challenged to be proactive in identifying alternatives and implementing new and creative ways to embrace underserved children and improve their access to care including trauma prevention. The impact on families and society, including financial and general well-being, due to poor oral health is significant. Lower income families absorb disproportionately the effect of dental diseases due to lack of education, food availability and selection, and access to early preventive care.

  2. Proposed classes of morphological autopsy findings for decomposed and skeletal remains in mass death investigations.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah; Potter, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of mass death events, often involving partial or skeletal human remains, requires investigators to condense information on a large number of victims into a single report. Prosecution of war crimes typically requires that victims be categorized according to the injuries sustained. Reports recognizing only the presence or absence of trauma are misleading or misrepresentative. This study introduces a 4 class system for skeletal remains based on morphologic autopsy findings. Each class corresponds to the lethal potential of the trauma or pathologic conditions evident at autopsy, and the certainty with which cause of death can be determined. Data were extracted from 766 autopsy cases involving decomposed or skeletal remains from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator in which cause and manner of death were ruled. Statistically significant associations between morphology class and the cause and manner of death, positive identification, and natural and non-natural deaths were evident in this study. Intraobserver and interobserver tests revealed excellent replicability and reliability in the assignment of morphology classes to individual cases. In addition to its mass death applications, this classification system offers potential research contributions to physical anthropologists and bioarchaeologists studying human populations in antiquity.

  3. Skeletal remains of a diminutive primate from the Paleocene of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Most living mammal orders, including our own, started their career during the first 10 million years of the Cenozoic, the Age of Mammals. The fossil record documents that early Paleogene adaptive radiations of various clades included tiny species of the size of living shrews. Remains of particularly diminutive limb bones are described from the late Paleocene site of Walbeck, Sachsen-Anhalt. Discovered in 1939, it has remained the only known Paleocene mammal-bearing locality from Germany. The remains are referred to the family Adapisoriculidae, which is considered on the basis of the present postcranial evidence to represent plesiadapiform primates rather than alleged lipotyphlan insectivores as previously proposed. The Walbeck fossils compete with the Early Eocene species Toliapina vinealis from Europe and Picromomys petersonorum from North America for the status of the smallest known primate, fossil and living. Their estimated body weights are as small as 10 g. The limb bones show features related to enhanced flexion at the elbow and hip joint, suggesting arboreal habits and environments such as terminal branches. The diminutive size and tooth morphology suggest feeding on small insects and other invertebrates. Postcranials are important to assess early radiations, such tiny specimens as the present ones are extremely scarce in the fossil record, however.

  4. New remains of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Megatheriidae, Xenarthra) from the coastal region of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tito, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    New remains of Eremotherium were recovered from the Pacific coast of Ecuador's Manabi province. The Machalilla fossiliferous locality records the northernmost presence of Eremotherium along the Pacific coast of South America. Most of the fossil remains belong to the same individual, mainly its posterior half, but other individuals are represented. Among the better-preserved specimens are skull fragments, most of the hind limb bones and a number of trunk and caudal centra. These remains were compared with samples collected during the 20th century along the southern coastal regions of Ecuador and northern Peru. Many characters of the long bones and tarsals testify to a possibly different lineage despite the closeness of other Eremotherium populations. Some metric and morphological aspects suggest a different space-temporal southern Caribbean provenance. Other Eremotherium specimens, coming from other Ecuadorian localities, were studied and compared with classic Eremotherium samples. Interesting morpho-functional aspects are pointed out with regard to the tail and its importance in the bipedal stance.

  5. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains.

  6. Post-operative hemimaxillectomy rehabilitation using prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining natural teeth

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xing Zhou; Wang, Ming Yi; Ong, Hui Shan; Zhang, Chen Ping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results. The patients were assessed using the prosthesis functioning scale of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, retention and bite force were recorded for both the temporary prosthesis and the final prosthesis. RESULTS: The mean bite force of the prosthetic first molar was increased to 69.2 N. The mean retentive force increased to 13.5 N after zygoma implant insertion. The bite force on the prosthetic first molar was improved to 229.3 N. CONCLUSION: Bite force increased significantly with the support of a zygoma implant. The use of zygoma implants in the restoration of maxillary defects improved functional outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:27759845

  7. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology: can vivianite be a marker of human remains permanence in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different

  8. The role of ozonation and activated carbon filtration in the natural organic matter removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, A; Iivari, P; Sallanko, J; Heiska, E; Tuhkanen, T

    2006-10-01

    Aquatic natural organic matter is one of the most important problems in the drinking water treatment process design and development. In this study, the removal of the natural organic matter was followed both in the full-scale drinking water treatment process and in the pilot-scale studies. The full-scale process consisted of coagulation, flocculation and flotation, sand filtration, ozonation, activated carbon filtration and disinfection. The aim of the pilot study was to investigate the influence of the dose and contact time of ozonation, and also the impact of activated carbon filtration, on the removal efficiency of organic matter. Several methods, including high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, total organic carbon content and assimilable organic carbon content measurements were used to characterize the behaviour of organic matter and its removal efficiency. On the full-scale process, total organic carbon was removed by over 90 %. According to size-exclusion measurements, chemical coagulation removed the high molar mass organic matter with an efficiency of 98%. The ozonation further removed the smaller molar mass fraction compounds by about 27%, while residual higher molar mass matter remained quite unaltered. Activated carbon filtration removed primarily intermediate and low molar mass organic matter. In the pilot-tests, conducted with sand filtered water from the full-scale process, it was noticed, that the ozonation removed primarily smaller organic compounds. The amount of assimilable organic carbon increased with increasing ozone dose, up to 0.4 mg l(-1) with the highest ozone dose of 4.0 mg 1(-1). The activated carbon filtration removed the assimilable organic carbon. Total organic carbon content was not reduced in ozonation.

  9. Fluid Shear Stress Regulates the Invasive Potential of Glioma Cells via Modulation of Migratory Activity and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Henry; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Tarbell, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma cells are exposed to elevated interstitial fluid flow during the onset of angiogenesis, at the tumor periphery while invading normal parenchyma, within white matter tracts, and during vascular normalization therapy. Glioma cell lines that have been exposed to fluid flow forces in vivo have much lower invasive potentials than in vitro cell motility assays without flow would indicate. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3D Modified Boyden chamber (Darcy flow through collagen/cell suspension) model was designed to mimic the fluid dynamic microenvironment to study the effects of fluid shear stress on the migratory activity of glioma cells. Novel methods for gel compaction and isolation of chemotactic migration from flow stimulation were utilized for three glioma cell lines: U87, CNS-1, and U251. All physiologic levels of fluid shear stress suppressed the migratory activity of U87 and CNS-1 cell lines. U251 motility remained unaltered within the 3D interstitial flow model. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition experiments and assays demonstrated that the glioma cells depended on MMP activity to invade, and suppression in motility correlated with downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels. This was confirmed by RT-PCR and with the aid of MMP-1 and MMP-2 shRNA constructs. Conclusions/Significance Fluid shear stress in the tumor microenvironment may explain reduced glioma invasion through modulation of cell motility and MMP levels. The flow-induced migration trends were consistent with reported invasive potentials of implanted gliomas. The models developed for this study imply that flow-modulated motility involves mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress affecting MMP activation and expression. These models should be useful for the continued study of interstitial flow effects on processes that affect tumor progression. PMID:21637818

  10. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  11. Skeletal remains of Dr. Eugenio Antonio Berríos Sagredo.

    PubMed

    Solla, H E; Işcan, M Y

    2001-02-15

    It is often noted that even a well-designed osteological technique may not provide accurate results when applied to single forensic cases. Case studies are ideal to test if this concern is valid, and forensic anthropology is a testing ground for applying a population based standard to individual skeletal remains. Secondly, the increasing role anthropologists have played in forensic sciences has aided the medicolegal disciplines in a number of ways. For example, identification of skeletal remains is now more accurate than ever before. Many of these cases have brought perpetrators to court for justice. The purpose of this paper is to use osteological techniques to analyze skeletal remains and make a positive identification. The victim was found partially buried in the sand near El Pinar, Uruguay in 1995. The analysis indicated that the victim was a 45-year old, white, male who was about 170cm tall. Based on preliminary evidence that the victim might be Dr. Eugenio Antonio Berríos Sagredo, a digital superimposition was made using the victim's photograph and the unknown skull. This examination revealed that the skull corresponded consistently with the individual in the photograph. Results were supported by the fact that personal belongings, such as a medal and wrist watch, also pointed to the same individual. Dental records and radiographs when made available later also indicated the same identity. Dr. Berríos was accused of making nerve gas during the dictatorial regime of former Chilean President General Augusto Pinochet. It was also alleged that he made bombs that killed a Spanish diplomat in his laboratory and a Chilean diplomat in Washington, DC. Many complex techniques are often needed to make a positive identification and such was the case for this study. Because of the nature of anthropology as a holistic discipline, such complexity is an integral part of human biology and behavior and can be used successfully in the forensic sciences and medicolegal

  12. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones.

  13. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lisa S.; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists’ widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure—specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human

  14. Long-Term Functional Dynamics of an Aphidophagous Coccinellid Community Remain Unchanged despite Repeated Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Bahlai, Christine A.; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Gage, Stuart H.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Aphidophagous coccinellids (ladybeetles) are important providers of herbivore suppression ecosystem services. In the last 30 years, the invasion of exotic coccinellid species, coupled with observed declines in native species, has led to considerable interest in the community dynamics and ecosystem function of this guild. Here we examined a 24-year dataset of coccinellid communities in nine habitats in southwestern Michigan for changes in community function in response to invasion. Specifically we analyzed their temporal population dynamics and species diversity, and we modeled the community’s potential to suppress pests. Abundance of coccinellids varied widely between 1989 and 2012 and became increasingly exotic-dominated. More than 71% of 57,813 adult coccinellids captured over the 24-year study were exotic species. Shannon diversity increased slightly over time, but herbivore suppression potential of the community remained roughly constant over the course of the study. However, both Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential due to native species declined over time in all habitats. The relationship between Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential varied with habitat type: a positive relationship in forest and perennial habitats, but was uncorrelated in annual habitats. This trend may have been because annual habitats were dominated by a few, highly voracious exotic species. Our results indicated that although the composition of the coccinellid community in southwestern Michigan has changed dramatically in the past several decades, its function has remained relatively unchanged in both agricultural and natural habitats. While this is encouraging from the perspective of pest management, it should be noted that losses of one of the dominant exotic coccinellids could result in a rapid decline in pest suppression services if the remaining community is unable to respond. PMID:24349505

  15. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones. PMID:24878617

  16. Prognostication of LED Remaining Useful Life and Color Stability in the Presence of Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Zang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-06-22

    The reliability of LED products may be affected by both luminous flux drop and color shift. Previous research on the topic focuses on either luminous maintenance or color shift. However, luminous flux degradation usually takes very long time to observe in LEDs under normal operating conditions. In this paper, the impact of a VOC (volatile organic compound) contaminated luminous flux and color stability are examined. As a result, both luminous degradation and color shift had been recorded in a short time. Test samples are white, phosphorconverted, high-power LED packages. Absolute radiant flux is measured with integrating sphere system to calculate the luminous flux. Luminous flux degradation and color shift distance were plotted versus aging time to show the degradation pattern. A prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the state variables and state estimator have been proposed in this paper. In this PHM framework, unscented kalman filter (UKF) was deployed as the carrier of all states. During the estimation process, third order dynamic transfer function was used to implement the PHM framework. Both of the luminous flux and color shift distance have been used as the state variable with the same PHM framework to exam the robustness of the method. Predicted remaining useful life is calculated at every measurement point to compare with the tested remaining useful life. The result shows that state estimator can be used as the method for the PHM of LED degradation with respect to both luminous flux and color shift distance. The prediction of remaining useful life of LED package, made by the states estimator and data driven approach, falls in the acceptable errorbounds (20%) after a short training of the estimator.

  17. The Genome Russia project: closing the largest remaining omission on the world Genome map.

    PubMed

    Oleksyk, Taras K; Brukhin, Vladimir; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing the great era of genome exploration of the world, as genetic variation in people is being detailed across multiple varied world populations in an effort unprecedented since the first human genome sequence appeared in 2001. However, these efforts have yet to produce a comprehensive mapping of humankind, because important regions of modern human civilization remain unexplored. The Genome Russia Project promises to fill one of the largest gaps, the expansive regions across the Russian Federation, informing not just medical genomics of the territories, but also the migration settlements  of historic and pre-historic Eurasian peoples.

  18. Memory modulation by post-training glucose or insulin remains evident at long retention intervals.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1996-03-01

    Immediate posttraining intraperitoneal injection of alpha-D[+]-glucose (30 mg/kg) facilitated, whereas a nonconvulsive dose of insulin (8 IU/kg) impaired, 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. When mice were trained and received immediate post-training glucose or insulin injections and were tested for retention either 1 week or 1 month later, at each retention interval performance was comparable to that found with a 24-h retention interval. Thus, memory modulation by post-training administration of either glucose or insulin remain evident at long retention intervals. PMID:8833107

  19. Effect of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe integrity and remaining life

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    Process piping is often exposed to corrosive fluids. During service, such exposure may cause localized corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking that affects structural integrity. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines. It accounts for both axial and hoop stress. Cracks are modeled using inelastic fracture mechanics. Both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes are addressed. Corrosion and crack-growth rates are used to predict remaining service life.

  20. How a rapid response team is supporting people to remain at home.

    PubMed

    Clift, Esther

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the work of a rapid response team (RRT) in an English city. The RRT is a multiprofessional intermediate care team that is able to support patients to remain at home during clinical crises and changes to their social care needs. The service is popular with patients and cost effective. The National Audit of Intermediate Care is in its fourth year and benchmarks how intermediate care services are delivered across England. RRT data are compared with the national data, and show that keeping the team as a crisis intervention service has enabled it to maintain capacity to support patients at home without requiring hospital admission. PMID:26607624

  1. Integrating dental data in missing persons and unidentified remains investigations: the RESOLVE INITIATIVE and DIP3.

    PubMed

    Kogon, S; Arnold, J; Wood, R; Merner, L

    2010-04-15

    DIP3, a computerized aid to assist in dental identification, was integrated into the RESOLVE INITIATIVE, a joint endeavour by the Ontario Provincial Police and the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario, to resolve cases of missing persons (MP) and unidentified remains (UNID). Dental data, from the UNID, collected by the coroner and the dental records of MP, provided by investigating police, are streamed separately for input into a dedicated computer program. All dental management is provided by forensic dentists. The advantage of having experienced dentists managing this data is explained. A description of the RESOLVE INITIATIVE and DIP3, including the method used for record transmission is provided.

  2. [Modern biology, imagery and forensic medicine: contributions and limitations in examination of skeletal remains].

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Dominique; Plu, Isabelle; Froment, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Forensic examination is often requested when skeletal remains are discovered. Detailed visual observation can provide much information, such as the human or animal origin, sex, age, stature, and ancestry, and approximate time since death. New three-dimensional imaging techniques can provide further information (osteometry, facial reconstruction). Bone chemistry, and particularly measurement of stable or unstable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, yields information on diet and time since death, respectively. Genetic analyses of ancient DNA are also developing rapidly. Although seldom used in a judicial context, these modern anthropologic techniques are nevertheless available for the most complex cases.

  3. State and municipal innovations in obesity policy: why localities remain a necessary laboratory for innovation.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Belinda; Ashe, Marice; Farias, Ruben; Gostin, Lawrence

    2015-03-01

    Municipal and state governments are surging ahead in obesity prevention, providing a testing ground for innovative policies and shifting social norms in the process. Though high-profile measures such as New York City's soda portion rule attract significant media attention, we catalog the broader array of initiatives in less-known localities. Local innovation advances prevention policy, but faces legal and political constraints-constitutional challenges, preemption, charges of paternalism, lack of evidence, and widening health inequalities. These arguments can be met with astute framing, empirical evidence, and policy design, enabling local governments to remain at the forefront in transforming obesogenic environments.

  4. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  5. Characterization of cultural remains associated to a human skeleton found at the site HMS Swift (1770)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, M. S.; Gómez, B. A.; Parera, S. D.; Elkin, D.; De Rosa, H.; Ciarlo, N. C.; Svoboda, H.

    2010-08-01

    Different types of materials found in association with a human skeleton found in an 18th century shipwreck in Patagonia (Argentina) were analyzed by means of OM, SEM-EDX, HPLC, and chemical analysis. Alizarin and purpurin, the main anthraquinones of the dye plant Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) were identified as the coloring matter of a red fabric attached to the skeleton. Metallographic and chemical analysis of one of the dome-shaped buttons associated to the human bones revealed that it was composed of a Pb-Sn-Cu alloy known as pewter. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the remains originally were part of a private marine uniform.

  6. National health spending in 2013: growth slows, remains in step with the overall economy.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Lassman, David; Catlin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 US health care spending increased 3.6 percent to $2.9 trillion, or $9,255 per person. The share of gross domestic product devoted to health care spending has remained at 17.4 percent since 2009. Health care spending decelerated 0.5 percentage point in 2013, compared to 2012, as a result of slower growth in private health insurance and Medicare spending. Slower growth in spending for hospital care, investments in medical structures and equipment, and spending for physician and clinical care also contributed to the low overall increase.

  7. Trepanation and Roman medicine: a comparison of osteoarchaeological remains, material culture and written texts.

    PubMed

    Tullo, E

    2010-06-01

    Evidence for prehistoric trepanation is limited to preserved osteoarchaeological material, namely human skulls, and the occasional discovery of surgical instruments. However, the Roman empire gave rise to an abundant and diverse range of source types, including skeletal remains, material culture and detailed medical texts, each of which harbours the potential to contribute to our understanding of trepanation during this historical period. This paper highlights the advantages and inherent biases of each of these source types, and proposes that the simultaneous analysis and integration of different types of historical evidence is essential for the study of trepanation as a surgical procedure.

  8. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction. PMID:22017080

  9. Effect of stress corrosion cracking on integrity and remaining life of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.; Harle, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    External stress-corrosion cracking of pipelines is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. Longitudinal cracks initiate on the outside surface of the pipe and link up to form flaws that, in some cases, can lead to pipe rupture. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines and considers both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes. A methodology also is presented to calculate the remaining life of a pipeline containing flaws of known size.

  10. How a rapid response team is supporting people to remain at home.

    PubMed

    Clift, Esther

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the work of a rapid response team (RRT) in an English city. The RRT is a multiprofessional intermediate care team that is able to support patients to remain at home during clinical crises and changes to their social care needs. The service is popular with patients and cost effective. The National Audit of Intermediate Care is in its fourth year and benchmarks how intermediate care services are delivered across England. RRT data are compared with the national data, and show that keeping the team as a crisis intervention service has enabled it to maintain capacity to support patients at home without requiring hospital admission.

  11. How do we Remain Us in a Time of Change: Culture and Knowledge Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of findings of a NASA agency-wide Knowledge Management Team considering culture and knowledge management issues at the agency. Specific issues identified by the team include: (1) NASA must move from being a knowledge hoarding culture to a knowledge sharing culture; (2) NASA must move from being center focused to being Agency focused; (3) NASA must capture the knowledge of a departing workforce. Topics considered include: what must NASA know to remain NASA, what were previous forms of knowledge reproduction and how has technological innovations changed these systems, and what changes in funding and relationships between contractors and NASA affected knowledge reproduction.

  12. Fungal remains in Pleistocene ground squirrel dung from Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirozynski, Kris A.; Carter, Adrian; Day, Richard G.

    1984-11-01

    Fungi in dung of the Arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) collected near Dominion Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada, have a radiocarbon age of 12,200 ± 100 yr B.P. Most of the fungal remains are assignable to modern taxa, and most of these are either widespread saprobes or nonspecific coprophiles. However, specimens identified as Chaetomium simile and Thecaphora deformans represent fungi that may be more characteristic of rodent dung than that of other animals, inviting consideration of dung fungi as a potential source of paleontological data.

  13. Memory modulation by post-training glucose or insulin remains evident at long retention intervals.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1996-03-01

    Immediate posttraining intraperitoneal injection of alpha-D[+]-glucose (30 mg/kg) facilitated, whereas a nonconvulsive dose of insulin (8 IU/kg) impaired, 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. When mice were trained and received immediate post-training glucose or insulin injections and were tested for retention either 1 week or 1 month later, at each retention interval performance was comparable to that found with a 24-h retention interval. Thus, memory modulation by post-training administration of either glucose or insulin remain evident at long retention intervals.

  14. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  15. Sensory Stimulation-Based Complete Protection from Ischemic Stroke Remains Stable at 4 Months Post-Occlusion of MCA.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Aneeka M; Lay, Christopher C; Davis, Melissa F; Frostig, Ron D

    2013-11-01

    Previous research from our lab has shown that when using a rodent model of ischemic stroke (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion), mild sensory stimulation, when delivered within two hours of ischemic onset, completely protects the cortex from impending ischemic stroke damage when assessed 24 hours post-occlusion. However, the long-term stability of this protection remains unclear. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging for assessment of cortical function, laser speckle imaging for assessment of blood flow, a battery of behavioral tests and cresyl violet for histological assessment, the present study examined whether this protection was long-lasting. When assessed 4 months post-occlusion (this length of time being equivalent to 10-15 years in humans), rats receiving sensory stimulation treatment immediately after ischemic onset exhibit normal neuronal and vascular function, and they are behaviorally and histologically equivalent to healthy controls (surgical shams). Thus, the complete neuroprotection due to cortical activation via sensory stimulation remains stable with time. These findings add support to the translational potential of this sensory stimulation-based treatment.

  16. Estimation of the most likely number of individuals from commingled human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2004-10-01

    This study examines quantification techniques applicable to human skeletal remains, and in particular the Lincoln index (LI), the minimum number of individuals (MNI), and what we refer to as the most likely number of individuals (MLNI), which is a modification of the LI by Chapman ([1951] Univ. Calif. Publ. Stat. 1:131-159). As part of the study, a test of pair-matching between commingled homologous elements, e.g., right and left femora, was performed based on gross morphology. The results show that pair-matching can be accurately performed, and that the MLNI is a useful technique for dealing with well-preserved commingled remains recovered from archaeological excavations and/or forensic investigations. Our results show that it is potentially misleading to draw population conclusions based on the MNI, except in instances where recovery is near 100%. The MLNI was found to be the best method to compensate for the potential underestimates of the MNI and potential bias in the original LI estimates resulting from small sample sizes. We demonstrate the use of MLNI in estimating the number of individuals from Lodge 21 at the Larson site, a late protohistoric structure at which the inhabitants were massacred and subsequently had their skeletal elements commingled by further taphonomic processes. We also show how to calculate estimates and standard errors for the recovery probabilities of skeletal elements.

  17. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Gin, Stephane; Inagaki, Yaohiro

    2013-12-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  18. How microbial ancient DNA, found in association with human remains, can be interpreted.

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, F; Marota, I

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the DNA of ancient micro-organisms in archaeological and palaeontological human remains can contribute to the understanding of issues as different as the spreading of a new disease, a mummification process or the effect of diets on historical human populations. The quest for this type of DNA, however, can represent a particularly demanding task. This is mainly due to the abundance and diffusion of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and protozoans in the most diverse environments of the present-day biosphere and the resulting difficulty in distinguishing between ancient and modern DNA. Nevertheless, at least under some special circumstances, by using rigorous protocols, which include an archaeometric survey of the specimens and evaluation of the palaeoecological consistency of the results of DNA sequence analysis, glimpses of the composition of the original microbial flora (e.g. colonic flora) can be caught in ancient human remains. Potentials and pitfalls of this research field are illustrated by the results of research works performed on prehistoric, pre-Columbian and Renaissance human mummies. PMID:10091251

  19. An adaptive remaining energy prediction approach for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-02-01

    With the growing number of electric vehicle (EV) applications, the function of the battery management system (BMS) becomes more sophisticated. The accuracy of remaining energy estimation is critical for energy optimization and management in EVs. Therefore the state-of-energy (SoE) is defined to indicate the remaining available energy of the batteries. Considering that there are inevitable accumulated errors caused by current and voltage integral method, an adaptive SoE estimator is first established in this paper. In order to establish a reasonable battery equivalent model, based on the experimental data of the LiFePO4 battery, a data-driven model is established to describe the relationship between the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and the SoE. What is more, the forgetting factor recursive least-square (RLS) method is used for parameter identification to get accurate model parameters. Finally, in order to analyze the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed approach, different types of dynamic current profiles are conducted on the lithium-ion batteries and the performances are calculated and compared. The results indicate that the proposed approach has robust and accurate SoE estimation results under dynamic working conditions.

  20. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type.

  1. [Economic Loss of Remaining Contents in Molecular Target Drug Preparation and the Simulation for Cost Saving].

    PubMed

    Usami, Eiseki; Kimura, Michio; Fukuoka, Tomohiro; Okada, Kazutomo; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-01

    While preparing an anticancer drug, even if it is an expensive molecular target drug, the remainder is not divided and saved for use in other patients; instead, it is discarded, resulting in waste of medical resources. In this study, we examined the economic loss in terms of medical costs by calculating the discarded amounts of 12 commonly used molecular target drugs at Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Japan between January 2012 and December 2014. We found, on average, that drugs valued at ¥ 52,593,182 were discarded annually. In particular, the discarded amounts of relatively expensive drugs, such as bevacizumab, bortezomib, and rituximab, were valued at ¥ 16,646,300, ¥ 15,866,289, and ¥ 8,401,324, respectively. Among these, the average amount of waste per administration of bortezomib was particularly expensive, at a cost of ¥ 67,325. Bortezomib is a commonly used treatment, resulting in excessive cumulative discarded cost. In an effort to save cost, we should consider using small capacity standard injections. Development of a simulation that used the remaining drug contents from only 1 day showed that bevacizumab alone accounts for an average cost saving of ¥1 2,542,191(75.3%) per year. This study suggests that effectively utilizing the remaining drug contents would ensure efficient use of medical resources, thereby reducing economic losses.

  2. Islets Transplanted in Immunoisolation Devices: A Review of the Progress and the Challenges that Remain

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Esther S.; Vegas, Arturo; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using an immunoisolation device to facilitate the transplantation of islets without the need for immunosuppression has been around for more than 50 yr. Significant progress has been made in developing suitable materials that satisfy the need for biocompatibility, durability, and permselectivity. However, the search is ongoing for a device that allows sufficient oxygen transfer while maintaining a barrier to immune cells and preventing rejection of the transplanted tissue. Separating the islets from the rich blood supply in the native pancreas takes its toll. The immunoisolated islets commonly suffer from hypoxia and necrosis, which in turn triggers a host immune response. Efforts have been made to improve the supply of nutrients by using proangiogenic factors to augment the development of a vascular supply in the transplant site, by using small islet cell aggregates to reduce the barrier to diffusion of oxygen, or by creating scaffolds that are in close proximity to a vascular network such as the omental blood supply. Even if these efforts are successful, the shortage of donor islet tissue available for transplantation remains a major problem. To this end, a search for a renewable source of insulin-producing cells is ongoing; whether these will come from adult or embryonic stem cells or xenogeneic sources remains to be seen. Herein we will review the above issues and chart the progress made with various immunoisolation devices in small and large animal models and the small number of clinical trials carried out to date. PMID:21951347

  3. Reconstruction of stand dynamics over the last 2500 years from spruce remains in a treeline peatland

    SciTech Connect

    Arseneault, D.; Payette, S.

    1995-06-01

    Stem remains of black spruce Picea mariana (Mill. BSP.) buried in a permafrost treeless peatland were used for the reconstruction of the long-term forest dynamics at treeline in northeastern Canada. Because most spruce remains were well preserved, forest development was assessed from stem morphology (growth form) and tree ring patterns. The peatland border was colonized by a spruce forest from at least 500 BC (2500 BP) to 1568 AD. Most spruce individuals showed an erect, monopodial bole with only minor stem damage at the snow-air interface. The forest successfully regenerated after two fire events around 350 BC and 10 AD. The number of damaged stems at the snow-air interface increased after another fire around 700 AD, although faster ring growth occurred between 860 and 1000 AD (Medieval period). The forest shifted to an open krummholz after the last fire in 1568 AD because of reduced postfire regeneration and site opening. Reforestation of the site would necessitate sustained warmer conditions than those presently prevailing there.

  4. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Mendisco, F; Pemonge, M H; Leblay, E; Romon, T; Richard, G; Courtaud, P; Deguilloux, M F

    2015-01-19

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence.

  5. [Economic Loss of Remaining Contents in Molecular Target Drug Preparation and the Simulation for Cost Saving].

    PubMed

    Usami, Eiseki; Kimura, Michio; Fukuoka, Tomohiro; Okada, Kazutomo; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-01

    While preparing an anticancer drug, even if it is an expensive molecular target drug, the remainder is not divided and saved for use in other patients; instead, it is discarded, resulting in waste of medical resources. In this study, we examined the economic loss in terms of medical costs by calculating the discarded amounts of 12 commonly used molecular target drugs at Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Japan between January 2012 and December 2014. We found, on average, that drugs valued at ¥ 52,593,182 were discarded annually. In particular, the discarded amounts of relatively expensive drugs, such as bevacizumab, bortezomib, and rituximab, were valued at ¥ 16,646,300, ¥ 15,866,289, and ¥ 8,401,324, respectively. Among these, the average amount of waste per administration of bortezomib was particularly expensive, at a cost of ¥ 67,325. Bortezomib is a commonly used treatment, resulting in excessive cumulative discarded cost. In an effort to save cost, we should consider using small capacity standard injections. Development of a simulation that used the remaining drug contents from only 1 day showed that bevacizumab alone accounts for an average cost saving of ¥1 2,542,191(75.3%) per year. This study suggests that effectively utilizing the remaining drug contents would ensure efficient use of medical resources, thereby reducing economic losses. PMID:27306812

  6. Probability based remaining capacity estimation using data-driven and neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-05-01

    Since large numbers of lithium-ion batteries are composed in pack and the batteries are complex electrochemical devices, their monitoring and safety concerns are key issues for the applications of battery technology. An accurate estimation of battery remaining capacity is crucial for optimization of the vehicle control, preventing battery from over-charging and over-discharging and ensuring the safety during its service life. The remaining capacity estimation of a battery includes the estimation of state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-energy (SOE). In this work, a probability based adaptive estimator is presented to obtain accurate and reliable estimation results for both SOC and SOE. For the SOC estimation, an n ordered RC equivalent circuit model is employed by combining an electrochemical model to obtain more accurate voltage prediction results. For the SOE estimation, a sliding window neural network model is proposed to investigate the relationship between the terminal voltage and the model inputs. To verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model and estimation algorithm, experiments under different dynamic operation current profiles are performed on the commercial 1665130-type lithium-ion batteries. The results illustrate that accurate and robust estimation can be obtained by the proposed method.

  7. Novel dating method to distinguish between forensic and archeological human skeletal remains by bone mineralization indexes.

    PubMed

    Patonai, Zoltan; Maasz, Gabor; Avar, Peter; Schmidt, Janos; Lorand, Tamas; Bajnoczky, Istvan; Mark, Laszlo

    2013-03-01

    The fast, high-throughput distinction between paleoanthropological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medicolegal science. In this paper, a novel screening method has been described, using the crystallinity index (C.I.) and carbonate-phosphate index (C/P) as a means to distinguish between archeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. According to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, the archeological bone samples are characterized by a range of C.I. between 2.84 and 3.78 and by low C/P values of 0.10-0.33, while the C.I. and C/P ranges of forensic skeletal remains are 2.55-3.18 and 0.38-0.88, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) changes were observed in C/P as well as C.I. values between the groups of forensic and archeological skeletal samples. The suggested dating method needs only a few milligramms of bone tissue; thus, it can be extremely useful for distiguishing ancient and recent bone fragments.

  8. Molecular genetic analysis on the remains of the Dark Countess: Revisiting the French Royal family.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Berger, Cordula; Sänger, Timo; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The "Dark Counts" were a mysterious couple that appeared in the Thuringian village Eishausen in 1807. After living in self imposed solitude for 30 years the woman died and was buried under the name Sophia Botta. Her companion, who presented himself as Vavel de Versay, died in 1845 and was later identified as Leonardus Cornelius van der Valck, secretary of the Dutch embassy in Paris. Their lifestyle led to speculations that she was the true princess Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France, daughter of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. According to these speculations she was substituted by another young woman on a voyage from Paris to Vienna. Molecular genetic analyses were set out to test the remains attributed to the Dark Countess. Mitochondrial DNA testing brought concordant results determined in two forensic laboratories (Innsbruck, Austria and Freiburg, Germany) on parallel samples of the remains. The results were in exclusion to both, the mitochondrial lineage earlier reported for the French Royal family and the mitochondrial haplotype observed in a living descendant of the Royal family.

  9. Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2013-03-01

    Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World.

  10. Cervical ripening: how long can the Foley catheter safely remain in the cervical canal?

    PubMed

    Ekele, B A; Isah, A Y

    2002-12-01

    This was a prospective study involving 85 patients admitted for induction of labour with unfavourable cervix at Usman Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. A size 16-20 Foley catheter was passed transcervically into the extra-amniotic space under aseptic technique and the balloon inflated with 30-50 mls sterile water. Each patient was placed on prophylactic antibiotics. The balloon was expelled within 12 hours in 22 (39%) patients. Twenty eight patients expelled the balloon in 12-24 hours, 14 in 25-48 hours, 6 in 49-72 hours and 4 after 72 hours. The average duration of catheter placement when the gestational age was 20-27 weeks was 44.8 hours, which was significantly longer than 19.6 hours obtained for term pregnancies (p < 0.05). Induction of labour was successful in 77 (91%) patients and there was no significant maternal morbidity. The results of our study suggest that the balloon of the Foley catheter can safely remain in the extra-amniotic space longer than 24 hours for cervical ripening if the cervix is unfavourable, provided the membranes are intact and the feto-maternal conditions remain satisfactory.

  11. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Mendisco, F.; Pemonge, M. H.; Leblay, E.; Romon, T.; Richard, G.; Courtaud, P.; Deguilloux, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence. PMID:25487339

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of spatiotemporal Pb isoscapes for provenancing of human remains.

    PubMed

    Keller, Austin T; Regan, Laura A; Lundstrom, Craig C; Bower, Nathan W

    2016-04-01

    Geospatially distributed isotopes (isoscapes) from biogeochemically fractionated processes have been applied in many forensic investigations, such as authentication of food and sourcing of drugs. Provenancing of human remains using isotopes has been hindered by a lack of appropriate isoscapes, by changes in these isoscapes over time, and by various homogenization processes. In this study we create spatiotemporal isoscapes for anthropogenic lead (Pb) for the contiguous United States and Europe using literature data from dated sediments, soils and biological tissues. We compare (206)Pb/(207)Pb isoscapes with isoscapes of δ(13)C, δ(18)O and (87)Sr/(86)Sr to determine their relative efficacy for the forensic identification of human remains. We do this comparison using third molar enamel data from 22 United States Air Force Academy cadets with known life trajectories born between 1983 and 1985. We use these spatiotemporal isoscapes with osteologic analyses, hospital records and isotopic analyses of tooth enamel carbonate from permanent teeth to help identify 32 individuals from unmarked graves found in a forgotten 19th century mental asylum cemetery. PMID:26914828

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection induced gastric cancer; advance in gastric stem cell research and the remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastric cancer, which remains an important health care challenge. Recent investigation in gastric stem cell or progenitor cell biology has uncovered valuable information in understanding the gastric gland renewal and maintenance of homeostasis, they also provide clues for further defining the mechanisms by which gastric cancer may originate and progress. Lgr5, Villin-promoter, TFF2-mRNA and Mist have recently been identified as gastric stem/progenitor cell markers; their identification enriched our understanding on the gastric stem cell pathobiology during chronic inflammation and metaplasia. In addition, advance in gastric cancer stem cell markers such as CD44, CD90, CD133, Musashi-1 reveal novel information on tumor cell behavior and disease progression implicated for therapeutics. However, two critical questions remain to be of considerable challenges for future exploration; one is how H. pylori or chronic inflammation affects gastric stem cell or their progenitors, which give rise to mucus-, acid-, pepsinogen-, and hormone-secreting cell lineages. Another one is how bacterial infection or inflammation induces oncogenic transformation and propagates into tumors. Focus on the interactions of H. pylori with gastric stem/progenitor cells and their microenvironment will be instrumental to decipher the initiation and origin of gastric cancer. Future studies in these areas will be critical to uncover molecular mechanisms of chronic inflammation-mediated oncogenic transformation and provide options for cancer prevention and intervention. We review recent progress and discuss future research directions in these important research fields. PMID:23217022

  14. What about the remaining twins since single-embryo transfer? How far can (should) we go?

    PubMed

    De Neubourg, D; Gerris, J

    2006-04-01

    Single-embryo transfer (SET) and more specifically elective SET (eSET) have taken their place in good clinical IVF/ICSI practice. After the initial cautious search for the characteristics of the twin-prone patient and of the selection of the embryo with the highest implantation potential many centres have embarked on the (progressive) implementation of SET, either by conviction or forced by legislation or both. It was only because the ongoing pregnancy rates remained largely unaffected that SET was accepted. Generally speaking, it can be said that the twinning rate after IVF/ICSI has dropped by at least 50% simply by transferring only one good-quality embryo in the first and second fresh IVF/ICSI cycles in young women, without decrease in the overall pregnancy rate. Preventing 'the second half' of IVF/ICSI twins constitutes another and probably tougher challenge because the target group is a heterogeneous mix consisting of patients in very different clinical situations. Can we expand our experience for further twin prevention to women of older age and to cycles of higher rank without a significant drop in pregnancy rates? Can we extend it to more cryopreservation cycles? To have an idea of future target groups for increased application of SET, we analysed the remaining twins after double-embryo transfer (DET), and from these data we suggest expanding the eSET policy to women <38 years of age until the third cycle and to cryopreservation cycles.

  15. Assessing the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in unembalmed and embalmed human remains.

    PubMed

    Correia, J C; Steyl, J L; De Villiers, H C

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy and mortuary technical staff faces an ever existing risk of contracting an infectious disease, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), when exposed to human remains. The transfer and handling of a corpse expels air from the lungs of the diseased and this aerosolizes the bacilli. It is for this reason that personal protective equipment and work space precautions such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation is a necessity. In this study, the authors explore the viability of MTB before and after embalming. Briefly, lung tissue samples, both apical and hilar, were obtained from 20 cadavers whose death certificate indicated MTB as cause of death. The first sample was taken before embalming and second set 3 weeks after embalming. Tissue was deposited into sterile specimen containers and transported for analysis which included Mycobacterium growth indicator tube cultures and polymerase chain reaction. Results demonstrated that both the apical and the perihilar sample tested positive prior to embalming, 36 days after death. After three weeks post-embalming none tested positive. The results demonstrated that MTB can remain viable after death for up to 36 days. This viability extends beyond the documented cases and highlights the need for precautionary measures and standard operating procedures in accordance with occupational health and safety guidelines.

  16. Naming the body (or the bones): Human remains, anthropological/medical collections, religious beliefs, and restitution.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Human bones and biological remains conserved in anthropological, medical, and archaeological collections are foci of ethical debate, as recently illustrated by the affair of Charles Byrne's bones. In the near future, curators will have to choose between global conservation of all (or almost all) anthropological collections and systematic restitution to their original communities or families. Various proposals and examples of restitution and nonrestitution are given (with justifications) in order to support the concept that the body (especially the dead body) is not property. We propose that the only element supporting arguments in favor of restitution could be the name of the individual, highlighting the importance of all identification processes for such "artifacts." This is undoubtedly a universal value: naming the dead, identifying and then burying the person, i.e., reversing the progression along the timeline from individual to scientific specimen. Such elements could be of great interest to all universities and medical institutions that keep human remains in their collections for educational or historical purposes when they are confronted with ethical problems and/or repatriation requests.

  17. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  18. A Rational Design Strategy for the Selective Activity Enhancement of a Molecular Chaperone toward a Target Substrate.

    PubMed

    Aprile, Francesco A; Sormanni, Pietro; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-08-18

    Molecular chaperones facilitate the folding and assembly of proteins and inhibit their aberrant aggregation. They thus offer several opportunities for biomedical and biotechnological applications, as for example they can often prevent protein aggregation more effectively than other therapeutic molecules, including small molecules and antibodies. Here we present a method of designing molecular chaperones with enhanced activity against specific amyloidogenic substrates while leaving unaltered their functions toward other substrates. The method consists of grafting onto a molecular chaperone a peptide designed to bind specifically an epitope in the target substrate. We illustrate this strategy by describing Hsp70 variants with increased affinities for α-synuclein and Aβ42 but otherwise unaltered affinities for other substrates. These designed variants inhibit protein aggregation and disaggregate preformed fibrils significantly more effectively than wild-type Hsp70 indicating that the strategy presented here provides a possible route for tailoring rationally molecular chaperones for specific purposes.

  19. Alkalosis and Dialytic Clearance of Phosphate Increases Phosphatase Activity: A Hidden Consequence of Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; González-Parra, Emilio; Egido, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular pyrophosphate is a potent endogenous inhibitor of vascular calcification, which is degraded by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and generated by hydrolysis of ATP via ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (eNPP1). ALP activity (as routinely measured in clinical practice) represents the maximal activity (in ideal conditions), but not the real activity (in normal or physiological conditions). For the first time, the present study investigated extracellular pyrophosphate metabolism during hemodialysis sessions (including its synthesis via eNPP1 and its degradation via ALP) in physiological conditions. Methods and Findings 45 patients in hemodialysis were studied. Physiological ALP activity represents only 4–6% of clinical activity. ALP activity increased post-hemodialysis by 2% under ideal conditions (87.4 ± 3.3 IU/L vs. 89.3 ± 3.6 IU/L) and 48% under physiological conditions (3.5 ± 0.2 IU/L vs. 5.2 ± 0.2 IU/L). Pyrophosphate synthesis by ATP hydrolysis remained unaltered post-hemodialysis. Post-hemodialysis plasma pH (7.45 ± 0.02) significantly increased compared with the pre-dialysis pH (7.26 ± 0.02). The slight variation in pH (~0.2 units) induced a significant increase in ALP activity (9%). Addition of phosphate in post-hemodialysis plasma significantly decreased ALP activity, although this effect was not observed with the addition of urea. Reduction in phosphate levels and increment in pH were significantly associated with an increase in physiological ALP activity post-hemodialysis. A decrease in plasma pyrophosphate levels (3.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L vs. 1.9 ± 0.1 μmol/L) and pyrophosphate/ATP ratio (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.1) post-hemodialysis was also observed. Conclusion Extraction of uremic toxins, primarily phosphate and hydrogen ions, dramatically increases the ALP activity under physiological conditions. This hitherto unknown consequence of hemodialysis suggests a reinterpretation of the clinical value of this parameter

  20. An exploratory intervention study suggests clinical benefits of training in chronic stroke to be paralleled by changes in brain activity using repeated fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Landsmann, Barbara; Pinter, Daniela; Pirker, Eva; Pichler, Gerald; Schippinger, Walter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mathie, Gabriel; Gattringer, Thomas; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies demonstrated changes in sensorimotor network activation over time after stroke that have been interpreted as partly compensatory. Locomotor and balance trainings may improve both mobility and cognition even in chronic stroke and thereby impact on cerebral activation patterns. We here aimed at testing these assumptions in an exploratory study to inform subsequent larger intervention studies. Patients and methods Eight patients (73.3±4.4 years) with a chronic lacunar stroke (mean interval 3.7 years after the acute event with a range from 2 to 4 years) and residual leg paresis leading to gait disturbance received a guided 5-week training focusing on mobility, endurance, and coordination. Before and afterward, they underwent clinical, neuropsychological, and gait assessments and brain MRI at 3 T including a functional ankle movement paradigm. Sixteen healthy controls (HCs; 68.8±5.4 years) followed the same protocol without intervention. Results After training, patients had improved in mobility, memory, and delayed recall of memory. While cerebral activations in HC remained completely unaltered, patients showed increased activations in the right precentral gyrus, the right and left superior frontal gyri, and the right frontal lobe, with bipedal ankle movements after training. Conclusion In this exploratory study of chronic stroke, we found not only significant effects of physical training on mobility but also distinct aspects of cognition already with a small number of highly selected patients. These improvements were paralleled by alterations in cerebral activity possibly reflecting neuronal plasticity. Larger studies including randomization are needed. PMID:26869779