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Sample records for activity remains controversial

  1. Design Piracy: Student Perceptions of a Constructive Controversy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal learning occurs when students are interested in the subject matter, are motivated with challenging and quality learning opportunities, and when immersed in atmospheres that make learning enjoyable. One technique to promote optimal learning is through the use of constructive controversies. The purpose of this study was to provide an example…

  2. Circumcision controversies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Kirk

    2012-08-01

    Despite its long history and common practice, circumcision remains a controversial procedure. This article reviews the history of this operation, examines the controversy that surrounds it, and emphasizes the performing practitioner's responsibility to the patient and his family in guiding them through the complicated decision making surrounding newborn circumcision. PMID:22857844

  3. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  4. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October`s total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels.

  5. Teaching Controversy without Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiehm, Judith

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of "Sex, Power, and Politics" course at the University of Southern California in which the videotaping of class sessions is used to reduce classroom controversy while studying controversy. (ND)

  6. Controversial constitutive TSHR activity: patients, physiology, and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Huth, S; Jaeschke, H; Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, R

    2014-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is characterized by a high level of constitutive activity in the wild type state. However, little is known yet concerning the physiological relevance of the constitutive wild type TSHR activity. Certainly, knowledge of the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type receptor activity is necessary to better understand thyroid physiology and it is a prerequisite for the development of better therapies for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Based on a literature search regarding all published TSHR mutations, this review covers several mutations which are clearly associated with a hyperthyroidism-phenotype, but interestingly show a lack of constitutive activity determined by in vitro characterization. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies between clinical phenotypes and in vitro characterization results for constitutive TSHR activity are reviewed. All current in vitro characterization methods for constitutive TSHR mutations are "preliminary attempts" and may well be revised by more comprehensive and even better approaches. However, a standardized approach for the determination of constitutive activity can help to identify TSHR mutations for which the investigation of additional signaling mechanisms would be most interesting to find explanations for the current clinical phenotype/in vitro discrepancies and thereby also define suitable methods to explore the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type TSHR activity. PMID:24845969

  7. The effect of the metal-on-metal hip controversy on Internet search activity.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Nigel; Kelly, John C; Moore, David P; Kenny, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The recall of the articular surface replacement (ASR) hip prosthesis in 2010 represents one of the most controversial areas in orthopaedic surgery in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the metal-on-metal hip controversy on Internet search activity in four different regions and determine whether the number of related news reports affected Internet search activity. The Google Trends, Keywords and News applications were used to record the number of news articles and Internet search activity for the terms "hip recall", "metal-on-metal hip" and "ASR hip" from October 2009 to October 2012 in the USA, the UK, Australia and Ireland. There was a large increase in search activity following the official recall in August 2010 in all countries. There was significantly greater search activity after the recall in Ireland compared with the UK for the search term "hip recall" (P = 0.004). For the term "metal-on-metal hip", the UK had significantly more search activity (P = 0.0009). There was a positive correlation between the number of news stories in UK and Ireland with Internet search activity but not in the USA or Australia. Differences between countries affected by the same recall highlight the complex effects of the media on public awareness. The data demonstrates a window of opportunity prior to the official recall for the development of an awareness campaign to provide patients with accurate information. PMID:24390041

  8. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128

  9. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  10. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  11. Academic Controversy in Macroeconomics: An Active and Collaborative Method to Increase Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santicola, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that there is a lack of learning outcomes in economics that can be attributed to the reliance on traditional lecture and the failure to adopt innovative instructional techniques. This study sought to investigate the student learning effects of academic controversy, a cooperative learning technique that shows promise in the…

  12. Controversy Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John O.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that business communication should encourage the use of plain language while breaking down the ideas that it is unprofessional to write in clear prose and that it is safer to keep prose muddy so as to avoid controversy in an organization. (SRT)

  13. Facelift Controversies.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Dane M; Gerecci, Deniz; Wang, Tom D

    2016-08-01

    The primary purpose of the facelift is to restore the shape, volume, and contours of the youthful face. Facelift surgery has evolved over the years into multiple techniques to accomplish the same results. This article discusses the common controversies in facelift surgery and evaluates the best available evidence to guide surgical decision-making. In regard to the salient question of whether there is a "best" technique, the literature suggests that the options are generally equal in efficacy. This highlights the need for high-quality research with standardized preoperative assessment and evaluation of postoperative results to better assess outcomes. PMID:27400849

  14. Controversial therapies.

    PubMed

    Silver, L B

    1995-01-01

    Parents of children or adolescents with disabilities want the best treatment. They are vulnerable to any person who reports having a quick solution and possibly a cure. It is important that professionals be informed of these controversial therapies so that they can educate parents on what is known about these treatments. There is a relationship between brain function and nutrition, as well as between brain function and allergic reactions. These relations appear to be true for children with learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other neurologic disorders. At this time, however, we do not understand these relationships and there are no known treatments based on these relationships that have been shown to be clinically successful. Professionals must educate parents on proposed new treatments. Parents need to ask themselves why this amazing approach is not used by everyone. If the person proposing the treatment tells them that "most professionals are biased and do not believe the findings because they are different from the traditional treatments," they should feel free to ask to see the data supporting the concept and the treatment. They should not accept without question popular books published by the person proposing the treatment or information provided in a flyer or on a television show by the person proposing the treatment. They should not put their son or daughter through something unproved and unlikely to help. PMID:7751563

  15. Software Support for Students Engaging in Scientific Activity and Scientific Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalli-Sforza, Violetta; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a design for a computer-based environment to assist students in conducting dialectical activities of constructing, comparing, and evaluating arguments for competing scientific theories. (ZWH)

  16. Remaining Uncertainties in the Causes of Past and Future Atlantic Hurricane Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is no debate that hurricane activity in the North Atlantic has increased substantially since the relatively quiescent period of the 1970s and 1980s, but there is still uncertainty in the dominant cause of the increase. Increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (aGHG) have contributed to the observed increase in tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) over the past century, while shorter-term decadal variability in regions where hurricanes form and track is generally dominated by 1) internal variability, 2) natural factors such as volcanic eruptions and mineral aerosol variability, and 3) changes in anthropogenic aerosols. Direct SST warming from globally well-mixed aGHG is understood to have a much smaller effect on hurricane formation and intensification compared to the effect of regional warming due to changes in the three factors noted above. While most recent papers implicate both internal and external anthropogenic causes for the presently heightened Atlantic hurricane activity, some show that internal variability dominates and others show that anthropogenic factors dominate. In the Atlantic, model projection-based consensus indicates no change in storm frequency over the next century but the uncertainty is large and spans -50% to +50%. Mean storm intensity and rainfall rates are projected to increase with continued warming, and the models tend to agree better when projecting these measures of activity. Models that are capable of producing very strong hurricanes usually project increases in the frequency of the most intense hurricanes. This measure is highly relevant to physical and societal impacts. In the Atlantic, model-based consensus indicates substantial increases in the strongest hurricanes, but the uncertainty is large and spans -100% to +200% change over the next century.

  17. Teaching Urban Youth about Controversial Issues: Pathways to Becoming Active and Informed Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Alex Romeo; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although American schools are required to meet civic education goals of preparing students to become active and informed citizens, high-quality civic opportunities (e.g. service learning and volunteering) are consistently less available to youth of color who are typically enrolled in schools located in high-poverty communities. The purpose of this…

  18. Political Activity at Harvard College Observatory in the Shapley ERA (1921-1952): Controversy and Consequences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, Barbara L.

    1993-12-01

    Soon after Harlow Shapley became director of HCO in 1921, he established himself as a scientist who would speak out and take action on national and international issues. Recognizing the importance of international cooperation in astronomy, he frequently traveled abroad and in turn invited foreign scientists to visit and work at HCO. By the mid-1930s, Shapley was actively rescuing refugee scientists in war-torn Europe and placing them in American universities. Both Harvard and the FBI took note of his activities. Shapley feared intervention of any kind from either academia or the government. Desperate for funding, however, he finally went to Washington and lobbied Congress to set up the NSF. Through 1945, when Truman succeeded Roosevelt, Shapley pursued his political activities freely. That year he travelled to Moscow to represent Harvard at the 220th anniversary celebration of the Academy of Sciences. In Moscow he advocated international cooperation between Soviet and American scientists. Consequently, Shapley was subpoenaed for interrogation in 1946 by John Rankin, who served during the Truman administration as a one-man committee to investigate un-American activities. The ordeal infuriated Shapley. Headlines about it infuriated some Harvard alumni who urged the university to fire him. Although Shapley was nearing retirement, President Conant stood by his right to keep his job. By 1950, when Senator Joseph McCarthy was compiling a list of Communist sympathizers in the State Department, the FBI had a dossier on Shapley. McCarthy subpoenaed Shapley, but could not intimidate him. The Senator continued the witch hunt with Shapley's associates. First he harassed Martha Betz Shapley, then Donald Menzel. Both cleared themselves. Other associates, such as Bart Bok, were spared. Ultimately, the interrogation worked in Menzel's favor. It disassociated him from Shapley's ideology and political activities. When the Harvard Corporation sought the next director of HCO, Menzel

  19. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  20. Controversial role of gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fliedl, Lukas; Wieser, Matthias; Manhart, Gabriele; Gerstl, Matthias P; Khan, Abdulhameed; Grillari, Johannes; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity of chemotherapeutics is a major hindrance in the treatment of various tumors. Therefore, test systems that reflect mechanisms of human kidney toxicity are necessary, and to reduce animal testing cell culture based systems have to be developed. One cell type that is of specific interest in this regard are renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, as they reabsorb substances from human primary urine filtrates and thus are exposed to urinary excreted xenobiotics and are a major target of cisplatin toxicity. While animal studies using gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) knock-out mice or GGT inhibitors show that GGT activity increases kidney toxicity of cisplatin, the use of various cell models gives contradictory results. We therefore used a cell panel of immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial (RPTECs) cell lines differing in GGT activity. Low GGT activity resulted in high cisplatin sensitivity, as observed in RPTEC-SV40 cells or after siRNA mediated knock-down of GGT in RPTEC/TERT1 cells that have high GGT activity. However, the addition of GGT did not rescue, but also increased cisplatin sensitivity and adding GGT inhibitor as well as substrate (glutathione) or product (cysteinyl-glycine) of GGT resulted in decreased sensitivity. While our data suggest that the use of cell panels are of value in toxicology and toxicogenomics, they also emphasize on the complex interplay of toxins with the intracellular and extracellular microenvironment. In addition, we hypothesize that especially epithelial barrier formation and polarity of RPTECs need to be considered in toxicity models to validly predict the in vivo situation. PMID:24664430

  1. Necrotizing enterocolitis: controversies and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Augusto; Pierro, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is a devastating intestinal disease that affects ~5% of preterm neonates. Despite advancements in neonatal care, mortality remains high (30–50%) and controversy still persists with regards to the most appropriate management of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis. Herein, we review some controversial aspects regarding the epidemiology, imaging, medical and surgical management of necrotizing enterocolitis and we describe new emerging strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:26918125

  2. Controversies in Screening Mammography.

    PubMed

    Swain, Monique; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    The utility and effectiveness of screening mammography in diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages and reducing disease-specific mortality remain controversial especially as to when to start and stop routine mammographic screening, and whether mammograms should be performed annually or biennially in average-risk women. This manuscript will analyze the available moderate and high-quality data to analyze both the benefits (lives saved and life-years saved) and inconveniences/harms (additional views, extra biopsies/overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of ductal carcinoma in situ) of different mammography screening guidelines to assist the practitioner in counseling their patients in clinical practice. PMID:27101240

  3. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies. PMID:25791284

  4. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. PMID:27113562

  5. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  6. Positive Auto-Antibody Activity With Retina and Optic Nerve in Smokers and Non-Smokers: The Controversy Continues.

    PubMed

    Chin, Eric K; Almeida, David R P; Lam, Khoa V; Keltner, John L; Thirkill, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Auto-antibodies assist with the diagnosis of ocular paraneoplastic syndromes and autoimmune ocular conditions; however, the frequency of positive test results as a possible precursor to future disease is unknown. The frequency of positive antibodies in heavy smokers who may be at risk for autoimmune-related retinopathy and optic neuropathy was evaluated. Serum antibody activity was evaluated through the use of Western blot reactions from pig retina and optic nerve extract. Fifty-one patients were included: 35 patients were smokers (average: 40.9 pack-year history) and 26 patients had no past smoking history. None of the patients had any visual complaints or known eye disease. Of the patients studied, 76.5% (39 patients: 18 smokers, 21 non-smokers) had positive antiretinal antibodies, and 19.6% (10 patients: 3 smokers, 7 non-smokers) had positive antioptic nerve antibodies. Anti-retinal antibodies were seen in a majority of randomly selected patients with and without a past smoking history. Anti-optic nerve bodies were less common, but more prevalent in those who never smoked. The specificity of these antibodies remains greatly uncertain and clinical correlation is warranted. PMID:26599255

  7. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  8. Television's "Soap" Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Brent

    The situation comedy, "Soap," television's first prime-time sex farce, stirred controversy months before its premiere, and subsequent pressure on advertisers forced the network to change the show's concept from an adult comedy to a "whodunit." This report summarizes the controversy, recounts reactions to the series, and lists the implications of…

  9. Managing Controversial Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchiony, Eve

    The "management of crisis," as opposed to crisis management," requires prior planning. Boards of education that habitually practice courtesy and have some knowledge of group dynamics do not create controversy by their own actions and will have fewer controversial meetings to manage. Policymakers should know ahead of time what issues are likely to…

  10. Cardiac activation heat remains inversely dependent on temperature over the range 27-37°C.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The relation between heat output and stress production (force per cross-sectional area) of isolated cardiac tissue is a key metric that provides insight into muscle energetic performance. The heat intercept of the relation, termed "activation heat," reflects the metabolic cost of restoring transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and K(+) following electrical excitation, and myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration following its release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At subphysiological temperatures, activation heat is inversely dependent on temperature. Thus one may presume that activation heat would decrease even further at body temperature. However, this assumption is prima facie inconsistent with a study, using intact hearts, which revealed no apparent change in the combination of activation and basal metabolism between 27 and 37°C. It is thus desired to directly determine the change in activation heat between 27 and 37°C. In this study, we use our recently constructed high-thermal resolution muscle calorimeter to determine the first heat-stress relation of isolated cardiac muscle at 37°C. We compare the relation at 37°C to that at 27°C to examine whether the inverse temperature dependence of activation heat, observed under hypothermic conditions, prevails at body temperature. Our results show that activation heat was reduced (from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 2.3 ± 0.3 kJ/m(3)) at the higher temperature. This leads us to conclude that activation metabolism continues to decline as temperature is increased from hypothermia to normothermia and allows us to comment on results obtained from the intact heart by previous investigators. PMID:27016583

  11. In vivo tendon forces correlate with activity level and remain bounded: evidence in a rabbit flexor tendon model.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, P; Butler, D L; Korvick, D L; Proch, F S

    1998-11-01

    While some tendons and ligaments in the lower extremity develop peak forces proportional to the intensity of activity (Komi 1990; Komi et al., 1992; Korvick et al., 1996), others maintain a steady force regardless of activity level (Herzog et al., 1993; Prilutsky et al., 1994). Investigators (Biewener et al., 1988; Korvick et al., 1996) have also shown that peak knee and ankle tendon forces approach one-quarter to one-third of ultimate or failure force values. In the rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon model we tested several hypotheses, chiefly that peak in vivo forces not only increase with increasing activity but do not exceed one-third of their ultimate or failure values. The FDP tendon was instrumented in three animals, and each rabbit subjected to an experimental design involving three activity levels. Peak tensile forces and rates of rise and fall in tendon force increased significantly with increasing activity (p < 0.01). Further, the tendon maintained a non-zero force level throughout all trials. For the most vigorous activity, inclined hopping, tensile forces and stresses were, on average, within 30% of the tendon's ultimate force and stress values, respectively. Such in vivo measurements in different tendon systems should help investigators better understand the recruitment and contribution of important muscle-tendon units to joint stability and gait. PMID:9880061

  12. Serum Paraoxonase Activity and Malondialdehyde Serum Concentrations Remain Unaffected in Response to Hydroxyurea Therapy in β-Thalassemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Ansari, Saqib H; Hashim, Zehra; Shamsi, Tahir S; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-07-01

    β-Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disorder characterized by reduced production of β-globin chains of hemoglobin A (HbA). In recent years, hydroxyurea (HU) has shown promising therapeutic benefits in patients with β-thalassemia by fetal hemoglobin augmentation. We have analyzed effects of hydroxyurea treatment on oxidative stress in β-thalassemia patients by assessing activities of paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase along with malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations. Blood samples from 159 individuals including 56 HU-treated and 58 untreated β-thalassemia patients and 45 healthy controls were analyzed. PON activity was found to be highest in healthy individuals (177.76 ± 4.44 U/mL) as compared to treated (52.67 ± 3.65 U/mL) and untreated (55.11 ± 3.26 U/mL) patients. A similar trend was observed in the case of arylesterase activity in normal, β-thalassemia-treated, and untreated (210.0 ± 11.25 U/mL, 163.03 ± 9.04 U/mL, 139.77 ± 10.10 U/mL) subjects. Serum MDA concentrations (2.59 ± 0.09 nmol/mL, 2.45 ± 0.08 nmol/mL, and 1.15 ± 0.05 nmol/mL) and total ROS concentrations (3.73 ± 0.20 nmol/mL, 3.54 ± 0.23 nmol/mL, and 2.45 ± 0.14 nmol/mL) were significantly elevated in both groups (untreated and treated) as compared to healthy individuals (P < .01). Oxidative stress was found to be markedly elevated in β-thalassemia patients as compared to healthy controls. Insignificant differences were, however, observed in mean concentrations of PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, serum MDA concentration and total ROS concentrations between HU-treated and untreated patients. We propose that HU therapy alone seems to be ineffective in managing oxidative stress and is likely to offer a better clinical outcome when supplemented with efficient iron chelation therapy and antioxidants. PMID:26608512

  13. The vibrating string controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Gerald F.; Crummett, William P.

    1987-01-01

    In the mid-1700s a debate raged between Jean d'Alembert, Leonhard Euler, and Daniel Bernoulli concerning the proper solution to the classical wave equation. This controversy was partially solved by Lagrange and, more conclusively, by Fourier (50 years later) and it provides an interesting case study for the role of mathematics in the modeling of physical phenomena. Of particular note in this debate, was the meaning of boundary conditions. The controversy is summarized from the point of view of this mathematical physics perspective.

  14. The Choice Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.

    Issues in school choice--constitutionality, feasibility, equity, and educational productivity--are examined in this book. The controversy requires an ongoing analysis of the origins of the school-choice movement, the kinds of plans proposed and implemented, their educational and social consequences, and the philosophical assumptions underlying the…

  15. Controversy Over Student "Rights"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the controversy over the "academic bill of rights" that is being pushed by conservative activist David Horowitz of the Center for the Study of Popular Culture. A committee in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives passed a resolution in July that reflects the concerns of this "bill," which has been batted around in state…

  16. The Accountability Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles

    1975-01-01

    Author discusses accountability controversy concerning effectiveness of social services. Turem's mechanistic and Gruber's organic models of accountability are compared and an alternate open system model of organization is offered which combines positive aspects of Turem's and Gruber's models as well as adds other constructive elements to them. (SE)

  17. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  18. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  19. Cytomegalovirus and glioblastoma; controversies and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Sean E

    2015-07-01

    One of the more polarized ongoing debates in the brain tumor field over recent years has centered on the association of cytomegalovirus (CMV) with glioblastoma. Several laboratories have reported the presence of CMV antigens in glioblastoma patient specimens, whereas others have failed to detect them. CMV genomic DNA and mRNAs have been detected by PCR, but not in next-generation sequencing studies. CMV promotes high grade glioma progression in a mouse genetic model, and many CMV proteins promote cancer hallmarks in vitro, but actively replicating virus has not been isolated from tumor samples. A consensus is gradually emerging in which the presence of CMV antigens in glioblastoma is increasingly accepted. However, it remains challenging to understand this mechanistically due to the low levels of CMV nucleic acids and the absence of viral replication observed in tumors thus far. Nonetheless, these observations have inspired the development of novel therapeutic approaches based on anti-viral drugs and immunotherapy. The potential benefit of valganciclovir in glioblastoma has generated great interest, but efficacy remains to be established in a randomized trial. Also, early stage immunotherapy trials targeting CMV have shown promise. In the near future we will know more answers to these questions, and although areas of controversy may remain, and the mechanisms and roles of CMV in tumor growth are yet to be clearly defined, this widespread virus may have created important new therapeutic concepts and opportunities for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:25682092

  20. Controversies in dengue pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2012-05-01

    Research into the pathogenesis of dengue fever has exploded over the last half-century, with issues that were considered simple becoming more complex as additional data are found. This has led to the development of a number of controversies that are being studied across the globe and debated in the literature. In this paper, the following six controversies are analysed and, where possible, resolved: the 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is not useful; DHF is not significantly associated with secondary dengue infection; DHF results from infection with a 'virulent' dengue virus; DHF is owing to abnormal T-cell responses; DHF results from auto-immune responses; and DHF results from direct infection of endothelial cells. PMID:22668442

  1. Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Halton C.

    1988-09-01

    Introduction; 1. Distance of quasars; 2. The battle over statistics; 3. Galaxies visibly connected to quasars; 4. Certain galaxies with many quasars; 5. Distribution of quasars in space; 6. Galaxies with excess redshift; 7. Small excess redshifts, the local group of galaxies, and quantization of redshifts; 8. Correcting intrinsic redshifts and identifying hydrogen clouds within nearby groups of galaxies; 9. Ejection from galaxies; 10. The sociology of the controversy; 11. Interpretations; Glossary; Index.

  2. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    PubMed

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  3. Controversies Among the Hypertension Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Toni L; Baumert, Mary

    2016-02-01

    Hypertension affects 80 million people in the United States. It remains poorly controlled, with only 54% of diagnosed patients treated to blood pressure targets. Hypertension management is complex in part due to the volume of antihypertensive agents, variable patient needs and responses, and inconsistent design and outcomes from clinical trials. Therefore, trustworthy clinical practice guidelines have a key role in hypertension management. The United States experienced a 10-year gap in publication of hypertension guidelines, followed by multiple guideline publications in 2013. These guidelines led to more controversy than clarity, as there was discordance among them. This review summarizes the guidelines and clinical statements influencing the current debate in order to facilitate appropriate application. PMID:26668216

  4. Endoscope Reprocessing: Update on Controversial Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing. PMID:26473115

  5. Controversy at Love Canal.

    PubMed

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured. PMID:7107238

  6. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  7. The controversy of Warthin's tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Chapnik, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    Warthin's tumor is controversial. This controversy is multifaceted and relates to all aspects of the tumor from its historical beginnings to its pathogenesis, investigations, and treatments. In this paper, an in depth study of Warthin's tumor has been made to help clarify these controversies.

  8. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety.

  9. Contrasting Controversies: Fracking and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Zabel, I. H. H.; Ross, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (commonly known as "fracking") is highly controversial. So is global warming, and the two issues are closely related, but the natures of these two controversies have substantial and important differences. Building upon years of experience in teaching and developing resources and strategies for teaching about evolution and climate change, staff at the Paleontological Research Institution have engaged in public outreach and educator professional development to help nurture understanding of fracking and the broader energy system. How are these controversies similar to and different from one another, and how should understanding these similarities and differences inform educational programming (and about how you talk about these issues with your Uncle Fred at the family holiday dinner?). It is nearly universally agreed amongst scientists who study climate that changes now underway are real and human caused, and are posing or likely to pose very serious problems for humanity. Scientists who study slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing agree that it causes environmental damage, but there is no consensus as to whether fracking causes more or less harm (e.g., among different kinds of environment harm, across different temporal and spatial scales, and among different social contexts) than other ways of producing energy on a large scale. In other words, the basic tenets of climate change are not a matter of scientific controversy, though the implications for policy making obviously remain politically controversial, while fracking is an issue of both scientific and political controversy. Without advocating for or against fracking, we help audiences disentangle scientific and political issues, better understand the energy resources used in their own communities, and consider issues of scale, systems, and complexity. We will compare and contrast the overlapping controversies surrounding climate change and fracking and highlight

  10. Preparing Students for Science in the Face of Social Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramschreiber, Terry; Westmoreland, David

    2015-01-01

    Science educators often teach topics that are largely resolved in the scientific community yet remain controversial in broader society. In such cases, students may perceive the teacher as biased. We present two exercises that foster more objective learning about the scientific underpinnings of socially controversial topics. The first exercise…

  11. The Recovered Memory Controversy: A Representative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The recovered memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades. Disagreement remains in the field over the veracity of "forgotten" memories of childhood sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy. At the heart of the controversy are the concepts of repression and…

  12. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  13. The controversy over change.

    PubMed

    Brandon, A N

    1978-01-01

    The full impact of twentieth century technology upon medical libraries was first felt in the late 1950s and early 1960s with the introduction of electronic automation into library methodology. During those years, often the aura of technology for the sake of technology prevailed, and medical librarians did little to inform themselves of capabilities, potentialities, and limitations in relation to cost-effective library usage of automation. Likewise, currently microforms and audiovisuals are frequently acquired for their own sake instead of for their capacity to transmit messages in the most effective and comprehensive way possible. Controversy has raged and still rages over the pros and cons of applying modern technology to library procedures and over the coexistence of the printed page with electronic media. New systems and methodologies, machine or manual, must realistically be evaluated in terms of increased service output by the library to its clientele. Regardless of technological sophistication, any machine that does not significantly contribute to that specific aim has no place in a library. The tradition of the medical librarian has always been to collect, organize, store, and disseminate information in the most efficient manner that the media of the times have had to offer. PMID:75031

  14. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology. PMID:25635982

  15. Comparative efficacy of photo-activated disinfection and calcium hydroxide for disinfection of remaining carious dentin in deep cavities: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sidhartha; Shah, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of photo-activated disinfection (PAD), calcium hydroxide (CH) and their combination on the treatment outcome of indirect pulp treatment (IPT). Materials and Methods Institutional ethical clearance and informed consent of the patients were taken. The study was also registered with clinical registry of India. Sixty permanent molars exhibiting deep occlusal carious lesion in patients with the age range of 18 - 22 yr were included. Clinical and radiographic evaluation and set inclusion and exclusion criteria's were followed. Gross caries excavation was accomplished. In group I (n = 20) PAD was applied for sixty seconds. In group II (n = 20), CH was applied to the remaining carious dentin, while in group III (n = 20), PAD application was followed by CH placement. The teeth were permanently restored. They were clinically and radiographically followed-up at 45 day, 6 mon and 12 mon. Relative density of the remaining affected dentin was measured by 'Radiovisiography (RVG) densitometric' analysis. Results Successful outcome with an increase in radiographic grey values were observed in all three groups. However, on inter-group comparison, this change was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions PAD and CH both have equal disinfection efficacy in the treatment of deep carious dentin. PAD alone is as effective for treatment of deep carious lesion as calcium hydroxide and hence can be used as an alternative to CH. They can be used independently in IPT, since combining both does not offer any additional therapeutic benefits. PMID:25110643

  16. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  17. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population. PMID:27348992

  18. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  19. The Continuing Valencian Language Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugaard, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    Controversy lingers regarding the name of the language spoken in the Spanish autonomous province of Valencia. Although the variety of Catalan spoken there has long been called both "Catalan" and "Valencian," recent controversy has become bitter and often surrounded by violence. Despite the debate, the language is in danger of dying out. (nine…

  20. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  1. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  2. The Great School Bus Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nicolaus, Ed.

    This anthology attempts to put the great school bus controversy of the 1970's in perspective by providing a forum in which a series of widely differing views, backed by hard data, can be compared. The first section, "Background and Legal History," places the controversy in a perspective that predates the 1970's. One article focuses on the history…

  3. A Controversy Is Born

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisque, Ramon E.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the development of a new concept about the nature and origin of earthquakes. The concept is based on the observation that the average dip of deep earthquake foci is 60 degrees. The location of the so-called "Rouse belts" of intense seismic activity is suggested as a student activity. Bibliography. (LC)

  4. Pancreatic Stem Cells Remain Unresolved

    PubMed Central

    Morahan, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin-secreting islet β cells. An ideal treatment of diabetes would, therefore, be to replace the lost or deficient β cells, by transplantation of donated islets or differentiated endocrine cells or by regeneration of endogenous islet cells. Due to their ability of unlimited proliferation and differentiation into all functional lineages in our body, including β cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are ideally placed as cell sources for a diabetic transplantation therapy. Unfortunately, the inability to generate functional differentiated islet cells from pluripotent stem cells and the poor availability of donor islets have severely restricted the broad clinical use of the replacement therapy. Therefore, endogenous sources that can be directed to becoming insulin-secreting cells are actively sought after. In particular, any cell types in the developing or adult pancreas that may act as pancreatic stem cells (PSC) would provide an alternative renewable source for endogenous regeneration. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress and knowledge of such PSC, and discuss ways that facilitate the future development of this often controversial, but crucial research. PMID:25132582

  5. Visualizing Social Justice: Using Controversial Images in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Todd S.; Crowe, Alicia R.; Mooney, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we promote the use of controversial images to enhance the discussion of social justice issues in schools. Controversial images provide rich opportunities for students to question what is occurring currently in society as well as what has occurred in the past. We provide an example set of activities to be used in teacher education…

  6. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  7. Imaging in Spondyloarthritis: Controversies in Recognition of Early Disease.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ulrich; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Lambert, Robert G W; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2016-09-01

    Advanced imaging has become essential for recognition of clinically suspected early spondyloarthritis. This report summarizes recent progress towards a data-driven comprehensive definition of a positive sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis, which incorporates contextual information provided by structural lesions alongside with active changes. A focus is on emerging limitations and challenges with increasing use of imaging in spondyloarthritis. We discuss the ongoing controversy as to whether sacroiliac joint MRI due to its superior reliability and ability to depict both structural and active lesions should be the preferred imaging modality in early disease over the traditional approach with pelvic radiographs. Another challenge is transferring the expanding knowledge about imaging evaluation in spondyloarthritis to the community of rheumatologists and radiologists. Advanced imaging modalities will not become the gold standard for diagnosis of spondyloarthritis, which remains a process of composite deduction based on complementary information obtained from clinical, laboratory, and imaging assessment. PMID:27435070

  8. Statistical design controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Thompson, K.H.

    1985-02-01

    This article was in response to criticisms received by Evans, Hendrey, and Thompson that their article was biased because of omissions and misrepresentations. The authors contend that experimental designs having only one plot per treatment ''were, from the outset, not capable of differentiating between treatment effects and field-position effects,'' remains valid and is supported by decades of agronomic research. Several men, Irving, Troiano, and McCune thought of the article as a review of all studies of acidic rain effects on soybeans. It was not. The article was written over the concern of the comparisons which were being made among studies which purport to evaluate effects of acid deposition on field-grown crops, and implicitly assumes that all of the studies are of equal scientific value. They are not. Only experimental approaches that are well-focused and designed with appropriate agronomic and statistical procedures should be used for credible regional and national assessments of crop inventories. 12 references.

  9. The Science-Textbook Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelkin, Dorothy

    1976-01-01

    The discrepancies between science and creationism are reflected in curriculum controversies. Students should be free to choose which theory they like, according to the creationists who view Darwinian science as incompatible with absolute moral values. (DS)

  10. Controversies in Parotid Defect Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew; Knott, P Daniel; Fritz, Michael A; Seth, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the parotid defect is a complex topic that encompasses restoration of both facial form and function. The reconstructive surgeon must consider facial contour, avoidance of Frey syndrome, skin coverage, tumor surveillance, potential adjuvant therapy, and facial reanimation when addressing parotid defects. With each defect there are several options within the reconstructive ladder, creating controversies regarding optimal management. This article describes surgical approaches to reconstruction of parotid defects, highlighting areas of controversy. PMID:27400838

  11. The Great Balloon Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of balloon launches and the dumping of plastic debris into oceans. Cites several examples of plastic materials being discovered inside the bodies of sick and/or dead marine animals. Offers alternative activities to releasing balloons into the atmosphere. (RT)

  12. Negotiating Gene Therapy: Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    According to research, students often perceive the ethical implications of issues such as genetic engineering, but sometimes they are not equipped to handle multiple perspectives and articulate well-reasoned positions. A modified jigsaw activity, appropriate for secondary and introductory college biology classes, that introduces students to human…

  13. The Coupling Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) relies on the well-known phenomenon of coupling between neuronal activity and brain blood flow. For nearly a century, the presumption was that hemodynamics were coupled to neuronal activity via energy demand and oxidative metabolism. Early 15O positron-emission tomographic (PET) studies challenged this theory, demonstrating a physiological “uncoupling” between brain blood flow and oxygen metabolism. These PET observations played a pivotal role in guiding the development of fMRI, by demonstrating which physiological parameters were most closely coupled to neuronal activity and by presaging the BOLD-contrast effect. Subsequent PET studies were crucial for constraining theories concerning the physiological mechanisms underlying hemodynamic/neuronal coupling and, thereby, guiding the development of models for quantification of oxygen metabolic rate %Δ from fMRI. A first-person account of the PET “coupling” studies and their influence on the development of fMRI is provided. PMID:22306802

  14. Controversy and the state: lord ARPA and intelligent computing.

    PubMed

    Guice, J

    1998-02-01

    This is a study of a well-known controversy in computer science, between artificial intelligence and neural networks researchers. It examines claims made by participants in the field that the controversy was triggered, shaped and finally resolved in connection to activities of state research agencies, particularly the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). In contrast to these claims, this account concludes that, although ARPA's relations to the controversy among researchers were important, they were indirect. This study thus beings the analytical resources of studies of scientific controversy to bear on a domain which has so far gone largely unexamined in studies of 20th-century controversies - namely, state research policy and management. The account is based on contemporary documents, historical literatuare, and interviews with researchers and ARPA officials. PMID:11619937

  15. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  16. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  17. Global Education: Controversy Remains, But Support Growing: Field Strives To Better Link Global Studies, Civics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, John

    1989-01-01

    The pace of global change and the increasing interdependence of people worldwide are the driving forces behind the need for a contemporary global education movement that reinterprets current knowledge to educate students to meet their responsibilities as citizens of an increasingly complex global society. Evaluations of U.S. 18-24-year-olds reveal…

  18. Building on faults: How to represent controversies with digital methods.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Tommaso

    2012-10-01

    In a previous article in this journal, I introduced Bruno Latour's cartography of controversies and I discussed half of it, namely how to observe techno-scientific controversies. In this article I will concentrate on the remaining half: how to represent the complexity of social debates in a legible form. In my previous paper, we learnt how to explore the richness of collective existence through Actor-Network Theory. In this one, I will discuss how to render such complexity through an original visualization device: the controversy-website. Capitalizing on the potential of digital technologies, the controversy-website has been developed as a multilayered toolkit to trace and aggregate information on public debates. PMID:23832559

  19. The Academic Controversy Technique: Towards Cooperative Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explain a cooperative learning technique, Academic Controversy (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1996), also known as Cooperative Controversy, Structured Controversy and Structured Academic Controversy, that has potential for use in education and other areas, and has support in both research and theory.…

  20. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  1. Teacher Quality, Controversy, and NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Magee, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)--the sweeping federal law that requires all schools that receive federal Title I dollars to be held strictly accountable for student outcomes--is the most discussed education reform effort in the past half century. One of the many controversial and vexing elements of the law, especially among teachers, teacher unions,…

  2. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  3. Elementary 72 - The Great Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsop, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the controversy about the discovery of element 72, involving Urbain's isolation of celtium, Dauvillier's reexamination of celtium samples, and Coster and Hevesy's announcement of the existence of hafnium. Indicates that the Copenhagen workers are finally accredited for the element discovery in their x-ray spectral studies. (CC)

  4. Embracing Controversy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannard, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Discussing controversial topics such as stem cell research is a great way for students to build scientific understanding, enhance communication skills, and develop an appreciation for civic decision making. Tackling a topic such as stem cells at the middle level, however, can be a challenge because most young adolescents see the world in black and…

  5. Engaging Students in Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    A year ago, an upstate New York college withdrew a speaking invitation to Wade Churchill, a University of Colorado professor who had characterized 9/11 victims as "little Eichmanns." Churchill's portrayal of 9/11 victims as a mixture of conscious and unwitting participants in a systemic evil of Holocaust proportions indeed was controversial. The…

  6. Teaching Controversial Issues of Bioethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    Many teachers avoid controversial topics because they do not want to upset students or parents, do not know appropriate instructional strategies, and fail to recognize the importance of motivating students through placing science in its relevant context. An example is provided for use in a methods course for helping future high school teachers to…

  7. Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A., Ed.; Taylor, Dalmas A., Ed.

    Dialogue and research on racism since the mid-1970s have yielded increased controversy over the theories, foundation, and continued existence of racism. The chapters presented in this book provide various divergent views of what constitutes racism and frameworks for reducing it. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1)…

  8. Surveying Students about Controversial Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of school districts' interest in best serving the health needs of students, many choose to administer surveys addressing controversial topics. Administering such surveys in a voluntary and anonymous manner may help reduce conflict. Methods: This is a review of 2 recent federal court of appeals decisions regarding surveying…

  9. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  10. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  11. Controversial Curriculum? Ask the Community!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Involving communities in the process of curriculum development may not be novel, but it seems lacking with regard to controversial issues such as lessons on diverse family structures, homosexuality, and other special situations. Disparity in values and convictions can lead one person to support a decision, while another person might hold an…

  12. Controversies in faith and health care.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. PMID:26159392

  13. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  14. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-02-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  15. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  16. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Tomoko I; DeBakey, Samar F; Nagaraj, Barbara E; Bellis, Kimberly S; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Methods Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642) and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994–2004, by service branch. Results Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Conclusion Our results were generally consistent with a previous

  17. Bioavailability of the polyphenols: status and controversies.

    PubMed

    D'Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  18. Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    D’Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  19. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies: Consensus and Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Dauerman, Harold L.; Rao, Sunil V.; Resnic, Frederic S.; Applegate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity and one year mortality. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies represent a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggests that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacologic (multiple agents) and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this article, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area. PMID:21700085

  20. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  1. Active surface faulting or landsliding in the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal)? A solved controversy concerning the Vila Chã de Ourique site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João Manuel; Marques, Fernando; Figueiredo, Paula; Matias, Luís

    2011-04-01

    The Lower Tagus Valley has experienced significant (M 6-7) historical seismicity, evidencing the presence of seismogenic faults. These are still deficiently known due to the low strain rates and the recent alluvial sedimentation of the Tagus River that buries most of the structures, though Paleoseismic evidence was allegedly found by a research team in the Tagus valley, at a site 60 km N of Lisbon, near Vila Chã de Ourique (VCO). According to this team, trenching at the VCO site exposed an active thrust fault, evidencing the surface rupture of a large earthquake that occurred in 1531. Our studies performed at this site, comprising field observations with a reappraisal of the trench outcrops previously excavated, borehole drilling, soil mechanics laboratory testing, and seismic reflection acquisition, pointed to the alternative interpretation that the outcropping structures are gravitational and not of tectonic origin. The interpretation of new outcrops crosscutting the structures exposed at the trenches, as well as newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data, definitely exclude the active thrust fault explanation and support a gravitational slip model for all the observed structures. Gravitational slip in the river bank slope was promoted by low shear strength clays and high pore water pressure coupled with slope toe river erosion. Gravitational slides must have occurred prior to development of the present sedimentation level of the Tagus alluvial plain, which was attained in the last few thousand years as indicated by borehole data and estimations of sedimentation rates.

  2. Current controversies in infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Thomas J.; Prendergast, Bernard D.

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening disease caused by a focus of infection within the heart. For clinicians and scientists, it has been a moving target that has an evolving microbiology and a changing patient demographic. In the absence of an extensive evidence base to guide clinical practice, controversies abound. Here, we review three main areas of uncertainty: first, in prevention of infective endocarditis, including the role of antibiotic prophylaxis and strategies to reduce health care-associated bacteraemia; second, in diagnosis, specifically the use of multimodality imaging; third, we discuss the optimal timing of surgical intervention and the challenges posed by increasing rates of cardiac device infection. PMID:26918142

  3. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  4. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve. PMID:23444591

  5. Controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, Jeremy S; Pereira, Stephen P; Devlin, John; Harrison, Phillip M; Joshi, Deepak

    2016-02-18

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but significant disease, which affects mainly young males in association with inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition and no therapeutics with proven mortality benefit aside from liver transplantation. There remain areas of controversy in the management of PSC which include the differentiation from other cholangiopathies, in particular immunoglobulin G4 related sclerosing cholangitis, the management of dominant biliary strictures, and the role of ursodeoxycholic acid. In addition, the timing of liver transplantation in PSC remains difficult to predict with standard liver severity scores. In this review, we address these controversies and highlight the latest evidence base in the management of PSC. PMID:26925200

  6. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy.

    PubMed

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-07-26

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD. PMID:26225201

  7. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    PubMed Central

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD. PMID:26225201

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Abbas; Mahmood, Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH) is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes. PMID:24910826

  9. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  10. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  11. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities. PMID:22732046

  12. [Sex "addiction": compulsion and controversy].

    PubMed

    Souza y Machorro, Mario

    2002-10-01

    Modern occidental society often distorts and, in some cases, ignores healthy concepts regarding sexuality. Besides, It not always considers this, to be mental health or to represent an expression of whole health. Such ambivalence towards sex and the sexual is located between the limits of the sacred and erotic, both associated to taboos and their transgression. Since the last century, the current "neosexual" revolution intents to dismantle old patterns in favor of the dissociation of human sexual sphere, the dispersion of sexual fragments towards individualism and intimate relationships diversification. Within such context, "addiction" to sex and the sexual, as a compulsive conduct, represents on one side a clinical reality each time better observed and diagnosed, where the importance of family history is recognized, as well as individual psychopathology, and marital life, in its etiology and also for its treatment and prevention. On the other hand, it has not been classified in the mental health catalogues as it is not considered, meanwhile, as the problem is been maintained, the co-morbidity and its consequences multiply, and the controversy continues. PMID:12557802

  13. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  14. Bisphenol A: Understanding the Controversy.

    PubMed

    Metz, Cynthia Marie

    2016-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 lists Bisphenol A (BPA) as a potential endocrine disruptor for which exposure should be reduced. The Healthy People 2020 Environmental Health Objectives focus on addressing environmental factors that negatively affect individuals' health even though the health effects of some toxic substances are not yet fully understood. An American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) position statement outlined the role occupational health nurses play in creating healthy and productive workplaces by promoting worker health. BPA is implicated in a variety of health outcomes such as breast and prostate cancer, menstrual irregularities, genital abnormalities in male babies, infertility in men and women, early puberty in girls, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The overall health issues attributed to BPA exposure are complex and controversial. Concerns regarding environmental health are growing as individuals become more dependent on plastics. Numerous health concerns have been directly connected to daily exposures to products manufactured with BPA. Government agencies support the use of BPA as a safe consumer product with the exception of BPA use in baby bottles and sippy cups, which has been banned in the United States and several other countries. Many agencies (e.g., Federal Drug Administration [FDA], World Health Organization [WHO], U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [U.S. DHHS], and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) have expressed "some concern" about BPA based on research, and stated further research is warranted. PMID:26800896

  15. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  16. Controversies in the antiphospholipid syndrome: can we ever stop warfarin?

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ana G; D'Cruz, David P

    2008-01-01

    Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome are at increased risk for recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and therefore benefit from long term warfarin therapy. The optimal duration of warfarin therapy after a first venous thromboembolic event is however a matter of some controversy and many questions remain unanswered. After reviewing and analysing the available evidence, we discuss some common scenarios in everyday clinical practice where treatment decisions are difficult. PMID:19014462

  17. The Effects of Controversy, Concurrence Seeking, and Individualistic Learning on Achievement and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared effects of cooperative learning activities (with and without structured controversy) and individualistic learning activities on the achievement and attitudes of fifth graders (N=84) toward wolves. Results show that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn about wolves, and more positive…

  18. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  19. Current Controversies in Lung Cancer Staging.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett W; Godoy, Myrna C B; Wu, Carol C; Erasmus, Jeremy J; Truong, Mylene T

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States, and accurate staging of disease plays an important role in the formulation of treatment strategies and optimization of patient outcomes. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has recently proposed changes to the upcoming eighth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM-8) staging system used for lung cancer. This revised classification is based on significant differences in patient survival identified on analysis of a new large international database of lung cancer cases. Key changes include: further modifications to the T descriptors based on 1 cm increments in tumor size; grouping of tumors resulting in partial or complete lung atelectasis/pneumonitis; grouping of tumors involving a main bronchus with respect to distance from the carina; reassignment of diaphragmatic invasion; elimination of mediastinal pleural invasion as a descriptor; and further subdivision of metastatic disease into distinct descriptors based on the number of extrathoracic metastases and involved organs. Because of these changes, several new stage groups have been developed, and others have shifted. Although TNM-8 represents continued improvement upon modifications previously made to the staging system, reflecting an evolving understanding of tumor behavior and patient management, several limitations and unaddressed issues persist. Understanding the proposed revisions to TNM-8 and awareness of key limitations and potential controversial issues still unaddressed will allow radiologists to accurately stage patients with lung cancer and optimize treatment decisions. PMID:27306388

  20. Get Controversial! Edgy Novels for Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Clark, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This article is a discussion of authors and controversial novels that should be on the top of library media specialists' reading list if they work with high-school-age teens. "Controversial" is not a dirty word, it is an enticement! The goal of library media specialists is to get teens who may be burned out with reading due to incentive programs…

  1. Teachers, Classroom Controversy, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulconer, Tracy; Freeman, Ayesha Coning

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between teachers, classroom controversy and the media. It also features the story of Ayesha, who coincidentally is one of the authors of this article. Ayesha's story is a social studies teacher's bad dream featuring one of her worst fears: (1) public criticism; and (2) controversy over something that has…

  2. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  3. "Mysticism" in Quantum Mechanics: The Forgotten Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a "mystical" hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s--birth of quantum theory--and concluding…

  4. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  5. Teaching about NAFTA Using Academic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a teaching strategy called "constructive controversy" where students are required to argue both the pro and con positions concerning a controversial current topic. Describes students' response to a class using this method to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Student response was generally favorable. (MJP)

  6. Hot spots remain the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the drilling activity and petroleum activity in Africa. The areas which seem to hold the highest promise for new discoveries or increased exports are Egypt's Western Desert which seems to offer the possibility of significant oil discoveries. In addition, Nigeria has dramatically increased its exploration activity which is counter to the global trend in 1986. Areas where activity is decreasing are Cameroon, South Africa. It is pointed out that the Gabon crude oil reserves may have been raised 60% by a single on-shore discovery.

  7. Global controversies and advances in skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Louise; Dunn, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Advances and controversies of skin cancer prevention in the Asian-Pacific region are to be examined the world's first Global Controversies and Advances in Skin Cancer Conference to be held in Brisbane, Australia this November. APOCP Members are cordially invited to register early for the opportunity to contribute to the debate on a cancer which continues to be a prominent issue in the Asia Pacific and indeed worldwide. We need answers to the questions of why a cancer that is so preventable and easily detectable is still shrouded in controversy. Primary focuses will be on issues like viral involvement, vaccines and novel clinical approaches. PMID:23725105

  8. Alveolar Osteitis: A Comprehensive Review of Concepts and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Olech, Eliza; Miloro, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar osteitis, “dry socket”, remains amongst the most commonly encountered complications following extraction of teeth by general dentists and specialists. A great body of literature is devoted to alveolar osteitis addressing the etiology and pathophysiology of this condition. In addition numerous studies are available discussing methods and techniques to prevent this condition. To this date though great controversy still exists regarding the appropriate terminology used for this condition as well as the actual etiology, pathophysiology, and best methods of prevention and treatment. This article is a comprehensive critical review of the available literature addressing the concepts and controversies surrounding alveolar osteitis. We aim to assist the dental health care professional with patient preparation and management of this commonly encountered postoperative condition should be encountered. PMID:20652078

  9. Controversial Issues--Teachers' Attitudes and Practices in the Context of Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulton, Christopher; Day, Vanessa; Dillon, Justin; Grace, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Current conceptions of citizenship favour public involvement in dialogue on controversial issues such as GM food. 'Students with higher levels of civic knowledge are more likely to expect to participate in political and civic activities as adults' (Kerr et al., 2003, p. 4). Young people need to be aware of the nature of controversy and be able to…

  10. Monumental Controversies: Exploring the Contested History of the United States Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article examine several controversial U.S. monuments and offer teachers a rationale, resources, and suggested activities for incorporating these historical monuments into classroom instruction. The authors discuss why controversial issues should be discussed in the social studies classroom through the critical examination of…

  11. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  12. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  13. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  14. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  15. Research controversies in management of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Biron, P; Sebban, C; Gourmet, R; Chvetzoff, G; Philip, I; Blay, J Y

    2000-01-01

    The management of mucositis is the subject of many controversies, and the optimal treatment is still not known. Several evaluation scoring systems have been described, but no one of these is appropriate to all clinical situations: a simple scale such as that devised by the WHO can be used routinely, and more sophisticated ones can be implemented by trained experimenters working in research. We have considered the impact of each of the treatments currently available on each stage of mucositis. In attempts at prevention, self-care, in the sense of oral hygiene, must remain atraumatic. It is probably advisable to differentiate patients with good previous oral care, in whom tooth brushing is beneficial, from others, in whom the risk of hemorrhage and infection excludes any brushing. Before the dosage of chemotherapy is reduced, the curative or palliative intent of the strategy must be carefully evaluated. In the vascular phase protection of the proliferating cells is attempted by means of vasoconstriction (cryotherapy), cytoprotection (prostaglandin E2 and other antioxidants) or epithelial cell-inhibiting factors such as TGF-B3. Treatments applied in the epithelial phase are directed at increasing the cell proliferation to accelerate epithelial restoration by sucralfate and several growth factors: hematopoietic GF, which has demonstrated a direct effect on the mucosa (GM-CSF), or epithelial growth factors such as keratinocyte GF. In the ulcerative and bacteriological phase attempts are made to attenuate sepsis by means of antiseptics (chlorhexidine), amphotericin B and antiviral agents or antibiotic lozenges. In the healing phase application of the low-energy helium-neon laser has demonstrably been followed by a later time of onset, less pronounced peak severity and shorter duration of oral mucositis. After cancer treatment, oral hygiene, inhibition of oral flora, and pain relief are the main goals. Physiopathogen-specific treatment is the next step, with the emphasis

  16. Postoperative Controversies in the Management of Free Flap Surgery in the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Hatten, Kyle; Wax, Mark K

    2016-08-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard for reconstructing head and neck defects. Free flap success approaches 95% in centers with experience, affording unparalleled ability to restore form and function in cancer, trauma, or other major composite tissue loss. It is critical to manage the perioperative variables that predict success; several areas of controversy have not yet reached consensus. This review focuses on postoperative anticoagulation, fluid management, and flap monitoring methods. These areas of controversy potentially influence flap survival. We review published practices considered within the standard of care, why controversy remains, and future directions to reach standardization. PMID:27400844

  17. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  18. Controversies in preterm brain injury.

    PubMed

    Penn, Anna A; Gressens, Pierre; Fleiss, Bobbi; Back, Stephen A; Gallo, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we highlight critical unresolved questions in the etiology and mechanisms causing preterm brain injury. Involvement of neurons, glia, endogenous factors and exogenous exposures is considered. The structural and functional correlates of interrupted development and injury in the premature brain are under active investigation, with the hope that the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying developmental abnormalities in the human preterm brain can be understood, prevented or repaired. PMID:26477300

  19. Another Look at Controversial Issues and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Controversial issues should be taught in school. Charles Bailey's and R.F. Dearden's opinions of what makes an issue controversial are critiqued. Bailey accounts for controversial issues in behavioral terms; Dearden advances an epistemic account. (RM)

  20. Controversies in Knee Rehabilitation: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Mathew J.; Arundale, Amelia J.H.; Logerstedt, David S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no re-injury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to pre-injury sports. Using these criterions, we will review the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury and provide recommendations for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury. PMID:25818715

  1. Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy: Current Controversies and Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jennifer L.; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of depression during pregnancy is both a common and complex clinical challenge. The decision to expose the fetus to antidepressant medication during pregnancy must be weighed against the risks of untreated maternal depression to both mother and fetus. Maternal depression during pregnancy has been associated with increased rates of preterm birth and maternal substance use. The safety of antidepressant use during pregnancy appears to be largely reassuring but there remain two areas of controversy including neonatal withdrawal syndrome and primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Individualized treatment recommendations based on the patient's history are essential in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:19661762

  2. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. PMID:26093511

  3. Qualitative research: comments and controversies.

    PubMed

    Schutz, R W

    1989-03-01

    Larry Locke's timely and well-written introduction to qualitative research procedures will undoubtedly serve its purpose. It makes us reassess our traditional beliefs and practices, educates us on the rudiments of qualitative methodology, and, hopefully, makes us more tolerant and appreciative of alternate ways of conducting research. Although Locke focuses his paper on pedagogical research issues, it is important to realize that many other sub-disciplines within the general field of physical education also utilize qualitative procedures. For example, 10 years ago Martens (1979) called for a paradigm shift in sport psychology by appealing to researchers to abandon their labs and to embark on naturalistic field studies. While North American sport psychologists, and psychologists in general, have been slow to formalize qualitative techniques, the European psychology community has been much more active (e.g., Ashworth, Giorgi, & de Koning, 1986). Perhaps Locke's article will encourage researchers in all our sub-disciplines to consider the utility of qualitative research. Hopefully, readers will treat Locke's article as an introduction to the broad area of qualitative research and not as a rigorous set of procedures for conducting participant observation research in school physical education studies. Additionally, it must be recognized that there are other approaches and other applications, that the area has its critics and its unresolved methodological problems, and that qualitative research does not necessarily exclude the application of formalized data analyses. Keeping these issues in mind, the addition of qualitative approaches to our repetoire of research methodologies can only enhance the quality of research in physical education and exercise and sport science. PMID:2489822

  4. Dietary fibre: consensus and controversy.

    PubMed

    Bijlani, R L

    1985-01-01

    Technological advances have reduced and refined man's plant food intake and consequently brought about an unprecedented decline in his consumption of dietary fibre (DF). The emergence of certain diseases selectively in regions which have been affected the most by this dietary change has led to an enhanced awareness of the functions of DF. DF is a heterogeneous group of substances which resist digestion by the endogenous enzymes of the human gut, although they are fermented to a substantial extent by the bacterial flora of the large intestine. Chemically, DF essentially consists of nonstarch polysaccharides and lignin, and its major constituents are cellulose, hemicelluose, lignin and pectin. The physiological effects of DF are attributable largely to its physicochemical properties. DF primarily affects gastrointestinal (GI) function; its effects are observable at all stages from ingestion through defaecation. It restricts caloric intake, shows gastric and small intestinal transit, and affects the activity of digestive enzymes and release of GI hormones. Its overall impact is to reduce apparent digestibility of nutrients marginally but consistently. In the large intestine, DF accelerates transit, supports bacterial growth and serves to hold water. As a result, the faecal weight and water content increase, and the transit time generally becomes shorter. Secondary to its GI effects, DF attenuates postprandial glycaemia and has long term effects on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein metabolism. These effects have important implications in the aetiopathogenesis of constipation and its sequelae including diverticulosis, cholesterol gallstones, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. DF has traditionally been used therapeutically for constipation; now its use in diabetes is also well established. Our appreciation of the role of DF in human nutrition has undergone a major change in the last two decades. From a redundant constituent of plant foods

  5. Controversies over the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Taura, Kojiro; Iwaisako, Keiko; Hatano, Etsuro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a universal consequence of chronic liver diseases. It is accompanied by activation of collagen-producing myofibroblasts, resulting in excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. The origin of myofibroblasts in the fibrotic liver has not been completely resolved and remains a matter of debate. Recently, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was proposed as one of the mechanisms that give rise to collagen-producing myofibroblasts in liver fibrosis. However, subsequent studies contradicted this hypothesis, and the EMT theory has become one of the most controversial and debatable issues in the field of liver fibrosis research. This review will summarize the existing literature on EMT in liver fibrosis and will analyze the causes for the contradictory results to draw a reasonable conclusion based on current knowledge in the field. PMID:26784242

  6. The controversy of cranial bone motion.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L

    1997-08-01

    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment. PMID:9243408

  7. Blastocystis: Consensus of treatment and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Uma; Shanthi, M

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis is a highly controversial protozoan parasite. It has been variably regarded as a commensal and pathogen. Scientists have for decades wondered whether it is truly an enteropathogen and if it is observed in symptomatic patients whether treatment is required because patient recovery and improvement has been noted even without any treatment. Though associated with self-limiting infection, treatment is warranted in many patients due to persistence of symptoms. This particularly holds true for children and adults who are immuno compromised. Several drugs have been used to treat Blastocystis but each one of them has produced widely variable rates of clinical cure and eradication of the parasite from the feces. Based on the studies carried out in vitro and clinical responses obtained in patients, metronidazole appears to be the most effective drug for Blastocystis infection. However, the therapy is complicated due to different dosages and regimens adopted and the unresponsiveness to treatment observed in several sections of the population studied. Recently, the finding of different subsets of Blastocystis exhibiting resistance to metronidazole and associated with variable degrees of symptoms has underscored the importance of typing the subsets of the parasite in order to foretell the clinical response and the need to treat. Till date, the mode of action of the drugs used and the mechanism of resistance is not entirely known and is a topic of speculation. Other drugs with anti Blastocystis activity and used in therapy includes trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and nitazoxanide. Several other compounds have also been evaluated for the treatment either alone or in combination with the first or second line drugs. A lot of interest has also been generated on the role of probiotics particularly Saccharomyces boularrdii and other natural food compounds on eradication of the parasite. This review provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobials used to target

  8. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-07-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s—birth of quantum theory—and concluding with Erwin Schrödinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged.

  9. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century-old controversy.

    PubMed

    Nougué, O; Rode, N O; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Ségard, A; Chevin, L-M; Haag, C R; Lenormand, T

    2015-12-01

    Parthenogenesis (reproduction through unfertilized eggs) encompasses a variety of reproduction modes with (automixis) or without (apomixis) meiosis. Different modes of automixis have very different genetic and evolutionary consequences but can be particularly difficult to tease apart. In this study, we propose a new method to discriminate different types of automixis from population-level genetic data. We apply this method to diploid Artemia parthenogenetica, a crustacean whose reproductive mode remains controversial despite a century of intensive cytogenetic observations. We focus on A. parthenogenetica from two western Mediterranean populations. We show that they are diploid and that markers remain heterozygous in cultures maintained up to ~36 generations in the laboratory. Moreover, parallel patterns of population-wide heterozygosity levels between the two natural populations strongly support the conclusion that diploid A. parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low, but nonzero recombination. This settles a century-old controversy on Artemia, and, more generally, suggests that many automictic organisms harbour steep within-chromosome gradients of heterozygosity due to a transition from clonal transmission in centromere-proximal regions to a form of inbreeding similar to self-fertilization in centromere-distal regions. Such systems therefore offer a new avenue for contrasting the genomic consequences of asexuality and inbreeding. PMID:26356354

  10. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  11. A Constructive Controversy Approach to "Case Studies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Sharon R.; Erickson, Karla A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of student responses to a case study titled "Drinks and Dinner," the authors evaluate the pedagogical potential of using constructive controversy case studies to teach about inequality. "Drinks and Dinner" is designed to capture the complexity of social interactions that defy simple solutions to engage students in…

  12. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  13. Controversial Therapies: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The article offers guidelines to educators evaluating controversial therapies and applies them to four such therapies: tinted lenses as a cure for dyslexia; orthomolecular treatments for learning disabilities; pharmaceutical intervention for dyslexia; and visual training for children with learning disabilities. (DB)

  14. Controversial Novels and Censorship in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, John Stuart

    The legal history of censorship in general in the United States as well as the legal context in particular of the censorship of novels from schools is discussed. This thesis deals with four novels which have aroused substantial controversy when taught in the schools. The novels are: "The Catcher in the Rye," by J. D. Salinger, "The Adventures of…

  15. Science, Politics, and the IQ Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyderman, Mark; Rothman, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The controversy over intelligence testing is more often influenced by political considerations than empirical research. A survey of 1,020 experts found that a majority agree that (1) intelligence can be defined; (2) heredity plays a role in individual and group IQ differences; and (3) intelligence testing in schools should continue at its present…

  16. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  17. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  18. Controversial Issues in Our Schools. Fastback 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, William

    There is virtually nothing taught in the American public school that is not potentially explosive at some time or place. America's cultural makeup provides for the development of controversy whenever such issues as sex, religion, politics, and economics are raised, and particularly when they are raised in the school environment. School…

  19. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by director Davis…

  20. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  1. Controversial Issues: A Case for Neutrality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Arguments against teachers asserting their own views about controversial issues say that neutrality enables students to develop autonomous reflection. Others claim that a nonneutral stance is morally preferable. There are some teaching situations in which a neutral stance may not be an option. (SK)

  2. Controversies in Pediatric Sports Medicine (Commentary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)

  3. Evolution versus Creationism: The Public Education Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetterberg, J. Peter, Ed.

    The University of Minnesota organized a conference ("Evolution and Public Education," December 5, 1981) to help clarify issues in the creation/evolution controversy and to examine arguments of the proponents of scientific creationism. This six-part book, a revised version of a resource manual compiled for the conference: (1) discusses the theory…

  4. Behind the Evolution/Creation Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper discusses the historical background of the creationist movement, presents Federal Judge Overton's analysis of why and how the Creationists got the equal time evolution/creation teaching law passed in Arkansas, and examines how scientists and educators are reacting to the controversy. Creationists were set back when Overton declared…

  5. Courting Controversy: How to Build Interdisciplinary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jackie; Reynolds, Terry Deal

    1993-01-01

    By focusing on a polluted river and a visit to a rural Tennessee town, sixth-grade students from suburban Asheville, North Carolina, learned more about this controversy than many of their well-informed parents and teachers. Steps for creating similar interdisciplinary thematic units are described, along with the benefits of team teaching and…

  6. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  7. Teaching Controversial Issues in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith M.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    The design of a methods course offered at Georgia State University to prepare social studies teachers for dealing with controversial issues in the middle school or secondary social studies classroom is presented. The course focuses on identification, selection, an analysis of an issue as well as the requirement that the student develop some method…

  8. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.9...

  9. 30 CFR 282.7 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 282.7 Section 282.7 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR General §...

  10. Antenatal detection of pelviureteric junction stenosis: main controversies.

    PubMed

    Piepsz, Amy

    2011-01-01

    remains controversial among nuclear medicine physicians. Including in the background area some liver and spleen activity, which are responsible for an important part of the extrarenal activity within the renal area, will improve the quality of the renogram curve, suppressing almost completely the initial vascular phase. The supporters of the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) fit for calculating differential function state that the vascular component is eliminated better than with use of the classical integral method. However, this method is based on a slope, with counting statistics being rather poor in infants with immature function. In most of the cases, the integral method will provide robust results. Determination of the same differential function by the use of both methods increases the level of confidence of the final results. It is generally admitted that the first renogram in children with antenatally detected hydronephrosis should be performed at approximately 1 month of age. However, there is a tendency to start earlier, and even in the first days of life, in case of huge hydronephrosis. The renogram should be repeated in case of significant hydronephrosis, significant increase of dilation, poor response to furosemide, or low initial differential function. Moderate dilation associated with normal differential function can probably be monitored by ultrasound alone. T(½) of the diuretic curve is an empiric parameter that does not take into account the bladder emptying and the change of patient's position. Output efficiency (OE) and normalized residual activity (NORA), measured on the late PM and posterect images, represent physiological parameters not dependent on the input function of the considered kidney and can be used whatever the moment of furosemide injection. There is presently no way to quantitatively measure cortical transit in antenatally detected pelviureteric junction syndrome; all methods are limited by the slight kidney motion related to respiratory movements

  11. Controversial Physics: Perfect Public Outreach Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rebecca

    2012-03-01

    The goal of public outreach is to excite and engage the public in physics. What can be more exciting than controversy? When OPERA announced their discover of superluminal neutrinos, controversy within the physics community quickly followed. This result could overturn a century of established physics. From a public outreach perspective there was no better way to bring people usually unaware of current research into the discussion of this result. If handled well this could be used as a gateway to interest in other physics research. The public drive to learn more about this particular result can be harnessed to create interest in other cutting edge physics research and drive the public to continue their informal physics learning. If the results of OPERA and eventually proven incorrect as many physicists believe they will, that will not erase the public's new-found interest in physics but hopefully continue to fuel it.

  12. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  13. The XY female in sport: the controversy continues.

    PubMed Central

    Hipkin, L J

    1993-01-01

    The summer and winter Olympic Games have been accompanied by much press coverage of the controversy and confusion over sex tests for sportswomen. Much of this has centred on the eligibility of subjects with androgen insensitivity to compete in women's events. The purpose of this paper is to review the process of sex differentiation and its abnormalities, highlighting those conditions in which biologically active testosterone is secreted which might confer an advantage in women's sporting events. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8242269

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the controversy of diagnosis by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Porter, Misty Blanchette

    2008-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder. The criteria used to establish the diagnosis remain controversial. The 1990 National Institutes of Health conference guidelines required a combination of both chronic anovulation and clinical/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism. These criteria were revised in 2003 at the Rotterdam European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society of Reproductive Medicine consensus workshop to include ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) as one of the two of three criteria necessary for establishing the diagnosis of PCOS. The inclusion of PCOM sparked a controversy as it broadens the population of women who meet the criteria for PCOS and allows for the creation of two phenotypically different patient populations who previously would have been excluded. The ultrasound findings, which are consistent with PCOM, include an assessment of follicle number and/or ovarian volume. As technology advances with two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound, our ability to discretely evaluate independent portions of the ovary may help to redefine the criteria of PCOM and thus standardize for clinical and research interests a more specific descriptor for PCOM. PMID:18504699

  15. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: recent advances and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory clinical syndrome of uncontrolled immune response which results in hypercytokinemia due to underlying primary or secondary immune defect. A number of genetic defects in transport, processing and function of cytotoxic granules which result in defective granule exocytosis and cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells have been well identified at the cellular and molecular level. Important advances have been made during the last 20 years in the diagnosis and treatment of HLH. The Histiocyte Society has proposed diagnostic guideline using both clinical and laboratory findings in HLH-2004 protocol, and this has been modified partly in 2009. HLH used to be a fatal disease, but the survival of HLH patients has improved to more than 60% with the use of chemoimmunotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) over the past 2 decades. However, HCT is still the only curative option of treatment for primary HLH and refractory/relapsed HLH after proper chemoimmunotherapy. The outcome of HCT for HLH patients was also improved steadily during last decades, but HCT for HLH still carries significant mortality and morbidity. Moreover, there remain ongoing controversies in various aspects of HCT including indication of HCT, donor selection, timing of HCT, conditioning regimen, and mixed chimerism after HCT. This review summarized the important practical issues which were proven by previous studies on HCT for HLH, and tried to delineate the controversies among them. PMID:26457279

  16. Measles virus 1998-2002: progress and controversy.

    PubMed

    Rall, Glenn F

    2003-01-01

    Despite the extensive media exposure that viruses such as West Nile, Norwalk, and Ebola have received lately, and the emerging threat that old pathogens may reappear as new agents of terrorism, measles virus (MV) persists as one of the leading causes of death by infectious agents worldwide, approaching the annual mortality rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. For most MV victims, fatality is indirect: Virus-induced transient immunosuppression predisposes the individual to opportunistic infections that, left untreated, can result in mortality. In rare cases, MV may also cause progressive neurodegenerative disease. During the past five years (1998-2002), development of animal models and the application of reverse genetics and immunological assays have collectively contributed to major progress in our understanding of MV biology and pathogenesis. Nevertheless, questions and controversies remain that are the basis for future research. In this review, major advances and current debates are discussed, including MV receptor usage, the cellular basis of immunosuppression, the suspected role of MV in "nonviral" diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Paget's disease, and the controversy surrounding MV vaccine safety. PMID:14527283

  17. Current controversies in the management of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Maree; Porcel, José M; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Lee, Y C Gary; Fysh, Edward T H

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) can complicate most malignancies and is a common clinical problem presenting to respiratory and cancer care physicians. Despite its frequent occurrence, current knowledge of MPE remains limited and controversy surrounds almost every aspect in its diagnosis and management. A lack of robust data has led to significant practice variations worldwide, inefficiencies in healthcare provision, and threats to patient safety. Recent studies have highlighted evolving concepts in MPE care that challenge traditional beliefs. Advancing laboratory techniques have improved the diagnostic yield from pleural fluid cytology, minimizing the need for invasive tissue biopsies, even in many cases of mesothelioma. Imaging-guided biopsy is comparable to thoracoscopy in suitable patients, if cytological examination was noncontributory. Cumulating evidence for the benefits of indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) has led some centers to adopt this approach as first-line definitive management for MPE over conventional talc pleurodesis. The optimal technique of talc pleurodesis is still debated despite its use for many decades. Strategies combining pleurodesis and IPC are being studied. MPE consists of a heterogenous group of diseases and careful phenotyping of malignant effusion patients can provide important clinical information that will advance the field and allow better stratification of patients and planning of therapy accordingly. This review addresses the controversies in MPE diagnosis and management and exposes the deficits in knowledge of MPE that should be the focus of future research. PMID:25463163

  18. Seborrheic dermatitis: etiology, risk factors, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, based on the observation of their presence in affected skin and the therapeutic response to antifungal agents. Others have proposed that Malassezia is incidental to a primary inflammatory dermatosis that resulted in increased cell turnover, scaling, and inflammation in the epidermis, similar to psoriasis. The presence of host susceptibility factors, permitting the transition of M furfur to its pathogenic form, may be associated with immune response and inflammation. Metabolites produced by Malassezia species, including oleic acid, malssezin, and indole-3-carbaldehyde, have been implicated. SD also has been traditionally considered to be a form of dermatitis based on the presence of Malassezia in healthy skin, the absence the pathogenic mycelial form of Malassezia yeasts in SD, and its chronic course. As a result, proposed treatments vary, ranging from topical corticosteroids to topical antifungals and antimicrobial peptides. PMID:23806151

  19. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  20. Object knowledge in infancy: current controversies and approaches.

    PubMed

    Mareschal

    2000-11-01

    Studies relying on looking-time measures have found evidence of a far more precocious understanding of hidden objects than Piaget originally described. However, there is now a heated controversy surrounding the results from looking-time studies - do they constitute any evidence of a conceptual or explicit understanding of objects? Moreover, even within the looking-time paradigm, young infants show rapid changes in their understanding of what constitutes a legitimate occlusion event, and in their ability to use feature information to individuate or keep track of the number of hidden objects. The picture that emerges from these studies is that young infants have a limited and sometimes fragmented understanding of hidden objects. We suggest that computational modelling could help provide a coherent account of the emergence of object-directed behaviours in infancy, although the fit between current models and existing data remains poor. PMID:11058818

  1. Challenges and controversies in the management of penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Majid; Kayes, Oliver; Minhas, Suks

    2014-12-01

    Penile cancer is a rare disease, accounting for ~1% of all malignancies in men. Poor awareness of the condition among the public and clinicians often causes long delays in diagnosis and treatment, which may result in the development of advanced disease that might require extensive and emasculating surgery. In the UK, the development of supraregional penile cancer centres has pooled resources and expertise, which has led to considerable improvements in our understanding and management of this rare condition over the past decade. However, significant gaps in our knowledge still exist. Several areas of diagnosis and management remain areas of controversy, ranging from preventive strategies and treatment of premalignant disease to the assessment of lymph node involvement and the management of advanced disease. PMID:25403241

  2. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation. PMID:26184711

  3. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    PubMed Central

    Katira, Arnav; Tan, Peng H.

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done. PMID:27144066

  4. Early Controversies Over Athetosis: II. Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lanska, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Athetosis has been controversial since it was first described by William Hammond in 1871; many aspects of Hammond’s career were equally controversial. Methods Primary sources have been used to review treatment controversies in the 50-year period following the initial description of athetosis. Results The treatments used most commonly employed available pharmaceutical agents and modalities (e.g., galvanism). Initial anecdotal reports of success were seldom confirmed with subsequent experience. Several novel invasive therapies were also developed and promoted, all of which damaged or destroyed either upper or lower motor neuron pathways, and were also often associated with high mortality rates. In general, these therapies substituted paresis for abnormal spontaneous movements. These included peripheral nerve stretching, excision of a portion of the precentral gyrus, rhizotomy, nerve “transplantation” (i.e., neurotomy and nerve-to-nerve anastomoses), and “muscle group isolation” (i.e., alcohol neurolysis). There was no agreement on the appropriateness of such high-risk procedures, particularly given the intentional generation of further neurological morbidity. Discussion Pharmaceutical agents and modalities initially employed for athetosis had little a priori evidence-based justification and no biologically plausible theoretical framework to guide empiric treatment selection. Subsequently, all the invasive procedures employed were directed at lessening or removing the manifestations, rather than the underlying cause, of the abnormal central nervous system “irritation,” usually by imposing paresis or paralysis. Factors contributing to the disparity in outcomes between favorable initial reports and the often-disappointing results of later studies included reliance on anecdotal reports or small uncontrolled case series, placebo effects, biased observation, misdiagnosis, and biased reporting. PMID:23450199

  5. Treatment of genital warts: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

    2010-01-01

    There are two opposing approaches in the treatment of genital warts: (1) the traditional approach advocates complete elimination of all lesions, and (2) a second approach regards condyloma as merely a cosmetic nuisance. After a long journey through many arguments and scientific papers, we have concluded that many unknowns, uncertainties, and controversies concerning the value of treatment of genital warts in terms of clearing and curing the disease (ie, eradicating the viruses, preventing cancer, and reducing infectivity). There is no consensus at present of whether treatment of men with evidence of genital human papillomavirus infection influences the natural history of their female sex partner's cervical disease. PMID:20797516

  6. Breast Cancer Screening Benefits: Research and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Odle, Teresa G

    2016-05-01

    The debate regarding the efficacy of breast cancer screening with mammography has intensified since about 2009, as the literature has reported on benefits, harms, and effectiveness of the technology in breast cancer diagnosis. As a result, women and their referring clinicians have been confused by conflicting reports in medical journals and the media. This article provides an overview of research and methodology used to generate these reports and the effects of contradictory research, screening recommendation changes, and the controversy over mammography efficacy on patients and the public. PMID:27146193

  7. Controversies in ureteroscopy: Wire, basket, and sheath

    PubMed Central

    Rizkala, Emad R; Monga, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    In the last one to two decades, flexible ureteroscopy has rapidly expanded its role in the treatment of urologic stone disease. With the frequent and expanded use of flexible ureteroscopy, other ancillary instruments were developed in order to ease and facilitate this technique, such as ureteral access sheaths (UAS) and a variety of wires and baskets. These developments, along with improved surgeon ureteroscopic competence, have often brought into question the need to implement the “traditional technique” of flexible ureteroscopy. In this review, we discuss a brief history of flexible ureteroscopy, its expanded indications, and the controversy surrounding the use of UAS, wires, and baskets. PMID:24082447

  8. Intellectual property and information controversy (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    As advanced information has been proceeded rapidly, intellectual property has become more important than ever as business resources of enterprises. Based on the former report by the author "present status of and trend in intellectual property" this paper describes "information" related intellectual property controversy which have been occurred, that is, 1) affairs related to computer hardwares and softwares (the case of compatible machines and OS, the case of application softwares, computer crimes) and 2) affairs on trade secret (the case of revealing enterprises'secret, the case of industrial espionage). It also discusses how intellectual property should be protected and utilized from now on.

  9. Distal radius fracture: diagnosis, treatment, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo

    2014-07-01

    This article presents the diagnosis and treatment of distal radius fractures with emphasis on (1) current common principles, (2) the author's current practices, and (3) controversies. The author emphasizes that displaced distal radius fractures should be approached first with a trial of closed reduction, with or without percutaneous pinning. If this reduction is unstable or unsuccessful, open reduction is indicated. Early treatments include percutaneous pinning through the distal radioulnar joint, early or delayed reattachment/repair of the avulsed dorsal periphery of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), reattachment of the TFCC to the ulna fovea, and late reconstruction. PMID:24996466

  10. Injectables in the Nose: Facts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, William Walsh; Bucky, Lou; Friedman, Oren

    2016-08-01

    Nasal injectables and surface treatments alter the appearance of the nose both primarily and following nasal surgery. Fillers such as hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxyapatite, and fat have a variety of advantages and disadvantages in eliminating small asymmetries postrhinoplasty. All nasal injectables have rare but severe ocular and cerebral ischemic complications. The injection of steroids following nasal reconstruction has a role in preventing supratip swelling and can improve the appearance of grafts to the nose. Resurfacing techniques reduce the appearance of autotransplanted grafts to the nose; there is little controversy about their benefit but surgeon preference for timing is varied. PMID:27400851

  11. Extracorporeal life support: updates and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gadepalli, Samir K; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2015-02-01

    The use of Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) in children and adults has markedly increased during the past few years with over 4000 patients placed on ECLS every year in over 200 centers. This article focuses on updates to the physiology and mechanics of ECLS with use of magnetically levitated centrifugal pumps, hollow-fiber gas-exchange devices, and bi-caval dual-lumen catheters. We also explore controversies in management including indications, cannulation approaches, renal replacement, monitoring of anticoagulation, early ambulation, and termination of ECLS. Finally, we present changes in the systems that provide ECLS including the single-provider model and regionalization of care. PMID:25639803

  12. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Fact, Opinion, and Controversy.

    PubMed

    Gladdy, Rebecca A; Gupta, Abha; Catton, Charles N

    2016-10-01

    After diagnosis of retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS), detailed imaging and multidisciplinary discussion should guide treatment including surgical resection and in select cases, neoadjuvant therapy. Local recurrence is common in RPS and is associated with grade, histologic subtype, completeness of resection, and size. As guidelines to standardize RPS patient management emerge, expert pathologic assessment and management in centers of excellence are benchmarks of quality of care. The efficacy of current chemotherapy is limited and there is a critical need to understand the molecular basis of sarcoma so that new drug therapies are developed. Multicenter clinical trials are needed to limit opinion and controversy in this complex and challenging disease. PMID:27591493

  13. Creationism and Evolution: A Systems Perspective on a Textbook Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    This paper addresses the effects of the controversies involved in one state's decision to exclude the study of evolution from its science curriculum and to require equal time for creationism as an alternative theory. Curricula and textbooks are examined for the impacts of evolutionary and creationist controversies. The controversy is discussed…

  14. Controversial role of arthroscopic meniscectomy of the knee: A review.

    PubMed

    Ha, Austin Y; Shalvoy, Robert M; Voisinet, Anne; Racine, Jennifer; Aaron, Roy K

    2016-05-18

    The role of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in reducing pain and improving function in patients with meniscal tears remains controversial. Five recent high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared non-operative management of meniscal tears to APM, with four showing no difference and one demonstrating superiority of APM. In this review, we examined the strengths and weaknesses of each of these RCTs, with particular attention to the occurrence of inadvertent biases. We also completed a quantitative analysis that compares treatment successes in each treatment arm, considering crossovers as treatment failures. Our analysis revealed that each study was an excellent attempt to compare APM with non-surgical treatment but suffered from selection, performance, detection, and/or transfer biases that reduce confidence in its conclusions. While the RCT remains the methodological gold standard for establishing treatment efficacy, the use of an RCT design does not in itself ensure internal or external validity. Furthermore, under our alternative analysis of treatment successes, two studies had significantly more treatment successes in the APM arm than the non-operative arm although original intention-to-treat analyses showed no difference between these two groups. Crossovers remain an important problem in surgical trials with no perfect analytical solution. With the studies available at present, no conclusion can be drawn concerning the optimal treatment modality for meniscal tears. Further work that minimizes significant biases and crossovers and incorporates sub-group and cost-benefit analyses may clarify therapeutic indications. PMID:27190756

  15. Controversial role of arthroscopic meniscectomy of the knee: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Austin Y; Shalvoy, Robert M; Voisinet, Anne; Racine, Jennifer; Aaron, Roy K

    2016-01-01

    The role of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in reducing pain and improving function in patients with meniscal tears remains controversial. Five recent high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared non-operative management of meniscal tears to APM, with four showing no difference and one demonstrating superiority of APM. In this review, we examined the strengths and weaknesses of each of these RCTs, with particular attention to the occurrence of inadvertent biases. We also completed a quantitative analysis that compares treatment successes in each treatment arm, considering crossovers as treatment failures. Our analysis revealed that each study was an excellent attempt to compare APM with non-surgical treatment but suffered from selection, performance, detection, and/or transfer biases that reduce confidence in its conclusions. While the RCT remains the methodological gold standard for establishing treatment efficacy, the use of an RCT design does not in itself ensure internal or external validity. Furthermore, under our alternative analysis of treatment successes, two studies had significantly more treatment successes in the APM arm than the non-operative arm although original intention-to-treat analyses showed no difference between these two groups. Crossovers remain an important problem in surgical trials with no perfect analytical solution. With the studies available at present, no conclusion can be drawn concerning the optimal treatment modality for meniscal tears. Further work that minimizes significant biases and crossovers and incorporates sub-group and cost-benefit analyses may clarify therapeutic indications. PMID:27190756

  16. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  17. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  18. Breast cancer screening: controversy of impact.

    PubMed

    Berry, Donald A

    2013-08-01

    Few medical issues have been as controversial--or as political, at least in the United States-as the role of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The advantages of finding a cancer early seem obvious. Indeed, randomized trials evaluating screening mammography demonstrate a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but the benefits are less than one would hope. Moreover, the randomized trials are themselves subject to criticism, including that they are irrelevant in the modern era because most were conducted before chemotherapy and hormonal therapy became widely used. In this article I chronicle the evidence and controversies regarding mammographic screening, including attempts to assess the relative contributions of screening and therapy in the substantial decreases in breast cancer mortality that have been observed in many countries over the last 20-25 years. I emphasize the trade-off between harms and benefits depending on the woman's age and other risk factors. I also discuss ways for communicating the associated risks to women who have to decide whether screening (and what screening strategy) is right for them. PMID:24074796

  19. Current Controversies With Recent Cholesterol Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elizabeth; Saseen, Joseph J

    2016-02-01

    Several guidelines and expert recommendations have been published recently regarding the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines recommend a drastic paradigm change in the treatment of cholesterol where treatment, based on level of cardiovascular risk, is based around using a fixed statin intensity therapy. This approach is endorsed by the American Diabetes Association. However, recommendations by the National Lipid Association (NLA) consist of the traditional approach of titrating therapy to achieve patient-specific lipoprotein targets. Despite the differences in overall approaches, the use of statin therapy as the cornerstone of treatment to reduce risk of cardiovascular events in at risk patients is a strong common theme. Clinicians should be aware of these differences, as they represent controversies with the overall treatment of ASCVD risk. Additional controversies related to the treatment of patients with ASCVD risk pertain to the role of nonstatin drugs and approaches to managing side effects. These topics are reviewed within this article and discuss implications for patient care. PMID:26611871

  20. Controversies in cancer pain. Medical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Foley, K M

    1989-06-01

    The treatment of pain in the patient with cancer has focused attention on a series of controversial issues involving medical, social, and moral factors. The medical factors include a lack of knowledge on the part of health care professionals regarding the rational use of opioid drugs. This is coupled with real limitations in the general understanding of the mechanisms of pain and its treatment using pharmacologic, anesthetic, and neurosurgical approaches. Several pharmacologic controversies, including the choice of drug, route and method of administration, and tolerance development and risk of substance abuse, have emerged with the use of opioids on a chronic basis in the cancer population. The social and moral implications involve the issue of who will pay for high technology pain management approaches for patients either at home or in hospice care and the ethical considerations in managing pain with opioid drugs. Carefully designed studies to assess these factors, coupled with broad educational programs, will improve the care of cancer patients in pain and expand our understanding of these important issues. PMID:2566369

  1. Gardnerella vaginalis: characteristics, clinical considerations, and controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance, Gram stain reaction, and genus affiliation of Gardnerella vaginalis have been controversial since Gardner and Dukes described the organism as the cause of "nonspecific vaginitis," a common disease of women which is now called bacterial vaginosis. The organism was named G. vaginalis when taxonomic studies showed that it was unrelated to bacteria in various genera including Haemophilus and Corynebacterium. Electron microscopy and chemical analyses have elucidated the organism's gram-variable reaction. Controversy over the etiology of bacterial vaginosis was largely resolved by (i) studies using improved media and methods for the isolation and identification of bacteria in vaginal fluids and (ii) standardization of criteria for clinical and laboratory diagnosis. Besides G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., Mycoplasma hominis, and certain obligate anaerobes are now acknowledged as participants in bacterial vaginosis. The finding that G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., and M. hominis inhabit the rectum indicates a potential source of autoinfection in addition to sexual transmission. Extravaginal infections with G. vaginalis are increasingly recognized, especially when the toxic anticoagulant polyanetholesulfonate is omitted from blood cultures and when urine cultures are incubated anaerobically for 48 h. The finding that mares harbor G. vaginalis suggests that an equine model can be developed for studies of Gardnerella pathogenesis. Images PMID:1498765

  2. Chandra Reveals Remains of Giant Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo taken by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory that reveals the remains of an explosion in the form of two enormous arcs of multimillion-degree gas in the galaxy Centaurus A that appear to be part of a ring 25,000 light years in diameter. The size and location of the ring suggest that it could have been an explosion that occurred about 10 million years ago. A composite image made with radio (red and green), optical (yellow-orange), and X-ray data (blue) presents a sturning tableau of a turbulent galaxy. A broad band of dust and cold gas is bisected at an angle by opposing jets of high-energy particles blasting away from the supermassive black hole in the nucleus. Lying in a plane perpendicular to the jets are the two large arcs of x-ray emitting multi-million degree gas. This discovery can help astronomers better understand the cause and effect of violent outbursts from the vicinity of supermassive black holes of active galaxies. The Chandra program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  3. The Discussion of Biotechnology Controversial Issues--An Exploratory Study about Its Potentialities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha dos Reis, Pedro

    This paper describes a qualitative research that used small group discussion activities centered in biotechnology and genetics controversies as a contribution to the promotion of students' thinking tools. Students' written conclusions and reflections about the activities, teachers' interviews, participant observation of the classes, and their…

  4. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  5. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  6. Current questions and possible controversies in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, L M; Simon, A K; Baehrecke, E H

    2015-01-01

    Interest in autophagy has exploded over the last decade, with publications highlighting crosstalk with several other cellular processes including secretion, endocytosis, and cell suicide pathways including apoptosis. Autophagy proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes independently of their roles in autophagy, creating complexities in the interpretation of autophagy (Atg) mutant gene data. Interestingly, this self-eating process is a survival mechanism that can also promote cell death, but when and how autophagy may ‘switch’ its function is still under debate. Indeed, there are currently many models of how autophagy actually influences cell death. In this review, we highlight some outstanding questions and possible controversies in the autophagy field. PMID:26682061

  7. Lung Cancer—Current Concepts and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Pett, Stuart B.; Wernly, Jorge A.; Akl, Bechara F.

    1986-01-01

    The recent literature contains a variety of controversial management alternatives for patients with pulmonary malignancy that affect all aspects of the lung cancer problem. Revisions in the classification system have been advanced in which the prognostic implications of specific ultrastructural and histochemical information are acknowledged. Computed tomography and, to a lesser extent, nuclide scanning have revolutionized the staging process, but limitations in these procedures are emerging. Improved survival following aggressive surgical treatment has challenged the adequacy of the standard staging system. The palliative role of radiotherapy is becoming more widely appreciated. Results of immunotherapy are equivocal and gains from chemotherapy are modest. Combinations of treatment modalities will require further documentation before they can be recommended with confidence. PMID:3529632

  8. The dental amalgam controversy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, George; Injeyan, H Stephen

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the long history of mercury amalgam as a dental restorative material, its use continues to be controversial. Mercury vapour is continuously released from dental amalgam and is ultimately absorbed into a variety of tissues. Experimental data have demonstrated that the uptake, tissue retention and excretion of mercury from dental amalgam is significant. Evidence has accumulated indicating a relationship between tissue mercury levels and a multitude of clinical manifestations. However, the clinical significance of mercury toxicity from dental amalgams is a matter for debate. The literature is devoid of randomized clinical trials that are rigorously designed to address this issue. Thus, although research data renders the notion of amalgam safety questionable, the dental community appears determined to continue its use as long as unequivocal evidence correlating amalgam mercury toxicity to specific clinical conditions is lacking.

  9. Controversies Surrounding Classification of Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, it is apparent that personality disorder is a common condition. Some of the concepts of personality disorder that are currently in use are flawed and need to be revised. The aim of this article is to discuss the controversy created by the uncertainties in the current classification system and to suggest ways forward. In particular, the clinician needs to be aware of the importance of assessing personality abnormality in terms of a severity dimension, and of the ways in which such an abnormality can impact on treatments for other conditions. These changes in the notion of personality disorder are needed as, for the first time, a good evidence base is being established for potential treatments and these will be maximized if we have a classification fit for therapeutic purpose. PMID:20396426

  10. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  11. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." PMID:25768981

  12. [Oswaldo Cruz and the serology controversy].

    PubMed

    Carreta, Jorge Augusto

    2011-01-01

    This analysis of the discussion surrounding the efficacy of the plague serum produced by Manguinhos Institute in the early twentieth century begins with an overview of Oswaldo Cruz's service as head of the Public Health Directorship (Diretoria de Saúde Pública). The controversy itself is then addressed, through an exploration of correspondence exchanged by physicians Oswaldo Cruz, Miguel Pereira, Vital Brazil, Chapot Prévost, and Francisco Fajardo. Their letters reveal how bacteriology in Brazil was then marked by uncertainty and experimentation, even while this field of knowledge publicly touted itself as safe and incontestable. The article shows how arguments of an extra-scientific nature interfere with both research development and the acceptance of medical products. PMID:22012092

  13. Mapping Intravascular Ultrasound Controversies in Interventional Cardiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, David; Adams, Samantha; Maresca, Bruno; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with complementary imaging

  14. Selected concepts and controversies in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A

    1988-10-01

    Although more than 80 years of research in cardiac resuscitation produced many important findings and greatly enhanced our understanding of the arrest state, outcome following pediatric cardiac arrest remains poor. Resuscitation guidelines have recently been published, but they may not reflect optimal therapy. Closed-chest compression-induced cardiac output may be higher in pediatric patients, particularly infants, than that previously reported in adults. To achieve higher cardiac outputs, direct cardiac compression is important; the recommended compression location has therefore been changed based on recent data. The optimal rate of compression, however, is uncertain, so further research is needed. Alternative vascular access sites, such as the endotracheal and intraosseous route for drug administration may permit more rapid drug delivery, but data suggest that a larger epinephrine dose than currently recommended should be used. It may also be helpful to dilute the drug in normal saline before endotracheal administration. Although experimental data suggest that a pure alpha-adrenergic agonist may be beneficial in a cardiac arrest, recent data show that epinephrine remains the drug of choice. Finally, the role of sodium bicarbonate in both the arrest and postarrest setting has become controversial. Recent data suggest that bicarbonate may be detrimental and that therapy of acidosis is best directed at improving perfusion, oxygenation, and ventilation. Alternative forms of therapy for acidosis, such as THAM and dichloroacetate may prove beneficial in the postarrest setting. PMID:3052707

  15. Chemoradiation for gastric cancer: controversies, updates and novel techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fan, M; Hu, W

    2015-01-01

    The INT0116 trial established the role of adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) in the multidisciplinary approach to the management of locally advanced gastric cancer. However, whether adjuvant CRT is indispensable for patients undergoing D2 dissection remains undefined. The adjuvant chemoradiation therapy in stomach cancer (ARTIST) trial, which was designed to compare adjuvant chemotherapy to CRT, failed to demonstrate differences in disease-free and overall survival in the whole study group; however, subgroup analysis indicated that patients with lymph node metastasis may benefit from additional radiation. A follow-up ARTIST II trial is currently under way. The efficacy of adjuvant CRT remains controversial because of variation among studies in the inclusion criteria and treatment delivery methods; however, the identification of patients who would benefit from CRT is critical. Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy protect normal tissues via motion management and decreased radiation-induced toxicity and contribute to plan optimization. Further studies integrating clinical and molecular factors as well as neoadjuvant CRT are warranted. PMID:25827208

  16. Groin hernia repair by laparoscopic techniques: current status and controversies.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Maurice E; Young, Susan B

    2005-08-01

    Laparoscopic hernia repair remains controversial, and its position in current hernia surgery remains in flux. In this article we attempt to put the laparoscopic approach in perspective by describing the rationale for its development. We summarize studies comparing it with open repairs, including recent publications, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews; and we then contrast the data with recent findings of the United States Veterans Affairs Cooperative study 456. We discuss the current and future status of the laparoscopic approach to inguinal hernia repair and present an update of our own laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal technique without mesh fixation. From 1994 to 2004 we performed 314 hernia repairs on 224 patients with no intraoperative complications, no conversions to an open procedure, and no mortality. Thirty (14%) minor postoperative complications occurred. There were three herniated lipomas (preperitoneal fat) but no true peritoneal reherniations. We evaluate critical points of laparoscopic hernia repair including extensive preperitoneal dissection, mesh configuration, size and fixation, cost reduction, and the learning curve. PMID:15983713

  17. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  18. Endometriosis: A Disease That Remains Enigmatic

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, a gynecologic pathology, is defined by the presence of a tissue similar to uterine endometrium, which is located in places other than physiologically appropriate. These endometrial heterotopic islets contain glands and stroma and are functionally capable of responding to exogenous, endogenous, or local hormonal stimuli. Endometriosis affects 8%–10% of women of reproductive age; in 30% of the women, the condition is associated with primary or secondary infertility. In several instances, endometriosis persists as a minimal or mild disease, or it can resolve on its own. Other cases of endometriosis show severe symptomatology that ends when menopause occurs. Endometriosis can, however, reactivate in several postmenopausal women when iatrogenic or endogenous hormones are present. Endometriosis is occasionally accompanied by malignant ovarian tumors, especially endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas. Its pathogenesis is widely debated, and its variable morphology appears to represent a continuum of individual presentations and progressions. Endometriosis has no pathognomonic signs or symptoms; it is therefore difficult to diagnose. Because of its enigmatic etiopathogenesis, there is currently no satisfactory therapy for all patients with endometriosis. Treatments include medications, surgery, or combined therapies; currently, the only procedures that seem to cure endometriosis are hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In this paper, we review the most controversial and enigmatic aspects of this disease. PMID:23956867

  19. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  20. The Spokane flood controversy and the Martian outflow channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    The controversy over Bretz's hypothesis concerning the cataclysmic Spokane flood is discussed. Attention is directed to similarities between the Channeled Scabland of Washington and some Martian land features considered to be catastrophic flood channels. Characteristics of the enormous plexus of proglacial stream channels eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington are described. The controversiality of the suggestion that a catastrophic flood is responsible for the Martian features is considered with respect to the Spokane flood controversy.

  1. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  2. Controversies in proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Curtis; Henderson, Randal H; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, R Charles; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2016-08-01

    Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use. In this review, we summarize the results of recently published studies that support the safety and efficacy of PT in the treatment of prostate cancer. We also review the available cost-effectiveness data for PT and discuss the future of PT, including the current randomized trial comparing PT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the need for additional research that may help to establish the relative benefit of PT when compared to photon-based radiation therapy. PMID:27558255

  3. More on SUPPORT: the controversy continues.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The article by Sunita VS Bandewar in the January-March issue does an excellent job of describing the controversy over informed consent in the SUPPORT clinical trial. As one of the authors of the duelling articles Bandewar cites, I commend the author's conclusions calling for disclosure not only of randomisation in so-called "standard of care" clinical trials, but also the comprehensive disclosure of risks in this type of research (also known as "comparative effectiveness research [CER]"). Bandewar surmises that the disclosure of randomisation could result in a "much higher chance of patients declining to participate in a randomised trial"; and that this may be one of the motives of those who argue for non-disclosure of randomisation. In fact, at least some supporters of limited disclosure of the risks in CER trials have expressly acknowledged their concerns about the recruitment of participants if all the risks of "standard of care" treatments are mentioned in the consent forms. PMID:25910283

  4. World bank in AIDS prevention controversy.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1995-06-16

    A controversial editorial review article on AIDS prevention by researchers at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) of the University of California was recently published in the British journal, AIDS. The article's thesis is that in addition to individual behavior, social and economic forces have played a role in promoting the spread of HIV in developing countries, where, by the year 2000, 90 percent of HIV infection will have occurred. The researchers argue that an economic approach, called structural adjustment programs [begun and spearheaded by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank], may have created conditions favoring the spread of HIV infection. The article is concerned about four alleged consequences of these programs: the decline of rural subsistence economy; the development of a transportation infrastructure; migration and urbanization; and reduced spending on health and social services. The CAPS authors recommend changes in development programs which focus on the satisfaction of basic human needs and movement from paternalistic to cooperative development policy. They suggest changing the charter of the World Bank and IMF to allow rescheduling or canceling of debt. World Bank officials, in letters to AIDS, tried to persuade the journal not to publish the article, citing that it falls below the journal's current standards and that some of the information is wrong. PMID:11362526

  5. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  6. Publication of Controversial Papers in Life.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Life (ISSN 2075-1729, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/life/) is a new journal that deals with new and sometime difficult interdisciplinary matters. Consequently, the journal will occasionally be presented with submitted articles that are controversial and/or outside conventional scientific views. Some papers recently accepted for publication in Life have attracted significant attention. Moreover, members of the Editorial Board have objected to these papers; some have resigned, and others have questioned the scientific validity of the contributions. In response I want to first state some basic facts regarding all publications in this journal. All papers are peer-reviewed, although it is often difficult to obtain expert reviewers for some of the interdisciplinary topics covered by this journal. I feel obliged to stress that although we will strive to guarantee the scientific standard of the papers published in this journal, all the responsibility for the ideas contained in the published articles rests entirely on their authors. Discussions on previously published articles are welcome and I hope that, by fostering discussion and by keeping an open-minded attitude towards new ideas, the journal will spur progress in this little explored, difficult and very exciting area of knowledge. [...]. PMID:26791663

  7. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  8. Microsurgical free flaps: Controversies in maxillofacial reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264

  9. South Africa's AIDS play provokes controversy.

    PubMed

    Lee, N

    1996-03-01

    The European Union (EU) has earmarked a total of 40 million rand (US$12 million) to foster AIDS awareness in South Africa. 14.27 million rand, approximately US$3.45 million, has been allocated by the Department of Health to fund "Sarafina 2," a controversial musical show about AIDS awareness written by Mbongeni Ngema. The allocation of such a large portion of EU funding to this one play has been strongly criticized. The funds could have instead been used to provide essential services. In response, the Department of Health claims that the money had not been subjected to the usual checking processes because the amount had been specifically dedicated to the production of the play. The EU ambassador, however, has reportedly stated that the play was never discussed and was not part of their program. The director of the AIDS directorate was out of the country when Ngema's tender for the play was accepted last August, and it was not until November that she learned about her department's sponsoring of the play. The health department has now forbade its employees from discussing the matter with the media. Minister of Health Nkosazana Zuma should expect a tough time when she goes before Manto Tshabalala's parliamentary portfolio committee on health which has been charged with investigating the matter. The committee will also review some of the accounting related to this issue. PMID:8596329

  10. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:24910577

  11. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  12. LDL cholesterol: controversies and future therapeutic directions.

    PubMed

    Ridker, Paul M

    2014-08-16

    Lifelong exposure to raised concentrations of LDL cholesterol increases cardiovascular event rates, and the use of statin therapy as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and smoking cessation has proven highly effective in reducing the population burden associated with hyperlipidaemia. Yet, despite consistent biological, genetic, and epidemiological data, and evidence from randomised trials, there is controversy among national guidelines and clinical practice with regard to LDL cholesterol, its measurement, the usefulness of population-based screening, the net benefit-to-risk ratio for different LDL-lowering drugs, the benefit of treatment targets, and whether aggressive lowering of LDL is safe. Several novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of people with genetic defects that result in loss of function within the LDL receptor, a major determinant of inherited hyperlipidaemias. Moreover, the usefulness of monoclonal antibodies that extend the LDL-receptor lifecycle (and thus result in substantial lowering of LDL cholesterol below the levels achieved with statins alone) is being assessed in phase 3 trials that will enrol more than 60,000 at-risk patients worldwide. These trials represent an exceptionally rapid translation of genetic observations into clinical practice and will address core questions of how low LDL cholesterol can be safely reduced, whether the mechanism of LDL-cholesterol lowering matters, and whether ever more aggressive lipid-lowering provides a safe, long-term mechanism to prevent atherothrombotic complications. PMID:25131980

  13. Obestatin: an interesting but controversial gut hormone.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, Antonio; Donato, Valentina; Chirico, Valeria; Buemi, Antoine; Buemi, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide hormone released from the stomach and is present not only in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in the spleen, mammary gland, breast milk and plasma. Obestatin appears to function as part of a complex gut-brain network whereby hormones and substances from the stomach and intestines signal the brain about satiety or hunger. In contrast to ghrelin, which causes hyperphagia and obesity, obestatin appears to act as an anorectic hormone, decreasing food intake and reducing body weight gain. Further studies have shown that obestatin is also involved in improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes and inhibiting glucose-induced insulin secretion. This hormone has not only been studied in the field of physiology but also in the fields of obesity and diabetes mellitus, and in patients with psychogenic eating disorders. Obestatin has a role in regulating the cell cycle by exerting proliferative effects that may be seen in cell physiology and oncology. Given the current controversy regarding the effects of obestatin and its cognate ligand, this article provides the latest review of the physiological and pathological characteristics of this hormone. PMID:22156552

  14. Endoscopic vein harvesting: technique, outcomes, concerns & controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the graft conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has significant implications both in the short- and long-term. The patency of a coronary conduit is closely associated with an uneventful postoperative course, better long-term patient survival and superior freedom from re-intervention. The internal mammary artery is regarded as the primary conduit for CABG patients, given its association with long-term patency and survival. However, long saphenous vein (LSV) continues to be utilized universally as patients presenting for CABG often have multiple coronary territories requiring revascularization. Traditionally, the LSV has been harvested by creating incisions from the ankle up to the groin termed open vein harvesting (OVH). However, such harvesting methods are associated with incisional pain and leg wound infections. In addition, patients find such large incisions to be cosmetically unappealing. These concerns regarding wound morbidity and patient satisfaction led to the emergence of endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH). Published experience comparing OVH with EVH suggests decreased wound related complications, improved patient satisfaction, shorter hospital stay, and reduced postoperative pain at the harvest site following EVH. Despite these reported advantages concerns regarding risk of injury at the time of harvest with its potential detrimental effect on vein graft patency and clinical outcomes have prevented universal adoption of EVH. This review article provides a detailed insight into the technical aspects, outcomes, concerns, and controversies associated with EVH. PMID:24251019

  15. Controversies in Surgical Management of Recalcitrant Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Bonnie P; Wysocki, Robert W; Cohen, Mark S

    2016-08-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis, often referred to as "tennis elbow," is common and responds to nonsurgical treatment in 80% to 90% of patients within 1 year. For those who proceed with surgery, much remains unclear regarding the ideal treatment. This paper discusses controversies in surgical management of extensor carpi radialis brevis enthesopathy including clinical outcomes of open versus arthroscopic techniques, the relevance of concomitant pathology addressed arthroscopically, and avenues for assessing comparative cost data. PMID:27491631

  16. Catholic Identity Remains a Public Relations Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The massive sex scandal that rocked the Roman Catholic Church raises a question as to whether Catholic identity remains an asset that the nation's 8,000 Catholic schools should continue to promote. This case study found that continuing to promote Catholic identity has had no adverse effect on recruitment and enrollment at four Omaha, Nebraska,…

  17. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  18. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  19. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  20. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  1. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton. PMID:19220191

  2. Interleukin-3 and ex vivo maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Although the utilization of IL-3 in the ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells has been considered as an attractive possibility, its mode of action remains unclear and controversial. Some reports show that IL-3 maintains or even enhances primitive stem cell activity, whereas others show the opposite. The presence of serum in culture media enhances the pro-differentiating effect of IL-3 on stem cells. Conversely, addition of IL-3 to serum-free cultures improves the capacity of TPO, SCF and Flt3-ligand to promote the self-renewal of primitive stem cells. The presence or absence of serum or of some serum substitutes (in serum-free cultures), as well as other culture parameters are probably responsible for these contrasting effects of IL-3 on stem cells. However, none of the data presently evaluated bring a clear, definitive explanation to this apparent paradox. Those data that appear to be the most informative are presented and discussed in this "technical review". PMID:15217747

  3. Eavesdropping on the cytoskeleton: progress and controversy in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Keaton, Mignon A; Lew, Daniel J

    2006-12-01

    The morphogenesis checkpoint provides a link between bud formation and mitosis in yeast. In this pathway, insults affecting the actin or septin cytoskeleton trigger a cell cycle arrest, mediated by the Wee1 homolog Swe1p, which catalyzes the inhibitory phosphorylation of the mitosis-promoting cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) on a conserved tyrosine residue. Analyses of Swe1p phosphorylation have mapped 61 sites targeted by CDKs and Polo-related kinases, which control both Swe1p activity and Swe1p degradation. Although the sites themselves are not evolutionarily conserved, the control of Swe1p degradation exhibits many conserved features, and is linked to DNA-responsive checkpoints in vertebrate cells. At the 'sensing' end of the checkpoint, recent work has begun to shed light on how septins are organized and how they impact Swe1p regulators. However, the means by which Swe1p responds to actin perturbations once a bud has formed remains controversial. PMID:17055334

  4. Controversy in the Composition Classroom: Debate as a Mode of Pre-Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClish, Glen

    Controversy and debate can be effectively employed as the central pre-writing activity in the composition classroom. The current model of prewriting in the composition classroom is the reflective model, which involves relatively private exploration of issues and ideas leading to paper topics. Although in the short run it is easier for both student…

  5. The Gaia Controversy: AGU'S Chapman Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Eric G.

    The controversial Gaia Hypothesis of James Lovelock of Coombe Mill, Launceston, Cornwall, U.K., and his colleagues variously contends that throughout Earth history the global biosphere has influenced, even controlled, the physicochemical evolution of Earth's environments (especially oceans and climate) for its own benefit. Since the origin of life, the biosphere has influenced selective pressures on evolution, maintained the Earth in a kind of homeostasis, and thus created an environmental optimum through time, regulated by and for the biosphere. Rarely has a hypothesis immediately sparked such passionate response. There is something in it for everybody, from hard core scientists to philosophers, ultraconservationists, students of world religions, mystics, politicians, and space enthusiasts; they were all there in San Diego, March 7-11, 1988, for the AGU Chapman Conference on Gaia Hypotheses. For 4 days an impressive list of specialists presented and debated the pros and cons of Gaia Hypotheses from diverse perspectives: modern and ancient biology, ecology, biochemistry, the physicochemical systems of the Earth, oceans, and atmosphere, and the evolution of the solar system. Focus was on modern to Pleistocene atmosphere-ocean-Earth systems, case histories of their interaction with the biosphere, and relatively simple models drawn from these observations and projected back through time. Equivalent studies on the geological and paleobiological history of the Earth-life system over the past 3.5 b.y. were underrepresented. Extended debates that followed generally strong presentations were lively, argumentative, and remarkably civil despite widely held views. The grace with which Jim Lovelock moved between his strongest critics and supporters set high standards for the debates. Everybody acknowledged a high learning curve.

  6. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  7. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  8. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  9. Screening for cancer: concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gates, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Early detection of cancer is a core task in family medicine, and patients have come to expect screening tests, sometimes out of proportion to what evidence can justify. To understand the controversies surrounding screening and to provide sound advice to patients, family physicians should be familiar with the fundamental concepts of screening. Failure to account for the effects of lead-time, length-time, and overdiagnosis biases can lead to overestimation of screening benefits. For this reason, the best method for evaluating the benefit of screening tests is a randomized controlled trial showing decreased disease-specific or all-cause mortality. The number needed to screen can be used to measure the magnitude of benefit of screening tests. Accepted screening tests often require screening several hundred to more than 1,000 asymptomatic patients to prevent one death from the disease. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend screening for colorectal cancer in adults 50 to 75 years of age, and recommend against prostate-specific antigen testing to screen for prostate cancer. Annual low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer reduces mortality in persons 55 to 80 years of age with at least a 30-pack-year history who are otherwise healthy smokers or who have quit smoking within the past 15 years; however, it is associated with a high false-positive rate, uncertain harms from radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Therefore, it should be performed only in conjunction with smoking cessation interventions. PMID:25368922

  10. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take. PMID:3540171

  11. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  12. Remains of Comet-Shoemaker/Levy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration of the Comet-Shoemaker/Levy collision shows the first piece of the remains of the comet crashing into Jupiter. This event occurred in 1994 after tidal forces from Jupiter caused the comet to break up into 21 separate pieces. Although on a very different scale, the physical mechanism for the breakup of Shoemaker/Levy also caused the tidal disruption of the star in RX J1242-11. (Illustration: SEDS/D. Seal (edited by CXC/M. Weiss)

  13. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  14. Solid cancers after antiplatelet therapy: Confirmations, controversies, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Cherepanov, Vasily; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Kim, Moo Hyun

    2015-11-25

    The role of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in tumour growth and prognosis is not new, and currently under intense investigation. Some randomised data strongly suggest that this association exists, but it is complex, and not necessarily pointed at the same direction. The potential mechanisms responsible for such harmful association include a direct hazard of novel antithrombotics on cancer, indirect promotion of tumour growth, easier metastatic dissemination due to instability of platelet-tumour cell aggregates, or/and inability to keep cancer cells locally in situ are considered. The latest randomised evidence ultimately rejected the drug-specific cancer risks, clearly indicating the class-effect. In lay terms "cancers follow bleeding", which seems to be true for antithrombotic agents in general. Significant excess of solid cancers which was similar after prasugrel in TRITON, and with vorapaxar in TRACER trials was confirmed by the FDA reviews. Later, extra cancer deaths reported following clopidogrel and prasugrel in DAPT, and after ticagrelor in PEGASUS are also of concern. However, there are remaining controversies with regard to published cancer risks after ticagrelor (PLATO), or another vorapaxar trial (TRA2P), while full disclosure of separate clopidogrel and prasugrel cancer data in DAPT is still lacking. In short, if we apply moderate antiplatelet strategies for over two years, or aggressive regimens including triple therapy for much less than one year, the solid cancer risks emerge. Currently, more delicate platelet inhibition, and shorter exposure to dual oral antiplatelet agents should prevail. PMID:26559427

  15. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  16. Deep sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery: Evidences and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Barbero, Cristina; Rinaldi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many advances in prevention and perioperative care, deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) remains a pressing concern in cardiac surgery, with a still relevant incidence and with a considerable impact on in-hospital mortality and also on mid- and long-term survival. The permanent high impact of this complication is partially related to the increasing proportion of patients at high-risk for infection, as well as to the many patient and surgical risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of DSWI. The prophylactic antibiotic therapy is one of the most important tools in the prevention of DSWI. However, the choice of antibiotic, the dose, the duration, the adequate levels in serum and tissue, and the timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis are still controversial. The treatment of DSWI ranges from surgical revision with primary closure to surgical revision with open dressings or closed irrigation, from reconstruction with soft tissue flaps to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, to date, there have been no accepted recommendations regarding the best management of DSWI. Emerging evidence in the literature has validated the efficacy and safety of NPWT either as a single-line therapy, or as a “bridge” prior to final surgical closure. In conclusion, the careful control of patient and surgical risk factors - when possible, the proper antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the choice of validated techniques of treatment could contribute to keep DSWIs at a minimal rate. PMID:26557476

  17. Deep sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery: Evidences and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo; Barbero, Cristina; Rinaldi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Despite many advances in prevention and perioperative care, deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) remains a pressing concern in cardiac surgery, with a still relevant incidence and with a considerable impact on in-hospital mortality and also on mid- and long-term survival. The permanent high impact of this complication is partially related to the increasing proportion of patients at high-risk for infection, as well as to the many patient and surgical risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of DSWI. The prophylactic antibiotic therapy is one of the most important tools in the prevention of DSWI. However, the choice of antibiotic, the dose, the duration, the adequate levels in serum and tissue, and the timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis are still controversial. The treatment of DSWI ranges from surgical revision with primary closure to surgical revision with open dressings or closed irrigation, from reconstruction with soft tissue flaps to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, to date, there have been no accepted recommendations regarding the best management of DSWI. Emerging evidence in the literature has validated the efficacy and safety of NPWT either as a single-line therapy, or as a "bridge" prior to final surgical closure. In conclusion, the careful control of patient and surgical risk factors - when possible, the proper antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the choice of validated techniques of treatment could contribute to keep DSWIs at a minimal rate. PMID:26557476

  18. Controversies in the Mechanism of Total Parenteral Nutrition Induced Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jain Ajay; Teckman, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30,000 patients are permanently dependent on Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) for survival with several folds higher requiring TPN for a prolonged duration. Unfortunately, it can cause potentially fatal complications. TPN infusion results in impairment of gut mucosal integrity, enhanced inflammation, increased cytokine expression and trans-mucosal bacterial permeation. It also causes endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters and Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD), which includes steatosis, disrupted glucose metabolism, disrupted lipid metabolism, cholestasis and liver failure. Despite multiple theories, its etiology and pathophysiology remains elusive and is likely multifactorial. An important cause for TPN related pathologies appears to be a disruption in the normal enterohepatic circulation due to a lack of feeding during such therapy. This is further validated by the fact that in clinical settings, once cholestasis sets in, its reversal occurs when a patient is receiving a major portion of calories enterally. There are several other postulated mechanisms including gut bacterial permeation predisposing to endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters. An additional potential mechanism includes toxicity of the TPN solution itself, such as lipid mediated hepatic toxicity. Prematurity, leading to a poor development of bile acid regulating nuclear receptors and transporters has also been implicated as a causative factor. This review presents the current controversies and research into mechanisms of TPN associated injury. PMID:27417369

  19. Diet, H pylori infection and gastric cancer: Evidence and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    Despite decreasing incidence and mortality rates, gastric cancer (GC) still remains the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Due to the limited treatment options, at present, prevention is likely to be the only effective means of controlling this disease. The success of a prevention strategy depends upon the understanding of etiological and pathogenic mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis. The etiology of GC is multi-factorial, however, in the recent years, mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role. The most important environmental factors implicated in the pathogenesis of GC are diet and H pylori infection. Thus, modifications in lifestyle and dietary habit associated with eradication of H pylori infection could hypothetically represent the most promising potential targets for GC prevention. In this review we will address the evidence and the controversies on the role of these agents in non-cardia GC by focusing on retrospective and prospective observational studies and interventional trials. PMID:17589938

  20. Controversies and challenges in the management of chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Staubach, P; Zuberbier, T; Vestergaard, C; Siebenhaar, F; Toubi, E; Sussman, G

    2016-07-01

    This supplement reports proceedings of the second international Global Urticaria Forum, which was held in Berlin, Germany in November 2015. Despite the clear international guideline, there remain a number of controversies and challenges in the management of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). As a result of major advancements in urticaria over the past 4 years, the current EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO urticaria guideline treatment algorithm requires updating. Case studies from patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) [also called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)], chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU) or diseases and syndromes related to CU are useful in describing and exploring challenges in disease management. Case studies of specific CSU patient populations such as children with CU or patients with angio-edema but no hives also require consideration as potentially challenging groups with unmet needs. The current EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO urticaria guideline provides a general framework for the management of patients with CU but, as these cases highlight, a personalized approach based on the expert knowledge of the physician may be required. PMID:27286499

  1. The Procedurally Directive Approach to Teaching Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Maughn Rollins

    2014-01-01

    Recent articles on teaching controversial topics in schools have employed Michael Hand's distinction between "directive teaching," in which teachers attempt to persuade students of correct positions on topics that are not rationally controversial, and "nondirective teaching," in which teachers avoid persuading students on…

  2. Culture Shock: Using Art and Art Controversy To Teach History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Endorses the television series entitled "Culture Shock" that views controversial art as an artifact suggesting that the arts, and controversies surrounding them, can help viewers think critically about the issues of past and present societies. Focuses on "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the painting "Olympia," jazz, and films in the…

  3. Urquhart's and Garfield's Laws: The British Controversy over Their Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    The British controversy over the validity of Urquhart's and Garfield's bibliometric laws during the 1970s constitutes an important episode in the formulation of the probability structure of human knowledge. Concludes with a resolution of the controversy by means of a statistical technique that incorporates Brookes' criticism of the Spearman…

  4. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other action when the alleged violation of law is merely a matter of private controversy and does not... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3... NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  5. Implants and Ethnocide: Learning from the Cochlear Implant Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the fictional case of the "Babel fish" to explore and illustrate the issues involved in the controversy about the use of cochlear implants in prelinguistically deaf children. Analysis of this controversy suggests that the development of genetic tests for deafness poses a serious threat to the continued flourishing of Deaf culture.…

  6. Resisting the Pendulum Swing: Informed Perspectives on Education Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck, Ed.

    Designed to offer more than slogans and buzzwords to practitioners who are grappling with an array of education controversies, this book provides classroom teachers with a spectrum of information about current controversies so that they will be better equipped to blend action with reflection. The book deliberately resists extremes and argues for…

  7. Teaching and Learning about Controversial Issues: Lessons from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching about controversial issues is a powerful tool in the repertoire of civic educators. Despite widespread agreement concerning the social, academic, and civic benefits to be gained from discussing controversial public issues within the classroom, empirical research reveals that doing so is a rare occurrence. While the literature explains…

  8. Approaching Civic Responsibility Using Guided Controversies about Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresner, Marion; Blatner, Jen Seamans

    2006-01-01

    We implemented a series of three guided controversies to provide experience in environmental problem solving to students in a science course designed for nonmajors. Students wrote essays in response to their experiences in each controversy; we analyzed these essays for five problem-solving criteria. A questionnaire administered at the end of the…

  9. Improving Learning by Discussing Controversies in 20th Century Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Rodriguez, Maria A.

    2002-01-01

    Textbooks rarely emphasize how controversial some physics theories were at the time of their proposal. Makes the case that useful classroom debate can be generated by considering the controversy that arose over models of the atom such as Rutherford's and Bohr's, and ideas about fractional charges put forward by Millikan and arising from quark…

  10. Teachers' Perspectives on Incorporating Current Controversial Issues into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Sunal, Cynthia; Haas, Mary; Laughlin, Margaret

    Does a current controversial issue become part of the social studies curriculum in a context where the media focus largely on the issue? A study explored this question through surveys and in-depth interviews that investigated K-12 social studies teachers' perspectives on the incorporation of current controversial issues into the curriculum. A…

  11. Literature for Children: Avoiding Controversy and Intellectual Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses lack of literature on controversial subjects that can help prepare children and young adults to deal perceptively with complexities of modern world. Highlights include meeting the issues head-on, glorifying armed conflict in video media, avoiding issues of nuclear war, and intellectual depth and dealing with controversial issues. (12…

  12. Structured Academic Controversies in the Professional Physical Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Lynnette Young; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured academic controversy is a cooperative learning strategy that can promote learning in theoretical physical education classes at the college level. This article explains how to conduct structured academic controversy, providing examples of topics (e.g., adapted physical education, biomechanics, motor development, and sport psychology).…

  13. Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution Controversy in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenta, Tony; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's Theory of Evolution has stirred controversy since its inception. Public schools in the United States, pressed by special interest groups on both sides of the controversy, have struggled with how best to teach the theory, if at all. Court cases have dealt with whether states can ban the teaching of evolutionary theory, whether Creationism…

  14. Covering Conflict and Controversy: Measuring Balance, Fairness, Defamation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Todd F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Measures balance, fairness, and defamation in local stories containing controversy and covering law enforcement, education, local government, and business. Finds that most stories lack balance and that the opposing side of the controversy was not contacted in 28 percent of the instances. (RS)

  15. What's Wrong with the "Teach the Controversy" Slogan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are often exhorted by creationists to "teach the controversy." Although such encouragement sounds on the surface like a proposal for critical thinking instruction, the history of the creationist movement in North America belies this claim. Rather than teach students to analyze and evaluate actual scientific controversies, the intent of…

  16. Main Field Test Report. Discussing Controversial Issues. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.; And Others

    Discussing Controversial Issues (DCI) is a skill training program designed for high school students and teachers with an overall objective of developing student and teacher skill in discussing controversial issues effectively. The course materials identify 13 moderator techniques which teachers practice, and 13 participant techniques which…

  17. The NSF Science Education Controversy: Issues, Events, Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Karen B.

    Discussion of National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of precollege science education revolves around the controversy of whether NSF should fund "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS). NSF had funded MACOS' curriculum development, implementation, and postevaluation during 1963-1975. The controversy began in March 1975 when U.S. Congressman John Conlan…

  18. 12 CFR 1080.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 1080.3 Section 1080.3 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1080.3 Policy as to private controversies. The Bureau shall act only in the public interest and...

  19. 12 CFR 1080.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 1080.3 Section 1080.3 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1080.3 Policy as to private controversies. The Bureau shall act only in the public interest and...

  20. From Classroom to Controversy: Conflict in the Teaching of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when a class assignment becomes a source of controversy? How do we respond? What do we learn? By describing the controversy surrounding an assignment on religion and representation, this article examines conflict's productive role in teaching about New Religious Movements (NRMs) and religion. It suggests that we consider how our…

  1. The Rasch Rating Model and the Disordered Threshold Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond J.; Wu, Margaret L.; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Rasch rating (or partial credit) model is a widely applied item response model that is used to model ordinal observed variables that are assumed to collectively reflect a common latent variable. In the application of the model there is considerable controversy surrounding the assessment of fit. This controversy is most notable when the set of…

  2. Controversial Higher-Education Reforms Spark Riots in Athens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the Greek Parliament's controversial education bill passed recently that sparked riots and unrest in Athens. The government's controversial education package includes measures that would limit the number of years students can take to complete a university degree and would curtail university asylum laws. A separate proposal…

  3. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  4. KNOW NUKES: a model for teaching controversial issues

    SciTech Connect

    Thomashow, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation articulates elements of an educational strategy derived from the experience of the KNOW NUKES program, a teacher training project designed to introduce the nuclear power controversy in the high school classroom. This strategy can be used as means of furthering the effectiveness of controversial issues education, not only in the area of nuclear power, but in teaching about any environmental issue. This is specifically achieved by (2) placing the KNOW NUKES institute in the broader context of controversial issues education; (2) describing in detail KNOW NUKES project planning; (3) reviewing the structure and content of the various teaching techniques and materials that have been developed for the KNOW NUKES institute; (4) utilizing a particular technique developed by the institute that reveals varying perspectives on controversial issues, in this case, an instrumental for decoding the controversial issues that are explicit and implicit in corporate image advertisements; and (5) qualitatively evaluating the practical implementation of the KNOW NUKES model.

  5. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  6. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Benson, M D

    2012-10-01

    Venous thrombotic events (VTE) occur 1-2 per 10,000 pregnancies and remain one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in the developed world. The two largest risk factors are a personal history of VTE and heritable thrombophilias. D-dimer tests for VTE in pregnancy have a high false positive rate and at least some false negatives have been reported. Compression ultrasound should be used to evaluate pregnant women for deep venous thrombosis followed by magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis for a negative test and strong remaining clinical suspicion. For pulmonary embolism, a chest x-ray should be used to triage the patient to either a ventilation/perfusion study after a normal X-ray or a CT pulmonary angiogram after an abnormal one. Treatment generally consists of low molecular weight heparin through a minimum of six weeks post-partum. Thombolysis might have merit in life-threatening, massive pulmonary embolism. VTE prophylaxis in at-risk populations remains a major area of uncertainty. Mechanical prophylaxis for all women undergoing cesarean, in particular, has a paucity of supportive evidence. PMID:23018478

  7. The identification of submerged skeletonized remains.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Both, Katrin; Simpson, Ellie

    2008-03-01

    Examination was undertaken of skeletonized remains contained within 2 rubber boots dredged by a fishing boat from a depth of 145 m, approximately 185 km off the southern Australian coast in the Great Australian Bight. The boots had been manufactured in Australia in July 1993 and were of a type commonly used by local fishermen. Examination of the lower legs and feet revealed well-preserved bones with arthritic changes in keeping with an older male. DNA analyses using reference samples taken from relatives of fishermen who had disappeared in the area resulted in the identification of the victim as a 52-year-old prawn fisherman who had been swept off a boat over a decade earlier. DNA stability had been maintained by the low light, cold temperatures, and alkaline pH of the ocean floor. Integration of pathologic, anthropologic, and biologic analyses with police investigations enabled a positive identification to be made despite the unusual nature of the location of the remains and the time lapse since the disappearance of the victim. PMID:19749621

  8. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes. PMID:24612293

  9. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  10. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them. PMID:26971523

  11. Effects of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Constructive Controversy on Social Interdependence, Motivation, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, Andy J.; Glass, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning capitalizes on the relational processes by which peers promote learning, yet it remains unclear whether these processes operate similarly in face-to-face and online settings. This study addresses this issue by comparing face-to-face and computer-mediated versions of "constructive controversy", a cooperative learning procedure…

  12. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  13. Tularemia vaccines: recent developments and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, J Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and other mammals. Its inhaled infectious dose is very low and can result in very high mortality. Historically, subsp. tularensis was developed as a biological weapon and there are now concerns about its abuse as such by terrorists. A live attenuated vaccine developed pragmatically more than half a century ago from the less virulent holarctica subsp. is the sole prophylactic available, but it remains unlicensed. In recent years several other potential live, killed and subunit vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in mice for their efficacy against respiratory challenge with subsp. tularensis. This article will review these vaccine candidates and the development hurdles they face. PMID:21526941

  14. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  15. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Brian W.; Diacon, Andreas H.; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.

    2015-01-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  16. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Morné J; Allwood, Brian W; Diacon, Andreas H; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N

    2015-06-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  17. The controversial age of Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Hardy, Doug; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Interpreting climate signals contained in natural archives requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon analysis can be a powerful tool for dating high-altitude ice cores, especially for the lowermost segments for which ice flow-induced thinning limits the counting of annual layers. Radiocarbon dating has been applied to ice cores containing sufficient organic material, which is a limiting factor to the wider application of this technique. We present a novel radiocarbon dating approach using carbonaceous aerosols enclosed in the ice to help resolve the debate about the age of the Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers. Paleoclimate reconstructions based on six ice cores drilled in 2000 assigned a basal age of 11'700 years. A recent study claims recurring cycles of waxing and waning controlled primarily by atmospheric moisture and an absence of the ice bodies was suggested for 1200 AD. The Kilimanjaro ice fields are subject to rapid areal shrinkage and thinning and are expected to disappear within several decades. Resolving the controversy of the time frame for the extinction of the Kilimanjaro ice might have wide implications for the understanding of the natural climate variability in the tropics. A stratigraphic sequence of samples from the exposed vertical ice cliffs at the margins of the Northern Ice Field (NIF) was collected in 2011. A total of 45 horizontal short cores (50 cm length) were extracted from 22 horizons characterized by varying micro-particle concentrations. Additionally, 3 samples were taken from the glacier surface to investigate a potential age offset. All samples were shipped frozen to Paul Scherrer Institute, decontaminated in a cold room by removing the outer layer (0.3 mm) and by rinsing the samples with ultra-pure water. The insoluble carbonaceous particles were filtrated by using freshly preheated quartz fibre filters. Procedural blanks were estimated using artificial ice blocks of frozen ultra-pure water treated as real ice samples and were

  18. Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Soper, Nathaniel J; Teitelbaum, Ezra N

    2013-10-01

    The advent of laparoscopy has significantly improved postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgical repair of a paraesophageal hernia. Although this minimally invasive approach considerably reduces postoperative pain and recovery times, and may improve physiologic outcomes, laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair remains a complex operation requiring advanced laparoscopic skills and experience with the anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction and diaphragmatic hiatus. In this article, we describe our approach to patient selection, preoperative evaluation, operative technique, and postoperative management. Specific attention is paid to performing an adequate hiatal dissection and esophageal mobilization, the decision of whether to use a mesh to reinforce the crural repair, and construction of an adequate antireflux barrier (ie, fundoplication). PMID:24105282

  19. Borderline viability: controversies in caring for the extremely premature infant.

    PubMed

    Leuthner, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Controversy surrounding the decision to resuscitate at the limits or borderline of viability has been at the center of neonatal ethical debate for decades. This debate has led to numerous reports from individual institutions, councils, and advisory committees that all have remarkable consistency in the development of gestational age-based guidelines. This article reviews legal or regulatory concerns that may contradict ethical discussion and guidelines, discriminatory and scientific basis concerns with consensus guidelines, and personal controversy about how to determine best interest. Guidelines are a reasonable place to start in helping determine parental authority and autonomy. The article also addresses controversies raised in counseling and costs. PMID:25459775

  20. Controversies in the Management of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Marlon A.; Clark, Orlo H.

    2011-01-01

    The debate on the appropriate treatment of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has persisted for several decades. The main controversies focus on the extent of surgery, the timing of central neck dissection, and the indications for radioactive iodine ablation. These controversies continue, for the most part, due to the good prognosis of PTC patients and the questionable effect these treatment modalities have on patient survival. This paper addresses these three controversies and the role of molecular tumor markers in the appropriate treatment selection. PMID:22091417

  1. What's in a name? Problems, facts and controversies regarding neurological eponyms.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Lima, Plínio M G; Germiniani, Francisco M B; Munhoz, Renato P

    2016-05-01

    The use of eponyms in neurology remains controversial, and important questions have been raised about their appropriateness. Different approaches have been taken, with some eponyms being excluded, others replaced, and new ones being created. An example is Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, which has been replaced by neurodegeneration with brain iron accuulatium (NBIA). Amiothoplic lateral sclerosys (ALS), for which the eponym is Charcot's disease, has been replaced in the USA by Lou Gehrig's disease. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an eponym that is still the subject of controversy, and various different names are associated with it. Finally,restless legs syndrome (RLS), which was for years known as Ekbom's syndrome, has been rechristened as RLS/Willis-Ekbom syndrome. PMID:27191240

  2. Diagnostic Issues and Controversies in DSM-5: Return of the False Positives Problem.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2016-01-01

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was the most controversial in the manual's history. This review selectively surveys some of the most important changes in DSM-5, including structural/organizational changes, modifications of diagnostic criteria, and newly introduced categories. It analyzes why these changes led to such heated controversies, which included objections to the revision's process, its goals, and the content of altered criteria and new categories. The central focus is on disputes concerning the false positives problem of setting a valid boundary between disorder and normal variation. Finally, this review highlights key problems and issues that currently remain unresolved and need to be addressed in the future, including systematically identifying false positive weaknesses in criteria, distinguishing risk from disorder, including context in diagnostic criteria, clarifying how to handle fuzzy boundaries, and improving the guidelines for "other specified" diagnosis. PMID:26772207

  3. Controversies in the diagnosis and management of childhood acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Segel, George B; Feig, Stephen A

    2009-09-01

    Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) occurs most commonly in young children who present with severe isolated thrombocytopenia and purpura. A marrow examination is not required unless glucocorticoids are used, lest treatment mask incipient acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but controversy exists here. The recommendations for evaluation and management remain controversial, since prospective controlled trials have not been done. There is some consensus based on experience and empiric data. Almost all children with acute ITP will recover completely without therapy. Although the various treatments may increase the platelet count, they do not influence the outcome of the illness, may increase cost, and cause significant side effects. Therefore, careful observation may be the best management option for the patient with ITP, in the absence of severe bleeding. The data available relevant to these issues are discussed. PMID:19165890

  4. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  5. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma: Controversies to be addressed

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Du, Juan; Zhu, Cheng-Pei; Huang, Han-Chun; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Liang-Cai; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Zhang, Hao-Hai; Miao, Ruo-Yu; Sang, Xin-Ting; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) accounts for 0.4%-14.2% of primary liver cancer cases and possesses pathological features of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Since this disease was first described and classified in 1949, the classification of CHC has continuously evolved. The latest definition and classification of CHC by the World Health Organization is based on the speculation that CHC arises from hepatic progenitor cells. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the common origin of different components of CHC. Furthermore, the definition of CHC subtypes is still ambiguous and the identification of CHC subtype when a single tumor contains many components has remained unresolved. In addition, there is no summary on the newly recognized histopathology features or the contribution of CHC components to prognosis and outcome of this disease. Here we provide a review of the current literature to address these questions. PMID:27182157

  6. Controversies in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decades, important advances have been made in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current diagnostic strategies rely on the sequential use of non-invasive diagnostic tests, based on the pretest clinical probability of disease. Diagnostic tests include D-dimer measurement, leg vein compression ultrasonography, chest computed tomography pulmonary angiography, or ventilation perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these strategies have been extensively validated. They have been widely implemented in clinical practice and have replaced the historical gold standard diagnostic tests (venography and pulmonary angiography). However, new challenges arise, including a lower clinical suspicion threshold and concerns on potential over-diagnosis of VTE. Moreover, the diagnostic management remains suboptimal in many subgroups of patients with suspected VTE: patients with prior VTE, pregnant women, or elderly patients. PMID:26149033

  7. Commentary: The Anatomy of Controversy: Freedom and Responsibility for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jack L.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the biology teacher in American schools and colleges is discussed with regard to the social, political, and economic implications of new discoveries in science. Controversial ethical issues related to teaching human genetics are presented. (SA)

  8. A Critique of "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)

  9. Superluminal Neutrinos: The Good Kind of Science Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibella, Michael

    2012-03-01

    After OPERA released results indicating neutrinos were traveling faster than the speed of light, a number of vocal of scientists said that they shouldn't have prematurely engaged in ``science by press release.'' However, controversial claims like this, if handled right, can actually be a boon to science. Getting the public interested in cutting edge physics is notoriously difficult, but the public is always interested in hearing about a controversy. The press conference and following debate becomes a great teaching moment that offers the public a unique opportunity to get an inside and have an in-depth look at how science works. Scientists willing to publicly engage in this kind of civil controversy are important because when other scientific controversies arise, ones with major public policy implications, the public starts out with a better understanding of how science works, and scientists have better practice managing questions from the public.

  10. Recent developments in health care law: culture and controversy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Roberta M; Bliss, Lisa; Caley, Sylvia; Lombardo, Paul A; Wolf, Leslie E

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews recent developments in health care law, focusing on controversy at the intersection of health care law and culture. The article addresses: emerging issues in federal regulatory oversight of the rapidly developing market in direct-to-consumer genetic testing, including questions about the role of government oversight and professional mediation of consumer choice; continuing controversies surrounding stem cell research and therapies and the implications of these controversies for healthcare institutions; a controversy in India arising at the intersection of abortion law and the rights of the disabled but implicating a broader set of cross-cultural issues; and the education of U.S. health care providers and lawyers in the theory and practice of cultural competency. PMID:23180091

  11. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... participant who has filed a written direct statement. (2) Bad faith inflation of claim. If the Copyright Royalty Judges determine that a participant asserts in bad faith an amount in controversy in excess of...

  12. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participant who has filed a written direct statement. (2) Bad faith inflation of claim. If the Copyright Royalty Judges determine that a participant asserts in bad faith an amount in controversy in excess of...

  13. Summerhill Dismembered: Using Controversy to Motivate Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Louis; Lawrence, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    Workshops for teachers engaged in practitioner-based inquiry centered on the controversial issues raised by a television documentary on the Summerhill School. Learners normally engaged in distance education were motivated by the processes of dissent, argument, and disputation. (SK)

  14. Progressive transitions in chemistry teachers' understanding of nature of science based on historical controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to facilitate progressive transitions in chemistry teachers understanding of nature of science in the context of historical controversies. Selected controversies referred to episodes that form part of the chemistry curriculum both at secondary and university freshman level. The study is based on 17 in-service teachers who had registered for an 11-week course on ‘Investigation in the teaching of chemistry’ as part of their Master’s degree program. The course is based on 17 readings drawing on a history and philosophy of science perspective with special reference to controversial episodes in the chemistry curriculum. Course activities included written reports, class room discussions based on participants’ presentations, and written exams. Based on the results obtained it is suggested that this study facilitated the following progressive transitions in teachers’ understanding of nature of science: (a) Problematic nature of the scientific method, objectivity and the empirical basis of science; (b) Myths associated with respect to the nature of science and teaching chemistry; (c) Science does not develop by appealing to objectivity in an absolute sense, as creativity and presuppositions also play a crucial role; (d) The role of speculation and controversy in the construction of knowledge based on episodes from the chemistry curriculum; (e) How did Bohr confirm his postulates? This goes beyond the treatment in most textbooks; (f) Differentiation between the idealized scientific law and the observations. It is concluded that given the opportunity to reflect, discuss and participate in a series of course activities based on various controversial episodes, teachers’ understanding of nature of science can be enhanced.

  15. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  16. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  17. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    PubMed Central

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  18. A family of doctors over 250 years: innovation and controversy.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Peter J

    2011-05-01

    A family of Watkins doctors originating in the Northamptonshire town of Towcester included 13 doctors in seven generations during 250 years. In each generation there were between one and four doctors. Three doctors involved themselves actively in innovative yet controversial practises, described in their own writings and publications. Timothy Watkins' (1755-1834) own handwritten lecture notes describe the problems affecting an 18th-century man-midwife, while his accounts book provides insights into his lifestyle. The concept of the waterborne spread of cholera during the 1854 epidemic in Towcester is described by Robert Webb Watkins (1822-1901) during the same year as the observations made by John Snow (1813-58). John Webb Watkins (1833-1903) in his MD thesis (1856) describes his use of chloroform in labour in Towcester during the early 1850s, followed by self-experimentation with chloroform administered to him between 40 and 50 times by Sir James Young Simpson (1811-70) in Edinburgh. Descriptions of the two 19th-century general practitioners offer insights into the exemplary extent of their civic involvement in all walks of local community life, and of their family ties. PMID:21558531

  19. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dobek, Aleksandra; Garczynski, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. PMID:24591772

  20. Embryo Disposition Disputes: Controversies and Case Law.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Adashi, Eli Y

    2016-07-01

    When prospective parents use in vitro fertilization, many of them hope to generate more embryos than they intend to implant immediately. The technology often requires multiple attempts to reach a successful pregnancy, and couples can cryopreserve any excess embryos so that they have them on hand for later attempts. As part of obtaining informed consent for IVF or cryopreservation, clinics typically ask patients to specify their preferences for the embryos in the event of divorce or death, offering options such as use of the embryos by a specified partner, donation to research, or discarding the remaining embryos. Still, many courts face a recurring problem: the partners dissolve their relationship (typically through divorce), and one party wants to use the frozen embryos over the objections of the other. Courts and legislatures have struggled with how to handle these cases, which seem to pit one partner's right to procreate against the other's right not to procreate. In this essay, we use one of the most recent decisions in this line of cases-the Appellate Court of Illinois's decision in Szafranski v. Dunston-to explain the current state of the law and make recommendations for changes. The issue is ripe for revisiting because in the last year, embryo disputes have become a battlefront for larger conflagrations over the moral status of embryos. PMID:27417864

  1. Microglia and inflammation: conspiracy, controversy or control?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Adelaide; Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Pais, Teresa F

    2014-10-01

    Microglial cells contribute to normal function of the central nervous system (CNS). Besides playing a role in the innate immunity, they are also involved in neuronal plasticity and homeostasis of the CNS. While microglial cells get activated and undergo phenotypic changes in different disease contexts, they are far from being the "villains" in the CNS. Mounting evidence indicates that microglial dysfunction can exacerbate the pathogenesis of several diseases in the CNS. Several molecular mechanisms tightly regulate the production of inflammatory and toxic factors released by microglia. These mechanisms involve the interaction with other glial cells and neurons and the fine regulation of signaling and transcription activation pathways. The purpose of this review is to discuss microglia activation and to highlight the molecular pathways that can counteract the detrimental role of microglia in several neurologic diseases. Recent work presented in this review support that the understanding of microglial responses can pave the way to design new therapies for inflammatory diseases of the CNS. PMID:25008043

  2. Cerebral Blood Flow in Posterior Cortical Nodes of the Default Mode Network Decreases with Task Engagement but Remains Higher than in Most Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Rohlfing, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic “default mode network” and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion. PMID:20484322

  3. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  4. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  5. Selenium or no selenium--that is the question in tumor patients: a new controversy.

    PubMed

    Muecke, Ralph; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Micke, Oliver

    2010-06-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more attention from both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses on the following clinical aspects: protection of normal tissues, sensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that it has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism, and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. In 2009, a significant benefit of sodium selenite supplementation-with no protection of tumor cells, which is often suspected by oncologists- was shown in a prospective randomized trial in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. More recently, concerns arose from 2 large clinical prevention trials (NPC, SELECT) that selenium may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Despite obvious flaws in both studies and good counterarguments, controversy remains on the possible advantages and risks of selenium in cancer prevention. However, in the light of the recent clinical trials the potential benefits of selenium supplementation in tumor patients are becoming obvious, even though further research is needed. PMID:20462857

  6. The Role of Prophylactic Central Neck Dissection in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Issues and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kai-Pun; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin

    2011-01-01

    Prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is one of the most controversial surgical subjects in recent times. To date, there is little evidence to support the practice of pCND in patients with DTC undergoing total thyroidectomy. Although the recently revised American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline has clarified many inconsistencies regarding pCND and has recommended pCND in “high-risk” patients, many issues and controversies surrounding the subject of pCND in DTC remain. The recent literature has revealed an insignificant trend toward lower recurrence rate in patients with DTC who undergo total thyroidectomy and pCND than those who undergo total thyroidectomy alone. However, this was subjected to biases, and there are concerns whether pCND should be performed by all surgeons who manage DTC because of increased surgical morbodity. Performing a unilateral pCND may be better than a bilateral pCND given its lower surgical morbidity. Further studies in this controversial subject are much needed. PMID:21977029

  7. Controversies in J Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: A Focus on Handsewn Versus Stapled Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Tamar; Khaitov, Sergey; Greenstein, Alexander J

    2016-09-01

    The accepted current standard for treatment of medically refractory ulcerative colitis is total proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for restoration of continence. There are 2 techniques by which the anastomosis can be performed, including handsewn and stapled. Handsewn anastomosis with mucosectomy was the first method described; however, it has been associated with significant incontinence. The double-stapled anastomosis was developed in response to improve postoperative function. Controversy remains as to which technique is superior as both have disadvantages. This review article addresses differences between the 2 methodologies in relation to postoperative complications, anorectal physiology, functional outcomes, and oncological safety. PMID:27542137

  8. Chemotherapy for Good-Risk Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    In, Gino; Dorff, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    The rate of diagnosis of germ cell tumors has remained fairly constant. By the International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Classification, roughly 60% of all metastatic germ cell tumors are classified as good risk. This group of patients has an excellent prognosis, with greater than 90% expectation of cure. Treatment standards have not changed much in recent years. This article focuses on key concepts in the development of the currently accepted first-line regimens and addresses some evolving areas of interest, if not controversy. PMID:26216822

  9. Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals. PMID:19707023

  10. [Didn't it matter to him absolutely?: Juan Vilanova and the controversy about tertiary man].

    PubMed

    Catalá Gorgues, Jesús I

    2011-01-01

    During the founding period of palaeoanthropology, the postulate about tertiary age of humankind was an outstanding subject. First proposals were based on supposed proofs about ancient lithical industry (eoliths). Some discoveries of human fossil remains complicated that issue, because they were dated as pliocene or oldest. This controversy about so-called "tertiary man" soon arrived to Spain. Juan Vilanova y Piera, palaeontologist and professor at Madrid, dealt with it from an antievolutionist point of view. When a human fossil skeleton, included in the Botet's collections, with several apparently primitive traits arrived to Valencia from Argentina, Vilanova got reasserted and exposed his ideas about this question more intensely. PMID:22371987

  11. Controversies in contraception for women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.

    2015-01-01

    Contraception is an important choice that offers autonomy to women with regard to prevention of unintended pregnancies. There is wide variation in the contraceptive practices between continents, countries, and societies. The medical eligibility for contraception for sexually active women with epilepsy (WWE) is determined by the type of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) that they use. Enzyme inducing AEDs such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine increase the metabolism of orally administered estrogen (and progesterone to a lesser extent). Estrogen can increase the metabolism of certain AEDs, such as lamotrigine, leading to cyclical variation in its blood level with resultant adverse effect profile or seizure dyscontrol. AEDs and sex hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in WWE. The potential interactions between AEDs and hormonal contraception need to be discussed with all women in reproductive age-group. The alternate options of oral contraception such as intrauterine copper device, intrauterine levonorgestrel release system, and supplementary protection with barriers need to be presented to them. World Health Organization has recommended to avoid combination contraceptive pills containing estrogen and progesteron in women who desire contraception and in breastfeeding mothers. Care providers need to consider the option of non-enzyme-inducing AEDs while initiating long-term treatment in adolescent and young WWE. PMID:26425002

  12. Controversies in contraception for women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-01-01

    Contraception is an important choice that offers autonomy to women with regard to prevention of unintended pregnancies. There is wide variation in the contraceptive practices between continents, countries, and societies. The medical eligibility for contraception for sexually active women with epilepsy (WWE) is determined by the type of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) that they use. Enzyme inducing AEDs such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine increase the metabolism of orally administered estrogen (and progesterone to a lesser extent). Estrogen can increase the metabolism of certain AEDs, such as lamotrigine, leading to cyclical variation in its blood level with resultant adverse effect profile or seizure dyscontrol. AEDs and sex hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in WWE. The potential interactions between AEDs and hormonal contraception need to be discussed with all women in reproductive age-group. The alternate options of oral contraception such as intrauterine copper device, intrauterine levonorgestrel release system, and supplementary protection with barriers need to be presented to them. World Health Organization has recommended to avoid combination contraceptive pills containing estrogen and progesteron in women who desire contraception and in breastfeeding mothers. Care providers need to consider the option of non-enzyme-inducing AEDs while initiating long-term treatment in adolescent and young WWE. PMID:26425002

  13. Tryptophan and kynurenines: continuing to court controversy.

    PubMed

    Stone, Trevor W

    2016-08-01

    The role of the amino acid tryptophan in the generation of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) has been expanded over the past 30 years with recognition that its oxidation by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) results in the formation of kynurenine and metabolites which regulate neuronal excitability, psychiatric status, immune cell activity and balance, and probably implantation and the development of embryos. While the amount of work on this kynurenine pathway continues to accelerate, it is important that disagreements about results, differences of interpretation or problems with technical issues are presented openly and discussed thoroughly so that new research is not mis-led in ways that could have been foreseen. In this issue of Clinical Science, Badawy et al. discuss in depth two opposing views of how changes in tryptophan availability or utilisation bring about their effects on cell function. The original concept that local depletion of tryptophan is responsible seems to be less attractive than the view that kynurenine and its metabolites have direct, potent actions on cells. This conclusion not only clarifies our understanding of the importance of tryptophan metabolism to kynurenine but also raises the possibility that the actions of those metabolites could be novel targets for the development of agonists and antagonists with a range of medical implications. PMID:27358029

  14. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring

  15. Medical ethics: principles, persons, and perspectives: from controversy to conversation.

    PubMed

    Boyd, K M

    2005-08-01

    Medical ethics, principles, persons, and perspectives is discussed under three headings: History, Theory, and Practice. Under Theory, the author will say something about some different approaches to the study and discussion of ethical issues in medicine--especially those based on principles, persons, or perspectives. Under Practice, the author will discuss how one perspectives based approach, hermeneutics, might help in relation first to everyday ethical issues and then to public controversies. In that context some possible advantages of moving from controversy to conversation will be explored; and that will then be illustrated with reference to a current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research. The paper begins with history, and it begins in the author's home city of Edinburgh. PMID:16076975

  16. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  17. Why Is Studying the Genetics of Intelligence So Controversial?

    PubMed

    Tabery, James

    2015-01-01

    From the very beginning, studies of the nature and nurture of intelligence have been closely associated with an interest in intervening, and those interventions have been surrounded by controversy. The nature of those controversies has not always been the same, however. Since the mid-nineteenth century, when Francis Galton imagined a science that would assess the extent to which a trait like "genius" was due to nature or due to nurture, science and technology have changed dramatically, and so have the interventions that have been envisioned in light of those developments. A scientist today can search for particular stretches of DNA and assess whether differences in those stretches are associated with differences in a human trait of interest; a genetic counselor today can genetically test an individual (be it an embryo, fetus, newborn, child, or adult) and provide information about what that genetic result means, allowing for interventions that can range from terminating a pregnancy to prescribing chemotherapy. So when one asks a question like, "Why is studying the genetics of intelligence controversial?," it is important to realize up front that the answer will be, "It can be controversial for a variety of different reasons, and those reasons have evolved over time." The purpose of this essay is to provide a survey of the controversies that surround genetic studies of intelligence. With the survey in place, I will then draw out several lessons both for scientists who study the genetics of intelligence as well as for science studies scholars (bioethicists, philosophers, historians, sociologists) who reflect and comment on the controversies surrounding that research. PMID:26413953

  18. Controversial ultrasound findings in mid trimester pregnancy. Evidence based approach.

    PubMed

    Ebrashy, Alaa; Kurjak, Asim; Adra, Abdallah; Aliyu, Labaran Dayyabu; Wataganara, Tuangsit; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; Pooh, Ritsuko; Sen, Cihat; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Mid trimester fetal anatomy scan is a fundamental part of routine antenatal care. Some U/S soft markers or controversial U/S signs are seen during the scan and create some confusion regarding their relation to fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Example of these signs: echogenic focus in the heart, echogenic bowel, renal pyelectasis, ventriculomegaly, polydactely, club foot, choroid plexus cyst, single umbilical artery. We are presenting an evidence based approach from the literature for management of these controversial U/S signs. PMID:26506099

  19. Controversies in the pathophysiology and management of hyphema.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Svati; Gunasekeran, Dinesh Visva; Ang, Bryan; Lee, Jiaying; Khandelwal, Rekha; Sullivan, Paul; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic hyphemas present dilemmas to physicians. There are numerous controversies pertaining to the optimal approach to traumatic hyphema and no standardized guidelines for its management. We address some of these controversies and present a pragmatic approach. We discuss various medical agents and surgical techniques available for treatment, along with the indications for their use. We address the complications associated with hyphema and how to diagnose and manage them and consider the management of hyphema in special situations such as in children and sickle-cell anemia and in rare clinical syndromes such as recurrent hyphema after placement of anterior chamber intraocular lenses. PMID:26632664

  20. Reviewing the "Research Placement" as a Means of Enhancing Student Learning and Stimulating Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Fiona; Boast, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The links between research and teaching have been the subject of much debate and controversy over the need for both activities to take place in universities remains current. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a research placement module, which aimed to provide opportunities for students to work as research assistants on…

  1. Long-term market brisk, spot remains sluggish

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Spot market activity totaled almost 54,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range had a slight increase from a high last month of $15.60/lb U3O8 to a hgih this month of $16.00/lb U3O8. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range remained at last month`s prices for the first time in recent weeks. Spot prices for conversion and SWU also held steady at their March levels.

  2. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  3. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  4. Current concepts and controversies in the management of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Lauren S.; Lee, Mark; Advani, Ranjana H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, due to the recognition of late effects related to high-dose extended field radiotherapy and heavy alkylator chemotherapy, combined modality therapy with abbreviated chemotherapy and limited field radiotherapy has emerged as the standard of care for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma, with cure rates in excess of 80%. Currently, however, controversy remains over identifying the most appropriate criteria to risk-stratify patients with early stage disease, so that those with a favorable prognosis receive limited treatment without compromising cure rates and those with unfavorable risk receive more intensified therapy. The optimal risk stratification system remains unclear, with variable definitions of favorable and unfavorable disease used by research groups in North America and Europe. Thus, comparison of clinical trial results has been challenging, and additional controversies persist regarding optimal chemotherapy regimens, duration of therapy, and the role of radiotherapy. Investigations are ongoing to assess the potential of functional imaging and biomarkers as tools for risk stratification. The collective goal is to further refine current stratification strategies to allow for an individualized, risk-adapted treatment approach that minimizes long-term late effects without compromising high cure rates. PMID:21463118

  5. Controversies: Optic nerve sheath fenestration versus shunt placement for the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Spitze, Arielle; Lam, Peter; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) has been increasing in prevalence in the past decade, following the obesity epidemic. When medical treatment fails, surgical treatment options must be considered. However, controversy remains as to which surgical procedure is the preferred surgical option – optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting – for the long-term treatment of this syndrome. Purpose: To provide a clinical update of the pros and cons of ONSF versus shunt placement for the treatment of IIH. Design: This was a retrospective review of the current literature in the English language indexed in PubMed. Methods: The authors conducted a PubMed search using the following terms: Idiopathic IIH, pseudotumor cerebri, ONSF, CSF shunts, vetriculo-peritoneal shunting, and lumbo-peritoneal shunting. The authors included pertinent and significant original articles, review articles, and case reports, which revealed the new aspects and updates in these topics. Results: The treatment of IIH remains controversial and lacks randomized controlled clinical trial data. Treatment of IIH rests with the determination of the severity of IIH-related visual loss and headache. Conclusion: The decision for ONSF versus shunting is somewhat institution and surgeon dependent. ONSF is preferred for patients with visual symptoms whereas shunting is reserved for patients with headache. There are positive and negative aspects of both procedures, and a prospective, randomized, controlled trial is needed (currently underway). This article will hopefully be helpful in allowing the reader to make a more informed decision until that time. PMID:25449938

  6. Reading "Daddy's Roommate": Preservice Teachers Respond to a Controversial Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shawyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the responses of the author's 31 pre-service teachers to a controversial picture book. Begins by searching for a short text geared to elementary age children and suited for read-alouds. Notes that she believes that the majority of pre-service teachers at this stage in the program are still very impressionable and must be given multiple…

  7. Before We Were Us, We Were Them: Curating Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keri

    2014-01-01

    Prompted by the passage of Alabama House Bill 56, I organized the museum studies course I taught for Auburn University at Montgomery in the 2013 spring semester around an exhibition on immigration. The course offered the opportunity to engage students, faculty, and the community in discussion of an important, timely, and controversial topic.…

  8. Education Dept. to End Controversial Study of Upward Bound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Yielding to pressure from Congress and grant recipients, the U.S. Education Department has agreed to abandon a controversial evaluation of the Upward Bound (UB) college-preparation program. The study, which began last year, was designed to measure whether Upward Bound would have a bigger impact on college-going rates if it were refocused on…

  9. Taking One's Principles Seriously: A Teacher Confronts Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, William

    2010-01-01

    A teacher faces hostility from certain colleagues who view his decision to attend a controversial lecture as tantamount to the repudiation of the principle of inclusive education and the rights of students with disabilities. The teacher sees the proposed boycott of the lecture as a form of censorship threatening freedom of inquiry and critical…

  10. The Reverse Discrimination Controversy. A Moral and Legal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    This book has two principal aims: to clarify the topical and controversial issue of reverse discrimination and to reach some conclusions about the rights and wrongs involved in this issue. Focusing mainly on preferential hiring, the book explicitly and extensively addresses the law and the institutional context of the issues. Examination of the…

  11. The Vocational-Liberal Arts Controversy: Looking Backwards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sue L.

    The liberal arts-vocational education controversy is examined in this article through a series of fictitious letters based on historical facts that present the thoughts of key educational personalities regarding the community college's role in providing vocational education and liberal arts education. Part I, which takes the form of a letter and…

  12. Use of Dramatic Enquiry to Explore Controversies in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Neil; Poad, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing prominence of "How science works" in science courses in England and the imperative of equipping students to engage with the controversies thrown up by the advance of science, science departments need new teaching strategies. Here we describe the application of "Dramatic Enquiry" to GCSE science. The project, developed by…

  13. Teaching About the Creation/Evolution Controversy. Fastback 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    The booklet discusses questions related to teaching engendered by the creation/evolution controversy, presents current positions of educators and textbooks, and recommends a two-model teaching approach. It is divided into six chapters. Chapter I defines and summarizes evolution and creationism as different belief structures, and outlines various…

  14. Socio-Scientific Controversies and Students' Conceptions about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a mainly qualitative study into possible impacts of recent controversial socio-scientific issues on a group of Portuguese secondary school students regarding their conceptions about scientists. The 86 participants: (1) answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions; and (2) wrote a science fiction story…

  15. Scientific Controversies in Teaching Science: The Case of Volta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a way of introducing a scientific controversy that emphasizes objective aspects of such issues as multiple theoretical interpretation of phenomena, choosing a theory, and insistence on the chosen theory. The goal is to give students a better insight into the workings of science and provide guidelines for building theories in their own…

  16. Controversial Therapies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines reasons parents may choose a controversial alternative treatment for a child with developmental disabilities and reviews a few specific treatments--vitamin B-6 and magnesium, auditory integration training, megavitamins and minerals, Piracetam, intravenous immunoglobulin, and melatonin. Recommendations on talking with families…

  17. The Ecology Controversy: Opposing Viewpoints. Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuen, Gary E., Ed.; Bender, David L., Ed.

    Ecological problems are explored in this book of sixteen student readings and exercises aimed at developing and applying critical thinking skills. The readings, mostly extracts from books and periodicals, are introduced by the editor and accompanied by questions. Chapter I, The Population Controversy, includes selections from Paul Ehrlich's The…

  18. Improving the Quality of Science Classroom Discourse on Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddis, Arthur N.

    1991-01-01

    Illustrates how the sophistication of students' discussion on controversial issues can be increased by explicit attention to (1) the defensibility of more than one position, and (2) the relationship between protagonist's interests and the positions adopted. Presents a case study of a teacher using this scheme as he reflects on and modifies his…

  19. Disaster, Controversy--Are You Prepared for the Worst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Robert W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides demographic profiles from "Executive Educator's" fourth annual survey of U.S. school executives. Regarding disaster preparedness, only a small percentage of all districts in earthquake-prone areas have earthquake and fire action plans. Concerning controversial issues, teaching about substance abuse, child abuse, and teen suicide meets…

  20. Piaget, IQ, and the Nature-Nurture Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    Four basic assumptions of IQ tests - age constancy, scholastic validity, standard environment and performance suggiciency are alien to Piaget's theory. Heredity cannot be statistically separated from environment; therefore, Piagetian theory would suggest the nature-nurture controversy is devoid of meaning. (ST)

  1. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  2. Controversial Issues in Orientation and Mobility: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Jacobson, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of issues in orientation and mobility (0M) considers controversies in: (1) OM systems (use of short cane vs. long cane, dog guide vs. cane, electronic travel aids); (2) OM personnel preparation (such as bachelor's vs. master's level training); and (3) direct services (such as one-to-one vs. group OM lessons). (CL)

  3. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  4. The Continuing Controversy over Grades. TM Report 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jonathan R.

    Although grades have been criticized for lack of reliability, end-of course grades and grade-point averages are reliable enough for most uses. The charge of unreliability applies only to grades on themes, tests, or other individual pieces of student work. On the other side of the controversy, grades have been said to be essential to the learning…

  5. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  6. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  7. Cagney and Lacey: Negotiating the Controversial in Popular Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Jim

    This paper discusses some of the ways in which the commitment of the television series Cagney and Lacey to the examination of often controversial social issues from liberal or progressive standpoints--especially issues associated with the women's movement--is worked through in narrative practice. The origins and development of the series are…

  8. Creationism in the Classroom: A Controversy with Serious Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    The resignation of the Revd Professor Michael Reiss from his position as Director of Education at the Royal Society over the issue of the teaching of creationism in school science classes provides the background to this article. The immediate controversy is described and considered in relation to its wider context and to the serious questions that…

  9. Aptitude Testing Controversy: Beliefs, Not Values, Are on Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tamayo, Eulogio

    This paper analyzes research findings about the role of values and beliefs in aptitude testing. Indications are found that the ongoing controversy over the lack of ethnic, racial, and sex fairness in aptitude testing is rooted in the tests themselves. Test designers, it is argued, are influenced by their socioeconomic position (they are usually…

  10. Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajkovski, Goran, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies" sheds light on the status of diversity in the field of IT education. It identifies a wide range of problems that educators face on a daily basis, and gives practical, applicable solutions, mainly by showcasing successful and replicable examples. The chapters in "Diversity in…

  11. Fair Use or Exploitation?: The Google Book Search Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baksik, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    The Google Book Search Library Project, in which millions of books from libraries will be scanned and made searchable on the Web, has led to controversy and legal action. Publishers are suing Google for copyright infringement, while Google claims their use falls under the fair use privilege of the "Copyright Act". An overview of the library…

  12. "We Make It Controversial": Elementary Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2015-01-01

    The impetus for this study began during an elementary teacher education course meeting, where preservice teachers discussed whether or not it was appropriate to discuss controversial topics--including race--with young children. Preservice teachers disclosed their "uncomfortableness" with race at large, and emphasized that discussions…

  13. Teaching Controversial Materials: Teaching about the Nuclear Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Describes difficulties encountered in presenting a college course on nuclear weapons and disarmament. Maintains that such courses must strive for a fuller historical account of the arms race, in addition to stressing the humanistic and ethical questions involved. Warns that controversy will arise and concludes that even blind anger is preferable…

  14. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  15. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  16. Teaching Controversy by Seminar: An Example in Quaternary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Describes how seminar work can be structured to help students develop skills of critical thinking and expression when discussing controversial issues in their chosen subject. Particular emphasis is given to methods of organizing instructional materials and appropriate roles for seminar leaders. The debate surrounding the existence of a prehistoric…

  17. Childhood Psychological Disorders: Current Controversies. Making Sense of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursztyn, Alberto M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This accessible, informative book will help teachers, parents, and practitioners make sense of current issues and controversies surrounding childhood disabilities. Almost 12 percent of children in American schools have been identified as disabled in ways that interfere with their capacity to learn. Yet parents of children with disabilities often…

  18. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  19. Know Nukes: A Model for Teaching Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes a nuclear power workshop that presented techniques useful in controversial issues education. An introductory exercise and an overview of propagandistic techniques (listed in "The Propaganda Game") related to self-deception, language, irrelevance, exploitation, form, and maneuver are included. Outline of workshop presentation is also…

  20. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  1. The Evolution/Creation Science Controversy: Educate Rather Than Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Beverley

    This paper is linked to the theme History and Philosophy of Science. The Evolution and creation science controversy is now in the general public's arena and poses a challenge for school science. The paper begins by briefly describing the current situation concerning this issue in Australia and the United States of America. In the subject Biology,…

  2. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  3. 42 CFR 405.1839 - Amount in controversy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Aggregation of claims. For purposes of satisfying the applicable amount in controversy requirement for a... the same cost reporting period. Aggregation of claims from more than one cost reporting period to meet... reporting periods under appeal would increase, in the aggregate, by at least $50,000. (2) Aggregation...

  4. Liebig-Wohler Controversy and the Concept of Isomerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Soledad

    2008-01-01

    Very often controversies contribute to the development of science. An example is the conflict between Liebig and Wohler on the occasion of their analyses of fulminates and cyanates, which showed that compounds with different properties could have the same composition. Their results, together with other similar evidences, led Berzelius to recognize…

  5. Millennia of Discord: The Controversial Educational Program of Isocrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Five years ago in "Theory and Research in Education", James R. Muir fired a new salvo in the debate regarding the merits of Isocrates' educational program, a controversy that has endured for more than two millennia. Was the Isocratean program misguided and lowbrow, as in the estimations of Plato and Aristotle--or was it the most successful program…

  6. "Smoky Night" and "Crack": Controversial Subjects in Current Children's Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnecke, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two children's picture books: "Smoky Night" and "The House that Crack Built." Notes that the books deal with the Los Angeles riots and the use and distribution of crack cocaine. Concludes that each book treats important issues with sensitivity and honesty and is engaging, even when dealing with controversial topics in a didactic…

  7. The Continuum and Current Controversies in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews policy developments in deinstitutionalization and community inclusion in North America, specifically the United States. It begins with a critique of the continuum concept and the associated principle of the least restrictive environment. Past and current controversies surrounding deinstitutionalization are then examined.…

  8. Relational Frame Theory: An Overview of the Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fox, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Although Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) was published over 50 years ago, behavior-analytic research on human language and cognition has been slow to develop. In recent years, a new behavioral approach to language known as relational frame theory (RFT) has generated considerable attention, research, and debate. The controversy surrounding RFT…

  9. Is Race Really Controversial in the University Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philion, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Today, even though "social justice" programs exist as a virtual growth industry on US campuses and many universities have incorporated classes on race and racism into their curricula, everyone continues to be faced with the perception that race is a "controversial" topic that has to be broached with care due to its "sensitive nature". This is even…

  10. Supreme Court Actions Push a Wrenching Controversy Straight at You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's past and expected future rulings on abortion cases will add controversy and costs to schools. Estimates the costs of teenage pregnancy; reviews the legal history of abortion; and offers guidelines on how schools can help reduce teenage pregnancy. (MLF)

  11. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS): a Controversial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sheila Knupp Feitosa; Pelajo, Christina Feitosa

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of studying pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS), it is still not possible to confirm its existence and whether it is a poststreptococcal autoimmune disorder. Many controversies remain: the diagnostic criteria have not been validated, evidence of autoimmunity remains inconclusive, evidence of a genetic predisposition is weak, and streptococcal infections are common in childhood and could represent only a trigger of exacerbations of tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients who fit the PANDAS criteria appear to represent a subgroup of children with chronic tic disorder and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder who may experience symptom exacerbations after group A β-hemolytic streptococci infections; however, those infections are not the sole or even the most common antecedent of exacerbations. There is not enough evidence to support PANDAS as a unique clinical entity. PMID:21308506

  12. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Prophylaxis and treatment controversies

    PubMed Central

    Cheuk, Daniel KL

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and it carries a high mortality. Prophylaxis for hepatic VOD is commonly given to transplant recipients from the start of conditioning through the early weeks of transplant. However, high quality evidence from randomized controlled trials is scarce with small sample sizes and the trials yielded conflicting results. Although various treatment options for hepatic VOD are available, most have not undergone stringent evaluation with randomized controlled trial and therefore it remains uncertain which treatment offers real benefit. It remains controversial whether VOD prophylaxis should be given, which prophylactic therapy should be given, who should receive prophylaxis, and what treatment should be offered once VOD is established. PMID:24175193

  13. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  14. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  15. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  16. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  17. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  18. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  19. Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy in Opioid-Addicted Health Care Professionals Returning to Clinical Practice: A Hidden Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Heather; Bryson, Ethan O.

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether it is safe for recovering health care professionals to return to clinical practice after treatment for drug addiction. One specific component of reentry that remains particularly contentious is the use of pharmacotherapeutics, specifically buprenorphine, as opioid substitution therapy for health care professionals who wish to return to clinical work. Because health care professionals are typically engaged in safety-sensitive work with considerable consequences when errors occur, abstinence-based recovery should be recommended until studies demonstrate that it is safe to allow this population to practice while undergoing opioid substitution therapy. PMID:22386182

  20. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe. PMID:27066937

  1. [Trend in person-situation controversy about personality research].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, A

    1993-10-01

    The purpose is to review the trend in "person-situation controversy", and to comment on recent literature and their implications. "Person-situation controversy" is related to whether people do or do not have consistent personality traits. Although the topic is not at all new, it aroused a great deal of interest since the publication of Mischel's (1968) "personality and assessment". Here, we began with Mischel's criticism against the trait approach, then, we discussed two opposite viewpoints of situationism and interactionism. Situationism is the idea that situational variables influence more on the behavior of people than personality traits, while interactionism is the idea that personality traits and situations interact with each other to influence behavior. Furthermore, this article focussed on three conceptual issues, such as consistency, prediction, and meaning of traits. Finally, the reconsideration and evaluation of the two viewpoints were presented from a viewpoint of personality psychology. PMID:8301895

  2. Social controversy belongs in the climate science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Elizabeth M.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.

    2014-04-01

    Scientists, educators and stakeholders are grappling with how to best approach climate change education for diverse audiences, a task made difficult due to persistent social controversy. This Perspective examines how sociocultural learning theories can inform the design and implementation of climate change education experiences for learners with varied understandings of and attitudes towards climate change. The literature demonstrates that explicitly addressing learners' social and community experiences, values and knowledge supports understandings of and increased concern about climate change. Science learning environments that situate climate change in its social context can support conceptual understandings, shift attitudes and increase the participation of diverse communities in responding to climate change. Examples are provided of successful programmes that attend to social dimensions and learners' previous experiences, including experiences of social controversy.

  3. Questions raised by the controversy over recovered memories of incest.

    PubMed

    Lief, Harold I

    2003-01-01

    The controversy in the mental health community over recovered memory has been heated. The devastation to families falsely accused of incest has been profound. A fortunate consequence, however, has been the vigorous pursuit of answers to a variety of mind-behavior questions raised by the controversy. In this article I raise some of the important questions and in reply I review and summarize some of the data. Some questions deal with the nature of memory and of unconscious processes, especially the role of implicit memory; the techniques of recovered memory therapy and the evolution of pseudomemories and its relevance to clinical practice; the effects, real and alleged, of trauma; the place of dreams, flashbacks, and repetitive patterns of behavior in the understanding of memory and behavior; and finally, questions dealing with the definition of reality. All of these are important issues for the psychoanalyst. PMID:12866698

  4. Controversial issues in home health care: a roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    McAllister, J C; Black, B L; Griffin, R E; Smith, J E

    1986-04-01

    Controversial issues in home health care (HHC) were discussed by a panel of four individuals involved in or knowledgeable about HHC. The panel addressed the following issues: reluctance of health professionals to participate in home care, challenges in providing HHC services, assigning responsibility for HHC services, reimbursement considerations in joint-venture arrangements, assuming fiscal responsibility for unreimbursed care, selecting HHC providers, defining patient rights, selecting drug products for home-care patients, competing with community pharmacists, circumvention of pharmacist input in preparation of solutions for home infusion, and the future of HHC. Hospital pharmacists who plan to become involved or are already involved in providing HHC services should become familiar with these controversial issues. PMID:3706341

  5. Understanding the agreements and controversies surrounding childhood psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The number of children in the US taking prescription drugs for emotional and behavioral disturbances is growing dramatically. This growth in the use of psychotropic drugs in pediatric populations has given rise to multiple controversies, ranging from concerns over off-label use and long-term safety to debates about the societal value and cultural meaning of pharmacological treatment of childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. This commentary summarizes the authors' eight main findings from the first of five workshops that seek to understand and produce descriptions of these controversies. The workshop series is convened by The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute located in Garrison, New York, U.S.A. PMID:18261228

  6. Chlorine: Undergraduate Research on an Element of Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hasok

    2009-04-01

    If chemical elements were people, chlorine would be a celebrity. Although intrinsically no more or less important than any other element, chlorine has had a knack of making headlines. The genre of "object biography" has been quite successful in popular science recently. We took this opportunity to write a "biographical" study of chlorine. Chlorine's wide range of interesting controversies is well suited for attracting and maintaining the enthusiasm of the diverse range of students we teach in our department.

  7. Controversies and challenges of vaccination: an interview with Elizabeth Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although strong evidence exists that the benefits of vaccination by far outweigh potential adverse events, controversy still exists. This has led opponents of vaccination to question its safety, efficacy and necessity. In an interview with Professor Elizabeth Miller, we discuss the continuum of beliefs held by vaccine refusers and hesitators, the resulting health consequences, and ways in which health professionals and industry regulators can help promote transparency to better convey the substantial health benefits of vaccination. PMID:26472230

  8. The tidelands oil controversy: The prize and the responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    This article reviews the legal history of the Tidelands oil controversy in the Santa Barbara Channel of Southern California. A blowout of a well in an offshore platform in 1969 marked the beginning of California`s anti-oil movement. Santa Barbara today is a combination of industrialization and recreation, and like the oil and water that are the lifeblood of these two pursuits, they do not mix.

  9. Monarch butterfly migration in North America: Controversy and conservation.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, S B

    1987-05-01

    The monarch butterfly is the most spectacular example of insect migration known. Monarchs are threatened by the destruction of their over-wintering sites in Mexico, California and elsewhere, and many efforts are being made to conserve these sites. However, a controversial recent suggestion, that some monarch populations may not migrate at all, has jeopardized some of these efforts. This article assesses the evidence for and against the new suggestion. PMID:21227836

  10. Common controversies in total knee replacement surgery: Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Vasileios S; Chytas, Dimitrios; Babis, George C

    2014-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a widely used operation that has radically improved the quality of life of millions of people during the last few decades. However, some technical details, concerning the surgical procedure and the rehabilitation following total knee arthroplasty, are still a matter of a strong debate. In this review of the literature, we have included the best evidence available of the last decade, in an effort to shed light on some of the most controversial subjects related to TKR surgery. Posterior-stabilized or cruciate-retaining prosthesis? To use a tourniquet during operation or not? Do patients need continuous passive motion for their post-surgery rehabilitation? To resurface patella or not? These are some of the most controversial topics that until now have been persistent dilemmas for the orthopedic surgeon. Results of this systematic review of the literature are highly controversial. These conflicting results are an indication that larger and more well conducted high quality trials are needed in order to gain more secure answers. At the same time, it is becoming apparent that a meticulous operative technique, respecting the soft tissue envelope and knowing the principles of alignment and soft tissue balancing, are some of the parameters that might contribute more to achieving the optimal results for the patients. PMID:25232522

  11. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    PubMed

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes. PMID:26650538

  12. Embryo stem cell research: ten years of controversy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2010-01-01

    This overview of 10 years of stem cell controversy reviews the moral conflict that has made ESCs so controversial and how this conflict plays itself out in the legal realm, focusing on the constitutional status of efforts to ban ESC research or ESC-derived therapies. It provides a history of the federal funding debate from the Carter to the Obama administrations, and the importance of the Raab memo in authorizing federal funding for research with privately derived ESCs despite the Dickey-Wicker ban on federal funding of embryo research. It also reviews the role that scientists themselves have played in developing regulations for ESC research, the emergence of ESCROs as special review bodies for ESC research, and the thorough consent requirements for donation of IVF embryos to ESC research. With research now transitioning from the lab to the clinic, the article reviews the challenges of ensuring safety and consent in translational research. It concludes with a call for respecting those persons who have to using or working with ESC products and an account of how obtaining stem cells from a person's own cells will alleviate some but not all of the controversy surrounding ESC research. PMID:20579242

  13. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, C B

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age. PMID:16172511

  14. [What remains is what should remain: using estates to construct biographies].

    PubMed

    Füssl, Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Estates play a major role in historical research, especially biographic research, for they supplement the official writings surrounding the individual view of a historical figure. But they nonetheless reflect only a small part of the scientific and private activities of a researcher. Moreover, before being handed over to an archive, they are also often filtered by the researchers themselves, by family members, and/or by successors to the historical figure's post. The history of an estate is thus of great importance to research. With an eye to the estates of natural scientists, the present text uses a concept of estates that includes not only the surviving texts but also artifacts with which the scientists worked. The focus will be on three physicists--Ernst Mach, Walther Gerlach, and Philipp Lenard--in order to investigate the significance of these objects for their respective biographies and for the history of physics. PMID:25296527

  15. Cellular Origins of Beta Cell Regeneration: a Legacy view of Historical Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Anne; Kushner, Jake A.

    2013-01-01

    Beta cell regeneration represents a major goal of therapy for diabetes. Unraveling the origin of beta cells during pancreatic regeneration could help restore a functional beta cell mass in diabetes patients. This scientific question has represented a longstanding interest still intensively investigated today. This review focuses on pioneering observations and subsequent theories made hundred years ago and describes how technical innovation helped resolve some, but not all, of the controversies generated by these early investigators. At the end of the nineteenth century, complete pancreatectomy demonstrated the crucial physiological role of the pancreas and its link to diabetes. Pancreatic injury models, including pancreatectomy and ductal ligation, allowed investigators to describe islet function and to assess the regenerative capacity of the pancreas. Three main theories were proposed to explain the origins of newly formed islets: 1) transdifferentiation of acinar cells into islets, 2) islet neogenesis, a process reminiscent of islet formation during embryonic development, and 3) replication of preexisting islet cells. Despite considerable technical innovation in the last fifty years, the origin of new adult beta cells remains highly controversial and the same three theories are still debated today. PMID:19765178

  16. The Controversial Role of Food Allergy in Infantile Colic: Evidence and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Rita; Pezzella, Vincenza; Cosenza, Linda; Amoroso, Antonio; Di Scala, Carmen; Amato, Francesco; Iacono, Giuseppe; Berni Canani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) are an increasing problem in Western countries, affecting up to 10% of young children. FAs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. The role of FAs as a potential causative factor for infantile colic (IC) is still controversial. We report the most recent evidence on the pathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic aspects of FA-induced infantile colic (IC) and suggest a stepwise diagnostic approach. We selected articles on clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis and management of FAs and IC from of 1981 to 2015. Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed, using the following terms: colic, infantile colic, food allergy and infantile colic, infantile colic treatment. The possible relationship between FAs and IC derives from the presence of dysmotility with visceral hypersensitivity and dysbiosis, demonstrated in both conditions, and the clinical response to dietary interventions. Unfortunately, the design of the studies, poor characterization of atopy and different dietary approaches limit the understanding of the importance of FAs in subjects with IC. The role of FAs in IC subjects without other symptoms of atopy remains controversial. However, where there is a suspicion of FAs, a short trial with an extensively hydrolyzed cow’s proteins formula or, if breast fed, with maternal elimination diet may be considered a reasonable option. PMID:25808260

  17. Current concepts and controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P S

    2000-04-01

    Concerns about possible over-diagnosis and over-treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been prominent in media reports, as have various competing claims about the safety and efficacy of the various treatments for ADHD. Drawing upon the results of the recent National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference, this paper reviews the evidence concerning these controversial areas. Although there do appear to be pockets of over-prescribing in selected communities, the best available evidence suggests that across the United States substantial underdiagnosis continues to occur, and only 50% of all children with ADHD are being treated with stimulant medications. Among those who are treated with stimulant medications, inadequate treatment is quite common. Substantial evidence suggests that for ADHD symptoms, stimulants are more effective than behavioral therapies in head-to-head comparisons. Combined medication and behavioral treatments do not offer any meaningful advantages over medication treatments alone for ADHD symptoms. For other areas of functioning, however (social skills, academic performance, etc.), combined treatments appear to offer some modest advantages over single treatment approaches. Although research findings show that ADHD can indeed be rigorously and reliably diagnosed under optimal conditions, and that carefully delivered treatments can yield substantial benefits, such best practices do not appear to be taking place in the real world. Thus, although the above controversies are facing some resolution in principal, in practice much remains to be done. PMID:11122941

  18. Current Controversies in the Management of Myeloma Bone Disease.

    PubMed

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, Garson David

    2016-11-01

    Recent significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma have resulted in an improvement in median overall survival from 4.6 years, for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2005, to 6.1 years, for those diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 (Kumar et al., 2014). However, myeloma bone lesions persist in the absence of active disease and continue to be frequent and significant causes of patient morbidity and contribute to mortality. While bisphosphonate therapy in combination with anti-myeloma therapy remains the cornerstone of skeletal disease management in myeloma, open questions regarding the optimal management of patients with myeloma bone disease remain. This article will address when to initiate and stop bone-targeted therapy in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, duration of bisphosphonate treatment in the era of more effective anti-myeloma treatment, the role of bone resorption markers in determining the dosing schedule for anti-resorptive therapy, risks and benefits of long term anti-resorptive therapy, and whether anti-resorptive therapies should be stopped to enhance the potential anabolic effects of proteasome antagonists and other anabolic agents. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2374-2379, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910829

  19. Controversies in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Leslie A.; Nelson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The two most common HIV-associated renal diseases, HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV-immune-complex kidney disease, share the common pathologic finding of hyperplasia within the glomerulus. Podocyte injury is central to the pathogenesis of these diseases; however, the source of the proliferating glomerular epithelial cell remains a topic of debate. Parenchymal injury has been linked to direct infection of renal epithelial cells by HIV-1, although the mechanism of viral entry into this non-lymphoid compartment is unclear. Although transgenic rodent models have provided insight into viral proteins responsible for inducing renal disease, such models have important limitations. Rodent HIV-1 models, for instance, cannot replicate all aspects of immune activation, a process that could have an important role in the pathogenesis PMID:19776779

  20. Parasomnias and nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE): lights and shadows--controversial points in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bisulli, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Provini, Federica; Leta, Chiara; Lugaresi, Elio; Tinuper, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is characterized by seizures with complex, often bizarre, violent behaviour arising only or mainly during sleep. These unusual seizures and their occurrence during sleep are often accompanied by normal EEG tracings and neuroradiological findings, making it difficult to distinguish NFLE seizures from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias. NFLE was described for the first time in 1981, but, as its epileptic origin was controversial, the condition was called nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia. Even though many aspects of parasomnias and NFLE have been clarified in the last two decades, the problem of differential diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. This paper discusses some controversial points still under debate. The difficulties in distinguishing nocturnal epileptic seizures from parasomnias reflect just one aspect of the intriguing issue of the pathophysiological relationships between all types of paroxysmal motor behaviours during sleep. PMID:22136895

  1. A decade of controversy: balancing policy with evidence in the regulation of prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M; Kravitz, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  2. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature. PMID:25490079

  3. A Decade of Controversy: Balancing Policy With Evidence in the Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M.; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  4. High Pressure - High Temperature Polymorphism in Ta: Resolving an Ongoing Experimental Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Burkovsky, L; Chen, S P; Preston, D L; Belonoshko, A B; Rosengren, A; Mikhaylushkin, A S; Simak, S I; Moriarty, J A

    2010-04-07

    Phase diagrams of refractory metals remain essentially unknown. Moreover, there is an ongoing controversy over the high pressure (P) melting temperatures of these metals: results of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments differ by at least a factor of two. From an extensive ab initio study on tantalum we discovered that the body-centered cubic phase, its physical phase at ambient conditions, transforms to another solid phase, possibly hexagonal omega phase, at high temperature (T). Hence the sample motion observed in DAC experiments is not due to melting but internal stresses accompanying a solid-solid transformation, as explained in more detail in our work. In view of our results on tantalum and previous work on molybdenum, as well as other published data, it is highly plausible that high-PT polymorphism is a general feature of Groups V and VI refractory metals.

  5. Current controversies in the diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder in the world. The spectrum of VWD spans quantitative and qualitative deficiencies of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a platelet adhesive protein. It manifests primarily as mucocutaneous bleeding, but severely affected patients may suffer soft tissue bleeding and hemarthroses. There is disagreement in the multiple guidelines published regarding diagnosis, especially of type 1 VWD, which also remains the most opaque with respect to molecular characterization. Treatment with desmopressin (DDAVP) is most effective in type 1 VWD, but regimens are not standardized. It is not clear which type 2 VWD patients with qualitative deficiencies can be treated with DDAVP and which ones should receive VWF concentrates. No guidelines stipulate which patients might benefit from prophylactic VWF infusions and how they should be dosed. These are some current controversies in VWD that are discussed in this review. PMID:26288715

  6. The concept and controversy of retroperitoneal nerve dissection in pancreatic head carcinoma (Review).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Taihong; Lau, Wan Yee; Wang, Xin; Sun, Jingfeng; Yuan, Zhenhua; Zhang, Yewei

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic head cancer is a common but the most lethal cancer of the human digestive system. It is invasive, resulting in early infiltration of adjacent structures and lymph node and distant metastases. Its biological characteristics of neurotropic growth lead to early neural invasion (NI) which is an independent prognostic factor of survival for pancreatic cancer. Radical surgical resection remains the only form of curative treatment. The extent of surgical resection and whether extended resection results in better long-term survival have been controversial. Studies have reported that peripancreatic plexus invasion is a frequent cause of pancreatic cancer recurrence and death. The relationship between cancer microenvironment and nerve cells, and whether the peripancreatic nerve plexus nearby needs to be resected require further studies. The present review aims to discuss the role of peripancreatic nerve and its implications in pancreatic head cancer resection. PMID:26458369

  7. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  8. Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

  9. Agonist treatment in opioid use: advances and controversy.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Chand, Prabhat; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima

    2012-06-01

    Opioid dependence is a chronic relapsing condition which requires comprehensive care; pharmacological agents form the mainstay of its long term treatment. The two most popular approaches are the harm reduction method using agonists and the complete abstinence method using antagonists. Currently, particularly from the harm minimization perspective and the low feasibility of an abstinence based approach, there is an increasing trend toward agonist treatment. The use of buprenorphine has gained popularity in view of its safety profile and the availability of the buprenorphine-naloxone combination has made it popular as a take-home treatment. This review outlines the pharmacological advances and controversies in this area. PMID:22813654

  10. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  11. Global challenges, efforts, and controversies in neonatal care.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Nicole E; Batra, Maneesh; Kuzminski, Jacquelyn; Lee, Anne C C; O'Callahan, Cliff

    2014-12-01

    Simple low-cost, evidence-based interventions such as clean delivery practices, immediate warming, umbilical cord care, and neonatal resuscitation could prevent 40% to 70% of newborn deaths globally, but many obstacles preclude the provision of those basic interventions for all newborns, particularly in low-resource regions. Global efforts have led to widespread development of neonatal clinical practice guidelines, training programs, and policies. Because of a shortage of health care resources, standards of care have been redefined to meet the needs of underserved populations. This article provides an overview of the challenges, efforts, and controversies surrounding neonatal health in low-resource settings. PMID:25459772

  12. Beyond Controversies: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in India

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847

  13. Controversies in the Management of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, Sayuri; Boone, M Dustin

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a physical insult (a bump, jolt, or blow) to the brain that results in temporary or permanent impairment of normal brain function. TBI describes a heterogeneous group of disorders. The resulting secondary injury, namely brain swelling and its sequelae, is the reason why patients with these vastly different initial insults are homogenously treated. Much of the evidence for the management of TBI is poor or conflicting, and thus definitive guidelines are largely unavailable for clinicians at this time. A substantial portion of this article focuses on discussing the controversies in the management of TBI. PMID:27521198

  14. Controversies in the Management of the Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rodman, Regina E; Kellman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma is a significant cause of morbidity in the United States. Despite the large volume of trauma surgeries at most academic institutions, there is still controversy regarding management of many traumatic injuries. The literature lacks clear-cut best practices for most fractures. In orbital trauma, there is debate about the optimal timing of repair, preferred biomaterial to be used, and the utility of evaluation afterward with intraoperative computed tomographic scan. In repair of mandible fractures, there is debate regarding open versus closed reduction of subcondylar fractures, or alternatively, endoscopic repair. PMID:27400843

  15. Controversies and Trends in United Kingdom Bunion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William D; Walker, Christopher R

    2016-06-01

    Current practice and controversies in UK bunion surgery are discussed. Patients tend to be offered a distally based metatarsal osteotomy, such as a chevron or scarf osteotomy, for mild to moderate symptomatic bunions. Greater deformities are managed with a more extreme scarf, supplemented with a proximal phalangeal osteotomy. A proximal fusion in the form of the Lapidus-type procedure is still reserved for the most severe, hypermobile, or arthritic cases. Minimally invasive techniques for bunions have failed to disseminate into common UK practice. The trends in the United Kingdom regarding litigation, venous thromboembolism, and osteodesis for bunion surgery are also discussed. PMID:27261802

  16. Controversies in water management: Frames and mental models

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkman, M.J. Veen, A. van der Geurts, P.A.T.M.

    2007-10-15

    Controversies in decision and policy-making processes can be analysed using frame reflection and mental model mapping techniques. The purpose of the method presented in this paper is to improve the quality of the information and interpretations available to decision makers, by surfacing and juxtaposing the different frames of decision makers, experts, and special interests groups. The research provides a new method to analyse frames. It defines a frame to consist of perspectives and a mental model, which are in close interaction (through second order learning processes). The mental model acts like a 'filter' through which the problem situation is observed. Five major perspective types guide the construction of meaning out of the information delivered by the mental model, and determine what actors see as their interests. The perspective types are related to an actor's institutional and personal position in the decision making process. The method was applied to a case, in order to test its viability. The case concerns the decision making process and environmental impact assessment procedure for the improvement of dike ring 53 in the Netherlands, which was initiated by the Dutch 'Flood Defences Act 1996'. In this specific case the perspectives and mental models of stakeholders were elicited to explain controversies. The case was analysed with regard to the conflicts emerging between stakeholders, on an individual level. The influence of institutional embedding of individuals on the use of information and the construction of meaning, and the limits of a participatory approach were analysed within the details of controversies that emerged during the case analysis. Complicating factor appeared to be the interaction between national dike safety norms (short term) and local water management problems (long term). Revealed controversies mainly concerned disputes between an organisational and a technical perspective. But also disputes on distribution of responsibilities

  17. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  18. Case-Based Teacher Preparation for Teaching Controversial Topics in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, K. Denise; Polizzi, Nicholas C.; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2007-01-01

    Many middle school teachers are not prepared to develop units and lesson plans on controversial topics. In addition, many are not prepared to respond effectively when controversial topics arise unexpectedly during routine lessons. This is a significant problem because controversial topics are arising with increasing frequency in middle school…

  19. Several Controversial Issues on Early Childhood Education and Care in Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Michio

    This paper provides an overview of current controversial issues in early childhood education in Japan. One controversy discussed is the increasing emphasis on cognitive development in early childhood programs since World War II, especially the focus on reading and writing; and presents the controversy surrounding the task of learning Japanese and…

  20. Some Personal Perspectives on Controversial Practices in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Phillip S.; van den Pol, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This response to McWilliams (EC 623 401) concerning controversial early intervention practices with young children with disabilities recounts the authors' involvement with programs originally considered controversial but now generally accepted. It notes that controversial practices that merit review and study and those that are hopelessly flawed…

  1. New insights into the controversy of adrenal function during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Eva; Bornstein, Stefan R; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-10-01

    Critical illness represents a life-threatening disorder necessitating recruitment of defence mechanisms for survival. Herein, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is essential. However, the relevance of a relative insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness, which is diagnosed by a suppressed cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) irrespective of the plasma cortisol concentration, is controversial. Findings from several studies have provided insights that clarify at least part of this controversy. Rather than an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ACTH-independent regulators have been reported to contribute to increased cortisol availability during critical illness. One of these regulators is reduced cortisol breakdown, mediated by suppressed expression and activity of cortisol metabolising enzymes in the liver and kidneys. This downstream mechanism increases concentrations of plasma cortisol, but the ensuing feedback-inhibited ACTH release, when sustained for more than 1 week, has been shown to negatively affect adrenocortical integrity and function. Reduced adrenocortical ACTH signalling could explain reduced cortisol responses to exogenous ACTH. Whether such reduced cortisol responses in the presence of raised plasma (free) cortisol identifies adrenal failure needing treatment is unlikely. Additionally, reduced cortisol breakdown affects the optimum dose of hydrocortisone treatment during critical illness. Identification of patients with an insufficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and the optimum treatment for this disorder clearly need more well designed preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26071883

  2. National survey of provider opinions on controversial characteristics of liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Secunda, Katharine; Gordon, Elisa J; Sohn, Min W; Shinkunas, Laura A; Kaldjian, Lauris C; Voigt, Michael D; Levitsky, Josh

    2013-04-01

    Candidate selection for liver transplantation presents challenging ethical issues that require balancing the principles of justice and utility. The goal of this study was to assess the opinions of U.S. transplant providers regarding the ways in which controversial medical and psychosocial characteristics influence patient eligibility for liver transplantation. An online, anonymous survey about adult patient characteristics was sent to providers (hepatologists, surgeons, psychiatrists, and social workers) at all 102 active adult liver transplant centers in the United States. A majority of the providers (251/444 or 56.5%) completed the survey. The providers were queried about 8 characteristics, and the 3 that were ranked most controversial were incarceration, marijuana use, and psychiatric diagnoses. Most providers identified a patient age ≥ 80 years (62.7%), a body mass index ≥ 45 kg/m2 (56.6%), and current incarceration with a lifetime sentence (54.7%) as absolute contraindications to liver transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, the identification of absolute contraindications varied significantly with the provider type, the center volume, and the geographical region. Less than half of the providers reported that their centers had written policies regarding most of the characteristics examined. In conclusion, providers differ significantly in their opinions on controversial patient characteristics and transplant contraindications. Along with a paucity of literature data on outcomes, these provider differences may play a role in the fact that many centers do not have formal policies for selecting patients with these characteristics. Evidence-based data on the outcomes of such patients are needed to guide the formation of written policies to better standardize eligibility criteria. PMID:23197388

  3. Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the detection of oesophageal mucosal eosinophils has transitioned from a biomarker of GERD to a diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). In GERD, oesophageal eosinophils are considered part of the chronic inflammatory response to acid reflux, whereas the marked eosinophilia in EoE is viewed as a central feature of the immune response to ingested food and/or environmental antigen stimulation. Descriptions of a considerable subset of patients with symptomatic, endoscopic and histological findings of EoE that resolve with PPI therapy has led to confusion and controversy regarding the distinction of EoE from GERD. Study findings indicate that PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) more closely resembles EoE than GERD, both from a clinical and immunological aspect. Although responsiveness to PPI therapy should not be utilized to exclude EoE, PPI therapy is effective at reducing oesophageal eosinophilia in ~40% of patients, and PPI therapy is both a safe and practical initial step in the management of patients with oesophageal eosinophilia. Ongoing studies elucidating the mechanism behind PPI-REE will improve our understanding and management of EoE. In this Review, the mechanisms and evidence that underlie the controversy in the distinction between GERD and EoE are evaluated. PMID:25986303

  4. Lung Transplantation in Cystic Fibrosis: Trends and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This article is not an overview of all facets of lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis (CF), but rather it is intended as a review of current allocation controversies, as well as of trends in diagnostics and management in lung transplant recipients and in patients with end-stage lung disease. Despite changes in donor and recipient selection, long-term survival in pediatric lung transplant has continued to be limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Due to, in part, this short survival benefit, transplant continues to be an appropriate option for only a subset of pediatric patients with CF. The feasibility of transplant as a therapeutic option is also affected by the limited pediatric organ supply, which has moreover contributed to controversy over lung allocation. Debates over the allocation of this scarce resource, however, may also help to drive innovation in the field of lung transplant. Longer pretransplant survival—as aided by new lung bypass technologies, for example—could help to alleviate organ shortages, as well as facilitate the transport of organs to suitable pediatric recipients. Improved diagnosis and treatment for CLAD and for antibody-mediated rejection have the potential to extend survival in pediatric lung transplant. Regardless, the relative rarity of transplant could pose future challenges for pediatric lung transplant programs, which require adequate numbers of patients to maintain proper expertise. PMID:26697265

  5. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  6. Review of controversies in management of non-benign meningioma.

    PubMed

    Paldor, Iddo; Awad, Mohammed; Sufaro, Yuval Z; Kaye, Andrew H; Shoshan, Yigal

    2016-09-01

    Meningiomas are one of the most common brain tumors. World Health Organisation (WHO) Grade II and Grade III meningiomas are grouped together as non-benign meningioma (NBM). There are several controversies surrounding NBM management, including the significance of extent of resection and the efficacy of post-operative radiation and drug treatment. We reviewed the literature to develop recommendations for management of NBM. The questions we sought to answer were: Does gross total resection (GTR) improve patient outcome? Is radiation therapy (RT) warranted after complete or after incomplete resection of NBM? What drug therapies have been proven to improve outcome in patients with NBM? We found that GTR improves outcome in WHO Grade II meningioma, and should be attempted whenever considered safe. GTR correlates less closely to outcome in Grade III meningioma compared to subtotal resection (STR). Extreme measures to completely resect Grade III meningioma are not warranted. RT following GTR of Grade II meningioma does not improve patient outcome, and may be reserved for recurrence. RT improves outcome following STR of Grade II meningioma. RT improves outcome after resection of Grade III meningioma. No drug therapy has been shown to improve outcome in NBM. This review elucidates recommendations for some of the controversies involving NBM. PMID:27338209

  7. Issues and controversies with vitamin A in childhood.

    PubMed

    Murguía Peniche, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) has been used to prevent or treat vitamin A deficiency and to decrease mortality and morbidity in children. However, there are still controversial issues in relation to the role of universal VAS in different populations. Thus, studies that look at mortality outcomes reveal that VAS decreases mortality in children >6 months of age; however, there is still controversy on the extent to which reduction in morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infection, other than measles, decreases mortality. Studies in infants 1-5 months old show no protective effect of VAS on mortality; whether this is secondary to environmental influences (breastfeeding), or interactions with DTP vaccine, needs to be further investigated. Studies with VAS in newborns have resulted in contrasting results in countries in Africa and Asia; trials are underway to better understand this. VAS does not have a universal protective effect on lower respiratory tract infection in children; some studies reveal an increase in respiratory morbidity associated with VAS, especially in well-nourished children; in contrast, VAS may confer some protection to malnourished children. The interaction of VAS with different vaccines is under current debate; some discussions are presented. PMID:25825299

  8. Hormonal Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Current Perspectives and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Manish; Singh, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Manoj; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer, various controversial aspects of hormonal therapy have come to light. There has been tremendous progress in this area, marked by several important developments in the availability of various new androgen-suppressing agents and refinements to the existing therapies. Parallel to these developments, various more debatable aspects have arisen in the use of these therapies with regards to their negative impact on quality of life parameters. Various modifications in these hormonal agents, their doses, and protocols have been tried in different scenarios in order to improve ADT tolerability. As a result, these controversies continue to evolve even with optimal use of the androgen ablation therapy. This review assesses the present status of hormonal therapy in metastatic prostate cancer and specifically deals with those aspects of androgen ablation therapy that are still a subject of debate. In spite of the fact that various trials have been conducted, some of which are still ongoing, the multitude of questions related to the best possible use of these hormonal agents have still not been answered. Treatment guidelines concerning these issues are continuing to evolve as progress continues to be made in this field. PMID:25992227

  9. Important controversies associated with isotretinoin therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    Wolverton, Stephen E; Harper, Julie C

    2013-04-01

    Isotretinoin is a remarkably effective drug for severe, recalcitrant acne vulgaris. Soon after the drug's release in the early 1980s, a number of important adverse effects were reported subsequently leading to a variety of medical and medicolegal controversies. Three of these controversies will be highlighted concerning the putative role of isotretinoin in (1) depression and suicide, (2) inflammatory bowel disease, and (3) iPledge and pregnancy prevention programs. It appears that a very small subset of patients receiving isotretinoin for acne are at risk for depression, which is very manageable provided there is adequate patient awareness of the possibility, maximum communication between the patient and physician, and cessation of therapy if clinically important depression occurs (after which the depression rapidly resolves in a week or less). Multiple controlled studies actually suggest a very favorable effect of isotretinoin on depression and anxiety common in the population requiring isotretinoin. With regard to inflammatory bowel disease, in just one study, only ulcerative colitis association with isotretinoin reached statistical significance. The actual incidence of this association is strikingly low. Finally, it is clear that even the most recent pregnancy prevention program (iPledge) is no more successful than prior programs; there will likely always be a small number of female patients becoming pregnant while receiving isotretinoin for acne vulgaris. PMID:23559397

  10. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization. PMID:22175066

  11. Solving the United States National Park overflight controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisinger, Douglas S.; Peacock, Marcus C.; Falk, Steven B.

    1989-03-01

    By mid-1990 the National Park Service (NPS) must present to Congress recommendations for managing overflights of at least ten national parks. The authors examine the potential role of formal negotiation in setting overflight policy in these parks by reviewing the overflight controversy at Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP). Regulations controlling overflights of the GCNP are only now being implemented after a 17-year conflict that culminated in a congressionally mandated solution. The authors review this controversy and find that, contrary to common perception, the number of park visitors bothered by overflights is not small but roughly equals the number of airborne visitors (up to 450,000 per year). On the basis of this investigation, the authors determine that formal negotiation would have been an appropriate policy-making process because of the clearly defined and limited number of parties and issues involved. Considering the number of park visitors that will continue to be affected by this issue, the authors conclude that formal negotiations should be considered for overflight problems involving other parks. Such negotiations should be park-specific. Differences in park size, extent of the problem, and parties involved would prohibit park-wide negotiations.

  12. The timing of India-Asia collision onset - facts, theories, controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Huang, Wentao; An, Wei; Webb, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The timing of initial collision between India and Asia has remained grossly and windingly controversial for half a century. This paper attempts to review this crucial and hotly debated argument, describing first the different methods used to constrain the age of collision and discussing next the rationale, results, inferences and problems associated with each. We conclude that stratigraphy represents the best direct way to unravel collision chronology. Other methods focusing on the magmatic, metamorphic or paleomagnetic record provide additional fundamental constraints, but cannot provide a robust direct estimate of collision onset. Initial collision in the central-eastern Himalaya is dated directly at the Middle Paleocene (59±1 Ma) by the abrupt change in sediment provenance recorded in trench settings (Hu et al., 2015). The quasi-synchronous unconformities documented along both Tethyan passive margin of India and active margin of Asia from Tibet to Zanskar-Ladakh confirm that orogeny was underway at the close of the Paleocene (56 Ma) (Garzanti et al., 1987; Li et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2016), well before the disappearance of marine seaways in the Himalaya during the Eocene (50 Ma) (Najman et al., 2010). Sedimentary evolution and provenance changes in marine to fluvio-deltaic successions are recorded synchronously within error from the western to the central-eastern Himalaya, failing to provide evidence for diachronous collision. These coherent observations are hard to reconcile with three widely cited hypotheses invoking either earlier events of arc-continent collision or ophiolite obduction, or the protracted existence of a Greater India Basin, which should be all rejected after discussing the geological evidence. A scenario no more complex than the one involving solely the passive continental margin of India and the active continental margin of Asia is needed to explain the geological evolution of the nascent Himalaya. The collision between the Tethys

  13. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  14. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  15. Change remains--paradigm shifts in modern surgery.

    PubMed

    Scheingraber, Stefan; O'Brien, Ben; Machens, Andreas; Hirner, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to describe underlying principles of paradigm shifts in clinical medicine by means of analysis of typical examples. Retrospectively, profound shifts of ruling paradigms can be shown in diverse fields such as outcome research, in the redefining of patients' and doctor's autonomies, in the challenges presented by consumer medicine and the free market economy. This has provoked controversy between doctors, patients and the community. The judgement on whether recent shifts in paradigms in medicine have improved the health care delivered today is by no means uncontroversial. Aiming to demonstrate how shifts of paradigms in medicine occur and what consequences can result from such shifts we reflect on the works of Thomas S. Kuhn, the eminent philosopher of science. An analysis of his theories lends important insight into the observed shifts in paradigms. PMID:15379194

  16. A controversial idea as a cultural resource: The Lysenko controversy and discussions of genetics as a 'democratic' science in postwar Japan.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kaori

    2015-08-01

    The Japanese discussion of the theory of Soviet agronomist Trofim D. Lysenko began in the postwar years under the American occupation. Leftists introduced Lysenko's theory immediately after the war as part of a postwar scientists' movement. Unlike many American geneticists, who sharply criticized the theory, Japanese geneticists initially participated in the discussion in an even-handed way; their scientific interests in the roles of cytoplasm and the environment in heredity shaped their initial sympathetic reaction. As the Cold War divide deepened, however, Japanese scientists began expressing sharp anti-Lysenko criticisms that resembled the American criticisms. Interestingly, throughout the period, Japanese geneticists' overall aim in the discussion remained largely unchanged: to effectively reconstruct their discipline and maintain its proper image and authority. However, the shift in their reaction occurred due to an evolving sociopolitical context, especially the shift in the meaning of 'democratic' science from a science that employed democratic processes to a science of a liberal-democratic state. Regarding Lysenko's idea as a cultural resource could help to explain how and why it was treated differently in different places, and why a controversy emerged in certain contexts but not in others. PMID:26502659

  17. Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B; Barshop, Bruce A; Deschênes, Georges; Emma, Francesco; Goodyer, Paul; Lipkin, Graham; Midgley, Julian P; Ottolenghi, Chris; Servais, Aude; Soliman, Neveen A; Thoene, Jess G; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2016-06-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years. The molecular basis is due to mutations in CTNS, the gene encoding for the lysosomal cystine-proton cotransporter, cystinosin. During adolescence and adulthood, extrarenal manifestations of cystinosis develop and require multidisciplinary care. Despite substantial improvement in prognosis due to cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine, no cure of the disease is currently available. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Controversies Conference on cystinosis to review the state-of-the-art knowledge and to address areas of controversies in pathophysiology, diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment in different age groups. More importantly, promising areas of investigation that may lead to optimal outcomes for patients afflicted with this lifelong, systemic disease were discussed with a research agenda proposed for the future. PMID:27181776

  18. A Challenge for School Leaders: Gender Equity Issues Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Joyce C.; Hatcher, Denise L.; Thomas, Jerald A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Gender roles in North American education remain a pertinent and dynamic source of discourse. Many questions concerning gender bias remain. This study attempts to characterize a nine-year period of college students' recall of episodes of gender bias from their pre-college experiences. The survey instrument used in this research consisted of a nine…

  19. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  20. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Mendisco, F.; Pemonge, M. H.; Leblay, E.; Romon, T.; Richard, G.; Courtaud, P.; Deguilloux, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence. PMID:25487339

  1. 10 years of NICE: still growing and still controversial.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Peter; Garner, Sarah; Doyle, Nick; Macbeth, Fergus; Barnett, David; Longson, Carole

    2009-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) will have existed for 10 years on April 1, 2009. Over the past decade, the institute's methodological approach to the development of guidance and assessment of the value of health-care interventions has received international interest and acclaim. Furthermore, individual decisions, in particular those made on new cancer drugs, have generated enormous controversy. An early example was the appraisal of irinotecan and oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer in 2002. In 2003, NICE described the rationale behind its decision making. The 10th anniversary of the institute provides an opportunity to review some of the key issues affecting cancer appraisals and to explain the development of other NICE guidance programmes relevant to the provision of cancer services. PMID:19341973

  2. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview.

    PubMed

    Walker, J S

    1989-08-01

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended "tolerance doses" in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them. PMID:2664237

  3. [Controversies in the current management of traumatic abdominal wall hernias].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Egea, Alfredo; Girela, Enrique; Parlorio, Elena; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The management of traumatic abdominal wall hernias is controversial. We performed a MEDLINE search and report a personal series of 10 patients. Cases were classified according to the cause of injury. Fifty-six percent were caused by car accidents and 14% by bicycle accidents. Diagnosis was clinical in 22% and surgical in 13% and intra-abdominal lesions were found in 67%. Treatment was delayed in 12%. In our series, 55% were lumbar hernias due to traffic accidents and all were associated with pelvic fracture. Treatment was delayed in 50%, including laparoscopic surgery with good results. In conclusion, traumatic hernias due to road traffic accidents are frequently associated with intra-abdominal lesions. The diagnostic technique of choice is computed tomography and delayed surgery (laparoscopy) is an effective option. PMID:18021624

  4. Ethical issues and controversies in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J C

    1992-10-01

    The current ethical issues and controversies concerning in vitro fertilization revolve around micromanipulation of the gametes, cryopreservation of the fertilized ova, selective termination in multiple pregnancies, surrogacy, and gamete donation. At the basis of these ethical issues is the philosophic question of personhood, or the term "human person," and the consideration given to the normal weight that is ascribed to the various forms of living matter that are found in the process of development after human spermatozoa have been placed together with harvested oocytes in the petri dish. The papers of very special importance and special importance written during the past year on these ethical problems are listed and classified. The summaries of their arguments and positions on these problems are enumerated. PMID:1391649

  5. The effect of public controversy on occupational health problems: byssinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bronstein, J M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the byssinosis controversy on surveillance programs in the cotton textile industry is reviewed. The federally regulated format for industry medical surveillance guarantees neither automatic reduction of cotton dust exposure for high-risk workers nor wage rate retention for workers who are transferred to less dusty job sites. The absence of universal guidelines for worker management, combined with doubt over the severity and prevalence of byssinosis, encourages employers to evaluate medical surveillance programs primarily on the basis of their economic impact. When employers use the programs to control their losses, the potential costs of worker participation are increased. Comparisons with medical surveillance programs in the coal industry suggest that health benefits to workers can be guaranteed in the context of disputes over occupational diseases if industry, labor, and government agencies all participate in program design and operation. PMID:6236698

  6. Controversies about the use of antidepressants in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail Erlick

    2015-03-01

    There is controversy about the use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy. Decisions about their use are affected by understanding the risks of these medications causing pregnancy loss, congenital malformations, neonatal adaptation syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, autism spectrum disorder, or long-term neurocognitive deficits. Although some research has raised concerns about antidepressants causing harm to the fetus and neonate, other studies have disputed these findings or noted that any risks found do not exceed the risk of congenital problems found in 1% to 3% of neonates in the general population. Untreated depression during pregnancy can also cause harm from poor diet, substance abuse, suicidal behavior, or prematurity. Decisions about the use of antidepressants during pregnancy must be based on a risk-benefit analysis based on the best evidence of the risks of treating or not treating maternal depression. PMID:25714252

  7. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  8. Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Silver, L B

    1986-10-01

    It is estimated that between 3% and 7% of children and adolescents in this country--up to 4 million--are learning disabled. Of this group, about 20% also have attention deficit disorder. Many professionals in multiple disciplines have proposed treatment approaches. When research has been done to support the approach, the reports and data may be published in journals not normally read by the practicing physician. When research data are not available, the information may be in a popular book, newspapers, or lay magazines or on television. Thus, parents may know of ideas and suggestions before the professional in clinical practice. These acceptable and controversial approaches to treatment are reviewed. It is understandable that a parent would seek out improved ways of helping his or her child. I reviewed the significant literature in an effort to assist the practicing physician in providing appropriate parental guidance and clinical interventions. PMID:2875647

  9. Vitamin D supplementation: less controversy, more guidance needed

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Caroline S.; Lammert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with multiple functions that extend beyond the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. In recent years, the publication of research articles investigating associations between vitamin D status and health has reached an all-time high, and an increase in supplementation studies has followed. Given the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, the scientific focus has gone beyond its known classic benefits on skeletal health to include diabetes and cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, renal, and liver diseases, yet numerous conflicting findings continue to emerge. This review presents some examples of recent work within the context of controversies surrounding vitamin D and highlights key factors that should be considered when designing vitamin D supplementation regimens. PMID:27594987

  10. "With malice aforethought": revisiting the BJ Palmer "patricide" controversy.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, R W

    1994-06-01

    For over eight decades of chiropractic's existence, one of the myths associated with Founder Daniel David Palmer was the unsupported and largely surreptitious allegation that his son, B.J. Palmer, was somehow respondible for his death; What became known as the Palmer "patricide controversy" involved many of the players in early chiropractic and became little more than a sordid melodrama involving rival schools, chiropractic politicians and lawyers. It involved three Iowa grand juries and lawsuits and brought out the worst passions and actions of a family that had never really understood the father or the son. This study will review the original events, the allegations by those who sought to indict B.J. Palmer for the wrongful death of his father and the ultimate disposition of the incident, which still finds credence today among some who see conspiracy theories within the evolution of chiropractic. PMID:11613380

  11. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves. PMID:26718608

  12. [Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

    2012-07-01

    This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women. PMID:22872339

  13. Leukemic blast cells and controversies in models of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, D F; Sklyarenko, L M; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Ivanovskaya, T S

    2015-03-01

    Classical and up-to-date models of hematopoietic lineage determination are briefly reviewed with the focus on myeloid-based models challenging the existence of the common progenitor for T cells, B cells and NK cells. The analysis of immunophenotype of leukemic blast cells seems to be a promising approach for interpreting some controversies in the schemes of normal hematopoiesis. The literature data as well as our own findings in the patients with various types of acute leukemias are in favor of the concept postulating that common myeloid-lymphoid progenitors giving rise to T and B cell branches retain the myeloid potential. The similarity of some immunophenotypic features of blast cells in pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute monoblastic leukemia is consistent with monocyte origin postulated in the studies of normal hematopoiesis. Study of acute leukemias may be the challenging area of research allowing for new insight into the origin of hematopoietic cell lineages. PMID:25804223

  14. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies*

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved. PMID:24474104

  15. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies.

    PubMed

    VanEpps, Eric M; Roberto, Christina A; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-03-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  16. A VLBI resolution of the Pleiades distance controversy.

    PubMed

    Melis, Carl; Reid, Mark J; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Stauffer, John R; Bower, Geoffrey C

    2014-08-29

    Because of its proximity and its youth, the Pleiades open cluster of stars has been extensively studied and serves as a cornerstone for our understanding of the physical properties of young stars. This role is called into question by the "Pleiades distance controversy," wherein the cluster distance of 120.2 ± 1.5 parsecs (pc) as measured by the optical space astrometry mission Hipparcos is significantly different from the distance of 133.5 ± 1.2 pc derived with other techniques. We present an absolute trigonometric parallax distance measurement to the Pleiades cluster that uses very long baseline radio interferometry (VLBI). This distance of 136.2 ± 1.2 pc is the most accurate and precise yet presented for the cluster and is incompatible with the Hipparcos distance determination. Our results cement existing astrophysical models for Pleiades-age stars. PMID:25170147

  17. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved. PMID:24474104

  18. Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of early cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Orzan, O A; Șandru, A; Jecan, C R

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a disease with an unpredictable evolution mainly due to its high metastatic ability. The steadily increasing incidence and the poor outcome in advanced stages made this cancer an interesting field for many research groups. Given that CM is a curable disease in early stages, efforts have been made to detect it as soon as possible, which led to the diversification and refining of diagnosis methods and therapies. But, as the data from trials have been published, doubts about the indications and efficacy of established treatments have arisen. In fact, there is probably no single aspect of early CM that has not given birth to controversy. This article intends to present the current disputes regarding the early detection, diagnosis, treatment and postoperative follow-up of patients with localized CM. After analyzing both pros and cons, several conclusions were drawn, that reflect our experience in managing patients with early CM. PMID:25866567

  19. Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of early cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Orzan, OA; Șandru, A; Jecan, CR

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a disease with an unpredictable evolution mainly due to its high metastatic ability. The steadily increasing incidence and the poor outcome in advanced stages made this cancer an interesting field for many research groups. Given that CM is a curable disease in early stages, efforts have been made to detect it as soon as possible, which led to the diversification and refining of diagnosis methods and therapies. But, as the data from trials have been published, doubts about the indications and efficacy of established treatments have arisen. In fact, there is probably no single aspect of early CM that has not given birth to controversy. This article intends to present the current disputes regarding the early detection, diagnosis, treatment and postoperative follow-up of patients with localized CM. After analyzing both pros and cons, several conclusions were drawn, that reflect our experience in managing patients with early CM. PMID:25866567

  20. Vitamin D supplementation: less controversy, more guidance needed.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Caroline S; Lammert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with multiple functions that extend beyond the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. In recent years, the publication of research articles investigating associations between vitamin D status and health has reached an all-time high, and an increase in supplementation studies has followed. Given the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, the scientific focus has gone beyond its known classic benefits on skeletal health to include diabetes and cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, renal, and liver diseases, yet numerous conflicting findings continue to emerge. This review presents some examples of recent work within the context of controversies surrounding vitamin D and highlights key factors that should be considered when designing vitamin D supplementation regimens. PMID:27594987

  1. [Neurosis as a mental disease--controversies surrounding insurance certification].

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Christian; Kobek, Mariusz; Kowalczyk-Jabłońska, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    In the years 2008-2009, experts from the Department of Forensic Medicine in Katowice issued a dozen of expert opinions on the nature of the neurosis, addressing the question whether neurosis is a mental disease as understood under the general insurance conditions or whether neurosis is a mental disease as such. All the submitted cases involved policemen who had been diagnosed as neurotic and were refused insurance payments since the insurance company claimed payments could not have been effected due to the diagnosis of mental disease, meaning neurosis in the discussed cases. The plaintiffs invoked the fact that medical terminology describes such states as "mental disorders". In the article, the authors present the adopted model of opinionating, make an attempt at explaining the controversy and discuss the subtleties of medical terminology and the core differences between the terms "mental disorder" and "mental disease" as employed in medico-legal opinionating in such cases. PMID:22117491

  2. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it`s findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, {open_quotes}Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.{close_quotes} The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau`s response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government`s program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists.

  3. Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?123

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of sugar and its relation to various potential adverse health consequences are the subjects of considerable debate and controversy. This supplement to Advances in Nutrition provides an expanded summary of a symposium held on 26 April 2014 entitled “Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?” as part of the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014. The articles in the supplement discuss results of current systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as randomized controlled trials and draw implications for public policy considerations. In addition, future research gaps are identified. Current research trials conducted with commonly consumed sugars [e.g., sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)] do not support a unique relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, risk factors for heart disease, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Neurologic differences in response to studies that used pure fructose compared with pure glucose have not been confirmed using typical sugars that are consumed (i.e., sucrose and HFCS), which contain ∼50% glucose and fructose. We conclude that added sugars consumed in the normal forms in which humans consume them, at amounts typical of the human diet and for the time period studied in randomized controlled trials, do not result in adverse health consequences. Although more research trials are needed in many areas of sugar consumption and health, there is little scientific justification for recommending restricting sugar consumption below the reasonable upper limit recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 of no more than 25% of calories.

  4. Framing effectiveness in impact assessment: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development

    SciTech Connect

    Rozema, Jaap G.; Bond, Alan J.

    2015-01-15

    There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of impact assessment tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in impact assessment as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which impact assessment can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of impact assessment – environmental impact assessment (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the cases. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of impacts, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of impact assessment in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve impact assessment effectiveness, or whether it is

  5. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  6. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. PMID:25084574

  7. Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease: Evidence and controversies

    PubMed Central

    van Meer, Suzanne; de Man, Robert A; Siersema, Peter D; van Erpecum, Karel J

    2013-01-01

    Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the third cause of cancer-related death. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents more than 90% of primary liver cancers and generally occurs in patients with underlying chronic liver disease such as viral hepatitis, hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Especially cirrhotic patients are at risk of HCC and regular surveillance could enable early detection and therapy, with potentially improved outcome. We here summarize existing evidence for surveillance including ultrasound, other radiological modalities and various serum biomarkers, and current international guideline recommendations for surveillance. Ultrasound and α-fetoprotein (alone or in combination) are most frequently used for surveillance, but their sensitivities and specificities are still far from perfect, and evidence for surveillance remains weak and controversial. Various other potential surveillance tools have been tested, including serum markers as des-carboxyprothrombin, lectin-bound α-fetoprotein, and (most recently) circulating TIE2-expressing monocytes, and radiological investigations such as computed tomography-scan or magnetic resonance imaging-scan. Although early results appear promising, these tools have generally been tested in diagnostic rather than surveillance setting, and in most cases, no detailed information is available on their cost-effectiveness. For the near future, it remains important to define those patients with highest risk of HCC and most benefit from surveillance, and to restrict surveillance to these categories. PMID:24187450

  8. Targeting bone metabolism in patients with advanced prostate cancer: current options and controversies.

    PubMed

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Stenzl, Arnulf; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman D

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL), antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs) in the castration resistant stage of disease. Novel agents targeting the Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 and sclerostin are currently under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. New antineoplastic drugs such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223 are capable of further delaying SREs in patients with advanced PC. The benefit of antiresorptive treatment for patients with castration sensitive PC appears to be limited. Recent trials on the use of zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone metastases failed to be successful, whereas denosumab delayed the occurrence of bone metastases by a median of 4.1 months. Currently, the use of antiresorptive drugs to prevent bone metastases still remains a field of controversies and further trials are needed to identify patient subgroups that may profit from early therapy. PMID:25802521

  9. Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationships

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Mana; Matzke, Nicholas J.; Mooers, Arne Ø.; Collard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of several hominin species remain controversial. Two methodological issues contribute to the uncertainty—use of partial, inconsistent datasets and reliance on phylogenetic methods that are ill-suited to testing competing hypotheses. Here, we report a study designed to overcome these issues. We first compiled a supermatrix of craniodental characters for all widely accepted hominin species. We then took advantage of recently developed Bayesian methods for building trees of serially sampled tips to test among hypotheses that have been put forward in three of the most important current debates in hominin phylogenetics—the relationship between Australopithecus sediba and Homo, the taxonomic status of the Dmanisi hominins, and the place of the so-called hobbit fossils from Flores, Indonesia, in the hominin tree. Based on our results, several published hypotheses can be statistically rejected. For example, the data do not support the claim that Dmanisi hominins and all other early Homo specimens represent a single species, nor that the hobbit fossils are the remains of small-bodied modern humans, one of whom had Down syndrome. More broadly, our study provides a new baseline dataset for future work on hominin phylogeny and illustrates the promise of Bayesian approaches for understanding hominin phylogenetic relationships. PMID:26202999

  10. Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationships.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Mana; Matzke, Nicholas J; Mooers, Arne Ø; Collard, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of several hominin species remain controversial. Two methodological issues contribute to the uncertainty-use of partial, inconsistent datasets and reliance on phylogenetic methods that are ill-suited to testing competing hypotheses. Here, we report a study designed to overcome these issues. We first compiled a supermatrix of craniodental characters for all widely accepted hominin species. We then took advantage of recently developed Bayesian methods for building trees of serially sampled tips to test among hypotheses that have been put forward in three of the most important current debates in hominin phylogenetics--the relationship between Australopithecus sediba and Homo, the taxonomic status of the Dmanisi hominins, and the place of the so-called hobbit fossils from Flores, Indonesia, in the hominin tree. Based on our results, several published hypotheses can be statistically rejected. For example, the data do not support the claim that Dmanisi hominins and all other early Homo specimens represent a single species, nor that the hobbit fossils are the remains of small-bodied modern humans, one of whom had Down syndrome. More broadly, our study provides a new baseline dataset for future work on hominin phylogeny and illustrates the promise of Bayesian approaches for understanding hominin phylogenetic relationships. PMID:26202999

  11. Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  13. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  14. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  15. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  17. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ