Science.gov

Sample records for activity remains controversial

  1. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  2. High-intensity intermittent activities at school: controversies and facts.

    PubMed

    Ratel, S; Lazaar, N; Dore, E; Baquet, G; Williams, C A; Berthoin, S; Van Praagh, E; Bedu, M; Duche, P

    2004-09-01

    In comparison to continuous aerobic type activity, little is known about high-intensity intermittent physical activity in children. Repeated short-term high-intensity activities (> maximal aerobic speed and <10 s) are more characteristic of the spontaneous physical activity of children. Recent studies have shown during repetitive bouts of sprints separated by short recovery intervals, that prepubescent children compared with adults are more able to maintain their performance without substantial fatigue. Moreover, repetitive runs at high velocities (near and higher than the maximal aerobic speed) separated by short recovery periods may elicit a high oxygen consumption in children. Several studies using interval training programmes for 7 weeks, twice a week for 30 min in physical education lessons showed that children's aerobic performance (maximal O2 uptake, maximal aerobic speed) could be enhanced. Training based on these repeated short-term high-intensity exercises could also improve children's anaerobic performance (short-term muscle power, strength and speed). Current evidence suggests that recovery from high-intensity exercises is faster in children than in adults and that repeated runs at high velocities separated by short recovery intervals can improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance. Although continuous aerobic type activity is more scientifically established as a training mode, repeated short-term high-intensity exercises in physical education programmes should be considered to enhance aerobic, as well as, anaerobic fitness in children. PMID:15756166

  3. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in youth: issues and controversies.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Stuart J; Gorely, Trish; Marshall, Simon J; Murdey, Ian; Cameron, Noel

    2004-01-01

    There is growing concern over the effects of sedentary lifestyles on the health of young people. Recent rapid increases in juvenile obesity have received a great deal of attention in the scientific and popular press and have been attributed partly to television viewing, computer games and other sedentary behaviours. These are thought to compete with physical activity. There is a 'moral panic' concerning the 'couch kids' culture in modern western society. Project STIL (Sedentary Teenagers and Inactive Lifestyles) at Loughborough University is investigating 'what young people do' and focuses on active and inactive pursuits chosen in their leisure time. The following issues are addressed in this paper with specific reference to young people: how do we define 'sedentary behaviour' and do key sedentary behaviours displace physical activity? Are key sedentary behaviours obesogenic? What are the secular trends for children and youth for TV viewing? Our results for young people suggest that: 1. TV viewing and video-game playing are largely uncorrelated with physical activity, suggesting that there is time for both 2. meta-analytic findings show that body fatness is not related in any clinically meaningful way with key sedentary behaviours 3. although more children and youth have greater access to TVs than in previous generations, the amount of TV watched per head has not changed for 40 years. Preliminary findings from Project STIL suggest that inactivity is more complex that we sometimes think. Indeed, measures of 'couch potato-ism', such as TV viewing, may be inappropriate markers of inactivity.

  4. The effect of the metal-on-metal hip controversy on Internet search activity.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Nigel; Kelly, John C; Moore, David P; Kenny, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The recall of the articular surface replacement (ASR) hip prosthesis in 2010 represents one of the most controversial areas in orthopaedic surgery in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the metal-on-metal hip controversy on Internet search activity in four different regions and determine whether the number of related news reports affected Internet search activity. The Google Trends, Keywords and News applications were used to record the number of news articles and Internet search activity for the terms "hip recall", "metal-on-metal hip" and "ASR hip" from October 2009 to October 2012 in the USA, the UK, Australia and Ireland. There was a large increase in search activity following the official recall in August 2010 in all countries. There was significantly greater search activity after the recall in Ireland compared with the UK for the search term "hip recall" (P = 0.004). For the term "metal-on-metal hip", the UK had significantly more search activity (P = 0.0009). There was a positive correlation between the number of news stories in UK and Ireland with Internet search activity but not in the USA or Australia. Differences between countries affected by the same recall highlight the complex effects of the media on public awareness. The data demonstrates a window of opportunity prior to the official recall for the development of an awareness campaign to provide patients with accurate information.

  5. Property Tax Revenue Issue Remains Controversial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granof, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Wisconsin's Waukesha County Technical College has been cited by the Government Finance Officers Association for prematurely recognizing property tax revenues. The outcome of the dispute will also affect other Wisconsin Technical Colleges and school districts in Wisconsin, Ohio, and Illinois. (MLF)

  6. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  7. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds.

  8. The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals and topical disinfectants on the microbial flora of human remains.

    PubMed

    Burke, P A; Sheffner, A L

    1976-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals an topical disinfectants was evaluated to determine the degree of disinfection achieved during the embalming of human remains. The administration of arterial and cavity embalming chemicals resulted in a 99% reduction of the postmortem microbial population after 2 hours of contact. This level of disinfection was maintained for the 24 hours test period. Topical disinfection of the body orifices was also observed. Therefore, it is probable that present embalming practices reduce the hazard from transmission of potentially infectious microbial agents within the immediate environment of embalmed human remains.

  9. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  10. Academic Controversy in Macroeconomics: An Active and Collaborative Method to Increase Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santicola, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that there is a lack of learning outcomes in economics that can be attributed to the reliance on traditional lecture and the failure to adopt innovative instructional techniques. This study sought to investigate the student learning effects of academic controversy, a cooperative learning technique that shows promise in the…

  11. The hippocampus remains activated over the long term for the retrieval of truly episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Harand, Caroline; Bertran, Françoise; La Joie, Renaud; Landeau, Brigitte; Mézenge, Florence; Desgranges, Béatrice; Peigneux, Philippe; Eustache, Francis; Rauchs, Géraldine

    2012-01-01

    The role of the hippocampus in declarative memory consolidation is a matter of intense debate. We investigated the neural substrates of memory retrieval for recent and remote information using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 18 young, healthy participants learned a series of pictures. Then, during two fMRI recognition sessions, 3 days and 3 months later, they had to determine whether they recognized or not each picture using the "Remember/Know" procedure. Presentation of the same learned images at both delays allowed us to track the evolution of memories and distinguish consistently episodic memories from those that were initially episodic and then became familiar or semantic over time and were retrieved without any contextual detail. Hippocampal activation decreased over time for initially episodic, later semantic memories, but remained stable for consistently episodic ones, at least in its posterior part. For both types of memories, neocortical activations were observed at both delays, notably in the ventromedial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These activations may reflect a gradual reorganization of memory traces within neural networks. Our data indicate maintenance and strengthening of hippocampal and cortico-cortical connections in the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memories over time, in line with the Multiple Trace theory (Nadel and Moscovitch, 1997). At variance, memories becoming semantic over time consolidate through strengthening of cortico-cortical connections and progressive disengagement of the hippocampus. PMID:22937055

  12. Controversy Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John O.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that business communication should encourage the use of plain language while breaking down the ideas that it is unprofessional to write in clear prose and that it is safer to keep prose muddy so as to avoid controversy in an organization. (SRT)

  13. [Cloning - controversies].

    PubMed

    Twardowski, T; Michalska, A

    2001-01-01

    Cloning of the human being is not only highly controversial; in the opinion of the authors it is impossible - we are not able to reproduce human behaviour and character traits. Reproduction through cloning is limited to personal genome resources. The more important is protection of genomic characteristics as private property and taking advantage of cloning for production of the human organs directly or through xenotransplants. In this paper we present the legislation related to cloning in Poland, in the European Union and other countries. We also indicate who and why is interested in cloning.

  14. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  15. Remaining Uncertainties in the Causes of Past and Future Atlantic Hurricane Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is no debate that hurricane activity in the North Atlantic has increased substantially since the relatively quiescent period of the 1970s and 1980s, but there is still uncertainty in the dominant cause of the increase. Increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (aGHG) have contributed to the observed increase in tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) over the past century, while shorter-term decadal variability in regions where hurricanes form and track is generally dominated by 1) internal variability, 2) natural factors such as volcanic eruptions and mineral aerosol variability, and 3) changes in anthropogenic aerosols. Direct SST warming from globally well-mixed aGHG is understood to have a much smaller effect on hurricane formation and intensification compared to the effect of regional warming due to changes in the three factors noted above. While most recent papers implicate both internal and external anthropogenic causes for the presently heightened Atlantic hurricane activity, some show that internal variability dominates and others show that anthropogenic factors dominate. In the Atlantic, model projection-based consensus indicates no change in storm frequency over the next century but the uncertainty is large and spans -50% to +50%. Mean storm intensity and rainfall rates are projected to increase with continued warming, and the models tend to agree better when projecting these measures of activity. Models that are capable of producing very strong hurricanes usually project increases in the frequency of the most intense hurricanes. This measure is highly relevant to physical and societal impacts. In the Atlantic, model-based consensus indicates substantial increases in the strongest hurricanes, but the uncertainty is large and spans -100% to +200% change over the next century.

  16. Teaching Urban Youth about Controversial Issues: Pathways to Becoming Active and Informed Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Alex Romeo; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although American schools are required to meet civic education goals of preparing students to become active and informed citizens, high-quality civic opportunities (e.g. service learning and volunteering) are consistently less available to youth of color who are typically enrolled in schools located in high-poverty communities. The purpose of this…

  17. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  18. Political Activity at Harvard College Observatory in the Shapley ERA (1921-1952): Controversy and Consequences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, Barbara L.

    1993-12-01

    Soon after Harlow Shapley became director of HCO in 1921, he established himself as a scientist who would speak out and take action on national and international issues. Recognizing the importance of international cooperation in astronomy, he frequently traveled abroad and in turn invited foreign scientists to visit and work at HCO. By the mid-1930s, Shapley was actively rescuing refugee scientists in war-torn Europe and placing them in American universities. Both Harvard and the FBI took note of his activities. Shapley feared intervention of any kind from either academia or the government. Desperate for funding, however, he finally went to Washington and lobbied Congress to set up the NSF. Through 1945, when Truman succeeded Roosevelt, Shapley pursued his political activities freely. That year he travelled to Moscow to represent Harvard at the 220th anniversary celebration of the Academy of Sciences. In Moscow he advocated international cooperation between Soviet and American scientists. Consequently, Shapley was subpoenaed for interrogation in 1946 by John Rankin, who served during the Truman administration as a one-man committee to investigate un-American activities. The ordeal infuriated Shapley. Headlines about it infuriated some Harvard alumni who urged the university to fire him. Although Shapley was nearing retirement, President Conant stood by his right to keep his job. By 1950, when Senator Joseph McCarthy was compiling a list of Communist sympathizers in the State Department, the FBI had a dossier on Shapley. McCarthy subpoenaed Shapley, but could not intimidate him. The Senator continued the witch hunt with Shapley's associates. First he harassed Martha Betz Shapley, then Donald Menzel. Both cleared themselves. Other associates, such as Bart Bok, were spared. Ultimately, the interrogation worked in Menzel's favor. It disassociated him from Shapley's ideology and political activities. When the Harvard Corporation sought the next director of HCO, Menzel

  19. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point. PMID:26796756

  20. Necrotizing enterocolitis: controversies and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Augusto; Pierro, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is a devastating intestinal disease that affects ~5% of preterm neonates. Despite advancements in neonatal care, mortality remains high (30–50%) and controversy still persists with regards to the most appropriate management of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis. Herein, we review some controversial aspects regarding the epidemiology, imaging, medical and surgical management of necrotizing enterocolitis and we describe new emerging strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:26918125

  1. Adolescent varicocoele management controversies.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C; Saitz, T R; La Nasa, J A; Hellstrom, W J

    2013-01-01

    Varicocoele is defined as excessive dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus of the spermatic cord. Varicocoele frequently appears during early puberty and is recognized to be the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility. However, the actual incidence in adolescents, pathophysiology and the association with male factor infertility all remain somewhat controversial. The most accurate diagnostic technique for identifying young men who will benefit from surgical treatment has yet to be established. Observations of testicular asymmetry and deteriorating semen quality helped establish current guidelines and recommendations for surgical treatment. Further studies, comparing observation with surgical intervention, are needed to refine the current indications for varicocoele repair in the adolescent male. PMID:23258638

  2. Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: still remains a controversy.

    PubMed

    Vidimliski, Pavlina Dzekova; Nikolov, Igor; Geshkovska, Nadica Matevska; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Rostaing, Lionel; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C. The viral replication in the liver cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells was present in all clinical presentations of occult hepatitis C. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells represent an extra-hepatic site of HCV replication. The reason why HCV RNA was not detectable in the serum of patients with occult hepatitis C, could be the low number of circulating viral particles not detectable by the diagnostic tests with low sensitivity. It is uncertain whether occult hepatitis C is a different clinical entity or just a form of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system.

  3. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies.

  4. Model of complex chiral drug metabolic systems and numerical simulation of the remaining chirality toward analysis of dynamical pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoshiyuki; Asahi, Toru

    2015-05-21

    In this study, systems of complicated pathways involved in chiral drug metabolism were investigated. The development of chiral drugs resulted in significant improvement in the remedies available for the treatment of various severe sicknesses. Enantiopure drugs undergo various biological transformations that involve chiral inversion and thus result in the generation of multiple enantiomeric metabolites. Identification of the specific active substances determining a given drug׳s efficacy among such a mixture of different metabolites remains a challenge. To comprehend this complexity, we constructed a mathematical model representing the complicated metabolic pathways simultaneously involving chiral inversion. Moreover, this model is applied to the metabolism of thalidomide, which has recently been revived as a potentially effective prescription drug for a number of intractable diseases. The numerical simulation results indicate that retained chirality in the metabolites reflects the original chirality of the unmetabolized drug, and a higher level of enantiomeric purity is preserved during spontaneous degradation. In addition, chirality remaining after equilibration is directly related to the rate constant not only for chiral inversion but also for generation and degradation. Furthermore, the retention of chirality is quantitatively predictable using this combination of kinetic parameters. Our simulation results well explain the behavior of thalidomide in the practical biological experimental data. Therefore, this model promises a comprehensive understanding of dynamic metabolic systems involving chiral drugs that express multiple enantiospecific drug efficacies. PMID:25791284

  5. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  6. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however.

  7. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. PMID:27113562

  8. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  9. Controversies in fat perception.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  10. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  11. Television's "Soap" Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Brent

    The situation comedy, "Soap," television's first prime-time sex farce, stirred controversy months before its premiere, and subsequent pressure on advertisers forced the network to change the show's concept from an adult comedy to a "whodunit." This report summarizes the controversy, recounts reactions to the series, and lists the implications of…

  12. Cardiac activation heat remains inversely dependent on temperature over the range 27-37°C.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The relation between heat output and stress production (force per cross-sectional area) of isolated cardiac tissue is a key metric that provides insight into muscle energetic performance. The heat intercept of the relation, termed "activation heat," reflects the metabolic cost of restoring transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and K(+) following electrical excitation, and myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration following its release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At subphysiological temperatures, activation heat is inversely dependent on temperature. Thus one may presume that activation heat would decrease even further at body temperature. However, this assumption is prima facie inconsistent with a study, using intact hearts, which revealed no apparent change in the combination of activation and basal metabolism between 27 and 37°C. It is thus desired to directly determine the change in activation heat between 27 and 37°C. In this study, we use our recently constructed high-thermal resolution muscle calorimeter to determine the first heat-stress relation of isolated cardiac muscle at 37°C. We compare the relation at 37°C to that at 27°C to examine whether the inverse temperature dependence of activation heat, observed under hypothermic conditions, prevails at body temperature. Our results show that activation heat was reduced (from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 2.3 ± 0.3 kJ/m(3)) at the higher temperature. This leads us to conclude that activation metabolism continues to decline as temperature is increased from hypothermia to normothermia and allows us to comment on results obtained from the intact heart by previous investigators.

  13. Cardiac activation heat remains inversely dependent on temperature over the range 27-37°C.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Han, June-Chiew; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The relation between heat output and stress production (force per cross-sectional area) of isolated cardiac tissue is a key metric that provides insight into muscle energetic performance. The heat intercept of the relation, termed "activation heat," reflects the metabolic cost of restoring transmembrane gradients of Na(+) and K(+) following electrical excitation, and myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration following its release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. At subphysiological temperatures, activation heat is inversely dependent on temperature. Thus one may presume that activation heat would decrease even further at body temperature. However, this assumption is prima facie inconsistent with a study, using intact hearts, which revealed no apparent change in the combination of activation and basal metabolism between 27 and 37°C. It is thus desired to directly determine the change in activation heat between 27 and 37°C. In this study, we use our recently constructed high-thermal resolution muscle calorimeter to determine the first heat-stress relation of isolated cardiac muscle at 37°C. We compare the relation at 37°C to that at 27°C to examine whether the inverse temperature dependence of activation heat, observed under hypothermic conditions, prevails at body temperature. Our results show that activation heat was reduced (from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 2.3 ± 0.3 kJ/m(3)) at the higher temperature. This leads us to conclude that activation metabolism continues to decline as temperature is increased from hypothermia to normothermia and allows us to comment on results obtained from the intact heart by previous investigators. PMID:27016583

  14. Controversies in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Bramante, M A

    1990-01-01

    Three controversial interrelated aspects of orthodontics have been reviewed: retention, the effect of third molars on lower anterior crowding, and extraction and nonextraction orthodontic treatment. Recent studies have shown that unacceptable lower anterior crowding occurs in 90 per cent of well-treated extraction cases. The implication is that nonextraction cases should be 90 per cent or higher. In view of our present general inability to identify the 10 per cent that will remain acceptable, some form of indefinite retention is advised. A literature review of the effect of third molars on lower anterior crowding finds strong opinions on both sides of the issue. Similar studies often show dissimilar conclusions, particularly when observing cases of third molar extraction or agenesis. Certainly the problem is multifactorial; however, the vast bulk of the evidence indicates that the third molars play an insignificant role in lower anterior crowding. Extraction of teeth for orthodontic treatment prior to 1900 was prevalent and indiscriminate. From the turn of the century to the mid-thirties Angle moved the specialty away from extractions to a relatively rigid nonextraction treatment philosophy. Dissatisified with relapsing Class II cases, recurrence and aggravation of crowding, and what he felt were bimaxillary full faces, Tweed and others, circa 1935, redirected the profession back to extractions with a more disciplined approach to treatment by the removal of four first premolars. Fifty years later we have found that extraction treatment and uprighting lower incisors does not prevent long-term postretention crowding and that flattened profiles are not always esthetically desirable. Earlier treatment of maxillomandibular basal discrepancies by old and new treatment philosophies and mechanics have produced more stable nonextraction corrections. Better control of leeway space and a reduction in caries has helped reduce the amount of lower anterior flaring that was seen

  15. Aerobic exercise capacity remains normal despite impaired endothelial function in the micro- and macrocirculation of physically active IDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Veves, A; Saouaf, R; Donaghue, V M; Mullooly, C A; Kistler, J A; Giurini, J M; Horton, E S; Fielding, R A

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if diabetes in the absence of neuropathy affects the exercising capacity of IDDM patients, and whether regular, intense training has a beneficial effect on endothelial function. Five groups of subjects were studied: 23 healthy control subjects who exercised regularly (age 33 +/- 6 years), 23 nonneuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who exercised regularly (age 33 +/- 6 years, IDDM duration 11 +/- 8 years), 7 neuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who exercised regularly (age 36 +/- 7 years, IDDM duration 22 +/- 8 years), 18 healthy subjects who did not exercise regularly (age 34 +/- 7 years), and 5 nonneuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who did not exercise regularly (age 31 +/- 4 years, IDDM duration 20 +/- 3 years). All groups were matched for age, sex, and body weight. No differences existed in the energy expenditure per week in physical activity among the three exercising groups or between the two nonexercising groups. The maximal oxygen uptake was similar between control and diabetic nonneuropathic exercisers, and among diabetic neuropathic exercisers, control nonexercisers, and diabetic nonexercisers; however, a significant difference existed between the first two and the last three groups (P < 0.0001). A stepwise increase was found in the resting heart rate among the groups, ranging from the lowest in control exercisers to the highest in diabetic nonexercisers, but the maximal heart rate was lower only in diabetic neuropathic exercisers compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Assessments of endothelial function in both macro- and microcirculation were performed in 12 control exercisers, 10 diabetic nonneuropathic exercisers, 5 diabetic neuropathic exercisers, 17 control nonexercisers, and 4 diabetic nonexercisers. When all diabetic patients were considered as one group and all control subjects as another, the microcirculation endothelial function in the diabetic group was reduced compared with the control subjects

  16. Toxins vapC and pasB from prokaryotic TA modules remain active in mammalian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wieteska, Łukasz; Skulimowski, Aleksander; Cybula, Magdalena; Szemraj, Janusz

    2014-10-01

    Among the great number of addictive modules which have been discovered, only a few have been characterized. However, research concerning the adoption of toxins from these systems shows their great potential as a tool for molecular biology and medicine. In our study, we tested two different toxins derived from class II addictive modules, pasAB from plasmid pTF-FC2 (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) and vapBC 2829Rv (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), in terms of their usefulness as growth inhibitors of human cancer cell lines, namely KYSE 30, MCF-7 and HCT 116. Transfection of the pasB and vapC genes into the cells was conducted with the use of two different expression systems. Cellular effects, such as apoptosis, necrosis and changes in the cell cycle, were tested by applying flow cytometry with immunofluorescence staining. Our findings demonstrated that toxins VapC and PasB demonstrate proapoptotic activity in the human cancer cells, regardless of the expression system used. As for the toxin PasB, observed changes were more subtle than for the VapC. The level of expression for both the genes was monitored by QPCR and did not reveal statistically significant differences within the same cell line.

  17. The vibrating string controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Gerald F.; Crummett, William P.

    1987-01-01

    In the mid-1700s a debate raged between Jean d'Alembert, Leonhard Euler, and Daniel Bernoulli concerning the proper solution to the classical wave equation. This controversy was partially solved by Lagrange and, more conclusively, by Fourier (50 years later) and it provides an interesting case study for the role of mathematics in the modeling of physical phenomena. Of particular note in this debate, was the meaning of boundary conditions. The controversy is summarized from the point of view of this mathematical physics perspective.

  18. Controversy Over Student "Rights"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the controversy over the "academic bill of rights" that is being pushed by conservative activist David Horowitz of the Center for the Study of Popular Culture. A committee in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives passed a resolution in July that reflects the concerns of this "bill," which has been batted around in state…

  19. The Ebonics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over the use of Ebonics in the Oakland (California) schools and presents two schools of thought about the origin of Ebonics, the pidgin/Creole and the African retention theories. Three research studies are described that support the use of Ebonics in the classroom as a bridge to standard English. (SLD)

  20. Censorship: Managing the Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA.

    In this monograph, certain viewpoints, strategies, and policy tips have been separated from the main text. These "notebooks" of information, taken together, comprise a useful handbook for school officials who want to recognize censorship, put it in perspective, and prepare for consequent controversy. The purpose is to provide workable strategies…

  1. Acute Kidney Injury: Controversies Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kenneth; Dogra, Gursharan; Boudville, Neil; Pinder, Mary; Lim, Wai

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the epidemiology of AKI specifically in relation to recent changes in AKI classification and revisits the controversies regarding the timing of initiation of dialysis and the use of peritoneal dialysis as a renal replacement therapy for AKI. In summary, the new RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI have facilitated more uniform diagnosis of AKI and clinically significant risk stratification. Regardless, the issue of timing of dialysis initiation still remains unanswered and warrants further examination. Furthermore, peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality for AKI remains underutilised in spite of potential beneficial effects. Future research should be directed at identifying early reliable biomarkers of AKI, which in conjunction with RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI could facilitate well-designed large randomised controlled trials of early versus late initiation of dialysis in AKI. In addition, further studies of peritoneal dialysis in AKI addressing dialysis dose and associated complications are required for this therapy to be accepted more widely by clinicians. PMID:21660314

  2. Metabolic scaling: consensus or controversy?

    PubMed Central

    Agutter, Paul S; Wheatley, Denys N

    2004-01-01

    Background The relationship between body mass (M) and standard metabolic rate (B) among living organisms remains controversial, though it is widely accepted that in many cases B is approximately proportional to the three-quarters power of M. Results The biological significance of the straight-line plots obtained over wide ranges of species when B is plotted against log M remains a matter of debate. In this article we review the values ascribed to the gradients of such graphs (typically 0.75, according to the majority view), and we assess various attempts to explain the allometric power-law phenomenon, placing emphasis on the most recent publications. Conclusion Although many of the models that have been advanced have significant attractions, none can be accepted without serious reservations, and the possibility that no one model can fit all cases has to be more seriously entertained. PMID:15546492

  3. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  4. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  5. Cytomegalovirus and glioblastoma; controversies and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Sean E

    2015-07-01

    One of the more polarized ongoing debates in the brain tumor field over recent years has centered on the association of cytomegalovirus (CMV) with glioblastoma. Several laboratories have reported the presence of CMV antigens in glioblastoma patient specimens, whereas others have failed to detect them. CMV genomic DNA and mRNAs have been detected by PCR, but not in next-generation sequencing studies. CMV promotes high grade glioma progression in a mouse genetic model, and many CMV proteins promote cancer hallmarks in vitro, but actively replicating virus has not been isolated from tumor samples. A consensus is gradually emerging in which the presence of CMV antigens in glioblastoma is increasingly accepted. However, it remains challenging to understand this mechanistically due to the low levels of CMV nucleic acids and the absence of viral replication observed in tumors thus far. Nonetheless, these observations have inspired the development of novel therapeutic approaches based on anti-viral drugs and immunotherapy. The potential benefit of valganciclovir in glioblastoma has generated great interest, but efficacy remains to be established in a randomized trial. Also, early stage immunotherapy trials targeting CMV have shown promise. In the near future we will know more answers to these questions, and although areas of controversy may remain, and the mechanisms and roles of CMV in tumor growth are yet to be clearly defined, this widespread virus may have created important new therapeutic concepts and opportunities for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:25682092

  6. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    PubMed

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  7. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Steven B; Myers, Jeffrey N

    2015-10-10

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches.

  8. Remains of infection

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease, musculoskeletal symptoms can persist after treatment, which has led to the hypothesis that the causal organism itself may escape antibiotic therapy. The controversy that surrounds this question extends beyond patients, physicians, and scientists, as public health organizations struggle with how the disease should be diagnosed and treated. Is Lyme disease an infection that resolves, or is the spirochetal agent resilient and evasive? In this issue of the JCI, Bockenstedt et al. address this issue and present compelling evidence that the residues of nonviable spirochetes can persist in cartilaginous tissue long after treatment and may contribute to antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis. PMID:22728928

  9. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  10. Controversy at Love Canal.

    PubMed

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  11. Controversy at Love Canal.

    PubMed

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured. PMID:7107238

  12. The controversy of Warthin's tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Chapnik, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    Warthin's tumor is controversial. This controversy is multifaceted and relates to all aspects of the tumor from its historical beginnings to its pathogenesis, investigations, and treatments. In this paper, an in depth study of Warthin's tumor has been made to help clarify these controversies.

  13. The homocysteine controversy.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Yvo M; Blom, Henk J

    2011-02-01

    Mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, independent from classical atherothrombotic risk factors. In the last decade, a number of large intervention trials using B vitamins have been performed and have shown no benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy in high-risk patients. In addition, Mendelian randomization studies failed to convincingly demonstrate that a genetic polymorphism commonly associated with higher homocysteine levels (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C>T) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Together, these findings have cast doubt on the role of homocysteine in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, and the homocysteine hypothesis has turned into a homocysteine controversy. In this review, we attempt to find solutions to this controversy. First, we explain that the Mendelian randomization analyses have limitations that preclude final conclusions. Second, several characteristics of intervention trials limit interpretation and generalizability of their results. Finally, the possibility that homocysteine lowering is in itself beneficial but is offset by adverse side effects of B vitamins on atherosclerosis deserves serious attention. As we explain, such side effects may relate to direct adverse effects of the B-vitamin regimen (in particular, the use of high-dose folic acid) or to proinflammatory and proproliferative effects of B vitamins on advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  14. The bellerophont controversy revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, J.A.; Rollins, H.B.

    2000-01-01

    An old controversy reestablished itself in the late 1970s and early 1980s that focused on the systematic placement of the enigmatic Bellerophontoidea (informally, "bellerophonts"), a group of planispirally coiled, wholly fossil molluscs. The controversy embraced three fundamental concepts that are based on different philosophical interpretations of shell form, muscle scar patterns, and other preserved shell features: 1) all bellerophonts were monoplacophorans; 2) all bellerophonts were gastropods; and 3) some bellerophonts were monoplacophorans and some were gastropods. A review of the main issues appearing in the literature since the early 1980s indicates that these three philosophical divisions still exist and, indeed, have become entrenched. An examination of the relevant anatomical and shell features of recent gastropods and monoplacophorans, and comparison with preserved features in enigmatic fossil forms, convinces us that the bellerophontoideans and the coiled and high-domed "monoplacophorans" (Cyclomya) were gastropods. Only the flattened, spoon-and cap-shaped monoplacophorans (Tergomya) were true monoplacophorans. We present a hypothetical scheme for the morphological diversification of gastropods from early monoplacophorans that could account for Cyclomya, Bellerophontoidea, Patellogastropoda, and Prosobranchia.

  15. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety.

  16. Contrasting Controversies: Fracking and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Zabel, I. H. H.; Ross, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (commonly known as "fracking") is highly controversial. So is global warming, and the two issues are closely related, but the natures of these two controversies have substantial and important differences. Building upon years of experience in teaching and developing resources and strategies for teaching about evolution and climate change, staff at the Paleontological Research Institution have engaged in public outreach and educator professional development to help nurture understanding of fracking and the broader energy system. How are these controversies similar to and different from one another, and how should understanding these similarities and differences inform educational programming (and about how you talk about these issues with your Uncle Fred at the family holiday dinner?). It is nearly universally agreed amongst scientists who study climate that changes now underway are real and human caused, and are posing or likely to pose very serious problems for humanity. Scientists who study slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing agree that it causes environmental damage, but there is no consensus as to whether fracking causes more or less harm (e.g., among different kinds of environment harm, across different temporal and spatial scales, and among different social contexts) than other ways of producing energy on a large scale. In other words, the basic tenets of climate change are not a matter of scientific controversy, though the implications for policy making obviously remain politically controversial, while fracking is an issue of both scientific and political controversy. Without advocating for or against fracking, we help audiences disentangle scientific and political issues, better understand the energy resources used in their own communities, and consider issues of scale, systems, and complexity. We will compare and contrast the overlapping controversies surrounding climate change and fracking and highlight

  17. Preparing Students for Science in the Face of Social Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramschreiber, Terry; Westmoreland, David

    2015-01-01

    Science educators often teach topics that are largely resolved in the scientific community yet remain controversial in broader society. In such cases, students may perceive the teacher as biased. We present two exercises that foster more objective learning about the scientific underpinnings of socially controversial topics. The first exercise…

  18. The Recovered Memory Controversy: A Representative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The recovered memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades. Disagreement remains in the field over the veracity of "forgotten" memories of childhood sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy. At the heart of the controversy are the concepts of repression and…

  19. Controversy on chloroplast origins.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, P J; Penny, D; Hendy, M D; Howe, C J; Beanland, T J; Larkum, A W

    1992-04-20

    Controversy exists over the origins of photosynthetic organelles in that contradictory trees arise from different sequence, biochemical and ultrastructural data sets. We propose a testable hypothesis which explains this inconsistency as a result of the differing GC contents of sequences. We report that current methods of tree reconstruction tend to group sequences with similar GC contents irrespective of whether the similar GC content is due to common ancestry or is independently acquired. Nuclear encoded sequences (high GC) give different trees from chloroplast encoded sequences (low GC). We find that current data is consistent with the hypothesis of multiple origins for photosynthetic organelles and single origins for each type of light harvesting complex. PMID:1568469

  20. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology.

  1. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology. PMID:25635982

  2. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  3. The controversy over retrospective moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen

    1996-09-01

    The mandate of the U.S. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments required that the Committee take a position on the validity of retrospective moral judgments. However, throughout its period of operation, the Committee remained divided on the question of whether sound judgments of individual culpability and wrongdoing should be included in its Final Report. This essay examines the arguments that various committee members marshalled to support their opposing views on retrospective moral judgment and explains the significance of the controversy.

  4. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  5. Child injury control: trends, themes, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among US children, and an important driver of health status globally. Despite its enormous burden, injury is preventable. Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in the reduction of unintentional injury among US children. However, aggregate trends mask important disparities by age group, region, and injury mechanism. Basic and translation research is needed to develop and test prevention strategies to address these new or recalcitrant problems. Motor vehicle occupant injury has fallen to historic lows, but challenges remain in protecting novice drivers and managing the distraction of new technologies. Injury to pedestrians has also declined, but likely as a result of decreased exposure as fewer children walk. This calls for a broader public health perspective to promote activity while enhancing safety. Deaths due to drowning are common and illustrate the difficulty in measuring and promoting appropriate supervision. Environmental modification and use of protective products may be a more appropriate response. Concussion in sport is another challenging issue: public health laws promote identification and appropriate management of concussed athletes, but less progress has been made on primary prevention of these injuries. Unintentional poisoning is on the rise, attributable to misuse of, and overdose with, prescription opioids. Injury deaths to infants are also increasing. This trend is driven in part by better death investigation that classifies more sleep-related deaths as suffocation events. Finally, we examine a sample of cross-cutting themes and controversies in injury control that might be amenable to empiric evaluation.

  6. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War. PMID:10643131

  7. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  8. Melanoma staging: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Forschner, Andrea; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Pflugfelder, Annette; Leiter, Ulrike; Weide, Benjamin; Held, Laura; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The value of staging examinations remains controversial for the initial staging in melanoma patients at the time of the primary diagnosis and for surveillance. Issues concerning tumor recurrences and progression must be discussed separately for different risk groups. For low-risk patients (stage IA; tumor thickness less than 1 mm), staging examinations like sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), blood tests, or imaging can generally be abandoned. Baseline staging with simple techniques is at the discretion of the physician. In intermediate-risk patients (stages IB and IIA), an initial staging examination involving SLNB and computed tomography (CT) scans is recommended. Further follow-up may be restricted to physical examinations, blood tests of tumor marker protein S100beta, and to lymph node ultrasonography. If findings are suspicious, further imaging procedures may be involved. In high-risk patients (stages IIB to III), an initial staging examination with CT is recommended, and regular follow-up every 6 months with whole body imaging by CT or magnetic resonance imaging seems useful. Physical examinations, blood tests of tumor marker protein S100beta, and lymph node ultrasound imaging should be routine. This intense follow-up may enable surgical treatments with complete removal of all recognizable metastases in about 15% to 25% of patients and improve their prognosis. The risk of recurrence or tumor progression is very high in stage IV patients, and their management is individualized. PMID:20541679

  9. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  10. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  11. Anatomy of a Book Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homstad, Wayne

    A major controversy arose in 1987 in a midwestern school district, after a middle school teacher assigned the novel "Go Ask Alice" to her seventh-grade class. This book describes the district's attempt to answer two basic questions: What should students read? and Who should decide what students read? The book controversy is first described…

  12. Pancreatic stem cells remain unresolved.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin-secreting islet β cells. An ideal treatment of diabetes would, therefore, be to replace the lost or deficient β cells, by transplantation of donated islets or differentiated endocrine cells or by regeneration of endogenous islet cells. Due to their ability of unlimited proliferation and differentiation into all functional lineages in our body, including β cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are ideally placed as cell sources for a diabetic transplantation therapy. Unfortunately, the inability to generate functional differentiated islet cells from pluripotent stem cells and the poor availability of donor islets have severely restricted the broad clinical use of the replacement therapy. Therefore, endogenous sources that can be directed to becoming insulin-secreting cells are actively sought after. In particular, any cell types in the developing or adult pancreas that may act as pancreatic stem cells (PSC) would provide an alternative renewable source for endogenous regeneration. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress and knowledge of such PSC, and discuss ways that facilitate the future development of this often controversial, but crucial research.

  13. A Controversy Is Born

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisque, Ramon E.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the development of a new concept about the nature and origin of earthquakes. The concept is based on the observation that the average dip of deep earthquake foci is 60 degrees. The location of the so-called "Rouse belts" of intense seismic activity is suggested as a student activity. Bibliography. (LC)

  14. Visualizing Social Justice: Using Controversial Images in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Todd S.; Crowe, Alicia R.; Mooney, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we promote the use of controversial images to enhance the discussion of social justice issues in schools. Controversial images provide rich opportunities for students to question what is occurring currently in society as well as what has occurred in the past. We provide an example set of activities to be used in teacher education…

  15. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  16. Imaging in Spondyloarthritis: Controversies in Recognition of Early Disease.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ulrich; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Lambert, Robert G W; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2016-09-01

    Advanced imaging has become essential for recognition of clinically suspected early spondyloarthritis. This report summarizes recent progress towards a data-driven comprehensive definition of a positive sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis, which incorporates contextual information provided by structural lesions alongside with active changes. A focus is on emerging limitations and challenges with increasing use of imaging in spondyloarthritis. We discuss the ongoing controversy as to whether sacroiliac joint MRI due to its superior reliability and ability to depict both structural and active lesions should be the preferred imaging modality in early disease over the traditional approach with pelvic radiographs. Another challenge is transferring the expanding knowledge about imaging evaluation in spondyloarthritis to the community of rheumatologists and radiologists. Advanced imaging modalities will not become the gold standard for diagnosis of spondyloarthritis, which remains a process of composite deduction based on complementary information obtained from clinical, laboratory, and imaging assessment. PMID:27435070

  17. Statistical design controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Thompson, K.H.

    1985-02-01

    This article was in response to criticisms received by Evans, Hendrey, and Thompson that their article was biased because of omissions and misrepresentations. The authors contend that experimental designs having only one plot per treatment ''were, from the outset, not capable of differentiating between treatment effects and field-position effects,'' remains valid and is supported by decades of agronomic research. Several men, Irving, Troiano, and McCune thought of the article as a review of all studies of acidic rain effects on soybeans. It was not. The article was written over the concern of the comparisons which were being made among studies which purport to evaluate effects of acid deposition on field-grown crops, and implicitly assumes that all of the studies are of equal scientific value. They are not. Only experimental approaches that are well-focused and designed with appropriate agronomic and statistical procedures should be used for credible regional and national assessments of crop inventories. 12 references.

  18. [Controversies over heel pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, J

    2013-02-01

    Article whose content was exposed in the workshops of the GNEAUPP Congress, held in Seville in November2012, and which refers to ulcers by pressure on the heels as a location exposed to the analysis. A pressure ulcer is a lesion located in skin I underlying tissue usually over a bone prominence, as a result of the pressure, or pressure in combination with the shears. A number of contributing factors or confounding factors are also associated with ulcers by pressure; the importance of these factors still not been elucidated. The heels are next to the sacred area, parts of the body that most frequently presents ulcers by pressure, The importance of the predisposing factors for ulcers in the sacral area as humidity has been studied in recent years, but in heels, remains one of the most important locations in the extremities, which entails adverse outcomes such as amputation in persons with comorbid diseases like Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The incidence of ulcers on heels in patients with DM and without it, is approximately 19-32%. Everything and be a problem associated with elderly people and chronic pathologies, in acute patients are a problem that this underrated, but not devoid of controversy. In hospitals of treble in 2006, the NPUAP encrypted the incidence of UPPin heels in a 43%; in one systematic review conducted by Reddy et al. (2006) puts revealed that 60% of pressure ulcers is produced. The problem of the UPP in heels is present in all the areas of intervention and particularly in paediatric units intensive care, where the first localization it is the occipital area followed by the heels.

  19. The Great Balloon Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of balloon launches and the dumping of plastic debris into oceans. Cites several examples of plastic materials being discovered inside the bodies of sick and/or dead marine animals. Offers alternative activities to releasing balloons into the atmosphere. (RT)

  20. Negotiating Gene Therapy: Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    According to research, students often perceive the ethical implications of issues such as genetic engineering, but sometimes they are not equipped to handle multiple perspectives and articulate well-reasoned positions. A modified jigsaw activity, appropriate for secondary and introductory college biology classes, that introduces students to human…

  1. Vitamin a: history, current uses, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M Shane

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin A is required for the proper functioning of many important metabolic and physiologic activities, including vision, gene transcription, the immune system and skin cell differentiation. Both excessive and deficient levels of vitamin A lead to poor functioning of many human systems. The biologically active form, retinoic acid, binds to nuclear receptors that facilitate transcription that ultimately leads to it's physiological effects. Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A that are medications used to treat acne vulgaris, psoriasis, ichthyosis (and other disorders of keratinization), skin cancer prevention as well as several bone marrow derived neoplasias. Systemic retinoids are teratogenic and have to be prescribed with caution and close oversight. Other potential adverse events are controversial. These include the relationship of retinoid derivatives in sunscreens, their effects on bone mineral density, depression and suicidal ideation and inflammatory bowel disease. These controversies will be discussed in detail.

  2. [Medial femoral neck fracture. Controversies in treatment].

    PubMed

    Raaymakers, E L F B; Schafroth, M

    2002-02-01

    The treatment of the medial femoral neck fracture remains controversial until today. The goal of this paper is therefore, based on the literature, to show guidelines for optimal treatment: conservative treatment vs. operation, osteosynthesis vs. prosthesis, timing for osteosynthesis, open vs. closed reduction, choice of implant for osteosynthesis, postoperative treatment (weight bearing vs. non weight bearing), Pauwels-Osteotomy vs. prosthesis in cases op pseudarthrosis, femoral head prosthesis vs. total hip arthroplasty, bipolar vs. monopolar femoral head prosthesis, choice of classification. Further we want to point out which statements are evidence based and where we need further investigation.

  3. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  4. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  5. Dermal fillers: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dermal fillers have been used for decades in soft tissue augmentation. Currently, filler implementation is among the most common minimally invasive procedures for rejuvenation and body sculpturing. There is a broad variety of filler materials and products. Despite immense experience, a number of controversies in this topic exist. Some of these controversies are addressed in this review, for example, who should perform filler injections, the difference between permanent and nonpermanent fillers, the off-label use of liquid silicone, and the role of pain reduction. Implementation of guidelines and restriction of filler use by trained physicians can improve safety for patients.

  6. [Claude Bernard: beyond the controversy].

    PubMed

    Wise, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Claude Bernard created controversy because of his originality of thought, his rejection of dogma and lack of respect for tradition. Some of his controversies resulted in unjustifiable personal and scientific attacks by others which probably affected both his morale and his health. In addition, he was undoubtedly envied for his success and the firmness with which he supported his results and conclusions. The counterattacks which he directed towards others were also not always justified, and sometimes displayed disdain for his adversaries' method and results - without having the strength to admit his own rare errors. None of this detracted from his status as the most eminent of scientists of his era.

  7. Practising infanticide, observing narrative: controversial texts in a field science.

    PubMed

    Rees, A

    2001-08-01

    In recent recent years, social studies of science have developed a deep interest in the conduct of science in the field. However, studies of controversial field science remain relatively rare. This paper presents an analysis of a controversy about the origin of primate infanticide that began in the 1970s, and discusses the ways in which controversies in the field differ from those in the laboratory. Particularly important here is the inability of researchers to control the behaviour of their research subjects; to an important extent, the conduct of their research is dependent on the agency of their research subjects. Finally, it also points to the rôle played by the sciences of animal behaviour in the constructions of stories about the biological basis of human culture, a rôle that means that the investigation of controversy in these sciences is of paramount public importance.

  8. The Academic Controversy Technique: Towards Cooperative Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explain a cooperative learning technique, Academic Controversy (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1996), also known as Cooperative Controversy, Structured Controversy and Structured Academic Controversy, that has potential for use in education and other areas, and has support in both research and theory.…

  9. National Policy and Curriculum Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1976-01-01

    A West Virginia educator reviews the MACOS controversy and the 1974 textbook feud in his state. Such curriculum struggles result in part, he says, from growing federal influence on education, dating to the cold war and the civil rights movement. (Author)

  10. Surveying Students about Controversial Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of school districts' interest in best serving the health needs of students, many choose to administer surveys addressing controversial topics. Administering such surveys in a voluntary and anonymous manner may help reduce conflict. Methods: This is a review of 2 recent federal court of appeals decisions regarding surveying…

  11. Elementary 72 - The Great Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsop, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the controversy about the discovery of element 72, involving Urbain's isolation of celtium, Dauvillier's reexamination of celtium samples, and Coster and Hevesy's announcement of the existence of hafnium. Indicates that the Copenhagen workers are finally accredited for the element discovery in their x-ray spectral studies. (CC)

  12. Teaching Controversial Issues of Bioethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    Many teachers avoid controversial topics because they do not want to upset students or parents, do not know appropriate instructional strategies, and fail to recognize the importance of motivating students through placing science in its relevant context. An example is provided for use in a methods course for helping future high school teachers to…

  13. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  14. Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A., Ed.; Taylor, Dalmas A., Ed.

    Dialogue and research on racism since the mid-1970s have yielded increased controversy over the theories, foundation, and continued existence of racism. The chapters presented in this book provide various divergent views of what constitutes racism and frameworks for reducing it. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1)…

  15. Embracing Controversy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannard, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Discussing controversial topics such as stem cell research is a great way for students to build scientific understanding, enhance communication skills, and develop an appreciation for civic decision making. Tackling a topic such as stem cells at the middle level, however, can be a challenge because most young adolescents see the world in black and…

  16. Engaging Students in Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    A year ago, an upstate New York college withdrew a speaking invitation to Wade Churchill, a University of Colorado professor who had characterized 9/11 victims as "little Eichmanns." Churchill's portrayal of 9/11 victims as a mixture of conscious and unwitting participants in a systemic evil of Holocaust proportions indeed was controversial. The…

  17. Controversial Curriculum? Ask the Community!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Involving communities in the process of curriculum development may not be novel, but it seems lacking with regard to controversial issues such as lessons on diverse family structures, homosexuality, and other special situations. Disparity in values and convictions can lead one person to support a decision, while another person might hold an…

  18. Teacher Quality, Controversy, and NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Magee, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)--the sweeping federal law that requires all schools that receive federal Title I dollars to be held strictly accountable for student outcomes--is the most discussed education reform effort in the past half century. One of the many controversial and vexing elements of the law, especially among teachers, teacher unions,…

  19. Controversial Texts and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David L.

    Because public schools are designed to serve the widest range of interests and are committed to the ideal of democracy, teachers cannot afford to avoid teaching works or presenting ideas that offend some members of communities. Students need to learn the value of controversy and of the challenges posed by a text. Richard Wright's "Native Son" and…

  20. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  1. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  2. Peace Education: A Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Many educators have been reluctant to deal with the nuclear threat and peace education in their classrooms, viewing such topics as controversial, unprofessional, or harmful. After summarizing recent peace education events in Canadian schools, this article advocates teaching about nuclear issues in the context of justice, violence, survival, and…

  3. Controversies in faith and health care.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. PMID:26159392

  4. Controversies in faith and health care.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care.

  5. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  6. Black holes: fundamentals and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. E.

    2016-08-01

    Black holes are fully gravitational collapsed objects. They have been studied from a theoretical point of view during more than 40 years using the theory of General Relativity. Recently they have been also investigated in the context of alternative theories of gravitation. In this paper I review the main properties of black holes and I discuss, in an accesible way, some recent controversies about the nature of these objects.

  7. Controversies in neurosciences critical care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tiffany R; Naval, Neeraj S; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Neurocritical care is an evolving subspecialty with many controversial topics. The focus of this review is (1) transfusion thresholds in patients with acute intracranial bleeding, including packed red blood cell transfusion, platelet transfusion, and reversal of coagulopathy; (2) indications for seizure prophylaxis and choice of antiepileptic agent; and (3) the role of specialized neurocritical care units and specialists in the care of critically ill neurology and neurosurgery patients.

  8. Clinical controversies in lipid management.

    PubMed

    Tziomalos, K

    2015-06-01

    Even though it is firmly established that statins are the cornerstone of management of dyslipidemias, several controversies still exist in this area. In the present review, the most pertinent controversies in lipid management are discussed and the current evidence is summarized. Treatment with statins increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but this increase appears to be small and outweighed by the benefits of statins on cardiovascular disease prevention. Accordingly, statin treatment-associated T2DM should not affect management decisions. In patients who cannot achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets despite treatment with the maximum tolerated dose of a potent statin, adding ezetimibe appears to be the treatment of choice. Finally, patients who achieved LDL-C targets with a statin but have elevated triglyceride levels appear to have increased cardiovascular risk and adding fenofibrate appears to reduce this risk. Even though additional large randomized controlled trials are unlikely to be performed with the existing lipid-lowering agents, mechanistic, genetic and epidemiological studies, as well as careful analyses of the existing trials will provide further insights in these controversial issues and will allow the optimization of the management of dyslipidemia aiming at further reductions in cardiovascular morbidity.

  9. Controversies in the treatment of common anal problems

    PubMed Central

    Sagap, Ismail; Remzi, Feza H

    2006-01-01

    Treating common benign anal diseases has evolved towards more outpatient procedures with better outcome. However, minimizing post-procedure morbidities such as pain and the avoidance incontinence remain the most significant concerns. We introduce some controversies and highlight the developments in current surgical practice for the treatment of common anal problems. PMID:16718832

  10. Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    D’Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  11. Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology.

  12. Active surface faulting or landsliding in the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal)? A solved controversy concerning the Vila Chã de Ourique site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João Manuel; Marques, Fernando; Figueiredo, Paula; Matias, Luís

    2011-04-01

    The Lower Tagus Valley has experienced significant (M 6-7) historical seismicity, evidencing the presence of seismogenic faults. These are still deficiently known due to the low strain rates and the recent alluvial sedimentation of the Tagus River that buries most of the structures, though Paleoseismic evidence was allegedly found by a research team in the Tagus valley, at a site 60 km N of Lisbon, near Vila Chã de Ourique (VCO). According to this team, trenching at the VCO site exposed an active thrust fault, evidencing the surface rupture of a large earthquake that occurred in 1531. Our studies performed at this site, comprising field observations with a reappraisal of the trench outcrops previously excavated, borehole drilling, soil mechanics laboratory testing, and seismic reflection acquisition, pointed to the alternative interpretation that the outcropping structures are gravitational and not of tectonic origin. The interpretation of new outcrops crosscutting the structures exposed at the trenches, as well as newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data, definitely exclude the active thrust fault explanation and support a gravitational slip model for all the observed structures. Gravitational slip in the river bank slope was promoted by low shear strength clays and high pore water pressure coupled with slope toe river erosion. Gravitational slides must have occurred prior to development of the present sedimentation level of the Tagus alluvial plain, which was attained in the last few thousand years as indicated by borehole data and estimations of sedimentation rates.

  13. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  14. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  15. Current controversies in infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening disease caused by a focus of infection within the heart. For clinicians and scientists, it has been a moving target that has an evolving microbiology and a changing patient demographic. In the absence of an extensive evidence base to guide clinical practice, controversies abound. Here, we review three main areas of uncertainty: first, in prevention of infective endocarditis, including the role of antibiotic prophylaxis and strategies to reduce health care-associated bacteraemia; second, in diagnosis, specifically the use of multimodality imaging; third, we discuss the optimal timing of surgical intervention and the challenges posed by increasing rates of cardiac device infection. PMID:26918142

  16. Calcium and vitamin D controversies.

    PubMed

    Silver, David S

    2011-08-01

    Controversies regarding appropriate use of vitamin D and calcium are predominately related to the extraskeletal effects. Calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone health. The concerns regarding calcium and cardiovascular complications are inconclusive at best, and do not warrant a change in our approach to supplementation at this time. A growing body of literature exists suggesting that additional vitamin D may have numerous benefits, although more study needs to be done. Further prospective trials would provide insight into the potential advantages that increased vitamin D supplementation could provide. PMID:22023896

  17. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  18. Controversy over abortion funding increases.

    PubMed

    1980-03-01

    The controversy surrounding the question of public financing of Medicaid abortions in the U.S. was fanned through 5 separate court decisions in January 1980. In 3 of the decisions--directed against the Connecticut, Minnesota, and Missouri Medicaid abortion programs--the courts invalidated the state laws on the grounds that they limited federal funding of abortions for poor women too narrowly. Another decision stated that the Missouri law violated the equal protection clause of th Constitution. A decision in the U.S. District Court in Brooklyn, New York, stated that the 1976 Hyde amendment's restrictions on federal payment for abortions under Medicaid are unconstitutional. Each case is briefly analyzed.

  19. 30 CFR 282.7 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 282.7 Section 282.7 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... SULPHUR General § 282.7 Jurisdictional controversies. In the event of a controversy between the...

  20. The evolution of controversial issues.

    PubMed

    King, P

    1994-04-01

    The controversial issues concerning the differences of opinion about the validity of Melanie Klein's theory and technique did not arise suddenly when members of the Viennese Society joined the British Psycho-Analytical Society, before the outbreak of the Second World War. In this paper, I describe briefly the socio-historical, administrative and institutional background out of which these scientific divergences evolved alongside other issues concerned with how long members should hold office in the British Psycho-Analytical Society and therefore be in a position to influence the scientific disagreements and training policy in the Society. These causes for concern among members, which were discussed at five business meetings, are then summarised: they relate to differences of opinion with regard to Melanie Klein's contributions to psychoanalysis, the need for revision of the rules of the Society and the type of training in psychoanalysis that should be offered to candidates. Finally, proposals for different ways of exploring and perhaps dealing with these issues are discussed, including the decision to hold formal scientific discussions of Klein's point of view, once a month. These meetings are now referred to as the 'Controversial Discussions'.

  1. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve. PMID:23444591

  2. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  3. The evolution of controversial issues.

    PubMed

    King, P

    1994-04-01

    The controversial issues concerning the differences of opinion about the validity of Melanie Klein's theory and technique did not arise suddenly when members of the Viennese Society joined the British Psycho-Analytical Society, before the outbreak of the Second World War. In this paper, I describe briefly the socio-historical, administrative and institutional background out of which these scientific divergences evolved alongside other issues concerned with how long members should hold office in the British Psycho-Analytical Society and therefore be in a position to influence the scientific disagreements and training policy in the Society. These causes for concern among members, which were discussed at five business meetings, are then summarised: they relate to differences of opinion with regard to Melanie Klein's contributions to psychoanalysis, the need for revision of the rules of the Society and the type of training in psychoanalysis that should be offered to candidates. Finally, proposals for different ways of exploring and perhaps dealing with these issues are discussed, including the decision to hold formal scientific discussions of Klein's point of view, once a month. These meetings are now referred to as the 'Controversial Discussions'. PMID:8063488

  4. Controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, Jeremy S; Pereira, Stephen P; Devlin, John; Harrison, Phillip M; Joshi, Deepak

    2016-02-18

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but significant disease, which affects mainly young males in association with inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition and no therapeutics with proven mortality benefit aside from liver transplantation. There remain areas of controversy in the management of PSC which include the differentiation from other cholangiopathies, in particular immunoglobulin G4 related sclerosing cholangitis, the management of dominant biliary strictures, and the role of ursodeoxycholic acid. In addition, the timing of liver transplantation in PSC remains difficult to predict with standard liver severity scores. In this review, we address these controversies and highlight the latest evidence base in the management of PSC. PMID:26925200

  5. Controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, Jeremy S; Pereira, Stephen P; Devlin, John; Harrison, Phillip M; Joshi, Deepak

    2016-02-18

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but significant disease, which affects mainly young males in association with inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition and no therapeutics with proven mortality benefit aside from liver transplantation. There remain areas of controversy in the management of PSC which include the differentiation from other cholangiopathies, in particular immunoglobulin G4 related sclerosing cholangitis, the management of dominant biliary strictures, and the role of ursodeoxycholic acid. In addition, the timing of liver transplantation in PSC remains difficult to predict with standard liver severity scores. In this review, we address these controversies and highlight the latest evidence base in the management of PSC.

  6. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  7. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    PubMed Central

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD. PMID:26225201

  8. Controversies in measles immunization recommendations.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A S

    1993-01-01

    Controversy in medicine is inevitable, but it becomes problematic when the issue is a serious public health problem requiring a clear plan of action. In recent years measles has made a major resurgence in this country, with provisional figures showing 89 measles-related deaths in 1990. The Immunization Practices Advisory Committee of the US Public Health Service, the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the US Preventive Services Task Force have all issued recommendations for measles immunization. Most of these recommendations are in agreement, but they conflict on the age at which vaccination should be given and the number of doses. To assist physicians in disentangling this complex web, I review the history of measles immunization in the United States and give the rationale for particular positions wherein the groups disagree. I describe protocols for routine vaccinations, endemic areas, outbreak control, colleges and universities, and international travel.

  9. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  10. Eye movements during reading: some current controversies.

    PubMed

    Starr, M S.; Rayner, K

    2001-04-01

    For many researchers, eye-movement measures have become instrumental in revealing the moment-to-moment activity of the mind during reading. In general, there has been a great deal of consistency across studies within the eye-movement literature, and researchers have discovered and examined many variables involved in the reading process that affect the nature of readers' eye movements. Despite remarkable progress, however, there are still a number of issues to be resolved. In this article, we discuss three controversial issues: (1) the extent to which eye-movement behavior is affected by low-level oculomotor factors versus higher-level cognitive processes; (2) how much information is extracted from the right of fixation; and (3) whether readers process information from more than one word at a time.

  11. The Parkfield Stress Drop Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nadeau et al. (1995) found that the seismicity on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield is highly clustered. Individual clusters consist of a sequence of near periodically repeating small earthquakes of similar seismic moment. Nadeau and Johnston (1998) compared the moments and timing of these repeating earthquakes (Mw < 2), and some larger events, with the surface creep rate on the fault to estimate the slip and stress drop (Δ σ ). They obtained conventional values (0.1 to 10 MPa) for the larger earthquakes, but Δ σ increased with decreasing Mw to extremely high values (> 1000 MPa) for the small earthquakes (Mw < 2). Such values are just about physically possible, but they are much higher than those estimated by seismic methods for small earthquakes elsewhere (e. g. Abercrombie 1995). These controversial high Δ σ estimates have sparked a number of theoretical and laboratory studies (e. g. Sammis & Rice 2000, Anooshepoor & Brune 2001, Beeler 2001) aimed at investigating whether the observations could result from earthquakes with more normal Δ σ occurring within the unusual tectonic setting at Parkfield. Lane & Nadeau (2000, 2002) considered whether localized patches of high Δ σ would be resolvable by standard seismic methods. However, to date nobody has used seismic methods to determine source parameters for these controversial small earthquakes at Parkfield. We use closely located earthquakes of different sizes (for example, the sub-clusters of cluster CL14, Nadeau et al., 1995, Mw-0.2 to 1), recorded on the HRSN borehole network to analyse the source parameters. The smaller earthquakes are used as empirical Green's functions to resolve source processes of the larger events. Preliminary results from the earthquakes in cluster CL14 result in a source dimension of about 25 m and Δ σ of about 1 MPa for the Mw1 earthquakes, assuming that rupture velocity is the same as that for large earthquakes. We also resolve source-time functions for these earthquakes at

  12. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  13. [Sex "addiction": compulsion and controversy].

    PubMed

    Souza y Machorro, Mario

    2002-10-01

    Modern occidental society often distorts and, in some cases, ignores healthy concepts regarding sexuality. Besides, It not always considers this, to be mental health or to represent an expression of whole health. Such ambivalence towards sex and the sexual is located between the limits of the sacred and erotic, both associated to taboos and their transgression. Since the last century, the current "neosexual" revolution intents to dismantle old patterns in favor of the dissociation of human sexual sphere, the dispersion of sexual fragments towards individualism and intimate relationships diversification. Within such context, "addiction" to sex and the sexual, as a compulsive conduct, represents on one side a clinical reality each time better observed and diagnosed, where the importance of family history is recognized, as well as individual psychopathology, and marital life, in its etiology and also for its treatment and prevention. On the other hand, it has not been classified in the mental health catalogues as it is not considered, meanwhile, as the problem is been maintained, the co-morbidity and its consequences multiply, and the controversy continues.

  14. Bisphenol A: Understanding the Controversy.

    PubMed

    Metz, Cynthia Marie

    2016-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 lists Bisphenol A (BPA) as a potential endocrine disruptor for which exposure should be reduced. The Healthy People 2020 Environmental Health Objectives focus on addressing environmental factors that negatively affect individuals' health even though the health effects of some toxic substances are not yet fully understood. An American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) position statement outlined the role occupational health nurses play in creating healthy and productive workplaces by promoting worker health. BPA is implicated in a variety of health outcomes such as breast and prostate cancer, menstrual irregularities, genital abnormalities in male babies, infertility in men and women, early puberty in girls, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The overall health issues attributed to BPA exposure are complex and controversial. Concerns regarding environmental health are growing as individuals become more dependent on plastics. Numerous health concerns have been directly connected to daily exposures to products manufactured with BPA. Government agencies support the use of BPA as a safe consumer product with the exception of BPA use in baby bottles and sippy cups, which has been banned in the United States and several other countries. Many agencies (e.g., Federal Drug Administration [FDA], World Health Organization [WHO], U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [U.S. DHHS], and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) have expressed "some concern" about BPA based on research, and stated further research is warranted. PMID:26800896

  15. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  16. Controversies in the antiphospholipid syndrome: can we ever stop warfarin?

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ana G; D'Cruz, David P

    2008-01-01

    Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome are at increased risk for recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and therefore benefit from long term warfarin therapy. The optimal duration of warfarin therapy after a first venous thromboembolic event is however a matter of some controversy and many questions remain unanswered. After reviewing and analysing the available evidence, we discuss some common scenarios in everyday clinical practice where treatment decisions are difficult. PMID:19014462

  17. The Effects of Controversy, Concurrence Seeking, and Individualistic Learning on Achievement and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared effects of cooperative learning activities (with and without structured controversy) and individualistic learning activities on the achievement and attitudes of fifth graders (N=84) toward wolves. Results show that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn about wolves, and more positive…

  18. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  19. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  20. Teachers, Classroom Controversy, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulconer, Tracy; Freeman, Ayesha Coning

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between teachers, classroom controversy and the media. It also features the story of Ayesha, who coincidentally is one of the authors of this article. Ayesha's story is a social studies teacher's bad dream featuring one of her worst fears: (1) public criticism; and (2) controversy over something that has…

  1. History Textbook Controversies in Japan. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…

  2. Get Controversial! Edgy Novels for Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Clark, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This article is a discussion of authors and controversial novels that should be on the top of library media specialists' reading list if they work with high-school-age teens. "Controversial" is not a dirty word, it is an enticement! The goal of library media specialists is to get teens who may be burned out with reading due to incentive programs…

  3. Teaching Controversial Material: New Issues for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Douglas J.; McKenna, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent research in cognitive psychology that identifies how students are likely to respond when controversial issues are included in course content. Points out that controversial material may lead to misunderstandings and forgetting. Provides teaching ideas to enhance student learning and remembering, to deal with emotions, and to foster…

  4. "Mysticism" in Quantum Mechanics: The Forgotten Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a "mystical" hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s--birth of quantum theory--and concluding…

  5. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  6. The Cretaceous/Tertiary Extinction Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Kevin

    1984-01-01

    The cause of the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction has become a major geologic controversy. Current evidence for the two opposing views is reviewed to provide an introduction to the controversy and to form the basis for a seminar of discussion topic. (Author/JN)

  7. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  8. Food additives--an unending controversy.

    PubMed

    Fennema, O R

    1987-07-01

    The use of food additives originated in ancient times but did not engender controversy until the early 1800s, when intentional food adulteration became appallingly common in some countries. Problems with intentional food adulteration continued until about 1920, when regulatory pressures and effective methods of food analysis reduced the frequency and seriousness of food adulteration to acceptable levels in the United States. Since 1920 the use of legally sanctioned food additives has become common. However, for the last several decades the regulation of food additives has been a matter of controversy. Explanations for this controversy, which is likely to continue, are not difficult to identify and are discussed in the text.

  9. Controversial Issues--Teachers' Attitudes and Practices in the Context of Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulton, Christopher; Day, Vanessa; Dillon, Justin; Grace, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Current conceptions of citizenship favour public involvement in dialogue on controversial issues such as GM food. 'Students with higher levels of civic knowledge are more likely to expect to participate in political and civic activities as adults' (Kerr et al., 2003, p. 4). Young people need to be aware of the nature of controversy and be able to…

  10. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  11. The Animism Controversy Revisited: A Probability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeets, Paul M.

    1973-01-01

    Considers methodological issues surrounding the Piaget-Huang controversy. A probability model, based on the difference between the expected and observed animistic and deanimistic responses is applied as an improved technique for the assessment of animism. (DP)

  12. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  13. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  14. The Cretaceous/Tertiary Extinction Controversy Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Kevin; Nienstedt, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Reviews varying positions taken in the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/Y) extinction controversy. Analyzes and contests the meteoritic impact theory known as the Alvarez Model. Presents an alternative working hypothesis explaining the K/T transition. (ML)

  15. Carotid endarterectomy: current consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hermus, Linda; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-10-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality, and carotid artery stenosis causes 8% to 29% of all ischemic strokes. Best medical treatment forms the basis of carotid stenosis treatment, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has an additional beneficial effect in high-grade stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA as a primary carotid intervention. At present, CEA remains the gold standard, but in the future, CAS techniques will evolve and might become beneficial for subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. This chapter briefly describes the history of carotid interventions and current consensus and controversies in CEA. In the last two years, several meta-analyses were published on a variety of aspects of best medical treatment, CEA, and CAS. It is still a matter of debate as to whether asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis should undergo a carotid intervention. Especially because medical treatment has dramatically evolved since the early carotid trials. On the other hand, it is clear that carotid interventions in symptomatic patients with a high-grade stenosis should be performed as early as possible after the initial neurological event in order to achieve optimal stroke risk reduction. In CEA, the use of patching is advocated above primary closure, while the role of selective patching is still unclear. No differences in stroke and mortality rates are observed for routine versus selective shunting, for conventional versus eversion CEA, or for local versus general anesthesia. It is anticipated that in the future, there will be several interesting developments in carotid interventions such as plaque morphology analysis, acute interventions during stroke in progress, and further evolvement of CAS techniques. PMID:21082576

  16. Carotid endarterectomy: current consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hermus, Linda; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-10-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality, and carotid artery stenosis causes 8% to 29% of all ischemic strokes. Best medical treatment forms the basis of carotid stenosis treatment, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has an additional beneficial effect in high-grade stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA as a primary carotid intervention. At present, CEA remains the gold standard, but in the future, CAS techniques will evolve and might become beneficial for subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. This chapter briefly describes the history of carotid interventions and current consensus and controversies in CEA. In the last two years, several meta-analyses were published on a variety of aspects of best medical treatment, CEA, and CAS. It is still a matter of debate as to whether asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis should undergo a carotid intervention. Especially because medical treatment has dramatically evolved since the early carotid trials. On the other hand, it is clear that carotid interventions in symptomatic patients with a high-grade stenosis should be performed as early as possible after the initial neurological event in order to achieve optimal stroke risk reduction. In CEA, the use of patching is advocated above primary closure, while the role of selective patching is still unclear. No differences in stroke and mortality rates are observed for routine versus selective shunting, for conventional versus eversion CEA, or for local versus general anesthesia. It is anticipated that in the future, there will be several interesting developments in carotid interventions such as plaque morphology analysis, acute interventions during stroke in progress, and further evolvement of CAS techniques.

  17. Postoperative Controversies in the Management of Free Flap Surgery in the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Hatten, Kyle; Wax, Mark K

    2016-08-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard for reconstructing head and neck defects. Free flap success approaches 95% in centers with experience, affording unparalleled ability to restore form and function in cancer, trauma, or other major composite tissue loss. It is critical to manage the perioperative variables that predict success; several areas of controversy have not yet reached consensus. This review focuses on postoperative anticoagulation, fluid management, and flap monitoring methods. These areas of controversy potentially influence flap survival. We review published practices considered within the standard of care, why controversy remains, and future directions to reach standardization. PMID:27400844

  18. Postoperative Controversies in the Management of Free Flap Surgery in the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Hatten, Kyle; Wax, Mark K

    2016-08-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard for reconstructing head and neck defects. Free flap success approaches 95% in centers with experience, affording unparalleled ability to restore form and function in cancer, trauma, or other major composite tissue loss. It is critical to manage the perioperative variables that predict success; several areas of controversy have not yet reached consensus. This review focuses on postoperative anticoagulation, fluid management, and flap monitoring methods. These areas of controversy potentially influence flap survival. We review published practices considered within the standard of care, why controversy remains, and future directions to reach standardization.

  19. [Arterosclerosis and its prevention. The problem and its natural controversy].

    PubMed

    Chávez Dominguez, R

    1979-01-01

    It scarcely has a glimpse about the knowledge of aterosclerosis nature. About preventive recommendations, it has not yet surpassed hypothetic level, but problem is in force and requires to prove hypothetic and theoretical models that have been proposed. Everything that has been said as preventive recommendations has arisen all kind of opinions that constitute the existent controversy. Discussion is composed by the diametrically adverse points of view, in spite of that they are refered to the same data. Positive aspect that can remain is to centralize the knowledge and to comprehend best the problem nature. Controversy is a part of the collective thinking process about the theme. Obviously no one researcher has the complete solution, neither it is a lonely person work. There are exposed at the work some details of the subjacent process implicit into the term of risk factors. In order to comprehend the controversy, it is necessary to take on account the process that has been followed for the concepts formation, by no one manner it can be taken with frivolity and less to under-value it. Most part of researches on the subject agree that infancy and youthfulness are the best ages to make intervene primary prevention. There are revised these concept's bases and it is concluded that it is necessary at our ambient to acquire own experience about the theme, but we have to be very cautious at the best resources' utilization that are to our disposition.

  20. Controversies in Knee Rehabilitation: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Mathew J.; Arundale, Amelia J.H.; Logerstedt, David S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no re-injury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to pre-injury sports. Using these criterions, we will review the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury and provide recommendations for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury. PMID:25818715

  1. Controversies in knee rehabilitation: anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Failla, Mathew J; Arundale, Amelia J H; Logerstedt, David S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no reinjury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to preinjury sports. Using these criteria, the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury are reviewed and recommendations are provided for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury.

  2. Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy: Current Controversies and Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jennifer L.; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of depression during pregnancy is both a common and complex clinical challenge. The decision to expose the fetus to antidepressant medication during pregnancy must be weighed against the risks of untreated maternal depression to both mother and fetus. Maternal depression during pregnancy has been associated with increased rates of preterm birth and maternal substance use. The safety of antidepressant use during pregnancy appears to be largely reassuring but there remain two areas of controversy including neonatal withdrawal syndrome and primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Individualized treatment recommendations based on the patient's history are essential in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:19661762

  3. Internal Washington power game adds to earmark controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, J.

    In the ongoing controversy over congressional earmarks, some new bones of contention have surfaced. Late last month, the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee heard testimony that the dynamics of Washington's so-called “iron triangle” are adding to the inequities that many claim are caused by the earmarking of funds for scientific research.Nonetheless, earmarking remains a legitimate part of the appropriations game, and a practice that many still champion. At the hearing, the president of Boston University, John R. Silber, lauded the “excellence” of projects funded by earmarks.

  4. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  5. Qualitative research: comments and controversies.

    PubMed

    Schutz, R W

    1989-03-01

    Larry Locke's timely and well-written introduction to qualitative research procedures will undoubtedly serve its purpose. It makes us reassess our traditional beliefs and practices, educates us on the rudiments of qualitative methodology, and, hopefully, makes us more tolerant and appreciative of alternate ways of conducting research. Although Locke focuses his paper on pedagogical research issues, it is important to realize that many other sub-disciplines within the general field of physical education also utilize qualitative procedures. For example, 10 years ago Martens (1979) called for a paradigm shift in sport psychology by appealing to researchers to abandon their labs and to embark on naturalistic field studies. While North American sport psychologists, and psychologists in general, have been slow to formalize qualitative techniques, the European psychology community has been much more active (e.g., Ashworth, Giorgi, & de Koning, 1986). Perhaps Locke's article will encourage researchers in all our sub-disciplines to consider the utility of qualitative research. Hopefully, readers will treat Locke's article as an introduction to the broad area of qualitative research and not as a rigorous set of procedures for conducting participant observation research in school physical education studies. Additionally, it must be recognized that there are other approaches and other applications, that the area has its critics and its unresolved methodological problems, and that qualitative research does not necessarily exclude the application of formalized data analyses. Keeping these issues in mind, the addition of qualitative approaches to our repetoire of research methodologies can only enhance the quality of research in physical education and exercise and sport science. PMID:2489822

  6. Blastocystis: Consensus of treatment and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Uma; Shanthi, M

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis is a highly controversial protozoan parasite. It has been variably regarded as a commensal and pathogen. Scientists have for decades wondered whether it is truly an enteropathogen and if it is observed in symptomatic patients whether treatment is required because patient recovery and improvement has been noted even without any treatment. Though associated with self-limiting infection, treatment is warranted in many patients due to persistence of symptoms. This particularly holds true for children and adults who are immuno compromised. Several drugs have been used to treat Blastocystis but each one of them has produced widely variable rates of clinical cure and eradication of the parasite from the feces. Based on the studies carried out in vitro and clinical responses obtained in patients, metronidazole appears to be the most effective drug for Blastocystis infection. However, the therapy is complicated due to different dosages and regimens adopted and the unresponsiveness to treatment observed in several sections of the population studied. Recently, the finding of different subsets of Blastocystis exhibiting resistance to metronidazole and associated with variable degrees of symptoms has underscored the importance of typing the subsets of the parasite in order to foretell the clinical response and the need to treat. Till date, the mode of action of the drugs used and the mechanism of resistance is not entirely known and is a topic of speculation. Other drugs with anti Blastocystis activity and used in therapy includes trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and nitazoxanide. Several other compounds have also been evaluated for the treatment either alone or in combination with the first or second line drugs. A lot of interest has also been generated on the role of probiotics particularly Saccharomyces boularrdii and other natural food compounds on eradication of the parasite. This review provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobials used to target

  7. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-07-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s—birth of quantum theory—and concluding with Erwin Schrödinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged.

  8. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century-old controversy.

    PubMed

    Nougué, O; Rode, N O; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Ségard, A; Chevin, L-M; Haag, C R; Lenormand, T

    2015-12-01

    Parthenogenesis (reproduction through unfertilized eggs) encompasses a variety of reproduction modes with (automixis) or without (apomixis) meiosis. Different modes of automixis have very different genetic and evolutionary consequences but can be particularly difficult to tease apart. In this study, we propose a new method to discriminate different types of automixis from population-level genetic data. We apply this method to diploid Artemia parthenogenetica, a crustacean whose reproductive mode remains controversial despite a century of intensive cytogenetic observations. We focus on A. parthenogenetica from two western Mediterranean populations. We show that they are diploid and that markers remain heterozygous in cultures maintained up to ~36 generations in the laboratory. Moreover, parallel patterns of population-wide heterozygosity levels between the two natural populations strongly support the conclusion that diploid A. parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low, but nonzero recombination. This settles a century-old controversy on Artemia, and, more generally, suggests that many automictic organisms harbour steep within-chromosome gradients of heterozygosity due to a transition from clonal transmission in centromere-proximal regions to a form of inbreeding similar to self-fertilization in centromere-distal regions. Such systems therefore offer a new avenue for contrasting the genomic consequences of asexuality and inbreeding.

  9. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century-old controversy.

    PubMed

    Nougué, O; Rode, N O; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Ségard, A; Chevin, L-M; Haag, C R; Lenormand, T

    2015-12-01

    Parthenogenesis (reproduction through unfertilized eggs) encompasses a variety of reproduction modes with (automixis) or without (apomixis) meiosis. Different modes of automixis have very different genetic and evolutionary consequences but can be particularly difficult to tease apart. In this study, we propose a new method to discriminate different types of automixis from population-level genetic data. We apply this method to diploid Artemia parthenogenetica, a crustacean whose reproductive mode remains controversial despite a century of intensive cytogenetic observations. We focus on A. parthenogenetica from two western Mediterranean populations. We show that they are diploid and that markers remain heterozygous in cultures maintained up to ~36 generations in the laboratory. Moreover, parallel patterns of population-wide heterozygosity levels between the two natural populations strongly support the conclusion that diploid A. parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low, but nonzero recombination. This settles a century-old controversy on Artemia, and, more generally, suggests that many automictic organisms harbour steep within-chromosome gradients of heterozygosity due to a transition from clonal transmission in centromere-proximal regions to a form of inbreeding similar to self-fertilization in centromere-distal regions. Such systems therefore offer a new avenue for contrasting the genomic consequences of asexuality and inbreeding. PMID:26356354

  10. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  11. Behind the Evolution/Creation Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper discusses the historical background of the creationist movement, presents Federal Judge Overton's analysis of why and how the Creationists got the equal time evolution/creation teaching law passed in Arkansas, and examines how scientists and educators are reacting to the controversy. Creationists were set back when Overton declared…

  12. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  13. Continuing Controversy in Equal Employment Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Carl W.; Robles, Martin J.

    1980-01-01

    Some current controversies in the growing body of equal employment law are examined: wage comparability in the context of sex discrimination; procedural sections of the laws and related litigation; class actions by the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission; the scope of litigation; and the criteria for conferring standing on the plaintiff.…

  14. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  15. Controversial Novels and Censorship in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, John Stuart

    The legal history of censorship in general in the United States as well as the legal context in particular of the censorship of novels from schools is discussed. This thesis deals with four novels which have aroused substantial controversy when taught in the schools. The novels are: "The Catcher in the Rye," by J. D. Salinger, "The Adventures of…

  16. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER...

  17. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.9...

  18. 30 CFR 282.7 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 282.7 Section 282.7 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR General §...

  19. Controversial Therapies: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The article offers guidelines to educators evaluating controversial therapies and applies them to four such therapies: tinted lenses as a cure for dyslexia; orthomolecular treatments for learning disabilities; pharmaceutical intervention for dyslexia; and visual training for children with learning disabilities. (DB)

  20. Teaching Controversial Issues in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith M.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    The design of a methods course offered at Georgia State University to prepare social studies teachers for dealing with controversial issues in the middle school or secondary social studies classroom is presented. The course focuses on identification, selection, an analysis of an issue as well as the requirement that the student develop some method…

  1. Controversial Art in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Bobby

    This document examines the events surrounding a controversial art exhibit that was held at Santa Fe Community College (SFCC), Gainesville, Florida, in 2002. The author asks the following questions: (1) What is the role of the arts on a community college campus? (2) What are a community college arts program's responsibilities to the Fine Arts and…

  2. Controversies in Pediatric Sports Medicine (Commentary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)

  3. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  4. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  5. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by director Davis…

  6. Controversial Issues in Our Schools. Fastback 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, William

    There is virtually nothing taught in the American public school that is not potentially explosive at some time or place. America's cultural makeup provides for the development of controversy whenever such issues as sex, religion, politics, and economics are raised, and particularly when they are raised in the school environment. School…

  7. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  8. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  9. PrEP: controversy, agency and ownership

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Gus P; Race, Kane; Goicochea, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been and continues to be an intervention that causes controversy and debate between stakeholders involved in providing or advocating for it, and within communities in need of it. These controversies extend beyond the intrinsically complex issues of making it available. In this commentary, some of the possible roots of the air of dissent and drama that accompanies PrEP are explored. The similarities between the controversies that dogged the earliest human trials of PrEP and the ones we see today in the era of licensing and implementation are explored. We outline five mediating principles or cultural norms that may influence arguments about PrEP differently. Three areas of specific concern are identified: medical risk versus benefit, distrust and fear of healthcare interventions, and fears for individual responsibility and community cohesion. The fear that PrEP may somehow represent a loss of control over one or more of these domains is suggested as an underlying factor. The development of countervailing measures, to institute greater community “ownership” of PrEP, and concomitant improvements in the sense of individual agency over sexual risk are outlined and recommended. PMID:27760689

  10. Measles virus 1998-2002: progress and controversy.

    PubMed

    Rall, Glenn F

    2003-01-01

    Despite the extensive media exposure that viruses such as West Nile, Norwalk, and Ebola have received lately, and the emerging threat that old pathogens may reappear as new agents of terrorism, measles virus (MV) persists as one of the leading causes of death by infectious agents worldwide, approaching the annual mortality rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. For most MV victims, fatality is indirect: Virus-induced transient immunosuppression predisposes the individual to opportunistic infections that, left untreated, can result in mortality. In rare cases, MV may also cause progressive neurodegenerative disease. During the past five years (1998-2002), development of animal models and the application of reverse genetics and immunological assays have collectively contributed to major progress in our understanding of MV biology and pathogenesis. Nevertheless, questions and controversies remain that are the basis for future research. In this review, major advances and current debates are discussed, including MV receptor usage, the cellular basis of immunosuppression, the suspected role of MV in "nonviral" diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Paget's disease, and the controversy surrounding MV vaccine safety.

  11. Robert Koch: Nobel laureate and controversial figure in tuberculin research.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2002-10-01

    Tuberculosis has been a major cause of death for centuries. Likewise, anthrax has posed a deadly threat to both farm animals and humans and today poses a threat as a weapon of biological warfare. Cholera, which wreaked havoc in the East and threatened to enter Europe, also posed a deadly threat. The causes of these diseases remained mysteries for centuries. Nobel laureate Robert Koch (1843-1910), often called the founder of medical bacteriology, is credited with discovering the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; with demonstrating for the first time in history the life cycle of the anthrax bacillus under controlled in vitro conditions; and with identifying Vibrio cholorae as the cause of cholera. In later life, he also was at the center of several controversies. This article provides a brief summary of Koch's exploration into bacteriology and, especially, his experience with tuberculosis and the controversies that developed in the latter part of his life, as well as his childhood and early adult years and the development of his now well-known "postulates."

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the controversy of diagnosis by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Porter, Misty Blanchette

    2008-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder. The criteria used to establish the diagnosis remain controversial. The 1990 National Institutes of Health conference guidelines required a combination of both chronic anovulation and clinical/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism. These criteria were revised in 2003 at the Rotterdam European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society of Reproductive Medicine consensus workshop to include ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) as one of the two of three criteria necessary for establishing the diagnosis of PCOS. The inclusion of PCOM sparked a controversy as it broadens the population of women who meet the criteria for PCOS and allows for the creation of two phenotypically different patient populations who previously would have been excluded. The ultrasound findings, which are consistent with PCOM, include an assessment of follicle number and/or ovarian volume. As technology advances with two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound, our ability to discretely evaluate independent portions of the ovary may help to redefine the criteria of PCOM and thus standardize for clinical and research interests a more specific descriptor for PCOM. PMID:18504699

  13. Controversies relating to the management of acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

    PubMed

    Modi, C S; Beazley, J; Zywiel, M G; Lawrence, T M; Veillette, C J H

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to address controversies in the management of dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint. Current evidence suggests that operative rather than non-operative treatment of Rockwood grade III dislocations results in better cosmetic and radiological results, similar functional outcomes and longer time off work. Early surgery results in better functional and radiological outcomes with a reduced risk of infection and loss of reduction compared with delayed surgery. Surgical options include acromioclavicular fixation, coracoclavicular fixation and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. Although non-controlled studies report promising results for arthroscopic coracoclavicular fixation, there are no comparative studies with open techniques to draw conclusions about the best surgical approach. Non-rigid coracoclavicular fixation with tendon graft or synthetic materials, or rigid acromioclavicular fixation with a hook plate, is preferable to fixation with coracoclavicular screws owing to significant risks of loosening and breakage. The evidence, although limited, also suggests that anatomical ligament reconstruction with autograft or certain synthetic grafts may have better outcomes than non-anatomical transfer of the coracoacromial ligament. It has been suggested that this is due to better restoration horizontal and vertical stability of the joint. Despite the large number of recently published studies, there remains a lack of high-quality evidence, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding these controversial issues.

  14. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: recent advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Jin

    2015-09-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory clinical syndrome of uncontrolled immune response which results in hypercytokinemia due to underlying primary or secondary immune defect. A number of genetic defects in transport, processing and function of cytotoxic granules which result in defective granule exocytosis and cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells have been well identified at the cellular and molecular level. Important advances have been made during the last 20 years in the diagnosis and treatment of HLH. The Histiocyte Society has proposed diagnostic guideline using both clinical and laboratory findings in HLH-2004 protocol, and this has been modified partly in 2009. HLH used to be a fatal disease, but the survival of HLH patients has improved to more than 60% with the use of chemoimmunotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) over the past 2 decades. However, HCT is still the only curative option of treatment for primary HLH and refractory/relapsed HLH after proper chemoimmunotherapy. The outcome of HCT for HLH patients was also improved steadily during last decades, but HCT for HLH still carries significant mortality and morbidity. Moreover, there remain ongoing controversies in various aspects of HCT including indication of HCT, donor selection, timing of HCT, conditioning regimen, and mixed chimerism after HCT. This review summarized the important practical issues which were proven by previous studies on HCT for HLH, and tried to delineate the controversies among them.

  15. Seborrheic dermatitis: etiology, risk factors, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, based on the observation of their presence in affected skin and the therapeutic response to antifungal agents. Others have proposed that Malassezia is incidental to a primary inflammatory dermatosis that resulted in increased cell turnover, scaling, and inflammation in the epidermis, similar to psoriasis. The presence of host susceptibility factors, permitting the transition of M furfur to its pathogenic form, may be associated with immune response and inflammation. Metabolites produced by Malassezia species, including oleic acid, malssezin, and indole-3-carbaldehyde, have been implicated. SD also has been traditionally considered to be a form of dermatitis based on the presence of Malassezia in healthy skin, the absence the pathogenic mycelial form of Malassezia yeasts in SD, and its chronic course. As a result, proposed treatments vary, ranging from topical corticosteroids to topical antifungals and antimicrobial peptides. PMID:23806151

  16. [Controversies on antibiotics for common group A streptococcus infections].

    PubMed

    Grimprel, E; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Management of common group A streptococcus (GAS) infections remains controversial. French recommendations advocate systematic treatment of streptococcal tonsillitis after confirmation by rapid diagnostic test. Oral amoxicillin twice daily for 6 days is the first-line treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis is restricted to at-risk patients after contact with invasive GAS case. These recommendations take into consideration the prevention of complications, even if they are rare, the reduction of infectiousness and the reduction of the duration of symptoms. Different recommendations have been issued in other countries, particularly in Europe and are based on different considerations. These differences do not originate in the absence of demonstrative scientific studies but rather in societal considerations, themselves guided by the history of each different health system (and also judicial system). This is probably necessary to obtain physicians and public support. The French attitude reflects these considerations. However, its lack of enforcement needs to question about its origins.

  17. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  18. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    PubMed Central

    Katira, Arnav; Tan, Peng H.

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done. PMID:27144066

  19. Object knowledge in infancy: current controversies and approaches.

    PubMed

    Mareschal

    2000-11-01

    Studies relying on looking-time measures have found evidence of a far more precocious understanding of hidden objects than Piaget originally described. However, there is now a heated controversy surrounding the results from looking-time studies - do they constitute any evidence of a conceptual or explicit understanding of objects? Moreover, even within the looking-time paradigm, young infants show rapid changes in their understanding of what constitutes a legitimate occlusion event, and in their ability to use feature information to individuate or keep track of the number of hidden objects. The picture that emerges from these studies is that young infants have a limited and sometimes fragmented understanding of hidden objects. We suggest that computational modelling could help provide a coherent account of the emergence of object-directed behaviours in infancy, although the fit between current models and existing data remains poor. PMID:11058818

  20. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation.

  1. 42 CFR 405.1839 - Amount in controversy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in controversy requirement under § 405.1811(a)(2) of this subpart for an intermediary hearing or the... hearing before an intermediary under § 405.1811 of this subpart, and the amount in controversy...

  2. 42 CFR 405.1839 - Amount in controversy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in controversy requirement under § 405.1811(a)(2) of this subpart for an intermediary hearing or the... hearing before an intermediary under § 405.1811 of this subpart, and the amount in controversy...

  3. 42 CFR 405.1839 - Amount in controversy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in controversy requirement under § 405.1811(a)(2) of this subpart for an intermediary hearing or the... hearing before an intermediary under § 405.1811 of this subpart, and the amount in controversy...

  4. Early Controversies Over Athetosis: II. Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lanska, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Athetosis has been controversial since it was first described by William Hammond in 1871; many aspects of Hammond’s career were equally controversial. Methods Primary sources have been used to review treatment controversies in the 50-year period following the initial description of athetosis. Results The treatments used most commonly employed available pharmaceutical agents and modalities (e.g., galvanism). Initial anecdotal reports of success were seldom confirmed with subsequent experience. Several novel invasive therapies were also developed and promoted, all of which damaged or destroyed either upper or lower motor neuron pathways, and were also often associated with high mortality rates. In general, these therapies substituted paresis for abnormal spontaneous movements. These included peripheral nerve stretching, excision of a portion of the precentral gyrus, rhizotomy, nerve “transplantation” (i.e., neurotomy and nerve-to-nerve anastomoses), and “muscle group isolation” (i.e., alcohol neurolysis). There was no agreement on the appropriateness of such high-risk procedures, particularly given the intentional generation of further neurological morbidity. Discussion Pharmaceutical agents and modalities initially employed for athetosis had little a priori evidence-based justification and no biologically plausible theoretical framework to guide empiric treatment selection. Subsequently, all the invasive procedures employed were directed at lessening or removing the manifestations, rather than the underlying cause, of the abnormal central nervous system “irritation,” usually by imposing paresis or paralysis. Factors contributing to the disparity in outcomes between favorable initial reports and the often-disappointing results of later studies included reliance on anecdotal reports or small uncontrolled case series, placebo effects, biased observation, misdiagnosis, and biased reporting. PMID:23450199

  5. Treatment of genital warts: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

    2010-01-01

    There are two opposing approaches in the treatment of genital warts: (1) the traditional approach advocates complete elimination of all lesions, and (2) a second approach regards condyloma as merely a cosmetic nuisance. After a long journey through many arguments and scientific papers, we have concluded that many unknowns, uncertainties, and controversies concerning the value of treatment of genital warts in terms of clearing and curing the disease (ie, eradicating the viruses, preventing cancer, and reducing infectivity). There is no consensus at present of whether treatment of men with evidence of genital human papillomavirus infection influences the natural history of their female sex partner's cervical disease. PMID:20797516

  6. Injectables in the Nose: Facts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, William Walsh; Bucky, Lou; Friedman, Oren

    2016-08-01

    Nasal injectables and surface treatments alter the appearance of the nose both primarily and following nasal surgery. Fillers such as hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxyapatite, and fat have a variety of advantages and disadvantages in eliminating small asymmetries postrhinoplasty. All nasal injectables have rare but severe ocular and cerebral ischemic complications. The injection of steroids following nasal reconstruction has a role in preventing supratip swelling and can improve the appearance of grafts to the nose. Resurfacing techniques reduce the appearance of autotransplanted grafts to the nose; there is little controversy about their benefit but surgeon preference for timing is varied. PMID:27400851

  7. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  8. J Wave Syndromes: History and Current Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zheng, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    The concept of J wave syndromes was first proposed in 2004 by Yan et al for a spectrum of electrocardiographic (ECG) manifestations of prominent J waves that are associated with a potential to predispose affected individuals to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Although the concept of J wave syndromes is widely used and accepted, there has been tremendous debate over the definition of J wave, its ionic and cellular basis and arrhythmogenic mechanism. In this review article, we attempted to discuss the history from which the concept of J wave syndromes (JWS) is evolved and current controversies in JWS. PMID:27721848

  9. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Fact, Opinion, and Controversy.

    PubMed

    Gladdy, Rebecca A; Gupta, Abha; Catton, Charles N

    2016-10-01

    After diagnosis of retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS), detailed imaging and multidisciplinary discussion should guide treatment including surgical resection and in select cases, neoadjuvant therapy. Local recurrence is common in RPS and is associated with grade, histologic subtype, completeness of resection, and size. As guidelines to standardize RPS patient management emerge, expert pathologic assessment and management in centers of excellence are benchmarks of quality of care. The efficacy of current chemotherapy is limited and there is a critical need to understand the molecular basis of sarcoma so that new drug therapies are developed. Multicenter clinical trials are needed to limit opinion and controversy in this complex and challenging disease. PMID:27591493

  10. Hepatobiliary MRI: current concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Glockner, James F

    2007-04-01

    Evaluation of the liver and biliary system is a frequent indication for abdominal MRI. Hepatobiliary MRI comprises a set of noninvasive techniques that are usually very effective in answering most clinical questions. There are significant limitations, however, as well as considerable variation and disagreement regarding the optimal protocols for standard hepatic MRI and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP). This review discusses pulse sequences most often used in hepatic MRI and MRCP, examines a few sources of controversy in the current literature, and summarizes some recent and future developments in the field.

  11. Diving medicine: contemporary topics and their controversies.

    PubMed

    Strauss, M B; Borer, R C

    2001-05-01

    SCUBA diving is a popular recreational sport. Although serious injuries occur infrequently, when they do knowledge of diving medicine and/or where to obtain appropriate consultation is essential. The emergency physician is likely to be the first physician contact the injured diver has. We discuss 8 subjects in diving medicine which are contemporary, yet may have controversies associated with them. From this information the physician dealing primarily with the injured diver will have a basis for understanding and managing, as well as where to find additional help, for his/her patients' diving injuries.

  12. Preimplantation Genetic Testing: Indications and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Amber R.; Jungheim, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis In the last two decades, the use of preimplantation genetic testing has increased dramatically. It is used for single gene disorders, chromosomal abnormalities, mitochondrial disorders, gender selection in non-Mendelian disorders with unequal gender distribution, aneuploidy screening, and other preconceptually identified genetic abnormalities in prospective parents. Genetic testing strategies and diagnostic accuracy continues to improve. Yet, it does not come without risks or controversies. In this review we discuss the techniques and clinical application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the debate surrounding its associated uncertainty and expanded use. PMID:20638568

  13. Controversial Issues: Concerns for Policy Makers. ERIC Digest No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kay K.

    Intended for educational policy makers, this publication considers the teaching of controversial topics. Specifically discussed are what issues are considered controversial, why controversial topics should be taught, court decisions, ways educators can prepare for community response or complaints, and questions to address when making curriculum…

  14. Controversial role of arthroscopic meniscectomy of the knee: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Austin Y; Shalvoy, Robert M; Voisinet, Anne; Racine, Jennifer; Aaron, Roy K

    2016-01-01

    The role of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in reducing pain and improving function in patients with meniscal tears remains controversial. Five recent high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared non-operative management of meniscal tears to APM, with four showing no difference and one demonstrating superiority of APM. In this review, we examined the strengths and weaknesses of each of these RCTs, with particular attention to the occurrence of inadvertent biases. We also completed a quantitative analysis that compares treatment successes in each treatment arm, considering crossovers as treatment failures. Our analysis revealed that each study was an excellent attempt to compare APM with non-surgical treatment but suffered from selection, performance, detection, and/or transfer biases that reduce confidence in its conclusions. While the RCT remains the methodological gold standard for establishing treatment efficacy, the use of an RCT design does not in itself ensure internal or external validity. Furthermore, under our alternative analysis of treatment successes, two studies had significantly more treatment successes in the APM arm than the non-operative arm although original intention-to-treat analyses showed no difference between these two groups. Crossovers remain an important problem in surgical trials with no perfect analytical solution. With the studies available at present, no conclusion can be drawn concerning the optimal treatment modality for meniscal tears. Further work that minimizes significant biases and crossovers and incorporates sub-group and cost-benefit analyses may clarify therapeutic indications. PMID:27190756

  15. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  16. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  17. Pediatric urinary tract infections: current controversies.

    PubMed

    MacNeily, A E

    2001-06-01

    Few topics in pediatric urology engender such vigorous debate as the who, when, how, and why related to the investigation of pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs). Further controversy stems from management of the underlying pathology. This article first discusses the patient characteristics that are important in the evaluation of pediatric patients with UTIs, and the indications for screening tests (such as voiding cystourethrograms, ultrasound, dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, and intravenous pyelography). Following this, the author reviews what is known about three controversial aspects about the management of these patients. First, although the role of the prepuce in pediatric UTI is well established, the role of routine circumcision is not. Second, the natural history and etiology of antenatally detected vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has provoked us to view the concept of "primary reflux" in a new light. Third, although the way to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux is generally agreed upon, the utility of our surgical management in view of long-term follow-up is less clear.

  18. Controversial snake relationships supported by reproductive anatomy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Dustin S; Miralles, Aurélien; Aldridge, Robert D

    2011-03-01

    Since the advent of molecular character sets in phylogenetic systematics our understanding of the evolutionary history of snakes has changed considerably. In some cases the novel topologies reconstructed from molecular datasets have left researchers puzzled, as no morphological feature seems to support the new relationships found. This is the case for 'Amerophidia'sensu Vidal et al. (2007; Biology of the Boas and Pythons, Eagle Mountain: Eagle Mountain Publishing; Aniliidae+ Tropidophiidae), a grouping of the Red Pipesnakes and Neotropical Dwarf Boas. We contend that in some cases the apparent lack of historical morphological support for the molecular phylogenies is due to our poor understanding of the organisms as a whole, and not the complete lack of morphological support for controversial clades. For example, we found novel evidence from reproductive anatomy that demonstrates a unique association of the oviducts and cloaca in Amerophidia. Whereas in all other female squamates the oviducts communicate directly with the cloaca, the oviducts of Aniliidae and Tropidophiidae communicate with diverticuli of the cloaca. At present this is the only unambiguous synapomorphy for the Amerophidia. We feel that confirmation of controversial molecular relationships will revolve around the investigation of non-traditional morphological characters such as reproductive anatomy.

  19. Gardnerella vaginalis: characteristics, clinical considerations, and controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance, Gram stain reaction, and genus affiliation of Gardnerella vaginalis have been controversial since Gardner and Dukes described the organism as the cause of "nonspecific vaginitis," a common disease of women which is now called bacterial vaginosis. The organism was named G. vaginalis when taxonomic studies showed that it was unrelated to bacteria in various genera including Haemophilus and Corynebacterium. Electron microscopy and chemical analyses have elucidated the organism's gram-variable reaction. Controversy over the etiology of bacterial vaginosis was largely resolved by (i) studies using improved media and methods for the isolation and identification of bacteria in vaginal fluids and (ii) standardization of criteria for clinical and laboratory diagnosis. Besides G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., Mycoplasma hominis, and certain obligate anaerobes are now acknowledged as participants in bacterial vaginosis. The finding that G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., and M. hominis inhabit the rectum indicates a potential source of autoinfection in addition to sexual transmission. Extravaginal infections with G. vaginalis are increasingly recognized, especially when the toxic anticoagulant polyanetholesulfonate is omitted from blood cultures and when urine cultures are incubated anaerobically for 48 h. The finding that mares harbor G. vaginalis suggests that an equine model can be developed for studies of Gardnerella pathogenesis. Images PMID:1498765

  20. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  1. Breast cancer screening: controversy of impact.

    PubMed

    Berry, Donald A

    2013-08-01

    Few medical issues have been as controversial--or as political, at least in the United States-as the role of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The advantages of finding a cancer early seem obvious. Indeed, randomized trials evaluating screening mammography demonstrate a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but the benefits are less than one would hope. Moreover, the randomized trials are themselves subject to criticism, including that they are irrelevant in the modern era because most were conducted before chemotherapy and hormonal therapy became widely used. In this article I chronicle the evidence and controversies regarding mammographic screening, including attempts to assess the relative contributions of screening and therapy in the substantial decreases in breast cancer mortality that have been observed in many countries over the last 20-25 years. I emphasize the trade-off between harms and benefits depending on the woman's age and other risk factors. I also discuss ways for communicating the associated risks to women who have to decide whether screening (and what screening strategy) is right for them. PMID:24074796

  2. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  3. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Tandel, Kirtida R

    2011-10-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  4. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  5. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  6. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  7. Lung Cancer—Current Concepts and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Pett, Stuart B.; Wernly, Jorge A.; Akl, Bechara F.

    1986-01-01

    The recent literature contains a variety of controversial management alternatives for patients with pulmonary malignancy that affect all aspects of the lung cancer problem. Revisions in the classification system have been advanced in which the prognostic implications of specific ultrastructural and histochemical information are acknowledged. Computed tomography and, to a lesser extent, nuclide scanning have revolutionized the staging process, but limitations in these procedures are emerging. Improved survival following aggressive surgical treatment has challenged the adequacy of the standard staging system. The palliative role of radiotherapy is becoming more widely appreciated. Results of immunotherapy are equivocal and gains from chemotherapy are modest. Combinations of treatment modalities will require further documentation before they can be recommended with confidence. PMID:3529632

  8. Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept.

  9. An overview of the Hanford controversy.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A M; Kneale, G W

    1991-01-01

    In 1964, the Atomic Energy Commission agreed to sponsor "a study of the lifetime health and mortality experiences of all employees of AEC contractors." The commission put in charge of this study a physician (Thomas Mancuso) who had recently shown how the U.S. Social Security system could be used to identify the dates and causes of death of all insured workers. As director of the AEC project, Mancuso was at liberty to include any or all the postwar offshoots of the Manhattan Project. His master plan included workers from Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and Hanford, but it soon became apparent that his attempts to link radiation exposures to subsequent events were proving more successful at Hanford than elsewhere. The authors of this paper, who participated in the study, review the controversy surrounding its eventual publication.

  10. [On controversies around the Oedipus Complex].

    PubMed

    Drwiega, Marek

    2002-01-01

    In the article the author would like to draw the readers' attention to one of the central issues of psychoanalysis, i.e. Oedipus complex. In the development of the psychoanalysis the classical conception of Oedipus complex presented by Freud gave rise to a severe criticism both on the part of some psychoanalysts, especially women such as e.g. Melanie Klein, and on the part of ethnographers such as B. Malinowski. In the paper the author presents the main controversies concerning this interesting discussion. The fact of the matter is that the Oedipus complex is a hotly debated subject, not only from the cultural point of view but also within the psychoanalytical movement.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis facts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues. A bidirectional association between them has been demonstrated by many researchers. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing. The association between diabetes and tuberculosis may be the next challenge for global tuberculosis control worldwide. Proper planning and collaboration are necessary to reduce the dual burden of diabetes and TB. One model similar to the TB-HIV program for prevention, screening and treatment of both diseases can be the best approach. In this paper, we review existing data and discuss the matters of controversy that would be helpful for determining research priorities in different countries. PMID:24360398

  12. Controversies Surrounding Classification of Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, it is apparent that personality disorder is a common condition. Some of the concepts of personality disorder that are currently in use are flawed and need to be revised. The aim of this article is to discuss the controversy created by the uncertainties in the current classification system and to suggest ways forward. In particular, the clinician needs to be aware of the importance of assessing personality abnormality in terms of a severity dimension, and of the ways in which such an abnormality can impact on treatments for other conditions. These changes in the notion of personality disorder are needed as, for the first time, a good evidence base is being established for potential treatments and these will be maximized if we have a classification fit for therapeutic purpose. PMID:20396426

  13. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application."

  14. Antimicrobials in dermatologic surgery: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Shurman, Daniel L; Benedetto, Anthony V

    2010-01-01

    The two main uses of antimicrobials in dermatologic surgery include prophylaxis for bacteremia and prevention of localized surgical skin infection (LSSI). Bacteremia can result in hematogenous surgical infections such as infective endocarditis and prosthetic joint infection. Comprehensive guidelines from the American Heart Society (AHA), American Dental Association (ADA), and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) have significantly reduced the number of patients in which prophylaxis is indicated for hematogenous surgical infection. The use of antimicrobials for localized surgical skin infection in dermatology is controversial. Although the overall trend in the literature supports the decreased use of antimicrobials in dermatologic surgery as a whole, it is important to know which situations still warrant antibiotics. This contribution will address the updated guidelines of the AHA, ADA, and AAOS, evidence-based techniques to decrease localized surgical skin infections, and situations in which antibiotics should be considered during dermatologic surgery. PMID:20797510

  15. Adolescent shoulder injuries: consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dean C; Krasinski, Kevin L

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent participation in sports is at an all-time high. Younger patients also are competing with a greater intensity level, frequently playing organized sports throughout the year. Players are putting greater demands on their shoulders, making them more prone to injuries. Because these players are in the process of skeletal development, certain considerations are needed for this patient population. There is controversy regarding the appropriate treatment of these adolescent athletes- including debate on injury prevention; nonsurgical treatment versus surgical treatment; overuse injuries; and return to play after shoulder fractures, dislocations, and instability. It is valuable to review evidence in the current literature regarding recommendations for the treatment of shoulder injuries in adolescent athletes.

  16. Evolution of the Two Cultures controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniek, Ronald J.

    1981-05-01

    The Two Cultures schism is a persistent problem in our society. For over a century, scientific spokesmen and literary critics, from T. H. Huxley and M. Arnold to C. P. Snow and F. R. Leavis, have been involved in the Two Cultures issue. This article examines the evolution of the controversy between the ''scientific'' and ''humanistic'' elements of Western culture and its relation to educational policies. The division and antagonism between these two cultures appears to have arisen from differences in the human attitudes that they are preceived to engender. ''Scientific'' professionalism has been associated with a progressive optimism and self-assurance that nurture a broad humanitarianism, while the ''literary'' tradition is characterized by restraint, acceptance, and a more selective humanism.

  17. Current questions and possible controversies in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, L M; Simon, A K; Baehrecke, E H

    2015-01-01

    Interest in autophagy has exploded over the last decade, with publications highlighting crosstalk with several other cellular processes including secretion, endocytosis, and cell suicide pathways including apoptosis. Autophagy proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes independently of their roles in autophagy, creating complexities in the interpretation of autophagy (Atg) mutant gene data. Interestingly, this self-eating process is a survival mechanism that can also promote cell death, but when and how autophagy may ‘switch’ its function is still under debate. Indeed, there are currently many models of how autophagy actually influences cell death. In this review, we highlight some outstanding questions and possible controversies in the autophagy field. PMID:26682061

  18. [On controversies around the Oedipus Complex].

    PubMed

    Drwiega, Marek

    2002-01-01

    In the article the author would like to draw the readers' attention to one of the central issues of psychoanalysis, i.e. Oedipus complex. In the development of the psychoanalysis the classical conception of Oedipus complex presented by Freud gave rise to a severe criticism both on the part of some psychoanalysts, especially women such as e.g. Melanie Klein, and on the part of ethnographers such as B. Malinowski. In the paper the author presents the main controversies concerning this interesting discussion. The fact of the matter is that the Oedipus complex is a hotly debated subject, not only from the cultural point of view but also within the psychoanalytical movement. PMID:12725020

  19. Current controversies in late incisor crowding.

    PubMed

    Samspon, W J

    1995-01-01

    Although the terminology is mildly controversial, late incisor crowding (tertiary crowding, late secondary crowding, post-adolescent crowding) is widely regarded as a normal maturation event which is likely to affect most individuals to some extent. Disagreement arises when attempts are made to quantify the change and to predict the timing of the crowding. Most young adults experience some degree of loss of incisor alignment, usually near the anticipated emergence time for the third molars, and almost characteristically it is the lower anterior teeth which best demonstrate the phenomenon. Unfortunately, the physiological crowding changes are frequently confused with orthodontic treatment relapse. Greater controversy surrounds the aetiology of the undesirable crowding changes and despite many attempts we are still not in the enlightened position of explaining, predicting or preventing the problem (except by permanent retention). It is illogical to assume a single cause as the beguilingly simple observation of crowding belies the complexity of possible interacting factors. Perhaps it is a capricious combination of: tooth size and arch form; facial growth pattern (differential soft tissue and skeletal maturation); continuing late growth rotations; cumulative effects of resting, functional and parafunctional soft tissue pressures; lack of compensating attrition; and an ill-defined, mesially acting force emanating from the back of the dental arch. Many theories have attempted to resolve the mystery of the mesially acting force, including: pressure from erupting third molars; an inherent mesial migration; continuing mesial and occlusal dental drifting; maturation and contraction of periodontal soft tissues (particularly the transseptal fibres); the anterior component of occlusal forces; and the lower anterior arch contracting influence of the incisor overbite.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 'Bacoside B'--the need remains for establishing identity.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Amit, Agarwal

    2013-06-01

    Bacopa monnieri is fast gaining popularity for its beneficial effects on cognition and memory. The active constituents of the plant were putatively identified as 'bacosides A and B' in older publications. Subsequently 'bacoside A' was identified as a mixture of four saponins [bacoside A3 (1), bacopaside II (2), bacopasaponin C (3) and the jujobogenin isomer of the latter (4)] and was considered as part of major constituents of the herb along with bacopaside I (5). These major saponins now form part of analytical monographs in many Pharmacopoeia. However identity of 'bacoside B' still appears controversial with seemingly contradictory information available in the scientific literature. At the same time quality of many extracts and herbal products derived from the plant is still being determined based on the content of 'bacosides A and B'. We have elaborated these issues in this article along with our recommendations to move forward towards achieving scientific clarity on the subject.

  1. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  2. Selected concepts and controversies in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A

    1988-10-01

    Although more than 80 years of research in cardiac resuscitation produced many important findings and greatly enhanced our understanding of the arrest state, outcome following pediatric cardiac arrest remains poor. Resuscitation guidelines have recently been published, but they may not reflect optimal therapy. Closed-chest compression-induced cardiac output may be higher in pediatric patients, particularly infants, than that previously reported in adults. To achieve higher cardiac outputs, direct cardiac compression is important; the recommended compression location has therefore been changed based on recent data. The optimal rate of compression, however, is uncertain, so further research is needed. Alternative vascular access sites, such as the endotracheal and intraosseous route for drug administration may permit more rapid drug delivery, but data suggest that a larger epinephrine dose than currently recommended should be used. It may also be helpful to dilute the drug in normal saline before endotracheal administration. Although experimental data suggest that a pure alpha-adrenergic agonist may be beneficial in a cardiac arrest, recent data show that epinephrine remains the drug of choice. Finally, the role of sodium bicarbonate in both the arrest and postarrest setting has become controversial. Recent data suggest that bicarbonate may be detrimental and that therapy of acidosis is best directed at improving perfusion, oxygenation, and ventilation. Alternative forms of therapy for acidosis, such as THAM and dichloroacetate may prove beneficial in the postarrest setting. PMID:3052707

  3. Endometriosis: A Disease That Remains Enigmatic

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, a gynecologic pathology, is defined by the presence of a tissue similar to uterine endometrium, which is located in places other than physiologically appropriate. These endometrial heterotopic islets contain glands and stroma and are functionally capable of responding to exogenous, endogenous, or local hormonal stimuli. Endometriosis affects 8%–10% of women of reproductive age; in 30% of the women, the condition is associated with primary or secondary infertility. In several instances, endometriosis persists as a minimal or mild disease, or it can resolve on its own. Other cases of endometriosis show severe symptomatology that ends when menopause occurs. Endometriosis can, however, reactivate in several postmenopausal women when iatrogenic or endogenous hormones are present. Endometriosis is occasionally accompanied by malignant ovarian tumors, especially endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas. Its pathogenesis is widely debated, and its variable morphology appears to represent a continuum of individual presentations and progressions. Endometriosis has no pathognomonic signs or symptoms; it is therefore difficult to diagnose. Because of its enigmatic etiopathogenesis, there is currently no satisfactory therapy for all patients with endometriosis. Treatments include medications, surgery, or combined therapies; currently, the only procedures that seem to cure endometriosis are hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In this paper, we review the most controversial and enigmatic aspects of this disease. PMID:23956867

  4. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  5. Abortion controversy hinders state reform effort.

    PubMed

    Frece, J W

    1993-10-28

    A review of the progress and problems of the state of Maryland on health care reform is provided. The Standard Benefits Package Task Force completed and approved in a preliminary 7 to 2 vote a long list of benefits, including abortion services, to be covered in health plans that must be made available to small businesses by July 1, 1994. Small businesses are those employing at least 2 workers and no more than 50 workers. The value of benefits cannot exceed $3519, or policies, $3034. The new health care law passed in summer, 1993 stipulated that the value of basic policies for small companies cannot exceed 12% of wages. The development of a minimum package of benefits was the first phase of the health care reform law. Final decision on benefits will be made sometime in the first week of November and presented to the full 7-member Health Care Access and Cost Commission by November 4, 1993. Abortion opponents have opposed insurance coverage of abortions on the grounds that it is not health care and it forces employers opposed to abortion to accept this package, or deny coverage to employees. A public hearing is expected to hear from abortion foes about their notion to offer abortion coverage as an option or "rider" to the standard insurance policy. The task force has another option: to describe the benefit in terms that do not mention abortion per se, but refer to "family planning services and services for pregnant women," which is the wording in the Clinton health care plan. The Director of Public Affairs for Planned Parenthood of Maryland, Bebe Verdery, reported that the organization is strongly opposed to abortion as optional coverage. Kevin Appleby, Associate Director of Social Concerns for the Maryland Catholic Conference, finds that respect for rights of those with moral concerns against abortion should be respected. The task force is confronted with issues of cost, since its initial benefits package was too high, and, most troubling, the controversy over

  6. Identification of infant skeletal remains: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of infant skeletal remains were described from the view point of personal identification. The age was exactly estimated from union of ossification centers, dental calcification and eruption. While, the sex estimation was not highly reliable, because sex differences had not clearly appeared in infant skeletons, and it was rather difficult in some cases. In infant skeletal remains, age estimation is especially important to help personal identification. The most recent photograph of a presumed person should be used for personal identification by superimposition technique since the size and proportion of infant skull constantly change as a result of its development.

  7. The design of an enzyme: a chronology on the controversy.

    PubMed

    Buc, Henri

    2013-05-13

    After the publication of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, a controversy arose between Jacques Monod, Francis Crick and Jeffries Wyman about the comparison of the regulatory performances of an oligomer undergoing a concerted transition between two states and a monomer having the same composition and subjected to a similar conformational equilibrium. The controversy took place between September 1965 and March 1966. It gave rise to several unpublished notes. Numerous misunderstandings between the participants were not fully dissipated as the controversy abruptly ended.

  8. The Spokane flood controversy and the Martian outflow channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    The controversy over Bretz's hypothesis concerning the cataclysmic Spokane flood is discussed. Attention is directed to similarities between the Channeled Scabland of Washington and some Martian land features considered to be catastrophic flood channels. Characteristics of the enormous plexus of proglacial stream channels eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington are described. The controversiality of the suggestion that a catastrophic flood is responsible for the Martian features is considered with respect to the Spokane flood controversy.

  9. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  10. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  11. Cellulite: advances in treatment: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Cellulite is traditionally considered a highly prevalent aesthetic condition in women. From a clinical standpoint, it is characterized by a cottage-cheese-like appearance of the skin, which can be most commonly found in certain areas of the body (eg, thighs, buttocks, and legs). Although cellulite is generally asymptomatic, the more severe stages can be accompanied by the appearance of painful nodules and increased local temperature, which are suggestive of an inflammatory reaction occurring in the dermis and in the underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue. Whether cellulite is a real disease or only a disturbing aesthetic issue is still a matter of controversy. This debate notwithstanding, it seems clear from market trends that there is considerable commercial interest in developing effective strategies aimed at reducing the cottage-cheese-like appearance of cellulite areas. Quite disturbingly, the majority of treatment attempts to date have been conducted in an empirical manner and without the application of rigorous scientific methodology. This is likely due--at least in part--to the lack of major, evidence-based pathophysiological insights into the nature of this condition. More stringent regulatory control is needed over commercial products aiming at improving the appearance of cellulite.

  12. World bank in AIDS prevention controversy.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1995-06-16

    A controversial editorial review article on AIDS prevention by researchers at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) of the University of California was recently published in the British journal, AIDS. The article's thesis is that in addition to individual behavior, social and economic forces have played a role in promoting the spread of HIV in developing countries, where, by the year 2000, 90 percent of HIV infection will have occurred. The researchers argue that an economic approach, called structural adjustment programs [begun and spearheaded by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank], may have created conditions favoring the spread of HIV infection. The article is concerned about four alleged consequences of these programs: the decline of rural subsistence economy; the development of a transportation infrastructure; migration and urbanization; and reduced spending on health and social services. The CAPS authors recommend changes in development programs which focus on the satisfaction of basic human needs and movement from paternalistic to cooperative development policy. They suggest changing the charter of the World Bank and IMF to allow rescheduling or canceling of debt. World Bank officials, in letters to AIDS, tried to persuade the journal not to publish the article, citing that it falls below the journal's current standards and that some of the information is wrong.

  13. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  14. Controversies in proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Curtis; Henderson, Randal H; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, R Charles; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2016-08-01

    Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use. In this review, we summarize the results of recently published studies that support the safety and efficacy of PT in the treatment of prostate cancer. We also review the available cost-effectiveness data for PT and discuss the future of PT, including the current randomized trial comparing PT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the need for additional research that may help to establish the relative benefit of PT when compared to photon-based radiation therapy. PMID:27558255

  15. Growth hormone and aging: A challenging controversy

    PubMed Central

    Bartke, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Although advanced age or symptoms of aging are not among approved indications for growth hormone (GH) therapy, recombinant human GH (rhGH) and various GH-related products are aggressively promoted as anti-aging therapies. Well-controlled studies of the effects of rhGH treatment in endocrinologically normal elderly subjects report some improvements in body composition and a number of undesirable side effects in sharp contrast to major benefits of GH therapy in patients with GH deficiency. Controversies surrounding the potential utility of GH in treatment of a geriatric patient are fueled by increasing evidence linking GH and cancer and by remarkably increased lifespan of GH-resistant and GH-deficient mice. Conservation of cellular signaling mechanisms that influence aging in organisms ranging from worms to mammals suggests that at least some of the results obtained in mutant mice are applicable to the human. We suggest that the normal, physiological functions of GH in promoting growth, sexual maturation and fecundity involve significant costs in terms of aging and life expectancy. Natural decline in GH levels during aging likely contributes to concomitant alterations in body composition and vigor but also may be offering important protection from cancer and other age-associated diseases. PMID:19281058

  16. Endoscopic vein harvesting: technique, outcomes, concerns & controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the graft conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has significant implications both in the short- and long-term. The patency of a coronary conduit is closely associated with an uneventful postoperative course, better long-term patient survival and superior freedom from re-intervention. The internal mammary artery is regarded as the primary conduit for CABG patients, given its association with long-term patency and survival. However, long saphenous vein (LSV) continues to be utilized universally as patients presenting for CABG often have multiple coronary territories requiring revascularization. Traditionally, the LSV has been harvested by creating incisions from the ankle up to the groin termed open vein harvesting (OVH). However, such harvesting methods are associated with incisional pain and leg wound infections. In addition, patients find such large incisions to be cosmetically unappealing. These concerns regarding wound morbidity and patient satisfaction led to the emergence of endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH). Published experience comparing OVH with EVH suggests decreased wound related complications, improved patient satisfaction, shorter hospital stay, and reduced postoperative pain at the harvest site following EVH. Despite these reported advantages concerns regarding risk of injury at the time of harvest with its potential detrimental effect on vein graft patency and clinical outcomes have prevented universal adoption of EVH. This review article provides a detailed insight into the technical aspects, outcomes, concerns, and controversies associated with EVH. PMID:24251019

  17. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:24910577

  18. Lyme disease: diagnostic issues and controversies.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme disease is a controversial topic. Most practitioners and scientists recognize that Lyme disease is associated with certain objective clinical manifestations supported by laboratory evidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the etiologic agent). There are others, however, who believe that patients with Lyme disease may have a wide variety of entirely nonspecific symptoms without any objective clinical manifestation and that laboratory evidence of infection by B. burgdorferi is not required to support the diagnosis. In reality, this perspective is not evidence based and would inevitably lead to innumerable misdiagnoses, given the high frequency of medically unexplained symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pains, in the general population. Although those espousing this viewpoint do not believe that a positive laboratory test is required, nevertheless, they often seek out and promote alternative, unapproved testing methods that frequently provide false-positive results to justify their diagnosis. Herein, we provide a brief overview of Lyme disease testing, emphasizing current usage and limitations. We also discuss the use of nonvalidated procedures and the prospects for a reduction in such testing practices in the future.

  19. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Emile F. F.; Visser, Leonardus G.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient’s natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  20. The catatonia conundrum: controversies and contradictions.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Parakh, Preeti; Sridhar, M

    2014-02-01

    Although catatonia is known to psychiatrists for more than a century, it is still poorly understood, often under recognized, have inspired debate and criticism about nosological status of the catatonic syndrome in recent times without reaching its conclusion. It can present with a number of psychiatric and medical illnesses and is easily treatable, though treatment response varies depending upon the underlying condition and can lead on to a multitude of complications, if not treated. Some issues are more than forty catatonic signs are available to scientific audience for diagnosis; threshold number for labelling varies according to the nosological system followed and the underlying condition; and mood stabilizers like carbamazepine and lithium are helpful in some cases of idiopathic periodic catatonia. Researchers have been asking for a separate diagnostic category for catatonia since long and the debate has gained pace over the last few years, with new editions of both DSM and ICD coming up. Therefore, this paper looks at the controversies associated with the diagnosis and classification of catatonia, the arguments and counter-arguments and future directions, in crisp.

  1. Confusion and controversy in the stress field.

    PubMed

    Selye, H

    1975-06-01

    An attempt is made to further clarify present areas of controversy in the stress field, in response to a two-part article by Dr. John W. Mason which concludes in this issue of the Journal of Human Stress. The author tries to elucidate each source of confusion enumerated by Dr. Mason. The continued use of the word "stress" for the nonspecific response to any demand is deemed most desirable. The once vague term can now be applied in a well-defined sense and is accepted in all foreign languages as well, including those in which no such word existed previously in any sense. Subdivision of the stress concept has become necessary as more recent work has led to such notions as "eustress," "distress," "systemic stress" and "local stress." Confusion between stress as both an agent and a result can be avoided only by the distinction between "stress" and "stressor". It is explained that the stress syndrome is--by definition--nonspecific in its causation. However, depending upon conditioning factors, which can selectively influence the reactivity of certain organs, the same stressor can elicit different manifestations in different individuals.

  2. Publication of Controversial Papers in Life.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Life (ISSN 2075-1729, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/life/) is a new journal that deals with new and sometime difficult interdisciplinary matters. Consequently, the journal will occasionally be presented with submitted articles that are controversial and/or outside conventional scientific views. Some papers recently accepted for publication in Life have attracted significant attention. Moreover, members of the Editorial Board have objected to these papers; some have resigned, and others have questioned the scientific validity of the contributions. In response I want to first state some basic facts regarding all publications in this journal. All papers are peer-reviewed, although it is often difficult to obtain expert reviewers for some of the interdisciplinary topics covered by this journal. I feel obliged to stress that although we will strive to guarantee the scientific standard of the papers published in this journal, all the responsibility for the ideas contained in the published articles rests entirely on their authors. Discussions on previously published articles are welcome and I hope that, by fostering discussion and by keeping an open-minded attitude towards new ideas, the journal will spur progress in this little explored, difficult and very exciting area of knowledge. [...]. PMID:26791663

  3. LDL cholesterol: controversies and future therapeutic directions.

    PubMed

    Ridker, Paul M

    2014-08-16

    Lifelong exposure to raised concentrations of LDL cholesterol increases cardiovascular event rates, and the use of statin therapy as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and smoking cessation has proven highly effective in reducing the population burden associated with hyperlipidaemia. Yet, despite consistent biological, genetic, and epidemiological data, and evidence from randomised trials, there is controversy among national guidelines and clinical practice with regard to LDL cholesterol, its measurement, the usefulness of population-based screening, the net benefit-to-risk ratio for different LDL-lowering drugs, the benefit of treatment targets, and whether aggressive lowering of LDL is safe. Several novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of people with genetic defects that result in loss of function within the LDL receptor, a major determinant of inherited hyperlipidaemias. Moreover, the usefulness of monoclonal antibodies that extend the LDL-receptor lifecycle (and thus result in substantial lowering of LDL cholesterol below the levels achieved with statins alone) is being assessed in phase 3 trials that will enrol more than 60,000 at-risk patients worldwide. These trials represent an exceptionally rapid translation of genetic observations into clinical practice and will address core questions of how low LDL cholesterol can be safely reduced, whether the mechanism of LDL-cholesterol lowering matters, and whether ever more aggressive lipid-lowering provides a safe, long-term mechanism to prevent atherothrombotic complications.

  4. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  5. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  6. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  7. Interleukin-3 and ex vivo maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Although the utilization of IL-3 in the ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells has been considered as an attractive possibility, its mode of action remains unclear and controversial. Some reports show that IL-3 maintains or even enhances primitive stem cell activity, whereas others show the opposite. The presence of serum in culture media enhances the pro-differentiating effect of IL-3 on stem cells. Conversely, addition of IL-3 to serum-free cultures improves the capacity of TPO, SCF and Flt3-ligand to promote the self-renewal of primitive stem cells. The presence or absence of serum or of some serum substitutes (in serum-free cultures), as well as other culture parameters are probably responsible for these contrasting effects of IL-3 on stem cells. However, none of the data presently evaluated bring a clear, definitive explanation to this apparent paradox. Those data that appear to be the most informative are presented and discussed in this "technical review". PMID:15217747

  8. Could it happen here? Vaccine risk controversies and the specter of derailment.

    PubMed

    Colgrove, James; Bayer, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Controversy over vaccine safety has achieved high visibility over the past decade. At the same time, however, levels of coverage for routinely recommended childhood vaccines in the United States are at their highest ever. We examine this apparent paradox. We consider the ways in which concerns over vaccine safety have emerged and diffused through the popular media, legislative hearings, and Internet-based activism. As a case study, we review the controversy over the alleged connection between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and consider why it had a dramatic effect on the vaccine's acceptance in Great Britain but virtually none in the United States. PMID:15886167

  9. Controversy in the Composition Classroom: Debate as a Mode of Pre-Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClish, Glen

    Controversy and debate can be effectively employed as the central pre-writing activity in the composition classroom. The current model of prewriting in the composition classroom is the reflective model, which involves relatively private exploration of issues and ideas leading to paper topics. Although in the short run it is easier for both student…

  10. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  11. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  12. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  13. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  14. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  15. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  16. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons.

  17. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  18. The (178m2)Hf Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-07-24

    Since its discovery in the 1960's the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range {approx}10 to {approx}60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was {approx}7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source. The prospect of such applications has focused considerable interest on realizing the promise that is implicit in the reported observations. However, two experiments performed by a group from ANL/LANL/LLNL at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (the ''APS collaboration'') reported negative results for the observation of any photon-triggered deexcitation of the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer [3]. This has led to a continued controversy, where both sides have adamantly defended their observations. At this point an outsider has difficulty determining whether there is indeed a triggering effect that should be pursued energetically with substantial resources, or whether the phenomenon consists of overly optimistic interpretation of data.

  19. Screening for cancer: concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gates, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Early detection of cancer is a core task in family medicine, and patients have come to expect screening tests, sometimes out of proportion to what evidence can justify. To understand the controversies surrounding screening and to provide sound advice to patients, family physicians should be familiar with the fundamental concepts of screening. Failure to account for the effects of lead-time, length-time, and overdiagnosis biases can lead to overestimation of screening benefits. For this reason, the best method for evaluating the benefit of screening tests is a randomized controlled trial showing decreased disease-specific or all-cause mortality. The number needed to screen can be used to measure the magnitude of benefit of screening tests. Accepted screening tests often require screening several hundred to more than 1,000 asymptomatic patients to prevent one death from the disease. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend screening for colorectal cancer in adults 50 to 75 years of age, and recommend against prostate-specific antigen testing to screen for prostate cancer. Annual low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer reduces mortality in persons 55 to 80 years of age with at least a 30-pack-year history who are otherwise healthy smokers or who have quit smoking within the past 15 years; however, it is associated with a high false-positive rate, uncertain harms from radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Therefore, it should be performed only in conjunction with smoking cessation interventions.

  20. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  1. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  2. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  3. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses. PMID:15277721

  4. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature).

    PubMed

    Seifeldin, Sameh A

    2016-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  5. Diet, H pylori infection and gastric cancer: Evidence and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    Despite decreasing incidence and mortality rates, gastric cancer (GC) still remains the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Due to the limited treatment options, at present, prevention is likely to be the only effective means of controlling this disease. The success of a prevention strategy depends upon the understanding of etiological and pathogenic mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis. The etiology of GC is multi-factorial, however, in the recent years, mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role. The most important environmental factors implicated in the pathogenesis of GC are diet and H pylori infection. Thus, modifications in lifestyle and dietary habit associated with eradication of H pylori infection could hypothetically represent the most promising potential targets for GC prevention. In this review we will address the evidence and the controversies on the role of these agents in non-cardia GC by focusing on retrospective and prospective observational studies and interventional trials. PMID:17589938

  6. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  7. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

  8. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  9. Roles of glucocorticoids in human parturition: a controversial fact?

    PubMed

    Li, X Q; Zhu, P; Myatt, L; Sun, K

    2014-05-01

    The pivotal role of glucocorticoids in the initiation of parturition has been very well documented in several domestic mammalian animal species. However the role of glucocorticoids in human parturition remains controversial mainly because of the absence of effect of synthetic glucocorticoids, given to promote fetal organ maturation in pregnant women with threatened preterm delivery, on the length of gestation. This article will review studies of glucocorticoids in human parturition and provide evidence for an important role of glucocorticoids in human parturition as well but a simultaneous high concentration of estrogen within the intrauterine tissues may be necessary for GCs to initiate parturition. The synthetic GCs dexamethasone and betamethasone pass through the placenta intact resulting in potent negative feedback on the fetal HPA axis and diminished production of DHEA from fetal adrenal glands for estrogen synthesis by the placenta. This may negate the effect of systemic administration of GCs on the induction of labor, especially in cases where the myometrium is not yet fully primed by estrogen. Endogenous glucocorticoids are inactivated by the placental 11β-HSD2 thus limiting the negative feedback of maternal cortisol on the fetal HPA axis and allowing the simultaneous rise of cortisol and estrogen levels towards the end of gestation. Therefore, endogenous glucocorticoids, particularly glucocorticoids produced locally in the intrauterine tissues may play an important role in parturition in humans by enhancing prostaglandin production in the fetal membranes and stimulating estrogen and CRH production in the placenta.

  10. Some current controversies in heart failure (2004-2005).

    PubMed

    Cleland, J G F; Loh, H; Windram, J

    2004-12-01

    The disparity between what doctor's believe and the medical facts can be frightening at times. This reflects centuries of training on how to manage patients in the absence of evidence to guide practice. Increasingly disease is becoming susceptible to treatment, requiring a change in the professional approach from the educated, hopeful guess to the application of objective data. Arrogance and certainty, born of ignorance and clutching in desperation at imaginary straws probably still have a place in medicine when conventional treatment has failed, but should play a diminishing role within the medical profession. Epidemiological association is no longer sufficient evidence to conclude that an intervention is effective; with few exceptions, randomised-controlled trials are required. A more successful and objective era of medical practice has arrived. Consequently, a greater degree of scepticism about claims of benefit is also appropriate, which should apply equally to treatments new and old. Of course, no 2 patients are alike, and the evidence-base remains a guide-map on how patients should be treated, rather than a set of rigid rules. Guidelines are guidelines and not infallible, inviolable decrees. In this article, some of the current controversies in the management of heart failure are discussed, ranging from diagnosis, diastolic heart failure, and the role of natriuretic peptides, to the lack of evidence for a clinically-relevant benefit (and therefore possible harm) from aspirin, statins, implantable defibrillators or revascularisation.

  11. Deep sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery: Evidences and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo; Barbero, Cristina; Rinaldi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Despite many advances in prevention and perioperative care, deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) remains a pressing concern in cardiac surgery, with a still relevant incidence and with a considerable impact on in-hospital mortality and also on mid- and long-term survival. The permanent high impact of this complication is partially related to the increasing proportion of patients at high-risk for infection, as well as to the many patient and surgical risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of DSWI. The prophylactic antibiotic therapy is one of the most important tools in the prevention of DSWI. However, the choice of antibiotic, the dose, the duration, the adequate levels in serum and tissue, and the timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis are still controversial. The treatment of DSWI ranges from surgical revision with primary closure to surgical revision with open dressings or closed irrigation, from reconstruction with soft tissue flaps to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, to date, there have been no accepted recommendations regarding the best management of DSWI. Emerging evidence in the literature has validated the efficacy and safety of NPWT either as a single-line therapy, or as a "bridge" prior to final surgical closure. In conclusion, the careful control of patient and surgical risk factors - when possible, the proper antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the choice of validated techniques of treatment could contribute to keep DSWIs at a minimal rate. PMID:26557476

  12. Deep sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery: Evidences and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Barbero, Cristina; Rinaldi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many advances in prevention and perioperative care, deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) remains a pressing concern in cardiac surgery, with a still relevant incidence and with a considerable impact on in-hospital mortality and also on mid- and long-term survival. The permanent high impact of this complication is partially related to the increasing proportion of patients at high-risk for infection, as well as to the many patient and surgical risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of DSWI. The prophylactic antibiotic therapy is one of the most important tools in the prevention of DSWI. However, the choice of antibiotic, the dose, the duration, the adequate levels in serum and tissue, and the timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis are still controversial. The treatment of DSWI ranges from surgical revision with primary closure to surgical revision with open dressings or closed irrigation, from reconstruction with soft tissue flaps to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, to date, there have been no accepted recommendations regarding the best management of DSWI. Emerging evidence in the literature has validated the efficacy and safety of NPWT either as a single-line therapy, or as a “bridge” prior to final surgical closure. In conclusion, the careful control of patient and surgical risk factors - when possible, the proper antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the choice of validated techniques of treatment could contribute to keep DSWIs at a minimal rate. PMID:26557476

  13. Controversies and challenges in the management of chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Staubach, P; Zuberbier, T; Vestergaard, C; Siebenhaar, F; Toubi, E; Sussman, G

    2016-07-01

    This supplement reports proceedings of the second international Global Urticaria Forum, which was held in Berlin, Germany in November 2015. Despite the clear international guideline, there remain a number of controversies and challenges in the management of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). As a result of major advancements in urticaria over the past 4 years, the current EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO urticaria guideline treatment algorithm requires updating. Case studies from patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) [also called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)], chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU) or diseases and syndromes related to CU are useful in describing and exploring challenges in disease management. Case studies of specific CSU patient populations such as children with CU or patients with angio-edema but no hives also require consideration as potentially challenging groups with unmet needs. The current EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO urticaria guideline provides a general framework for the management of patients with CU but, as these cases highlight, a personalized approach based on the expert knowledge of the physician may be required.

  14. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

  15. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  16. Culture Shock: Using Art and Art Controversy To Teach History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Endorses the television series entitled "Culture Shock" that views controversial art as an artifact suggesting that the arts, and controversies surrounding them, can help viewers think critically about the issues of past and present societies. Focuses on "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the painting "Olympia," jazz, and films in the…

  17. Resisting the Pendulum Swing: Informed Perspectives on Education Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck, Ed.

    Designed to offer more than slogans and buzzwords to practitioners who are grappling with an array of education controversies, this book provides classroom teachers with a spectrum of information about current controversies so that they will be better equipped to blend action with reflection. The book deliberately resists extremes and argues for…

  18. Improving Learning by Discussing Controversies in 20th Century Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Rodriguez, Maria A.

    2002-01-01

    Textbooks rarely emphasize how controversial some physics theories were at the time of their proposal. Makes the case that useful classroom debate can be generated by considering the controversy that arose over models of the atom such as Rutherford's and Bohr's, and ideas about fractional charges put forward by Millikan and arising from quark…

  19. What's Wrong with the "Teach the Controversy" Slogan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are often exhorted by creationists to "teach the controversy." Although such encouragement sounds on the surface like a proposal for critical thinking instruction, the history of the creationist movement in North America belies this claim. Rather than teach students to analyze and evaluate actual scientific controversies, the intent of…

  20. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  1. Teachers' Perspectives on Incorporating Current Controversial Issues into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Sunal, Cynthia; Haas, Mary; Laughlin, Margaret

    Does a current controversial issue become part of the social studies curriculum in a context where the media focus largely on the issue? A study explored this question through surveys and in-depth interviews that investigated K-12 social studies teachers' perspectives on the incorporation of current controversial issues into the curriculum. A…

  2. Literature for Children: Avoiding Controversy and Intellectual Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses lack of literature on controversial subjects that can help prepare children and young adults to deal perceptively with complexities of modern world. Highlights include meeting the issues head-on, glorifying armed conflict in video media, avoiding issues of nuclear war, and intellectual depth and dealing with controversial issues. (12…

  3. The NSF Science Education Controversy: Issues, Events, Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Karen B.

    Discussion of National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of precollege science education revolves around the controversy of whether NSF should fund "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS). NSF had funded MACOS' curriculum development, implementation, and postevaluation during 1963-1975. The controversy began in March 1975 when U.S. Congressman John Conlan…

  4. Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution Controversy in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenta, Tony; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's Theory of Evolution has stirred controversy since its inception. Public schools in the United States, pressed by special interest groups on both sides of the controversy, have struggled with how best to teach the theory, if at all. Court cases have dealt with whether states can ban the teaching of evolutionary theory, whether Creationism…

  5. The Procedurally Directive Approach to Teaching Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Maughn Rollins

    2014-01-01

    Recent articles on teaching controversial topics in schools have employed Michael Hand's distinction between "directive teaching," in which teachers attempt to persuade students of correct positions on topics that are not rationally controversial, and "nondirective teaching," in which teachers avoid persuading students on…

  6. Implants and Ethnocide: Learning from the Cochlear Implant Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the fictional case of the "Babel fish" to explore and illustrate the issues involved in the controversy about the use of cochlear implants in prelinguistically deaf children. Analysis of this controversy suggests that the development of genetic tests for deafness poses a serious threat to the continued flourishing of Deaf culture.…

  7. 12 CFR 1080.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 1080.3 Section 1080.3 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1080.3 Policy as to private controversies. The Bureau shall act only in the public interest and...

  8. 12 CFR 1080.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 1080.3 Section 1080.3 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1080.3 Policy as to private controversies. The Bureau shall act only in the public interest and...

  9. Structured Academic Controversies in the Professional Physical Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Lynnette Young; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured academic controversy is a cooperative learning strategy that can promote learning in theoretical physical education classes at the college level. This article explains how to conduct structured academic controversy, providing examples of topics (e.g., adapted physical education, biomechanics, motor development, and sport psychology).…

  10. The Rasch Rating Model and the Disordered Threshold Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond J.; Wu, Margaret L.; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Rasch rating (or partial credit) model is a widely applied item response model that is used to model ordinal observed variables that are assumed to collectively reflect a common latent variable. In the application of the model there is considerable controversy surrounding the assessment of fit. This controversy is most notable when the set of…

  11. KNOW NUKES: a model for teaching controversial issues

    SciTech Connect

    Thomashow, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation articulates elements of an educational strategy derived from the experience of the KNOW NUKES program, a teacher training project designed to introduce the nuclear power controversy in the high school classroom. This strategy can be used as means of furthering the effectiveness of controversial issues education, not only in the area of nuclear power, but in teaching about any environmental issue. This is specifically achieved by (2) placing the KNOW NUKES institute in the broader context of controversial issues education; (2) describing in detail KNOW NUKES project planning; (3) reviewing the structure and content of the various teaching techniques and materials that have been developed for the KNOW NUKES institute; (4) utilizing a particular technique developed by the institute that reveals varying perspectives on controversial issues, in this case, an instrumental for decoding the controversial issues that are explicit and implicit in corporate image advertisements; and (5) qualitatively evaluating the practical implementation of the KNOW NUKES model.

  12. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  13. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  14. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  15. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  16. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  17. Effects of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Constructive Controversy on Social Interdependence, Motivation, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, Andy J.; Glass, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning capitalizes on the relational processes by which peers promote learning, yet it remains unclear whether these processes operate similarly in face-to-face and online settings. This study addresses this issue by comparing face-to-face and computer-mediated versions of "constructive controversy", a cooperative learning procedure…

  18. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  19. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  20. Borderline viability: controversies in caring for the extremely premature infant.

    PubMed

    Leuthner, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Controversy surrounding the decision to resuscitate at the limits or borderline of viability has been at the center of neonatal ethical debate for decades. This debate has led to numerous reports from individual institutions, councils, and advisory committees that all have remarkable consistency in the development of gestational age-based guidelines. This article reviews legal or regulatory concerns that may contradict ethical discussion and guidelines, discriminatory and scientific basis concerns with consensus guidelines, and personal controversy about how to determine best interest. Guidelines are a reasonable place to start in helping determine parental authority and autonomy. The article also addresses controversies raised in counseling and costs.

  1. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Peter; Bailey, Damian M; Berger, Marc M; Knauth, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of recent publications on pathophysiologic concepts and on practical aspects of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Magnetic resonance imaging studies do not provide evidence of total brain volume increase nor edema within the first 6 to 10 h of exposure to hypoxia despite symptoms of AMS. After 16 to 32 h at about 4500 m, brain volume increases by 0.8% to 2.7%, but morphological changes do not clearly correlate with symptoms of AMS, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure was unchanged from normoxic values in individuals with AMS. These data do not support the prevailing hypothesis that AMS is caused by cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Direct measurement of increased oxygen radicals in hypoxia and a first study reducing AMS when lowering oxygen radicals by antioxidants suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of AMS. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that theophylline significantly attenuates periodic breathing without improving arterial oxygen saturation during sleep. Its effects on AMS are marginal and clearly inferior to acetazolamide. A most recent large trial with Ginkgo biloba clearly showed that this drug does not prevent AMS in a low-risk setting in which acetazolamide in a low dose of 2 x 125 mg was effective. Therefore, acetazolamide remains the drug of choice for prevention and the recommended dose remains 2 x 250 mg daily until a lower dose has been tested in a high-risk setting and larger clinical trials with antioxidants have been performed.

  2. Inhaler devices: what remains to be done?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian J; Bell, John; Bowman, Nic; Everard, Mark; Stein, Stephen; Weers, Jeffry G

    2010-12-01

    The 1000 Years of Pharmaceutical Aerosols Conference convened posing the question; "what remains to be done?" When applying this question to the topic of inhaler devices, two hugely different perspectives could be taken. On the one hand, it could be argued that because there is an array of delivery systems available and the industry, prescribing physicians and patients alike have considerable choice, why would we believe it necessary to do anything further? On the other hand, as an industry, we are constantly reminded by our "customers" that the inhaler devices available are less than adequate, and in some cases woefully inadequate, that they are not "patient" friendly, not intuitive to use and importantly do nothing to encourage the patient to take the medication as intended and as prescribed. So, taking the second point of view as more reflective of reality--the Voice of the Customer--our starting point must be that there is still much to do in the field of inhaler devices. The purpose of this article is to outline some key basic requirements for inhaler design and perhaps to question some of the entrenched thinking that has pervaded inhaler product design for too many years.

  3. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  4. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  5. DES the year in review: controversies.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Bourantas, C; Serruys, P W

    2013-04-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have transformed interventional cardiology over the past decade. Whilst their efficacy has rarely been called into question, there have been concerns over the safety of the early devices, which has prompted the development of new coronary stents. Many of these new devices have entered clinical practice, however questions remain as to whether they offer the improvements in clinical outcomes that were originally anticipated. In addition, there is a debate whether the reported high efficacy of these devices enables percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to be performed in patient and lesion sub-groups previous entirely the domain of the cardiac surgeon. This review paper addresses these outstanding questions. PMID:23492595

  6. Kaletra monotherapy controversy: AmfAR publishes overview.

    PubMed

    2004-09-24

    The possibility of using Kaletra alone for selected patients instead of three or more antiretrovirals has led to controversy among HIV physicians, reviewed in a short article published by the American Foundation for AIDS Research.

  7. A Critique of "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)

  8. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participant who has filed a written direct statement. (2) Bad faith inflation of claim. If the Copyright Royalty Judges determine that a participant asserts in bad faith an amount in controversy in excess of...

  9. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... participant who has filed a written direct statement. (2) Bad faith inflation of claim. If the Copyright Royalty Judges determine that a participant asserts in bad faith an amount in controversy in excess of...

  10. Summerhill Dismembered: Using Controversy to Motivate Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Louis; Lawrence, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    Workshops for teachers engaged in practitioner-based inquiry centered on the controversial issues raised by a television documentary on the Summerhill School. Learners normally engaged in distance education were motivated by the processes of dissent, argument, and disputation. (SK)

  11. Recent developments in health care law: culture and controversy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Roberta M; Bliss, Lisa; Caley, Sylvia; Lombardo, Paul A; Wolf, Leslie E

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews recent developments in health care law, focusing on controversy at the intersection of health care law and culture. The article addresses: emerging issues in federal regulatory oversight of the rapidly developing market in direct-to-consumer genetic testing, including questions about the role of government oversight and professional mediation of consumer choice; continuing controversies surrounding stem cell research and therapies and the implications of these controversies for healthcare institutions; a controversy in India arising at the intersection of abortion law and the rights of the disabled but implicating a broader set of cross-cultural issues; and the education of U.S. health care providers and lawyers in the theory and practice of cultural competency.

  12. Progressive transitions in chemistry teachers' understanding of nature of science based on historical controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to facilitate progressive transitions in chemistry teachers understanding of nature of science in the context of historical controversies. Selected controversies referred to episodes that form part of the chemistry curriculum both at secondary and university freshman level. The study is based on 17 in-service teachers who had registered for an 11-week course on ‘Investigation in the teaching of chemistry’ as part of their Master’s degree program. The course is based on 17 readings drawing on a history and philosophy of science perspective with special reference to controversial episodes in the chemistry curriculum. Course activities included written reports, class room discussions based on participants’ presentations, and written exams. Based on the results obtained it is suggested that this study facilitated the following progressive transitions in teachers’ understanding of nature of science: (a) Problematic nature of the scientific method, objectivity and the empirical basis of science; (b) Myths associated with respect to the nature of science and teaching chemistry; (c) Science does not develop by appealing to objectivity in an absolute sense, as creativity and presuppositions also play a crucial role; (d) The role of speculation and controversy in the construction of knowledge based on episodes from the chemistry curriculum; (e) How did Bohr confirm his postulates? This goes beyond the treatment in most textbooks; (f) Differentiation between the idealized scientific law and the observations. It is concluded that given the opportunity to reflect, discuss and participate in a series of course activities based on various controversial episodes, teachers’ understanding of nature of science can be enhanced.

  13. Key Controversies in Colloid and Crystalloid Fluid Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leedahl, David D.; Kashani, Kianoush B.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 2 centuries have passed since the use of intravenous fluid became a foundational component of clinical practice. Despite a steady stream of published investigations on the topic, questions surrounding the choice, dose, timing, targets, and cost-effectiveness of various fluid options remain insufficiently answered. In recent years, 2 of the most debated topics reference the role of albumin in acute care and the safety of normal saline. Although albumin has a place in therapy for specific patient populations, its high cost relative to other fluids makes it a less desirable option for hospitals and health systems with escalating formulary scrutiny. Pharmacists bear responsibility for reconciling this disparity and supporting the rational use of albumin in acute care through a careful evaluation of recently published literature. In parallel, it has become clear that crystalloids should no longer be considered a homogenous class of fluids. The past reliance on normal saline has been questioned due to recent findings of renal dysfunction attributable to the solution’s supraphysiologic chloride concentration. These safety concerns with 0.9% sodium chloride may result in a practice shift toward more routine use of “balanced crystalloids,” such as lactated Ringer’s or Plasma-Lyte, that mimic the composition of extracellular fluid. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence regarding these 2 important fluid controversies that are likely to affect hospital pharmacists in the coming decades — the evidence-based use of human albumin and the rising role of balanced salt solutions in clinical practice. PMID:26405334

  14. Current controversies in the relationships between autism and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2015-06-01

    The controversies that have arisen in endeavoring to establish the nature of the relationships between autism and epilepsy might be summarized in a few simple questions, most of which do not yet have clear, complete answers. Does epilepsy cause autism? Does autism cause epilepsy? Are there underlying brain mechanisms that predispose to both conditions? What is the role of genetics in this regard? What is the importance of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors? Do any of the proposed relationships between autism and epilepsy provide insight into useful management or treatment? Is the prognosis of either autism or epilepsy different when the other condition is also present? What is the role of additional comorbidities, such as intellectual impairment or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in the relationship between the two conditions and in influencing treatment choices? From the evidence currently available, it would appear that epilepsy can rarely be the cause of autistic features but is not the cause of autism in most cases. There is currently no credible mechanism for suggesting that autism might cause epilepsy. There is strong evidence for an underlying predisposition for both conditions, particularly arising from genetic investigations. However, many issues remain unresolved. Considering the amount of research that has been published in this area, it is surprising that so few definitive answers have been established. The papers in this issue's special section provide additional insights into the relationships between autism and epilepsy; while they do not provide answers to all the questions, they represent considerable progress in this area and, at the very least, give some strong indication of what research might, in the future, provide such answers.

  15. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    PubMed Central

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  16. Management of type 3 acromioclavicular joint dislocations--current controversies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suezie; Blank, Alan; Strauss, Eric

    2014-01-01

    AC (acromioclavicular) joint dislocations are a common injury seen by physicians. Symptoms range from minor discomfort with activity to complete disability of the extremity. Although most orthopaedic surgeons agree on how to treat either mild (type 1-2) or severe (type 4-6) injuries, there is no consensus for treatment of type 3 injuries. This article reviews the relevant literature pertaining to the anatomy of the injury, evaluation of the patient, pertinent imaging as well as the controversial management of type 3 AC joint dislocations. With improvement in surgical techniques over the past 30 years, there have been many published studies evaluating both operative and non-operative care. Surgery has shown dramatic improvement in patient-rated outcomes; however, it is not always without complications. These risks in some patients may not be worth the potential surgical benefits. In type 3 AC joint injuries each patient and pathology must be carefully analyzed to ensure that the correct treatment option is chosen.

  17. Embryo Disposition Disputes: Controversies and Case Law.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Adashi, Eli Y

    2016-07-01

    When prospective parents use in vitro fertilization, many of them hope to generate more embryos than they intend to implant immediately. The technology often requires multiple attempts to reach a successful pregnancy, and couples can cryopreserve any excess embryos so that they have them on hand for later attempts. As part of obtaining informed consent for IVF or cryopreservation, clinics typically ask patients to specify their preferences for the embryos in the event of divorce or death, offering options such as use of the embryos by a specified partner, donation to research, or discarding the remaining embryos. Still, many courts face a recurring problem: the partners dissolve their relationship (typically through divorce), and one party wants to use the frozen embryos over the objections of the other. Courts and legislatures have struggled with how to handle these cases, which seem to pit one partner's right to procreate against the other's right not to procreate. In this essay, we use one of the most recent decisions in this line of cases-the Appellate Court of Illinois's decision in Szafranski v. Dunston-to explain the current state of the law and make recommendations for changes. The issue is ripe for revisiting because in the last year, embryo disputes have become a battlefront for larger conflagrations over the moral status of embryos. PMID:27417864

  18. Cerebral blood flow in posterior cortical nodes of the default mode network decreases with task engagement but remains higher than in most brain regions.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic "default mode network" and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion.

  19. Microglia and inflammation: conspiracy, controversy or control?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Adelaide; Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Pais, Teresa F

    2014-10-01

    Microglial cells contribute to normal function of the central nervous system (CNS). Besides playing a role in the innate immunity, they are also involved in neuronal plasticity and homeostasis of the CNS. While microglial cells get activated and undergo phenotypic changes in different disease contexts, they are far from being the "villains" in the CNS. Mounting evidence indicates that microglial dysfunction can exacerbate the pathogenesis of several diseases in the CNS. Several molecular mechanisms tightly regulate the production of inflammatory and toxic factors released by microglia. These mechanisms involve the interaction with other glial cells and neurons and the fine regulation of signaling and transcription activation pathways. The purpose of this review is to discuss microglia activation and to highlight the molecular pathways that can counteract the detrimental role of microglia in several neurologic diseases. Recent work presented in this review support that the understanding of microglial responses can pave the way to design new therapies for inflammatory diseases of the CNS. PMID:25008043

  20. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  1. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  2. Breast cancer screening controversy: too much or not enough?

    PubMed

    Pivot, Xavier; Viguier, Jérôme; Touboul, Chantal; Morère, Jean-François; Blay, Jean-Yves; Coscas, Yvan; Lhomel, Christine; Eisinger, François

    2015-06-01

    The Cochrane analysis exploring the risk/benefit ratio of breast cancer screening resulted in a controversy worldwide spread by the mass media. Our survey sought to assess the impact of this controversy in terms of breast cancer screening awareness and attendance. A nationwide observational study, recorded in the EDIFICE iterative surveys, with a representative sample of 451 women aged 40-75 years, living in France, was carried out in the 3 months after the start of the controversy in January 2013. Of the 405 women with no personal history of cancer, 69 (17%) declared having heard of the controversy (aware group). Women remembering the controversy were more likely to belong to higher socioprofessional categories and to have a higher level of education. The most frequently remembered issues were overdiagnosis (38%), unreliability (16%) and radiation risk (9%). Compared with women who were unaware of the controversy, the aware group knew more about the limits of breast cancer screening (undiagnosed cancers, 20 vs. 7%, P<0.05 and risk of false positives, 20 vs. 2%, P<0.05) and were more likely to change their opinion for the worse over the mass media debate (8.7 vs. 1.2%, P<0.05). Nevertheless, only 1% of the aware-group declared their intention to subsequently undergo screening less frequently. The low impact of the controversy on the behaviour of women with respect to screening suggests that it should not be seen as a threat to screening attendance rates, but more as an opportunity to improve awareness. PMID:26016791

  3. Resolving controversies in hip fracture care: the need for large collaborative trials in hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2009-07-01

    Hip fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the burden of disability associated with hip fractures globally vindicate the need for high-quality research to advance the care of patients with hip fractures. Historically, large, multi-centre randomized controlled trials have been rare in the orthopaedic trauma literature. Similar to other medical specialties, orthopaedic research is currently undergoing a paradigm shift from single centre initiatives to larger collaborative groups. This is evident with the establishment of several collaborative groups in Canada, in the United States, and in Europe, which has proven that multi-centre trials can be extremely successful in orthopaedic trauma research.Despite ever increasing literature on the topic of his fractures, the optimal treatment of hip fractures remains unknown and controversial. To resolve this controversy large multi-national collaborative randomized controlled trials are required. In 2005, the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative was officially established following funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research International Opportunity Program with the mandate of resolving controversies in hip fracture management. This manuscript will describe the need, the information, the organization, and the accomplishments to date of the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative.

  4. Resolving Controversies in Hip Fracture Care: The Need for Large Collaborative Trials in Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Schemitsch, Emil H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hip fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the burden of disability associated with hip fractures globally vindicates the need for high-quality research to advance the care of patients with hip fractures. Historically, large, multi-centre randomized controlled trials have been rare in the orthopaedic trauma literature. Similar to other medical specialties, orthopaedic research is currently undergoing a paradigm shift from single centre initiatives to larger collaborative groups. This is evident with the establishment of several collaborative groups in Canada, in the United States, and in Europe, which has proven that multi-centre trials can be extremely successful in orthopaedic trauma research. Despite ever increasing literature on the topic of his fractures, the optimal treatment of hip fractures remains unknown and controversial. To resolve this controversy large multi-national collaborative randomized controlled trials are required. In 2005, the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative was officially established following funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research International Oppurtunity Program with the mandate of resolving controversies in hip fracture management. This manuscript will describe the need, the information, the organization, and the accomplishments to date of the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative. PMID:19550238

  5. Targeted Coagulation Management in Severe Trauma: The Controversies and the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Winearls, James; Reade, Michael; Miles, Helen; Bulmer, Andrew; Campbell, Don; Görlinger, Klaus; Fraser, John F

    2016-10-01

    Hemorrhage in the setting of severe trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. The pathophysiology of hemorrhage and coagulopathy in severe trauma is complex and remains poorly understood. Most clinicians currently treating trauma patients acknowledge the presence of a coagulopathy unique to trauma patients-trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC)-independently associated with increased mortality. The complexity and incomplete understanding of TIC has resulted in significant controversy regarding optimum management. Although the majority of trauma centers utilize fixed-ratio massive transfusion protocols in severe traumatic hemorrhage, a widely accepted "ideal" transfusion ratio of blood to blood products remains elusive. The recent use of viscoelastic hemostatic assays (VHAs) to guide blood product replacement has further provoked debate as to the optimum transfusion strategy. The use of VHA to quantify the functional contributions of individual components of the coagulation system may permit targeted treatment of TIC but remains controversial and is unlikely to demonstrate a mortality benefit in light of the heterogeneity of the trauma population. Thus, VHA-guided algorithms as an alternative to fixed product ratios in trauma are not universally accepted, and a hybrid strategy starting with fixed-ratio transfusion and incorporating VHA data as they become available is favored by some institutions. We review the current evidence for the management of coagulopathy in trauma, the rationale behind the use of targeted and fixed-ratio approaches and explore future directions.

  6. Targeted Coagulation Management in Severe Trauma: The Controversies and the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Winearls, James; Reade, Michael; Miles, Helen; Bulmer, Andrew; Campbell, Don; Görlinger, Klaus; Fraser, John F

    2016-10-01

    Hemorrhage in the setting of severe trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. The pathophysiology of hemorrhage and coagulopathy in severe trauma is complex and remains poorly understood. Most clinicians currently treating trauma patients acknowledge the presence of a coagulopathy unique to trauma patients-trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC)-independently associated with increased mortality. The complexity and incomplete understanding of TIC has resulted in significant controversy regarding optimum management. Although the majority of trauma centers utilize fixed-ratio massive transfusion protocols in severe traumatic hemorrhage, a widely accepted "ideal" transfusion ratio of blood to blood products remains elusive. The recent use of viscoelastic hemostatic assays (VHAs) to guide blood product replacement has further provoked debate as to the optimum transfusion strategy. The use of VHA to quantify the functional contributions of individual components of the coagulation system may permit targeted treatment of TIC but remains controversial and is unlikely to demonstrate a mortality benefit in light of the heterogeneity of the trauma population. Thus, VHA-guided algorithms as an alternative to fixed product ratios in trauma are not universally accepted, and a hybrid strategy starting with fixed-ratio transfusion and incorporating VHA data as they become available is favored by some institutions. We review the current evidence for the management of coagulopathy in trauma, the rationale behind the use of targeted and fixed-ratio approaches and explore future directions. PMID:27636575

  7. Chemotherapy for Good-Risk Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    In, Gino; Dorff, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    The rate of diagnosis of germ cell tumors has remained fairly constant. By the International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Classification, roughly 60% of all metastatic germ cell tumors are classified as good risk. This group of patients has an excellent prognosis, with greater than 90% expectation of cure. Treatment standards have not changed much in recent years. This article focuses on key concepts in the development of the currently accepted first-line regimens and addresses some evolving areas of interest, if not controversy. PMID:26216822

  8. Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals.

  9. The controversy inherent in managing frail nursing home residents during complex hurricane emergencies.

    PubMed

    Dosa, David M; Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M; Artenstein, Andrew W; Polivka-West, Lumarie; Mor, Vincent

    2008-10-01

    Emergency planning for vulnerable populations constitutes a major element of community disaster preparedness and is an area in which guidance is particularly sparse. As evidenced by the well-publicized deaths of nursing home residents following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the need to improve nursing home emergency preparedness is self-evident. Nevertheless, as efforts to improve preparedness develop, a central controversy remains. Aside from mandatory complete evacuations, is it better to evacuate or not to evacuate frail elderly nursing home residents in the setting of hurricane emergencies? This paper reviews the historical evidence on both sides of the argument and suggests a policy and research agenda.

  10. Controversies in J Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: A Focus on Handsewn Versus Stapled Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Tamar; Khaitov, Sergey; Greenstein, Alexander J

    2016-09-01

    The accepted current standard for treatment of medically refractory ulcerative colitis is total proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for restoration of continence. There are 2 techniques by which the anastomosis can be performed, including handsewn and stapled. Handsewn anastomosis with mucosectomy was the first method described; however, it has been associated with significant incontinence. The double-stapled anastomosis was developed in response to improve postoperative function. Controversy remains as to which technique is superior as both have disadvantages. This review article addresses differences between the 2 methodologies in relation to postoperative complications, anorectal physiology, functional outcomes, and oncological safety.

  11. The public controversies of AIDS in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, I

    1989-01-01

    All articles using the word 'AIDS' that have appeared in the five major daily newspapers in Puerto Rico since 1982 were studied to analyze the way in which AIDS has been presented in the daily press. Virtually all of the articles regarding AIDS, at least those pertaining to Puerto Rico, presented controversies. These were of two kinds. Articles regarding prevalence, incidence, and sources of funding were presented as controversies between the two main political parties of the island. They can be considered extensions of other political arguments between the parties. Those regarding risk factors, prevention, and treatment were presented as controversies between representatives of the people, such as union leaders, and government officials. The victims of AIDS, the homosexuals, drug addicts and hemophiliacs, were generally left out of the controversies as participants. The controversies are generally nonmedical and nonscientific, suggesting that the public perceives insufficient interest on the part of medical and political leaders and is expropriating the problem. That the proposed solutions are directed more toward the victims than the causative organims is also characteristics of past epidemics.

  12. Expert opinion and controversies in sports and musculoskeletal medicine: the diagnosis and treatment of spondylolysis in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Standaert, Christopher J; Herring, Stanley A

    2007-04-01

    Although spondylolysis is relatively common in adolescent athletes, there are substantial disagreements in the literature concerning the best methods for diagnosing and treating the condition. Controversy particularly arises regarding the optimal use of available imaging modalities in the diagnosis of athletes with suspected pars defects and the extent of activity restriction or brace use required for appropriate treatment. Because there have been no controlled trials on the treatment of spondylolysis and only a very limited number of studies addressing potential imaging strategies, it is difficult to develop true evidence-based guidelines for this condition. Given the current state of the literature, it is our impression that nuclear imaging with single photon emission computed tomography followed by computed tomography, with a limited role for plain radiography, remains the standard for appropriately diagnosing a symptomatic pars lesion. Treatment hinges on activity restriction for an amount of time adequate to allow for symptom resolution and, when possible, potential bony healing followed by a progressive sport-specific rehabilitation program. The biomechanic effects of brace use in this population are not well understood, but there may be some detrimental effects to the use of a brace and there currently is no evidence that the routine use of a rigid brace results in any significant improvement in radiographic or functional outcome. PMID:17398258

  13. Controversies in contraception for women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-01-01

    Contraception is an important choice that offers autonomy to women with regard to prevention of unintended pregnancies. There is wide variation in the contraceptive practices between continents, countries, and societies. The medical eligibility for contraception for sexually active women with epilepsy (WWE) is determined by the type of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) that they use. Enzyme inducing AEDs such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine increase the metabolism of orally administered estrogen (and progesterone to a lesser extent). Estrogen can increase the metabolism of certain AEDs, such as lamotrigine, leading to cyclical variation in its blood level with resultant adverse effect profile or seizure dyscontrol. AEDs and sex hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in WWE. The potential interactions between AEDs and hormonal contraception need to be discussed with all women in reproductive age-group. The alternate options of oral contraception such as intrauterine copper device, intrauterine levonorgestrel release system, and supplementary protection with barriers need to be presented to them. World Health Organization has recommended to avoid combination contraceptive pills containing estrogen and progesteron in women who desire contraception and in breastfeeding mothers. Care providers need to consider the option of non-enzyme-inducing AEDs while initiating long-term treatment in adolescent and young WWE. PMID:26425002

  14. Controversies in contraception for women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.

    2015-01-01

    Contraception is an important choice that offers autonomy to women with regard to prevention of unintended pregnancies. There is wide variation in the contraceptive practices between continents, countries, and societies. The medical eligibility for contraception for sexually active women with epilepsy (WWE) is determined by the type of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) that they use. Enzyme inducing AEDs such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine increase the metabolism of orally administered estrogen (and progesterone to a lesser extent). Estrogen can increase the metabolism of certain AEDs, such as lamotrigine, leading to cyclical variation in its blood level with resultant adverse effect profile or seizure dyscontrol. AEDs and sex hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in WWE. The potential interactions between AEDs and hormonal contraception need to be discussed with all women in reproductive age-group. The alternate options of oral contraception such as intrauterine copper device, intrauterine levonorgestrel release system, and supplementary protection with barriers need to be presented to them. World Health Organization has recommended to avoid combination contraceptive pills containing estrogen and progesteron in women who desire contraception and in breastfeeding mothers. Care providers need to consider the option of non-enzyme-inducing AEDs while initiating long-term treatment in adolescent and young WWE. PMID:26425002

  15. Tryptophan and kynurenines: continuing to court controversy.

    PubMed

    Stone, Trevor W

    2016-08-01

    The role of the amino acid tryptophan in the generation of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) has been expanded over the past 30 years with recognition that its oxidation by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) results in the formation of kynurenine and metabolites which regulate neuronal excitability, psychiatric status, immune cell activity and balance, and probably implantation and the development of embryos. While the amount of work on this kynurenine pathway continues to accelerate, it is important that disagreements about results, differences of interpretation or problems with technical issues are presented openly and discussed thoroughly so that new research is not mis-led in ways that could have been foreseen. In this issue of Clinical Science, Badawy et al. discuss in depth two opposing views of how changes in tryptophan availability or utilisation bring about their effects on cell function. The original concept that local depletion of tryptophan is responsible seems to be less attractive than the view that kynurenine and its metabolites have direct, potent actions on cells. This conclusion not only clarifies our understanding of the importance of tryptophan metabolism to kynurenine but also raises the possibility that the actions of those metabolites could be novel targets for the development of agonists and antagonists with a range of medical implications. PMID:27358029

  16. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring

  17. Medical ethics: principles, persons, and perspectives: from controversy to conversation.

    PubMed

    Boyd, K M

    2005-08-01

    Medical ethics, principles, persons, and perspectives is discussed under three headings: History, Theory, and Practice. Under Theory, the author will say something about some different approaches to the study and discussion of ethical issues in medicine--especially those based on principles, persons, or perspectives. Under Practice, the author will discuss how one perspectives based approach, hermeneutics, might help in relation first to everyday ethical issues and then to public controversies. In that context some possible advantages of moving from controversy to conversation will be explored; and that will then be illustrated with reference to a current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research. The paper begins with history, and it begins in the author's home city of Edinburgh. PMID:16076975

  18. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    PubMed

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  19. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  20. Why Is Studying the Genetics of Intelligence So Controversial?

    PubMed

    Tabery, James

    2015-01-01

    From the very beginning, studies of the nature and nurture of intelligence have been closely associated with an interest in intervening, and those interventions have been surrounded by controversy. The nature of those controversies has not always been the same, however. Since the mid-nineteenth century, when Francis Galton imagined a science that would assess the extent to which a trait like "genius" was due to nature or due to nurture, science and technology have changed dramatically, and so have the interventions that have been envisioned in light of those developments. A scientist today can search for particular stretches of DNA and assess whether differences in those stretches are associated with differences in a human trait of interest; a genetic counselor today can genetically test an individual (be it an embryo, fetus, newborn, child, or adult) and provide information about what that genetic result means, allowing for interventions that can range from terminating a pregnancy to prescribing chemotherapy. So when one asks a question like, "Why is studying the genetics of intelligence controversial?," it is important to realize up front that the answer will be, "It can be controversial for a variety of different reasons, and those reasons have evolved over time." The purpose of this essay is to provide a survey of the controversies that surround genetic studies of intelligence. With the survey in place, I will then draw out several lessons both for scientists who study the genetics of intelligence as well as for science studies scholars (bioethicists, philosophers, historians, sociologists) who reflect and comment on the controversies surrounding that research. PMID:26413953

  1. Why Is Studying the Genetics of Intelligence So Controversial?

    PubMed

    Tabery, James

    2015-01-01

    From the very beginning, studies of the nature and nurture of intelligence have been closely associated with an interest in intervening, and those interventions have been surrounded by controversy. The nature of those controversies has not always been the same, however. Since the mid-nineteenth century, when Francis Galton imagined a science that would assess the extent to which a trait like "genius" was due to nature or due to nurture, science and technology have changed dramatically, and so have the interventions that have been envisioned in light of those developments. A scientist today can search for particular stretches of DNA and assess whether differences in those stretches are associated with differences in a human trait of interest; a genetic counselor today can genetically test an individual (be it an embryo, fetus, newborn, child, or adult) and provide information about what that genetic result means, allowing for interventions that can range from terminating a pregnancy to prescribing chemotherapy. So when one asks a question like, "Why is studying the genetics of intelligence controversial?," it is important to realize up front that the answer will be, "It can be controversial for a variety of different reasons, and those reasons have evolved over time." The purpose of this essay is to provide a survey of the controversies that surround genetic studies of intelligence. With the survey in place, I will then draw out several lessons both for scientists who study the genetics of intelligence as well as for science studies scholars (bioethicists, philosophers, historians, sociologists) who reflect and comment on the controversies surrounding that research.

  2. Moral reasoning and political conflict: the abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J; Evans, M D; Headey, B

    1993-12-01

    We argue that the abortion controversy has one major source--religion--and two less important ones--attitudes towards sexual permissiveness and women's employment. Traditional Christianity promotes opposition to abortion using three distinct modes of moral reasoning: through deductive moral reasoning, by the Christian world view's implication that abortion violates the sanctity of life and is a rebellion against God's design; through authoritative moral reasoning by appeal to Catholic dogma; and through consequentialist moral reasoning, as a means of control over sexuality and as a means of confining women's activities to the home. Even aside from Christian belief, adherence to traditional morality promotes opposition to abortion on these consequentialist grounds. We posit a model in which religious belief, anti-feminism, sexual permissiveness, and attitudes towards abortion are distinct concepts (a four-factor model) rather than all simply aspects of a single conservatism factor. We develop reliable, multiple item attitude scales; show that our four-factor model fits the data much better than the one-factor alternative; and test our hypotheses on new data from a large, representative national sample of Australia (N = 4540). Using maximum likelihood structural equation methods, we find that deductive reasoning from Christian belief is the most important source of opposition to abortion, with strong effects both direct and indirect. Exposure to the authority of the Catholic hierarchy is a real but weaker source of opposition. Consequentialist reasoning from traditional moral views on sex--partly buttressed by religion, partly independent of it--is also influential. But views on women's employment matter only a little, contrary to received wisdom.

  3. Child sexual abuse and forensic psychiatry: evolving and controversial issues.

    PubMed

    Burton, K; Myers, W C

    1992-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has received growing attention in recent years, and the topic continues to spark controversy among mental health and legal professionals as well as in the popular media. This paper will review the concept of child sexual abuse, cover relevant definitions, address the clinician's role, and then will address the principal evolving and controversial areas. These areas include psychic damages, false allegations, improper investigatory techniques, use of anatomical dolls, admissibility of expert testimony, hearsay testimony, and the competency of minors to testify. PMID:1482798

  4. Causes of oral cancer--an appraisal of controversies.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, S

    2009-11-28

    Major risk factors for oral cancer are cigarette smoking and alcohol misuse. Among Asian populations, regular use of betel quid (with or without added tobacco) increases oral cancer risks. Dentists should be aware of some emerging risk factors for oral, and particularly oropharyngeal cancer such as the role of the human papillomavirus infection (HPV). Decreases in risk could be achieved by encouraging high fruit and vegetable consumption. Some controversies related to the aetiology of this disease also need clarification. The objective of this paper is to provide an opinion on these debated controversies.

  5. Controversial ultrasound findings in mid trimester pregnancy. Evidence based approach.

    PubMed

    Ebrashy, Alaa; Kurjak, Asim; Adra, Abdallah; Aliyu, Labaran Dayyabu; Wataganara, Tuangsit; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; Pooh, Ritsuko; Sen, Cihat; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Mid trimester fetal anatomy scan is a fundamental part of routine antenatal care. Some U/S soft markers or controversial U/S signs are seen during the scan and create some confusion regarding their relation to fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Example of these signs: echogenic focus in the heart, echogenic bowel, renal pyelectasis, ventriculomegaly, polydactely, club foot, choroid plexus cyst, single umbilical artery. We are presenting an evidence based approach from the literature for management of these controversial U/S signs. PMID:26506099

  6. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  7. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  8. Controversies: Optic nerve sheath fenestration versus shunt placement for the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Spitze, Arielle; Lam, Peter; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) has been increasing in prevalence in the past decade, following the obesity epidemic. When medical treatment fails, surgical treatment options must be considered. However, controversy remains as to which surgical procedure is the preferred surgical option – optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting – for the long-term treatment of this syndrome. Purpose: To provide a clinical update of the pros and cons of ONSF versus shunt placement for the treatment of IIH. Design: This was a retrospective review of the current literature in the English language indexed in PubMed. Methods: The authors conducted a PubMed search using the following terms: Idiopathic IIH, pseudotumor cerebri, ONSF, CSF shunts, vetriculo-peritoneal shunting, and lumbo-peritoneal shunting. The authors included pertinent and significant original articles, review articles, and case reports, which revealed the new aspects and updates in these topics. Results: The treatment of IIH remains controversial and lacks randomized controlled clinical trial data. Treatment of IIH rests with the determination of the severity of IIH-related visual loss and headache. Conclusion: The decision for ONSF versus shunting is somewhat institution and surgeon dependent. ONSF is preferred for patients with visual symptoms whereas shunting is reserved for patients with headache. There are positive and negative aspects of both procedures, and a prospective, randomized, controlled trial is needed (currently underway). This article will hopefully be helpful in allowing the reader to make a more informed decision until that time. PMID:25449938

  9. Representing the object of controversy: the case of the molecular clock.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Through a case study of the controversies surrounding the molecular clock, this paper examines the role of visual representation in the dynamics of scientific controversies. Representations of the molecular clock themselves became objects of controversy and so were not a means for closure. Instead visual representations of the molecular clock became tools for the further articulation of an ongoing controversy.

  10. The Evolution-Creation Controversy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariner, James L.

    1977-01-01

    The history of this controversy is traced in general terms from the early Fundamentalist Movement at the close of the nineteenth century to the present time. Of special note are summaries of the more well known court cases including the so-called Scopes Monkey Trial of the mid-1920's. (Author/AJ)

  11. The Evolution/Creation Science Controversy: Educate Rather Than Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Beverley

    This paper is linked to the theme History and Philosophy of Science. The Evolution and creation science controversy is now in the general public's arena and poses a challenge for school science. The paper begins by briefly describing the current situation concerning this issue in Australia and the United States of America. In the subject Biology,…

  12. The Continuum and Current Controversies in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews policy developments in deinstitutionalization and community inclusion in North America, specifically the United States. It begins with a critique of the continuum concept and the associated principle of the least restrictive environment. Past and current controversies surrounding deinstitutionalization are then examined.…

  13. Creationism in the Classroom: A Controversy with Serious Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    The resignation of the Revd Professor Michael Reiss from his position as Director of Education at the Royal Society over the issue of the teaching of creationism in school science classes provides the background to this article. The immediate controversy is described and considered in relation to its wider context and to the serious questions that…

  14. Liebig-Wohler Controversy and the Concept of Isomerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Soledad

    2008-01-01

    Very often controversies contribute to the development of science. An example is the conflict between Liebig and Wohler on the occasion of their analyses of fulminates and cyanates, which showed that compounds with different properties could have the same composition. Their results, together with other similar evidences, led Berzelius to recognize…

  15. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  16. MACOS Controversy: Responses to Charges by John Conlan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Peter B.

    The utility of the controversial elementary social studies program, "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS), is argued in this paper. A list of 12 charges made by Congressman John Conlan against MACOS, with responses to the charges, is presented. Specific passages in the student materials, films, and teacher materials are examined in context and the…

  17. The Reverse Discrimination Controversy. A Moral and Legal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    This book has two principal aims: to clarify the topical and controversial issue of reverse discrimination and to reach some conclusions about the rights and wrongs involved in this issue. Focusing mainly on preferential hiring, the book explicitly and extensively addresses the law and the institutional context of the issues. Examination of the…

  18. Is Race Really Controversial in the University Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philion, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Today, even though "social justice" programs exist as a virtual growth industry on US campuses and many universities have incorporated classes on race and racism into their curricula, everyone continues to be faced with the perception that race is a "controversial" topic that has to be broached with care due to its "sensitive nature". This is even…

  19. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  20. Relational Frame Theory: An Overview of the Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fox, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Although Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) was published over 50 years ago, behavior-analytic research on human language and cognition has been slow to develop. In recent years, a new behavioral approach to language known as relational frame theory (RFT) has generated considerable attention, research, and debate. The controversy surrounding RFT…

  1. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  2. The Carrier Dome Controversy: Rewriting the Town-Gown Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    On December 16, 1986, a new Syracuse city administration and the university announced an agreement exempting the Syracuse University Carrier Dome from real estate taxes; in return the city would receive a share of ticket proceeds from nonacademic Dome events. This settled a controversy that began when the city demanded payment of city taxes in…

  3. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  4. SCHOOL INTEGRATION CONTROVERSIES IN NEW YORK CITY, A PILOT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWANSON, BERT E.

    THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF THIS PREPARATORY RESEARCH PROGRAM WAS TO ASCERTAIN THE FEASIBILITY OF MAKING A FULL-SCALE STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF SCHOOL INTEGRATION CONTROVERSIES IN NEW YORK CITY. METHODS INVOLVED INTERVIEWING AND OBSERVING LEADERS AT CITYWIDE AND NEIGHBORHOOD LEVELS, INCLUDING SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS, TEACHERS, PARENT…

  5. Improving the Quality of Science Classroom Discourse on Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddis, Arthur N.

    1991-01-01

    Illustrates how the sophistication of students' discussion on controversial issues can be increased by explicit attention to (1) the defensibility of more than one position, and (2) the relationship between protagonist's interests and the positions adopted. Presents a case study of a teacher using this scheme as he reflects on and modifies his…

  6. Childhood Psychological Disorders: Current Controversies. Making Sense of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursztyn, Alberto M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This accessible, informative book will help teachers, parents, and practitioners make sense of current issues and controversies surrounding childhood disabilities. Almost 12 percent of children in American schools have been identified as disabled in ways that interfere with their capacity to learn. Yet parents of children with disabilities often…

  7. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  8. Taking One's Principles Seriously: A Teacher Confronts Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, William

    2010-01-01

    A teacher faces hostility from certain colleagues who view his decision to attend a controversial lecture as tantamount to the repudiation of the principle of inclusive education and the rights of students with disabilities. The teacher sees the proposed boycott of the lecture as a form of censorship threatening freedom of inquiry and critical…

  9. Know Nukes: A Model for Teaching Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes a nuclear power workshop that presented techniques useful in controversial issues education. An introductory exercise and an overview of propagandistic techniques (listed in "The Propaganda Game") related to self-deception, language, irrelevance, exploitation, form, and maneuver are included. Outline of workshop presentation is also…

  10. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  11. Teaching Controversy by Seminar: An Example in Quaternary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Describes how seminar work can be structured to help students develop skills of critical thinking and expression when discussing controversial issues in their chosen subject. Particular emphasis is given to methods of organizing instructional materials and appropriate roles for seminar leaders. The debate surrounding the existence of a prehistoric…

  12. The Ecology Controversy: Opposing Viewpoints. Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuen, Gary E., Ed.; Bender, David L., Ed.

    Ecological problems are explored in this book of sixteen student readings and exercises aimed at developing and applying critical thinking skills. The readings, mostly extracts from books and periodicals, are introduced by the editor and accompanied by questions. Chapter I, The Population Controversy, includes selections from Paul Ehrlich's The…

  13. Before We Were Us, We Were Them: Curating Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keri

    2014-01-01

    Prompted by the passage of Alabama House Bill 56, I organized the museum studies course I taught for Auburn University at Montgomery in the 2013 spring semester around an exhibition on immigration. The course offered the opportunity to engage students, faculty, and the community in discussion of an important, timely, and controversial topic.…

  14. Controversial Issues in Orientation and Mobility: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Jacobson, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of issues in orientation and mobility (0M) considers controversies in: (1) OM systems (use of short cane vs. long cane, dog guide vs. cane, electronic travel aids); (2) OM personnel preparation (such as bachelor's vs. master's level training); and (3) direct services (such as one-to-one vs. group OM lessons). (CL)

  15. Creating Safety To Address Controversial Issues: Strategies for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Nina L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents seven elements of a safe classroom in controversy-driven courses, where students can exchange ideas rather than emotions as they learn and discuss. The elements are: collegiality, empowerment, role modeling, preparation, shared purpose, reflection, and commitment. Explains how teachers can create and nurture safe classrooms, describing…

  16. Millennia of Discord: The Controversial Educational Program of Isocrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Five years ago in "Theory and Research in Education", James R. Muir fired a new salvo in the debate regarding the merits of Isocrates' educational program, a controversy that has endured for more than two millennia. Was the Isocratean program misguided and lowbrow, as in the estimations of Plato and Aristotle--or was it the most successful program…

  17. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  18. Controversial Therapies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines reasons parents may choose a controversial alternative treatment for a child with developmental disabilities and reviews a few specific treatments--vitamin B-6 and magnesium, auditory integration training, megavitamins and minerals, Piracetam, intravenous immunoglobulin, and melatonin. Recommendations on talking with families…

  19. Disaster, Controversy--Are You Prepared for the Worst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Robert W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides demographic profiles from "Executive Educator's" fourth annual survey of U.S. school executives. Regarding disaster preparedness, only a small percentage of all districts in earthquake-prone areas have earthquake and fire action plans. Concerning controversial issues, teaching about substance abuse, child abuse, and teen suicide meets…

  20. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  1. Early Childhood Commercial Exhibit Controversies: 1890 and 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    The controversy over the contrast between early childhood principles and the commercial exhibits at the 1990 annual meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children prompted a search for historical antecedents. Research disclosed that the first popular linking of Froebelian kindergarten curriculum and manufactured equipment…

  2. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  3. Teaching Controversial Materials: Teaching about the Nuclear Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Describes difficulties encountered in presenting a college course on nuclear weapons and disarmament. Maintains that such courses must strive for a fuller historical account of the arms race, in addition to stressing the humanistic and ethical questions involved. Warns that controversy will arise and concludes that even blind anger is preferable…

  4. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  5. Hot Buttons. Unraveling 10 Controversial Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays that deal with 10 current controversial issues. The issues are also the topics of 10 recent fastbacks from the Phi Delta Kappa fastback series published between 1993 and 1996. Following the introduction, the articles include the following: (1) "Accountability" (Jack Frymier); (2) "Assessment Reform" (Herbert J.…

  6. Family Policy in the 1980s: Controversy and Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan; Dumon, Wilfried

    1990-01-01

    Examines controversy concerning efficacy of federal family policy of the 1980s and its effects on family programs. Analyzes family planning and abortion policies and welfare issues. Compares programs devoted to elderly and to children. Concludes by considering the role of social scientists in the policy process and the social context of future…

  7. Cagney and Lacey: Negotiating the Controversial in Popular Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Jim

    This paper discusses some of the ways in which the commitment of the television series Cagney and Lacey to the examination of often controversial social issues from liberal or progressive standpoints--especially issues associated with the women's movement--is worked through in narrative practice. The origins and development of the series are…

  8. Supreme Court Actions Push a Wrenching Controversy Straight at You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's past and expected future rulings on abortion cases will add controversy and costs to schools. Estimates the costs of teenage pregnancy; reviews the legal history of abortion; and offers guidelines on how schools can help reduce teenage pregnancy. (MLF)

  9. Variations of Solar Activity and Irradiance (Julius Bartels Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.

    2015-04-01

    Variations in solar activity and its fluctuating irradiance have been invoked as drivers of the Earth's space environment and its climate. Although, such variations and fluctuations have been followed for decades, partly even centuries, a number of important and basic questions surrounding them remain unanswered, or controversial. This also leads to significant uncertainties in the role played by the Sun in, e.g., driving climate change. In this lecture I provide an overview of our present knowledge and understanding of solar variability, covering both, commonly accepted and some of the more controversial aspects.

  10. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  11. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  12. Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy in Opioid-Addicted Health Care Professionals Returning to Clinical Practice: A Hidden Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Heather; Bryson, Ethan O.

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether it is safe for recovering health care professionals to return to clinical practice after treatment for drug addiction. One specific component of reentry that remains particularly contentious is the use of pharmacotherapeutics, specifically buprenorphine, as opioid substitution therapy for health care professionals who wish to return to clinical work. Because health care professionals are typically engaged in safety-sensitive work with considerable consequences when errors occur, abstinence-based recovery should be recommended until studies demonstrate that it is safe to allow this population to practice while undergoing opioid substitution therapy. PMID:22386182

  13. Social controversy belongs in the climate science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Elizabeth M.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.

    2014-04-01

    Scientists, educators and stakeholders are grappling with how to best approach climate change education for diverse audiences, a task made difficult due to persistent social controversy. This Perspective examines how sociocultural learning theories can inform the design and implementation of climate change education experiences for learners with varied understandings of and attitudes towards climate change. The literature demonstrates that explicitly addressing learners' social and community experiences, values and knowledge supports understandings of and increased concern about climate change. Science learning environments that situate climate change in its social context can support conceptual understandings, shift attitudes and increase the participation of diverse communities in responding to climate change. Examples are provided of successful programmes that attend to social dimensions and learners' previous experiences, including experiences of social controversy.

  14. Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the "autism epidemic"? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public's trust in the nation's vaccine system.

  15. The pertussis vaccine controversy in Great Britain, 1974-1986.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2003-09-01

    This historical essay analyzes the role played by Great Britain in the pertussis vaccine controversy of the 1970s and 1980s. Public backlash against this vaccine not only took place earlier in Britain than the United States, but also was so widespread that a series of whooping cough epidemics soon followed. As with the more recent dispute involving measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism, the United Kingdom played a primary role in defining, promoting, and ultimately exporting this controversy. This essay seeks to explain this phenomenon by situating it in Britain's long history of suspicion regarding vaccines evident among both the public and the medical profession, a theme dating back to the compulsory vaccination laws of the 19th century. It argues that anti-vaccinationism, far from being simply a new development related to the public's lack of awareness of childhood vaccine-preventable illness, actually represents a revival of a much older movement.

  16. Testicular descent: a hypothesis and review of current controversies.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Douglas A

    2009-06-01

    Descent of the testis into the scrotum occurs by a complex multifactorial process involving the normal development of the testis, the hormonal actions of insulin like growth factor 3, testosterone, a intact hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis, the patent processus vaginalis, gubernacular outgrowth and regression and intraabdominal pressure. The paper reviews the key components of testicular descent, the current hypothesis on how testicular descent occurs and the controversies surrounding this hypothesis.

  17. The tidelands oil controversy: The prize and the responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    This article reviews the legal history of the Tidelands oil controversy in the Santa Barbara Channel of Southern California. A blowout of a well in an offshore platform in 1969 marked the beginning of California`s anti-oil movement. Santa Barbara today is a combination of industrialization and recreation, and like the oil and water that are the lifeblood of these two pursuits, they do not mix.

  18. The controversy over the minimum quantum requirement for oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jane F; Govindjee

    2014-10-01

    During the early- to mid-twentieth century, a bitter controversy raged among researchers on photosynthesis regarding the minimum number of light quanta required for the evolution of one molecule of oxygen. From 1923 until his death in 1970, Otto Warburg insisted that this value was about three or four quanta. Beginning in the late 1930s, Robert Emerson and others on the opposing side consistently obtained a value of 8-12 quanta. Warburg changed the protocols of his experiments, sometimes in unexplained ways, yet he almost always arrived at a value of four or less, except eight in carbonate/bicarbonate buffer, which he dismissed as "unphysiological". This paper is largely an abbreviated form of the detailed story on the minimum quantum requirement of photosynthesis, as told by Nickelsen and Govindjee (The maximum quantum yield controversy: Otto Warburg and the "Midwest-Gang", 2011); we provide here a scientific thread, leaving out the voluminous private correspondence among the principal players that Nickelsen and Govindjee (2011) examined in conjunction with their analysis of the principals' published papers. We explore the development and course of the controversy and the ultimate resolution in favor of Emerson's result as the phenomenon of the two-light-reaction, two-pigment-system scheme of photosynthesis came to be understood. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the discovery by Otto Warburg of the requirement for bicarbonate in the Hill reaction.

  19. Controversial medical and agri-food biotechnology: a cultivation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin W

    2002-04-01

    Whether biotechnology is one or several developments is not clear. Once distinctions are required, the question is: Which one prevails? When the good, the bad, and the ugly settle, where do they fall? Evaluation implies distinction, and representation drives attitude. The controversies over biotechnology are fertile ground on which to study these issues. The imports of genetically modified (GM) soya into Europe in 1996-97 and the cloning of Dolly the sheep from adult cells in 1997 changed the symbolic environment for genetic engineering. The ensuing public controversies came to focus mainly on field trials of GM crops and food labeling. This paper will explore the relationship between quality press coverage and public perception, in particular the cultivation of the contrast between "desirable" biomedical (RED) and "undesirable" agri-food (GREEN) biotechnology in Britain. The argument draws on a systematic analysis of the British press coverage of biotechnology from 1973 to 1999 and analysis of public perceptions in 1996 and 1999. The paper concludes that the debate over GM crops and food ingredients fostered the RED-GREEN contrast among the newspaper-reading public, thereby shielding RED biotechnology from public controversy, and ushered in a realignment of the regulatory framework in 2000. PMID:14621673

  20. Differentiated pediatric thyroid cancer: correlates with adult disease, controversies in treatment.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Mankoff, David

    2007-09-01

    The biologic behavior of differentiated thyroid cancer can differ between adults and children, especially in those children younger than 10 years of age. Unlike adults, young children typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis. Despite this, children respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that of their adult counterparts with advanced disease. In contradistinction to adults, children with thyroid cancer also have higher local and distant disease recurrences with progression-free survival of only 70% at 5 years, mandating life-long surveillance. Although thyroid cancer is the most common carcinoma in children, overall incidence is low, a factor that has prevented performance of a controlled, randomized, prospective study to determine the most efficacious treatment regimen in this age group. So, although extensively investigated, treatment of pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. This article reviews the current controversies in the treatment of pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer, focusing on issues of optimal initial and subsequent therapy as well as that of long-term follow-up. Our approach to treatment is presented. In so doing, similarities and differences between adults and children with differentiated thyroid cancer as regards unique considerations in epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related late effects, and disease surveillance are presented. The expanding use of and appropriate roles for thyrogen and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in disease evaluation and surveillance will be addressed.

  1. Discoveries and controversies in BCL-2 protein-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Janet H; Viacava Follis, Ariele; Kriwacki, Richard W; Moldoveanu, Tudor

    2016-07-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins mediate mitochondrial apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which leads to the activation of the downstream caspase cascade to execute apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins function through protein-protein interactions in soluble and membrane-associated states. How soluble BCL-2 proteins interact is well understood. Anti-apoptotic proteins, such as BCL-2 and BCL-xL, and the pro-apoptotic effectors of MOMP, including BAK and BAX, interact with pro-apoptotic BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins similarly. Whereas anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins tightly bind all the BH3-only proteins to block apoptosis initiation, the effector BCL-2 proteins are potently triggered by specific BH3-only proteins to undergo conformational changes, membrane association and insertion, oligomerization, and pore formation. The anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins also inhibit the activated effectors. p53 is a direct BAX activator inhibited by BCL-xL, defining a prototype non-canonical modulator of BCL-2 proteins-mediated MOMP. How BCL-2 proteins cooperate in the presence of membranes remains poorly understood, impeding our understanding of MOMP and apoptosis. Here, we highlight the latest structural views of MOMP by BCL-2 proteins.

  2. Controversies in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Leslie A.; Nelson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The two most common HIV-associated renal diseases, HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV-immune-complex kidney disease, share the common pathologic finding of hyperplasia within the glomerulus. Podocyte injury is central to the pathogenesis of these diseases; however, the source of the proliferating glomerular epithelial cell remains a topic of debate. Parenchymal injury has been linked to direct infection of renal epithelial cells by HIV-1, although the mechanism of viral entry into this non-lymphoid compartment is unclear. Although transgenic rodent models have provided insight into viral proteins responsible for inducing renal disease, such models have important limitations. Rodent HIV-1 models, for instance, cannot replicate all aspects of immune activation, a process that could have an important role in the pathogenesis PMID:19776779

  3. Parasomnias and nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE): lights and shadows--controversial points in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bisulli, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Provini, Federica; Leta, Chiara; Lugaresi, Elio; Tinuper, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is characterized by seizures with complex, often bizarre, violent behaviour arising only or mainly during sleep. These unusual seizures and their occurrence during sleep are often accompanied by normal EEG tracings and neuroradiological findings, making it difficult to distinguish NFLE seizures from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias. NFLE was described for the first time in 1981, but, as its epileptic origin was controversial, the condition was called nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia. Even though many aspects of parasomnias and NFLE have been clarified in the last two decades, the problem of differential diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. This paper discusses some controversial points still under debate. The difficulties in distinguishing nocturnal epileptic seizures from parasomnias reflect just one aspect of the intriguing issue of the pathophysiological relationships between all types of paroxysmal motor behaviours during sleep. PMID:22136895

  4. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  5. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  6. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  7. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  8. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  9. High Pressure - High Temperature Polymorphism in Ta: Resolving an Ongoing Experimental Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Burkovsky, L; Chen, S P; Preston, D L; Belonoshko, A B; Rosengren, A; Mikhaylushkin, A S; Simak, S I; Moriarty, J A

    2010-04-07

    Phase diagrams of refractory metals remain essentially unknown. Moreover, there is an ongoing controversy over the high pressure (P) melting temperatures of these metals: results of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments differ by at least a factor of two. From an extensive ab initio study on tantalum we discovered that the body-centered cubic phase, its physical phase at ambient conditions, transforms to another solid phase, possibly hexagonal omega phase, at high temperature (T). Hence the sample motion observed in DAC experiments is not due to melting but internal stresses accompanying a solid-solid transformation, as explained in more detail in our work. In view of our results on tantalum and previous work on molybdenum, as well as other published data, it is highly plausible that high-PT polymorphism is a general feature of Groups V and VI refractory metals.

  10. A Decade of Controversy: Balancing Policy With Evidence in the Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M.; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  11. Facts and controversies in our understanding of how caloric restriction impacts the mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Hepple, Russell T

    2013-10-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has pronounced benefits in promoting healthy aging. Amongst the most frequently implicated physiological mechanisms implicated in this benefit is altered mitochondrial function. Whereas a reduction in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a widely consistent effect of CR, an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, which is accepted by many as fact, is contradicted on several levels, most critically by a lack of increase in mitochondrial protein synthesis rate in vivo. Furthermore, an increase in PGC-1α protein and markers of mitochondrial content with CR is a highly variable observation between studies. On the other hand, deacetylation of several mitochondrial proteins by the sirtuin, Sirt3, is an increasingly reported observation and at least so far, this observation is consistent between studies. Notwithstanding this point, the controversies evident in the published literature underscore the significant questions that remain in our understanding of how CR impacts the mitochondrion and suggest we have yet to fully understand the complexities herein.

  12. Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

    PubMed

    Piegorsch, W W

    1990-12-01

    R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

  13. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature.

  14. Venomous snakebites worldwide with a focus on the Australia-Pacific region: current management and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Currie, Bart J

    2004-01-01

    Snakebites are estimated to cause approximately 100,000 deaths each year worldwide and disproportionately affect rural populations in resource-poor settings. Snake venoms may produce local tissue damage and/or distinct clinical syndromes, including neurotoxicity, coagulopathy, hypotension, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure. Field management is aimed at delaying systemic absorption of toxins, minimizing local damage and infection, and expediting transport to medical facilities. The use of the pressure-immobilization method remains controversial. The use of antivenom, administered in a timely fashion and in adequate doses, is the mainstay of hospital treatment of significant envenomation. The availability, efficacy, and safety of antivenoms vary throughout the world, with a current crisis in antivenom supplies.

  15. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature. PMID:25490079

  16. Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

  17. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  18. The monarch butterfly controversy: scientific interpretations of a phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shelton, A M; Sears, M K

    2001-09-01

    The future development and use of agricultural biotechnology has been challenged by two preliminary studies indicating potential risk to monarch butterfly populations by pollen from corn engineered to express proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. Likewise, these studies have also challenged the way in which science should be performed, published in scientific journals and communicated to the public at large. Herein, we provide a history of the monarch controversy to date. We believe a retrospective view may be useful for providing insights into the proper roles and responsibilities of scientists, the media and public agencies and the consequences when they go awry.

  19. Timely and/or Controversial Information for Family Physicians.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria; Seehusen, Dean A

    2015-01-01

    Plan to spend some time reading this information-dense issue with a large amount of new material and ideas. From the humanoid behavioral health coach to tackling the controversial topic of environmental causes of autism spectrum disorders, this issue encompasses a broad range of topics. New anticoagulants for an extremely common entity, atrial fibrillation, are discussed. Learn about the shocking increase in oropharyngeal cancers with a changing epidemiology: younger patients with a different clinical presentations. Researchers evaluate changes after new or revised guidelines. "Near miss" reporting can facilitate quality improvement. Pets can make humans ill, yet they are beloved and can improve the health of their human owners.

  20. Beyond Controversies: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in India

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847

  1. Current controversies and challenges in allergic rhinitis management.

    PubMed

    Price, David; Smith, Pete; Hellings, Peter; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Fokkens, Wytske; Muraro, Antonella; Murray, Ruth; Chisholm, Alison; Demoly, Pascal; Scadding, Glenis; Mullol, Joaquim; Lieberman, Phil; Bachert, Claus; Mösges, Ralph; Ryan, Dermot; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    There are many obstacles in the path of effective allergy management, in general, and allergic rhinitis (AR) control, in particular. Chief among them are: insufficient symptom relief in some patients provided by some currently considered first-line AR treatments in real life; an over-reliance on randomized controlled trials to direct AR guideline recommendations; the need for a broader interpretation of the AR evidence base (to include randomized controlled trials and real-life studies); poorly designed and interpreted studies; and lack of an AR control concept and common language of control. These controversies are fully reviewed here and challenging solutions have been presented. PMID:26325631

  2. Agonist treatment in opioid use: advances and controversy.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Chand, Prabhat; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima

    2012-06-01

    Opioid dependence is a chronic relapsing condition which requires comprehensive care; pharmacological agents form the mainstay of its long term treatment. The two most popular approaches are the harm reduction method using agonists and the complete abstinence method using antagonists. Currently, particularly from the harm minimization perspective and the low feasibility of an abstinence based approach, there is an increasing trend toward agonist treatment. The use of buprenorphine has gained popularity in view of its safety profile and the availability of the buprenorphine-naloxone combination has made it popular as a take-home treatment. This review outlines the pharmacological advances and controversies in this area. PMID:22813654

  3. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  4. Identification of perturbation modes and controversies in ekpyrotic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-Chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2002-10-01

    If the linear perturbation theory is valid through the bounce, the surviving fluctuations from the ekpyrotic scenario (cyclic one as well) should have very blue spectra with suppressed amplitude for the scalar-type structure. We derive the same (and consistent) result using the curvature perturbation in the uniform-field (comoving) gauge and in the zero-shear gauge. Previously, Khoury et al. interpreted results from the latter gauge condition incorrectly and claimed the scale-invariant spectrum, thus generating controversy in the literature. We also correct similar errors in the literature based on wrong mode identification and joining condition. No joining condition is needed for the derivation.

  5. Case-Based Teacher Preparation for Teaching Controversial Topics in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, K. Denise; Polizzi, Nicholas C.; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2007-01-01

    Many middle school teachers are not prepared to develop units and lesson plans on controversial topics. In addition, many are not prepared to respond effectively when controversial topics arise unexpectedly during routine lessons. This is a significant problem because controversial topics are arising with increasing frequency in middle school…

  6. Several Controversial Issues on Early Childhood Education and Care in Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Michio

    This paper provides an overview of current controversial issues in early childhood education in Japan. One controversy discussed is the increasing emphasis on cognitive development in early childhood programs since World War II, especially the focus on reading and writing; and presents the controversy surrounding the task of learning Japanese and…

  7. Comprehension of Relations among Controversial Texts: Effects of External Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of external strategy use on the comprehension of relations among controversial texts. About 80 undergraduates read six controversial texts for the purpose of either finding intertextual relations or forming their opinion about the controversial issue. Half of them were permitted to use external strategies, the other…

  8. New insights into the controversy of adrenal function during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Eva; Bornstein, Stefan R; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-10-01

    Critical illness represents a life-threatening disorder necessitating recruitment of defence mechanisms for survival. Herein, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is essential. However, the relevance of a relative insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness, which is diagnosed by a suppressed cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) irrespective of the plasma cortisol concentration, is controversial. Findings from several studies have provided insights that clarify at least part of this controversy. Rather than an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ACTH-independent regulators have been reported to contribute to increased cortisol availability during critical illness. One of these regulators is reduced cortisol breakdown, mediated by suppressed expression and activity of cortisol metabolising enzymes in the liver and kidneys. This downstream mechanism increases concentrations of plasma cortisol, but the ensuing feedback-inhibited ACTH release, when sustained for more than 1 week, has been shown to negatively affect adrenocortical integrity and function. Reduced adrenocortical ACTH signalling could explain reduced cortisol responses to exogenous ACTH. Whether such reduced cortisol responses in the presence of raised plasma (free) cortisol identifies adrenal failure needing treatment is unlikely. Additionally, reduced cortisol breakdown affects the optimum dose of hydrocortisone treatment during critical illness. Identification of patients with an insufficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and the optimum treatment for this disorder clearly need more well designed preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26071883

  9. New insights into the controversy of adrenal function during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Eva; Bornstein, Stefan R; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-10-01

    Critical illness represents a life-threatening disorder necessitating recruitment of defence mechanisms for survival. Herein, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is essential. However, the relevance of a relative insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness, which is diagnosed by a suppressed cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) irrespective of the plasma cortisol concentration, is controversial. Findings from several studies have provided insights that clarify at least part of this controversy. Rather than an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ACTH-independent regulators have been reported to contribute to increased cortisol availability during critical illness. One of these regulators is reduced cortisol breakdown, mediated by suppressed expression and activity of cortisol metabolising enzymes in the liver and kidneys. This downstream mechanism increases concentrations of plasma cortisol, but the ensuing feedback-inhibited ACTH release, when sustained for more than 1 week, has been shown to negatively affect adrenocortical integrity and function. Reduced adrenocortical ACTH signalling could explain reduced cortisol responses to exogenous ACTH. Whether such reduced cortisol responses in the presence of raised plasma (free) cortisol identifies adrenal failure needing treatment is unlikely. Additionally, reduced cortisol breakdown affects the optimum dose of hydrocortisone treatment during critical illness. Identification of patients with an insufficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and the optimum treatment for this disorder clearly need more well designed preclinical and clinical studies.

  10. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  11. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  12. Phylogeny and life histories of the 'Insectivora': controversies and consequences.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E

    2005-02-01

    The evolutionary relationships of the eutherian order Insectivora (Lipotyphla sensu stricto) are the subject of considerable debate. The difficulties in establishing insectivore phylogeny stem from their lack of many shared derived characteristics. The grouping is therefore something of a 'wastebasket' taxon. Most of the older estimates of phylogeny, based on morphological evidence, assumed insectivore monophyly. More recently, molecular phylogenies argue strongly against monophyly, although they differ in the extent of polyphyly inferred for the order. I review the history of insectivore phylogenetics and systematics, focussing on the relationships between the six extant families (Erinaceidae--hedgehogs and moonrats, Talpidae - moles and desmans, Soricidae - shrews, Solenodontidae--solenodons, Tenrecidae--tenrecs and otter-shrews and Chrysochloridae--golden moles). I then examine how these various phylogenetic hypotheses influence the results of comparative analyses and our interpretation of insectivore life-history evolution. I assess which particular controversies have the greatest effect on results, and discuss the implications for comparative analyses where the phylogeny is controversial. I also explore and suggest explanations for certain insectivore life-history trends: increased gestation length and litter size in tenrecs, increased encephalization in moles, and the mixed fast and slow life-history strategies in solenodons. Finally, I consider the implications for comparative analyses of the recent strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis of an endemic African clade of mammals that includes the insectivore families of tenrecs and golden moles.

  13. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization. PMID:22175066

  14. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  15. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  16. Renin-angiotensin system blockade: Its contribution and controversy.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Akira; Kosaka, Takeo; Kikuchi, Eiji; Oya, Mototsugu

    2015-08-01

    Angiotensin II is a key biological peptide in the renin-angiotensin system that regulates blood pressure and renal hemodynamics, and extensive experimental studies have shown that angiotensin II promotes diverse fibrotic changes and induces neovascularization in several inflammatory diseases. It is known that angiotensin II can be controlled using renin-angiotensin system blockade when angiotensin II is the main factor inducing a particular disease, and renin-angiotensin system blockade has assumed a central role in the treatment of inflammatory nephritis, cardiovascular disorders and retinopathy. In contrast, renin-angiotensin system blockade was found to have not only these effects but also other functions, such as inhibition of cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Numerous studies have sought to elucidate the mechanisms and support these antitumor effects. However, a recent meta-analysis showed that renin-angiotensin system blockade use might in fact increase the incidence of cancer, so renin-angiotensin system blockade use has become somewhat controversial. Although the renin-angiotensin system has most certainly made great contributions to experimental models and clinical practice, some issues still need to be resolved. The present review discusses the contribution and controversy surrounding the renin-angiotensin system up to the present time.

  17. Solving the United States National Park overflight controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisinger, Douglas S.; Peacock, Marcus C.; Falk, Steven B.

    1989-03-01

    By mid-1990 the National Park Service (NPS) must present to Congress recommendations for managing overflights of at least ten national parks. The authors examine the potential role of formal negotiation in setting overflight policy in these parks by reviewing the overflight controversy at Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP). Regulations controlling overflights of the GCNP are only now being implemented after a 17-year conflict that culminated in a congressionally mandated solution. The authors review this controversy and find that, contrary to common perception, the number of park visitors bothered by overflights is not small but roughly equals the number of airborne visitors (up to 450,000 per year). On the basis of this investigation, the authors determine that formal negotiation would have been an appropriate policy-making process because of the clearly defined and limited number of parties and issues involved. Considering the number of park visitors that will continue to be affected by this issue, the authors conclude that formal negotiations should be considered for overflight problems involving other parks. Such negotiations should be park-specific. Differences in park size, extent of the problem, and parties involved would prohibit park-wide negotiations.

  18. Important controversies associated with isotretinoin therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    Wolverton, Stephen E; Harper, Julie C

    2013-04-01

    Isotretinoin is a remarkably effective drug for severe, recalcitrant acne vulgaris. Soon after the drug's release in the early 1980s, a number of important adverse effects were reported subsequently leading to a variety of medical and medicolegal controversies. Three of these controversies will be highlighted concerning the putative role of isotretinoin in (1) depression and suicide, (2) inflammatory bowel disease, and (3) iPledge and pregnancy prevention programs. It appears that a very small subset of patients receiving isotretinoin for acne are at risk for depression, which is very manageable provided there is adequate patient awareness of the possibility, maximum communication between the patient and physician, and cessation of therapy if clinically important depression occurs (after which the depression rapidly resolves in a week or less). Multiple controlled studies actually suggest a very favorable effect of isotretinoin on depression and anxiety common in the population requiring isotretinoin. With regard to inflammatory bowel disease, in just one study, only ulcerative colitis association with isotretinoin reached statistical significance. The actual incidence of this association is strikingly low. Finally, it is clear that even the most recent pregnancy prevention program (iPledge) is no more successful than prior programs; there will likely always be a small number of female patients becoming pregnant while receiving isotretinoin for acne vulgaris.

  19. Detection of the Remaining Files Copied from Removable Storage Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    This paper proposes a method for detecting remaining files copied from removable storage medium. The proposed method logs events that the database of a file system, “Folder”, is changed. The remaining file can be detected by tracing the sequence of logs using path/file-name matching. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the computer.

  20. ["I do not wish to be controversial": the arrival of the plague in Brazil; analysis of a controversy, 1899].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo do; Silva, Matheus Alves Duarte da

    2013-11-30

    This article analyzes a debate brought to the public arena by Jornal do Commercio newspaper in August and September 1899 involving two sanitation officials: Nuno de Andrade, Director-General of Public Health, and Jorge Pinto, Director of Hygiene and Public Welfare of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The issue in question was the measures taken by the federal government to prevent bubonic plague reaching Brazil from Porto, Portugal, where there was an epidemic. The theoretical framework for the analysis is Pierre Bourdieu's notion of field, and Bruno Latour's studies into scientific controversy.

  1. The timing of India-Asia collision onset - facts, theories, controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Huang, Wentao; An, Wei; Webb, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The timing of initial collision between India and Asia has remained grossly and windingly controversial for half a century. This paper attempts to review this crucial and hotly debated argument, describing first the different methods used to constrain the age of collision and discussing next the rationale, results, inferences and problems associated with each. We conclude that stratigraphy represents the best direct way to unravel collision chronology. Other methods focusing on the magmatic, metamorphic or paleomagnetic record provide additional fundamental constraints, but cannot provide a robust direct estimate of collision onset. Initial collision in the central-eastern Himalaya is dated directly at the Middle Paleocene (59±1 Ma) by the abrupt change in sediment provenance recorded in trench settings (Hu et al., 2015). The quasi-synchronous unconformities documented along both Tethyan passive margin of India and active margin of Asia from Tibet to Zanskar-Ladakh confirm that orogeny was underway at the close of the Paleocene (56 Ma) (Garzanti et al., 1987; Li et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2016), well before the disappearance of marine seaways in the Himalaya during the Eocene (50 Ma) (Najman et al., 2010). Sedimentary evolution and provenance changes in marine to fluvio-deltaic successions are recorded synchronously within error from the western to the central-eastern Himalaya, failing to provide evidence for diachronous collision. These coherent observations are hard to reconcile with three widely cited hypotheses invoking either earlier events of arc-continent collision or ophiolite obduction, or the protracted existence of a Greater India Basin, which should be all rejected after discussing the geological evidence. A scenario no more complex than the one involving solely the passive continental margin of India and the active continental margin of Asia is needed to explain the geological evolution of the nascent Himalaya. The collision between the Tethys

  2. A controversial idea as a cultural resource: The Lysenko controversy and discussions of genetics as a 'democratic' science in postwar Japan.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kaori

    2015-08-01

    The Japanese discussion of the theory of Soviet agronomist Trofim D. Lysenko began in the postwar years under the American occupation. Leftists introduced Lysenko's theory immediately after the war as part of a postwar scientists' movement. Unlike many American geneticists, who sharply criticized the theory, Japanese geneticists initially participated in the discussion in an even-handed way; their scientific interests in the roles of cytoplasm and the environment in heredity shaped their initial sympathetic reaction. As the Cold War divide deepened, however, Japanese scientists began expressing sharp anti-Lysenko criticisms that resembled the American criticisms. Interestingly, throughout the period, Japanese geneticists' overall aim in the discussion remained largely unchanged: to effectively reconstruct their discipline and maintain its proper image and authority. However, the shift in their reaction occurred due to an evolving sociopolitical context, especially the shift in the meaning of 'democratic' science from a science that employed democratic processes to a science of a liberal-democratic state. Regarding Lysenko's idea as a cultural resource could help to explain how and why it was treated differently in different places, and why a controversy emerged in certain contexts but not in others.

  3. A controversial idea as a cultural resource: The Lysenko controversy and discussions of genetics as a 'democratic' science in postwar Japan.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kaori

    2015-08-01

    The Japanese discussion of the theory of Soviet agronomist Trofim D. Lysenko began in the postwar years under the American occupation. Leftists introduced Lysenko's theory immediately after the war as part of a postwar scientists' movement. Unlike many American geneticists, who sharply criticized the theory, Japanese geneticists initially participated in the discussion in an even-handed way; their scientific interests in the roles of cytoplasm and the environment in heredity shaped their initial sympathetic reaction. As the Cold War divide deepened, however, Japanese scientists began expressing sharp anti-Lysenko criticisms that resembled the American criticisms. Interestingly, throughout the period, Japanese geneticists' overall aim in the discussion remained largely unchanged: to effectively reconstruct their discipline and maintain its proper image and authority. However, the shift in their reaction occurred due to an evolving sociopolitical context, especially the shift in the meaning of 'democratic' science from a science that employed democratic processes to a science of a liberal-democratic state. Regarding Lysenko's idea as a cultural resource could help to explain how and why it was treated differently in different places, and why a controversy emerged in certain contexts but not in others. PMID:26502659

  4. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  5. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are kept open for the submission of new and pertinent evidence by any interested person. If the Board finds...

  6. Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B; Barshop, Bruce A; Deschênes, Georges; Emma, Francesco; Goodyer, Paul; Lipkin, Graham; Midgley, Julian P; Ottolenghi, Chris; Servais, Aude; Soliman, Neveen A; Thoene, Jess G; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2016-06-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years. The molecular basis is due to mutations in CTNS, the gene encoding for the lysosomal cystine-proton cotransporter, cystinosin. During adolescence and adulthood, extrarenal manifestations of cystinosis develop and require multidisciplinary care. Despite substantial improvement in prognosis due to cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine, no cure of the disease is currently available. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Controversies Conference on cystinosis to review the state-of-the-art knowledge and to address areas of controversies in pathophysiology, diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment in different age groups. More importantly, promising areas of investigation that may lead to optimal outcomes for patients afflicted with this lifelong, systemic disease were discussed with a research agenda proposed for the future. PMID:27181776

  7. Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Capelli, Cristian; Lari, Martina; Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Milani, Lucio; Pilli, Elena; Guimaraes, Silvia; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Marin, Vito Terribile Wien; Casoli, Antonella; Stanyon, Roscoe; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido

    2007-11-15

    We report on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of the supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca exhumed in November 2003, from the S. Maria Assunta church, in Arquà Padua (Italy) where he died in 1374. The optimal preservation of the remains allowed the retrieval of sufficient mtDNA for genetic analysis. DNA was extracted from a rib and a tooth and mtDNA sequences were determined in multiple clones using the strictest criteria currently available for validation of ancient DNA sequences, including independent replication. MtDNA sequences from the tooth and rib were not identical, suggesting that they belonged to different individuals. Indeed, molecular gender determination showed that the postcranial remains belonged to a male while the skull belonged to a female. Historical records indicated that the remains were violated in 1630, possibly by thieves. These results are consistent with morphological investigations and confirm the importance of integrating molecular and morphological approaches in investigating historical remains.

  8. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Mendisco, F; Pemonge, M H; Leblay, E; Romon, T; Richard, G; Courtaud, P; Deguilloux, M F

    2015-01-19

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence.

  9. Where are the Caribs? Ancient DNA from ceramic period human remains in the Lesser Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Mendisco, F.; Pemonge, M. H.; Leblay, E.; Romon, T.; Richard, G.; Courtaud, P.; Deguilloux, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The identity and history of the indigenous groups who occupied the Lesser Antilles during the ceramic periods remain highly controversial. Although recent archaeological evidence has challenged hypotheses concerning the organization of human groups in this region, more biological data are needed to fully inform the discussion. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first palaeogenetic data for Late Ceramic groups of the Guadeloupe archipelago, yielding crucial information concerning the identities of these groups. Despite the generally poor DNA preservation in the tested remains, we were able to retrieve Hypervariable Region 1 sequences from 11 individuals and mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 13 individuals. These novel data provide interesting preliminary results in favour of a common origin for all Saladoid Caribbean communities, i.e. the first ceramic groups of the region, as well as for a local continuity between the Saladoid and post-Saladoid groups. A combination of the genetic data obtained and several pieces of cultural evidence allows us to propose that two different groups inhabited the Guadeloupe archipelago during the Late Ceramic period, with the possible occupation of the La Désirade and Marie-Galante islands by groups affiliated with the Taíno communities. The working hypotheses proposed here appear consistent with recent archaeological evidence. PMID:25487339

  10. Neon Lights up a Controversy: The Solar Ne/O Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Nasraoui, K.; Roames, J. K.; Lippner, L. A.; Garst, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The standard solar model was so reliable that it could predict the existence of the massive neutrino. Helioseismology measurements were so precise that they could determine the depth of the convection zone. This agreement between theory and observation was the envy of all astrophysics-until recently, when sophisticated three-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of the solar atmosphere reduced the metal content by a factor of almost 2. Antia & Basu suggested that a higher value of the solar neon abundance, ANe/AO=0.52, would resolve this controversy. Drake & Testa presented evidence in favor of this idea from a sample of 21 Chandra stars with enhanced values of the neon abundance, ANe/AO=0.41. In this Letter, we have analyzed solar active region spectra from the archive of the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission, a NASA mission from the 1980s, as well as full-Sun spectra from the pioneering days of X-ray astronomy in the 1960s. These data are consistent with the standard neon-to-oxygen abundance value, ANe/AO=0.15 (Grevesse & Sauval). We conclude, therefore, that the enhanced-neon hypothesis will not resolve the current controversy.

  11. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  12. Medicare payment policy and the controversy over hospital cost shifting.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Rick; Lee, Jason S

    2004-01-01

    This article examines (i) the background and debate over cost shifting; (ii) hospitals as business institutions that often shift the financial responsibility for their costs in the form of differential pricing; and (iii) how the cost-shifting debate affects and is affected by Medicare. The aim is to gain a better understanding of how changes in reimbursement by large government health insurance programmes affect hospital behaviour. The article argues that the controversy over cost shifting is becoming an increasingly important issue for hospitals in the US and their ability (or willingness) to provide uncompensated charity care. The issue has also become very important for workers and their dependants. This is because workers have shouldered the largest portion of the dramatic growth in healthcare costs that have occurred in the US in recent years, due in large part to increased cost shifting (or 'sharing of financial responsibility') from their employers.

  13. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves.

  14. Comment on ``Mesoplates: Resolving a Decades-Old Controversy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Kolenkiewicz, R.

    2004-07-01

    Plate tectonics is primarily a geokinematic theory. Additional new concepts or components are needed to provide insights and constrains for geodynamic modeling. Recently, in Eos (23 December 2003), Pilger has developed a new concept regarding the kinematics of the lithospheric plates and the underlying mesosphere. He proposed that three mesoplates under the lithosphere can provide a framework for resolving a decades-old controversy on hot spots and mantle plumes. Geodynamic modelers are forced to establish the existence of these three mesoplates. We have attempted to verify the mesoplate hypothesis using satellite gravity signals for remote sensing the stresses in the mesosphere. Our stress patterns of the mesosphere at 100 km depth as inferred from satellite gravity signals show that global stress concentrations are mainly restricted to the boundaries of the Hawaiian, Tristan, and Icelandic Mesoplate as defined by Pilger.

  15. Vitamin D supplementation: less controversy, more guidance needed

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Caroline S.; Lammert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with multiple functions that extend beyond the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. In recent years, the publication of research articles investigating associations between vitamin D status and health has reached an all-time high, and an increase in supplementation studies has followed. Given the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, the scientific focus has gone beyond its known classic benefits on skeletal health to include diabetes and cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, renal, and liver diseases, yet numerous conflicting findings continue to emerge. This review presents some examples of recent work within the context of controversies surrounding vitamin D and highlights key factors that should be considered when designing vitamin D supplementation regimens.

  16. [Controversies in the current management of traumatic abdominal wall hernias].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Egea, Alfredo; Girela, Enrique; Parlorio, Elena; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The management of traumatic abdominal wall hernias is controversial. We performed a MEDLINE search and report a personal series of 10 patients. Cases were classified according to the cause of injury. Fifty-six percent were caused by car accidents and 14% by bicycle accidents. Diagnosis was clinical in 22% and surgical in 13% and intra-abdominal lesions were found in 67%. Treatment was delayed in 12%. In our series, 55% were lumbar hernias due to traffic accidents and all were associated with pelvic fracture. Treatment was delayed in 50%, including laparoscopic surgery with good results. In conclusion, traumatic hernias due to road traffic accidents are frequently associated with intra-abdominal lesions. The diagnostic technique of choice is computed tomography and delayed surgery (laparoscopy) is an effective option. PMID:18021624

  17. Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Silver, L B

    1986-10-01

    It is estimated that between 3% and 7% of children and adolescents in this country--up to 4 million--are learning disabled. Of this group, about 20% also have attention deficit disorder. Many professionals in multiple disciplines have proposed treatment approaches. When research has been done to support the approach, the reports and data may be published in journals not normally read by the practicing physician. When research data are not available, the information may be in a popular book, newspapers, or lay magazines or on television. Thus, parents may know of ideas and suggestions before the professional in clinical practice. These acceptable and controversial approaches to treatment are reviewed. It is understandable that a parent would seek out improved ways of helping his or her child. I reviewed the significant literature in an effort to assist the practicing physician in providing appropriate parental guidance and clinical interventions.

  18. Sources of Controversy Surrounding Latitudinal Patterns in Herbivory and Defense.

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Nunes, Krystal A; Baskett, Carina; Kotanen, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Both herbivory and plant defenses against herbivores have been predicted to increase toward tropical regions. Early tests of this latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) were supportive, but accumulating evidence has been mixed. We argue that the lack of clarity might be due to heterogeneity in methodology and problems with study design and interpretation. We suggest possible solutions. Latitudinal studies need to carefully consider spatial and phylogenetic scale, to link plant defense measurements to herbivore performance, and to incorporate additional concepts from plant defense theory such as tolerance and induced defense. In addition, we call for consistent measures of herbivory to standardize comparisons across biomes. Improving methodology in future studies of LHDH should resolve much of the current controversy. PMID:27545844

  19. Biophysical characterization of α-synuclein and its controversial structure

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, T Reid; Markley, John L

    2014-01-01

    α-synuclein, a presynaptic protein of poorly defined function, constitutes the main component of Parkinson disease-associated Lewy bodies. Extensive biophysical investigations have provided evidence that isolated α-synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) in vitro. Subsequently serving as a model IDP in numerous studies, α-synuclein has aided in the development of many technologies used to characterize IDPs and arguably represents the most thoroughly analyzed IDP to date. Recent reports, however, have challenged the disordered nature of α-synuclein inside cells and have instead proposed a physiologically relevant helical tetramer. Despite α-synuclein’s rich biophysical history, a single coherent picture has not yet emerged concerning its in vivo structure, dynamics, and physiological role(s). We present herein a review of the biophysical discoveries, developments, and models pertinent to the characterization of α-synuclein’s structure and analysis of the native tetramer controversy. PMID:24634806

  20. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  1. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  2. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.S. )

    1989-08-04

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended tolerance doses in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them. 35 references.

  3. A VLBI resolution of the Pleiades distance controversy.

    PubMed

    Melis, Carl; Reid, Mark J; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Stauffer, John R; Bower, Geoffrey C

    2014-08-29

    Because of its proximity and its youth, the Pleiades open cluster of stars has been extensively studied and serves as a cornerstone for our understanding of the physical properties of young stars. This role is called into question by the "Pleiades distance controversy," wherein the cluster distance of 120.2 ± 1.5 parsecs (pc) as measured by the optical space astrometry mission Hipparcos is significantly different from the distance of 133.5 ± 1.2 pc derived with other techniques. We present an absolute trigonometric parallax distance measurement to the Pleiades cluster that uses very long baseline radio interferometry (VLBI). This distance of 136.2 ± 1.2 pc is the most accurate and precise yet presented for the cluster and is incompatible with the Hipparcos distance determination. Our results cement existing astrophysical models for Pleiades-age stars.

  4. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves. PMID:26718608

  5. Sources of Controversy Surrounding Latitudinal Patterns in Herbivory and Defense.

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Nunes, Krystal A; Baskett, Carina; Kotanen, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Both herbivory and plant defenses against herbivores have been predicted to increase toward tropical regions. Early tests of this latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) were supportive, but accumulating evidence has been mixed. We argue that the lack of clarity might be due to heterogeneity in methodology and problems with study design and interpretation. We suggest possible solutions. Latitudinal studies need to carefully consider spatial and phylogenetic scale, to link plant defense measurements to herbivore performance, and to incorporate additional concepts from plant defense theory such as tolerance and induced defense. In addition, we call for consistent measures of herbivory to standardize comparisons across biomes. Improving methodology in future studies of LHDH should resolve much of the current controversy.

  6. Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Silver, L B

    1986-10-01

    It is estimated that between 3% and 7% of children and adolescents in this country--up to 4 million--are learning disabled. Of this group, about 20% also have attention deficit disorder. Many professionals in multiple disciplines have proposed treatment approaches. When research has been done to support the approach, the reports and data may be published in journals not normally read by the practicing physician. When research data are not available, the information may be in a popular book, newspapers, or lay magazines or on television. Thus, parents may know of ideas and suggestions before the professional in clinical practice. These acceptable and controversial approaches to treatment are reviewed. It is understandable that a parent would seek out improved ways of helping his or her child. I reviewed the significant literature in an effort to assist the practicing physician in providing appropriate parental guidance and clinical interventions. PMID:2875647

  7. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies*

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved. PMID:24474104

  8. Leukemic blast cells and controversies in models of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, D F; Sklyarenko, L M; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Ivanovskaya, T S

    2015-03-01

    Classical and up-to-date models of hematopoietic lineage determination are briefly reviewed with the focus on myeloid-based models challenging the existence of the common progenitor for T cells, B cells and NK cells. The analysis of immunophenotype of leukemic blast cells seems to be a promising approach for interpreting some controversies in the schemes of normal hematopoiesis. The literature data as well as our own findings in the patients with various types of acute leukemias are in favor of the concept postulating that common myeloid-lymphoid progenitors giving rise to T and B cell branches retain the myeloid potential. The similarity of some immunophenotypic features of blast cells in pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute monoblastic leukemia is consistent with monocyte origin postulated in the studies of normal hematopoiesis. Study of acute leukemias may be the challenging area of research allowing for new insight into the origin of hematopoietic cell lineages. PMID:25804223

  9. [Development, terminology, principles, and controversies in minimally invasive knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, S; Pietsch, M

    2007-12-01

    Minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty is a logical and further improvement of the good results achieved with minimally invasive unicondylar knee arthroplasty. The terminology for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is confusing and comparison of different techniques is therefore difficult. A simple separation between less invasive and minimally invasive techniques will be presented. Besides the approach, minimally invasive surgical principles are very important. MIS in total knee arthroplasty is discussed very controversially at the moment. The preliminary results of these new techniques are very promising. Up to now there is much more feeling then knowing. Important questions (risk-benefit analysis, which technique for which patient and surgeon, education and cost-effectiveness) must be addressed by the proponents of this MIS technique. Step by step learning of these new techniques (evolution instead of revolution) in specific education centres is strongly recommended. Ultimately, patients and surgeons will have to decide whether these new techniques will only be a modern trend or represent the future.

  10. Vitamin D supplementation: less controversy, more guidance needed

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Caroline S.; Lammert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with multiple functions that extend beyond the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. In recent years, the publication of research articles investigating associations between vitamin D status and health has reached an all-time high, and an increase in supplementation studies has followed. Given the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, the scientific focus has gone beyond its known classic benefits on skeletal health to include diabetes and cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, renal, and liver diseases, yet numerous conflicting findings continue to emerge. This review presents some examples of recent work within the context of controversies surrounding vitamin D and highlights key factors that should be considered when designing vitamin D supplementation regimens. PMID:27594987

  11. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies.

    PubMed

    VanEpps, Eric M; Roberto, Christina A; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-03-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  12. Vitamin D supplementation: less controversy, more guidance needed.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Caroline S; Lammert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with multiple functions that extend beyond the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. In recent years, the publication of research articles investigating associations between vitamin D status and health has reached an all-time high, and an increase in supplementation studies has followed. Given the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, the scientific focus has gone beyond its known classic benefits on skeletal health to include diabetes and cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, renal, and liver diseases, yet numerous conflicting findings continue to emerge. This review presents some examples of recent work within the context of controversies surrounding vitamin D and highlights key factors that should be considered when designing vitamin D supplementation regimens. PMID:27594987

  13. Chronic Lyme disease: the controversies and the science.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    The diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease has been embroiled in controversy for many years. This is exacerbated by the lack of a clinical or microbiologic definition, and the commonality of chronic symptoms in the general population. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease is the appropriate diagnosis for only a minority of patients in whom it is suspected. In prospective studies of Lyme disease, very few patients go on to have a chronic syndrome dominated by subjective complaints. There is no systematic evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiology of Lyme disease, can be identified in patients with chronic symptoms following treated Lyme disease. Multiple prospective trials have revealed that prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor alleviate such post-Lyme syndromes. Extended courses of intravenous antibiotics have resulted in severe adverse events, which in light of their lack of efficacy, make them contraindicated.

  14. Clinical diagnostic criteria and classification controversies in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    RASCOVSKY, KATYA; GROSSMAN, MURRAY

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can manifest as a spectrum of clinical syndromes, ranging from behavioural impairment to language or motor dysfunction. Recently, revised diagnostic criteria have been proposed for the behavioural and progressive aphasia syndromes associated with frontotemporal degeneration. The present review will summarize these diagnostic guidelines and highlight some lingering controversies in the classification of FTLD clinical syndromes. We will discuss common tools and methods used to identify the insidious changes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), the value of new, patient-based tasks of orbitofrontal function, and the issue of a benign or ‘phenocopy’ variant of bvFTD. With regard to primary progressive aphasia (PPA), we will discuss the scope of the semantic disorder in semantic-variant PPA, the nature of the speech disorder in non-fluent, agrammatic PPA, and the preliminary utility of a logopenic PPA classification. PMID:23611345

  15. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved.

  16. [Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

    2012-07-01

    This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women.

  17. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  18. Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?123

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of sugar and its relation to various potential adverse health consequences are the subjects of considerable debate and controversy. This supplement to Advances in Nutrition provides an expanded summary of a symposium held on 26 April 2014 entitled “Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?” as part of the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014. The articles in the supplement discuss results of current systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as randomized controlled trials and draw implications for public policy considerations. In addition, future research gaps are identified. Current research trials conducted with commonly consumed sugars [e.g., sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)] do not support a unique relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, risk factors for heart disease, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Neurologic differences in response to studies that used pure fructose compared with pure glucose have not been confirmed using typical sugars that are consumed (i.e., sucrose and HFCS), which contain ∼50% glucose and fructose. We conclude that added sugars consumed in the normal forms in which humans consume them, at amounts typical of the human diet and for the time period studied in randomized controlled trials, do not result in adverse health consequences. Although more research trials are needed in many areas of sugar consumption and health, there is little scientific justification for recommending restricting sugar consumption below the reasonable upper limit recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 of no more than 25% of calories.

  19. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it`s findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, {open_quotes}Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.{close_quotes} The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau`s response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government`s program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists.

  20. Framing effectiveness in impact assessment: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development

    SciTech Connect

    Rozema, Jaap G.; Bond, Alan J.

    2015-01-15

    There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of impact assessment tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in impact assessment as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which impact assessment can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of impact assessment – environmental impact assessment (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the cases. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of impacts, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of impact assessment in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve impact assessment effectiveness, or whether it is