Science.gov

Sample records for activity remote sensing

  1. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  2. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of August 1, 1984...active and passive microwave remote sensing , (2) used the strong fluctuation theory and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to calculate the brightness

  3. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of February 1, 1984...the emissivities as functions of viewing angles and polarizations. They are used to interpret the passive microwave remote sensing data from

  4. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-26

    92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice NO0014-89-J-l 107 6. AUTHOR(S) 425f023-08 Prof. J.A. Kong 7... REMOTE SENSING OF ICE Sponsored by: Department of the Navy Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-89-J-1107 Research Organization: Center for...J. A. Kong Period covered: October 1, 1988 - November 30, 1992 St ACTIVE AND PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING OF ICE FINAL REPORT This annual report covers

  5. Indicators of international remote sensing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The extent of worldwide remote sensing activities, including the use of satellite and high/medium altitude aircraft data was studied. Data were obtained from numerous individuals and organizations with international remote sensing responsibilities. Indicators were selected to evaluate the nature and scope of remote sensing activities in each country. These indicators ranged from attendance at remote sensing workshops and training courses to the establishment of earth resources satellite ground stations and plans for the launch of earth resources satellites. Results indicate that this technology constitutes a rapidly increasing component of environmental, land use, and natural resources investigations in many countries, and most of these countries rely on the LANDSAT satellites for a major portion of their data.

  6. Remote Sensing Simulation Activities for Earthlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Odden, Thomas D.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested are activities using a Polaroid camera to illustrate the capabilities of remote sensing. Reading materials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are suggested. Methods for (1) finding a camera's focal length, (2) calculating ground dimension photograph simulation, and (3) limiting size using film resolution are…

  7. National activities in remote sensing: a Canadian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Bruce

    A brief review of the federal government's role in developing remote sensing activities in Canada over the years is given. The struggle to map a large country, together with an interest in space, brought about the Canadian remote sensing program. In particular, the paper focuses on the role of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada in coordinating research activities by all levels of government in remote sensing, thus fostering the growth of the remote sensing industry in Canada. An overview is given of the expanding remote sensing market. In addition, the paper looks at the present applications of remote sensing to agriculture, forestry and the study of ice caps and fresh water, for example, as well as its use in assessing and preventing environmental disasters. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of remote sensing in meeting the "Challenge of the 90's"—making sustainable development a way of life.

  8. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  9. Remote sensing application to regional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.

  10. Active microwave remote sensing of oceans, chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A rationale is developed for the use of active microwave sensing in future aerospace applications programs for the remote sensing of the world's oceans, lakes, and polar regions. Summaries pertaining to applications, local phenomena, and large-scale phenomena are given along with a discussion of orbital errors.

  11. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  12. Remote Sensing and Remote Control Activities in Europe and America: Part 2--Remote Sensing Ground Stations in Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.

  13. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  14. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  15. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  16. NASA's Future Active Remote Sensing Missing for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Jonathan B.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of space remote sensing of the earth, there has been a natural progression widening the range of electromagnetic radiation used to sense the earth, and slowly, steadily increasing the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution of the measurements. There has also been a somewhat slower trend toward active measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum, motivated in part by increased resolution, but also by the ability to make new measurements. Active microwave instruments have been used to measure ocean topography, to study the land surface. and to study rainfall from space. Future NASA active microwave missions may add detail to the topographical studies, sense soil moisture, and better characterize the cryosphere. Only recently have active optical instruments been flown in space by NASA; however, there are currently several missions in development which will sense the earth with lasers and many more conceptual active optical missions which address the priorities of NASA's earth science program. Missions are under development to investigate the structure of the terrestrial vegetation canopy, to characterize the earth's ice caps, and to study clouds and aerosols. Future NASA missions may measure tropospheric vector winds and make vastly improved measurements of the chemical components of the earth's atmosphere.

  17. Remote sensing of environmental impact of land use activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.

    1977-01-01

    The capability to monitor land cover, associated in the past with aerial film cameras and radar systems, was discussed in regard to aircraft and spacecraft multispectral scanning sensors. A proposed thematic mapper with greater spectral and spatial resolutions for the fourth LANDSAT is expected to usher in new environmental monitoring capability. In addition, continuing improvements in image classification by supervised and unsupervised computer techniques are being operationally verified for discriminating environmental impacts of human activities on the land. The benefits of employing remote sensing for this discrimination was shown to far outweigh the incremental costs of converting to an aircraft-satellite multistage system.

  18. Active microwave remote sensing of earth/land, chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Geoscience applications of active microwave remote sensing systems are examined. Major application areas for the system include: (1) exploration of petroleum, mineral, and ground water resources, (2) mapping surface and structural features, (3) terrain analysis, both morphometric and genetic, (4) application in civil works, and (5) application in the areas of earthquake prediction and crustal movements. Although the success of radar surveys has not been widely publicized, they have been used as a prime reconnaissance data base for mineral exploration and land-use evaluation in areas where photography cannot be obtained.

  19. Frequency Based Volcanic Activity Detection through Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, A. K.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing has proved to offer a useful and relatively inexpensive method for monitoring large areas where field work is logistically unrealistic, and potentially dangerous. Current sensors are able to detect the majority of explosive volcanic activity; those that tend to effect and represent larger scale changes in the volcanic systems, eventually relating to ash producing periods of extended eruptive activity, and effusive activity. As new spaceborne sensors are developed, the ability to detect activity improves so that a system to gauge the frequency of volcanic activity can be used as a useful monitoring tool. Four volcanoes were chosen for development and testing of a method to monitor explosive activity: Stromboli (Italy); Shishaldin and Cleveland (Alaska, USA); and Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia). Each volcano studied had similar but unique signatures of pre-cursory and eruptive activity. This study has shown that this monitoring tool could be applied to a wide range of volcanoes and still produce useful and robust data. Our method deals specifically with the detection of small scale explosive activity. The method described here could be useful in an operational setting, especially at remote volcanoes that have the potential to impact populations, infrastructure, and the aviation community. A number of important factors will affect the validity of application of this method. They are: (1) the availability of a continuous and continually populated dataset; (2) appropriate and reasonable sensor resolutions; (3) a recorded history of the volcano's previous activity; and, if available, (4) some ground-based monitoring system. We aim to develop the method further to be able to capture and evaluate the frequency of other volcanic processes such as lava flows, phreatomagmatic eruptions and dome growth and collapse. The work shown here has served to illustrate the capability of this method and monitoring tool for use at remote, un-instrumented volcanoes.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey land remote sensing activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Doyle G.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) were among the earliest to recognize the potential applications of satellite land remote sensing for management of the country's land and water resources…not only as a user but also as a program participant responsible for final data processing, product generation, and data distribution. With guidance from Dr. William T. Pecora, who was the Survey's Director at that time and later Under Secretary of Interior, the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program was established in 1966 as a focal point for these activities within the Department. Dr. Pecora was among the few who could envision a role for the Survey and the Department as active participants in programs yet to come--like the Landsat, Magsat, Seasat and, most recently, Shuttle Imaging Radar programs.

  1. Propagation Limitations in Remote Sensing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Multi-sensors and systems in remote sensing ; Radar sensing systems over land; Remote sensing techniques in oceanography; Influence of...propagation media and background; Infrared techniques in remote sensing ; Photography in remote sensing ; Analytical studies in remote sensing .

  2. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY LAND REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Doyle G.

    1983-01-01

    USGS uses all types of remotely sensed data, in combination with other sources of data, to support geologic analyses, hydrologic assessments, land cover mapping, image mapping, and applications research. Survey scientists use all types of remotely sensed data with ground verifications and digital topographic and cartographic data. A considerable amount of research is being done by Survey scientists on developing automated geographic information systems that can handle a wide variety of digital data. The Survey is also investigating the use of microprocessor computer systems for accessing, displaying, and analyzing digital data.

  3. Realistic Instrumentation Platform for Active and Passive Optical Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Gebru, Alem; Jayaweera, Hiran; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-02-01

    We describe the development of a novel versatile optical platform for active and passive remote sensing of environmental parameters. Applications include assessment of vegetation status and water quality. The system is also adapted for ecological studies, such as identification of flying insects including agricultural pests. The system is based on two mid-size amateur astronomy telescopes, continuous-wave diode lasers at different wavelengths ranging from violet to the near infrared, and detector facilities including quadrant photodiodes, two-dimensional and line scan charge-coupled device cameras, and a compact digital spectrometer. Application examples include remote Ramanlaser-induced fluorescence monitoring of water quality at 120 m distance, and insect identification at kilometer ranges using the recorded wing beat frequency and its spectrum of overtones. Because of the low cost this developmental platform is very suitable for advanced research projects in developing countries and has, in fact, been multiplied during hands-on workshops and is now being used by a number of groups at African universities.

  4. Activities of the Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Botkin, D.; Peuquet, D.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Topics on the analysis and processing of remotely sensed data in the areas of vegetation analysis and modelling, georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence are investigated. Discussions on support field data and specific applications of the proposed technologies are also included.

  5. Remote sensing research activities related to academic institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.

    1980-01-01

    The role of research in the educational setting is discussed. Curriculum developments for integrating teaching and research are described. Remote sensing technology is used as an example of bridging the gap between research and application. Recommendations are presented for strengthing research groups.

  6. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  7. Applications of Remote Sensing to Emergency Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-15

    Contents: Foundations of Remote Sensing : Data Acquisition and Interpretation; Availability of Remote Sensing Technology for Disaster Response...Imaging Systems, Current and Near Future Satellite and Aircraft Remote Sensing Systems; Utilization of Remote Sensing in Disaster Response: Categories of...Disasters, Phases of Monitoring Activities; Recommendations for Utilization of Remote Sensing Technology in Disaster Response; Selected Reading List.

  8. Active/Passive Remote Sensing of the Ocean Surface at Microwave Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    This report summarizes research activities and results obtained under grant N000l4-99-1-0627 "Active/Passive Remote Sensing of the Ocean Surface at...Measurements were completed during April 1999 by the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts.

  9. Active contour segmentation for hyperspectral oil spill remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-ping; Chang, Ming; An, Ju-bai; Huang, Jian; Lin, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Oil spills could occur in many conditions, which results in pollution of the natural resources, marine environment and economic health of the area. Whenever we need to identify oil spill, confirm the location or get the shape and acreage of oil spill, we have to get the edge information of oil slick images firstly. Hyperspectral remote sensing imaging is now widely used to detect oil spill. Active Contour Models (ACMs) is a widely used image segmentation method that utilizes the geometric information of objects within images. Region based models are less sensitive to noise and give good performance for images with weak edges or without edges. One of the popular Region based ACMs, active contours without edges Models, is implemented by Chan-Vese. The model has the property of global segmentation to segment all the objects within an image irrespective of the initial contour. In this paper, we propose an improved CV model, which can perform well in the oil spill hyper-spectral image segmentation. The energy function embeds spectral and spatial information, introduces the vector edge stopping function, and constructs a novel length term. Results of the improved model on airborne hyperspectral oil spill images show that it improves the ability of distinguishing between oil spills and sea water, as well as the capability of noise reduction.

  10. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  11. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  12. Predicting eruptions from precursory activity using remote sensing data hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-07-01

    Many volcanoes produce some level of precursory activity prior to an eruption. This activity may or may not be detected depending on the available monitoring technology. In certain cases, precursors such as thermal output can be interpreted to make forecasts about the time and magnitude of the impending eruption. Kamchatka (Russia) provides an ideal natural laboratory to study a wide variety of eruption styles and precursory activity prior to an eruption. At Bezymianny volcano for example, a clear increase in thermal activity commonly occurs before an eruption, which has allowed predictions to be made months ahead of time. Conversely, the eruption of Tolbachik volcano in 2012 produced no discernable thermal precursors before the large scale effusive eruption. However, most volcanoes fall between the extremes of consistently behaved and completely undetectable, which is the case with neighboring Kliuchevskoi volcano. This study tests the effectiveness of using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to track volcanic thermal precursors using data from both the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. It focuses on three large eruptions that produced different levels and durations of effusive and explosive behavior at Kliuchevskoi. Before each of these eruptions, TIR spaceborne sensors detected thermal anomalies (i.e., pixels with brightness temperatures > 2 °C above the background temperature). High-temporal, low-spatial resolution (i.e., ~ hours and 1 km) AVHRR data are ideal for detecting large thermal events occurring over shorter time scales, such as the hot material ejected following strombolian eruptions. In contrast, high-spatial, low-temporal resolution (i.e., days to weeks and 90 m) ASTER data enables the detection of much lower thermal activity; however, activity with a shorter duration will commonly be missed. ASTER and AVHRR data are combined to track low

  13. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  14. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  15. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Active and Passive Microwave Ocean Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    of both analytical and efficient numerical methods for electromagnetics and hydrodynamics. New insights regarding these phenomena can then be applied to improve microwave active and passive remote sensing of the ocean surface.

  16. Active-Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Martian Permafrost and Subsurface Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raizer, V.; Linkin, V. M.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Smythe, W. D.; Zoubkov, B.; Babkin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of permafrost formation global distribution and their appearance in h less than or equal 1 m thick subsurface layer would be investigated successfully by employment of active-passive microwave remote sensing techniques.

  17. Modeling Chemical Detection Sensitivities of Active and Passive Remote Sensing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scharlemann, E T

    2003-07-28

    During nearly a decade of remote sensing programs under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL has developed a set of performance modeling codes--called APRS--for both Active and Passive Remote Sensing systems. These codes emphasize chemical detection sensitivity in the form of minimum detectable quantities with and without background spectral clutter and in the possible presence of other interfering chemicals. The codes have been benchmarked against data acquired in both active and passive remote sensing programs at LLNL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The codes include, as an integral part of the performance modeling, many of the data analysis techniques developed in the DOE's active and passive remote sensing programs (e.g., ''band normalization'' for an active system, principal component analysis for a passive system).

  18. Active Ground Optical Remote Sensing for Improved Monitoring of Seedling Stress in Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active ground optical remote sensing (AGORS) devices mounted on overhead irrigation booms could help to improve seedling quality by autonomously monitoring seedling stress. In contrast to traditionally used passive optical sensors, AGORS devices operate independently of ambient light conditions and ...

  19. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  20. Technology study of quantum remote sensing imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Lin, Xuling; Yang, Song; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-02-01

    According to remote sensing science and technology development and application requirements, quantum remote sensing is proposed. First on the background of quantum remote sensing, quantum remote sensing theory, information mechanism, imaging experiments and prototype principle prototype research situation, related research at home and abroad are briefly introduced. Then we expounds compress operator of the quantum remote sensing radiation field and the basic principles of single-mode compression operator, quantum quantum light field of remote sensing image compression experiment preparation and optical imaging, the quantum remote sensing imaging principle prototype, Quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging technology is brought forward, mainly including quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging system composition and working principle, preparation and injection compression light active imaging device and quantum noise amplification device. Finally, the summary of quantum remote sensing research in the past 15 years work and future development are introduced.

  1. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  2. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  3. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  4. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  5. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  6. Interactive Change Detection Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Active Learning with Gaussian Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Hui; Yu, Huai; Huang, Pingping; Yang, Wen

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  7. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  8. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.

  9. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  10. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  11. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  12. Remote hydrogen sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate remote hydrogen sensing methodologies utilizing metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOS-FET) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies and combinations thereof.

  13. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  14. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  15. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  16. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  17. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  18. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 3 - From theory to applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of volume scattering and emission theory are discussed, taking into account a weakly scattering medium, the Born approximation, first-order renormalization, the radiative transfer method, and the matrix-doubling method. Other topics explored are related to scatterometers and probing systems, the passive microwave sensing of the atmosphere, the passive microwave sensing of the ocean, the passive microwave sensing of land, the active microwave sensing of land, and radar remote sensing applications. Attention is given to inversion techniques, atmospheric attenuation and emission, a temperature profile retrieval from ground-based observations, mapping rainfall rates, the apparent temperature of the sea, the emission behavior of bare soil surfaces, the emission behavior of vegetation canopies, the emission behavior of snow, wind-vector radar scatterometry, radar measurements of sea ice, and the back-scattering behavior of cultural vegetation canopies.

  19. Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture in using active and passive remotely sensed data and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture plays a vital role in ecosystem, biological processes, climate, weather and agriculture. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) improves data by combining the advantages and avoiding the limitation of passive microwave remote sensing (low resolution), and active microwave (challenge of soil moisture retrieval). This study will advance the knowledge of the application of soil moisture by using the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) data as well as data collected at Walnut Gulch Arizona in August 2015 during SMAPVEX15. Specifically, we will analyze the 5m radar data from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) to study spatial variability within the PALS radiometer pixel. SMAPVEX12/15 and SMAP data will also be analyzed to evaluate disaggregation algorithms. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and regulations for protecting land resources and improving environmental conditions. Keywords: soil moisture, Remote Sensing (RS), spatial statistic

  20. Remote sensing reflectance model of optically active components of turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutser, Tiit; Arst, Helgi

    1994-12-01

    A mathematical model that simulates the spectral curves of remote sensing reflectance is developed. The model is compared to measurements obtained from research vessel or boat in the Baltic Sea and Estonian lakes. The model simulates the effects of light backscattering from water and suspended matter, and the effects of its absorption due to water, phytoplankton, suspended matter and yellow substance. Measured by remote sensing spectral curves are compared by multiple of spectra obtained from model calculations to find the theoretical spectrum which is closest to experimental. It is assumed that in case of coincidence of the spectral curves concentrations of optically active substances in the model correspond to real ones. Preliminary testing of the model demonstrates that this model is useful for estimation of concentration of optically active substances in the waters of the Baltic Sea and Estonian lakes.

  1. Characterization of Deep Tunneling Activity through Remote-Sensing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    R. G. Best, P. J. Etzler, and J. D. Bloom

    1997-10-01

    This work is a case study demonstrating the uses of multispectral and multi-temporal imagery to characterize deep tunneling activity. A drainage tunnel excavation in Quincy, MA is the case locality. Data used are aerial photographs (digitized) and Daedalus 3600 MSS image data that were collected in July and October of 1994. Analysis of the data includes thermal characterization, spectral characterization, multi-temporal analysis, and volume estimation using digital DEM generation. The results demonstrate the type of information that could be generated by multispectral, multi-temporal data if the study locality were a clandestine excavation site with restricted surface access.

  2. Applied remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.

  3. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  4. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  5. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  6. Summary. [California activities in remote sensing and management of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    University of California activities in the development of remote sensing techniques and their application in the study of water resources within the state are summarized. It is pointed out that the summary is very lengthy due to fact that NASA had requested a dramatic reorientation of the study. For this reason it was felt that the co-investigators and other participants, need a rather detailed and systematic tabulation of the relevant facts that have been uncovered during the period since the reorientation.

  7. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  8. Active Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Weddell Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991, the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites have acquired radar data of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The Active Microwave Instrument on board ERS has two modes; SAR and Scatterometer. Two receiving stations enable direct downlink and recording of high bit-rate, high resolution SAR image data of this region. When not in an imaging mode, when direct SAR downlink is not possible, or when a receiving station is inoperable, the latter mode allows normalized radar cross-section data to be acquired. These low bit-rate ERS scatterometer data are tape recorded, downlinked and processed off-line. Recent advances in image generation from Scatterometer backscatter measurements enable complementary medium-scale resolution images to be made during periods when SAR images cannot be acquired. Together, these combined C-band microwave image data have for the first time enabled uninterrupted night and day coverage of the Weddell Sea region at both high (25 m) and medium-scale (-20 km) resolutions. C-band ERS-1 radar data are analyzed in conjunction with field data from two simultaneous field experiments in 1992. Satellite radar signature data are compared with shipborne radar data to extract a regional and seasonal signature database for recognition of ice types in the images. Performance of automated sea-ice tracking algorithms is tested on Antarctic data to evaluate their success. Examples demonstrate that both winter and summer ice can be effectively tracked. The kinematics of the main ice zones within the Weddell Sea are illustrated, together with the complementary time-dependencies in their radar signatures. Time-series of satellite images are used to illustrate the development of the Weddell Sea ice cover from its austral summer minimum (February) to its winter maximum (September). The combination of time-dependent microwave signatures and ice dynamics tracking enable various drift regimes to be defined which relate closely to the circulation of the

  9. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  10. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  11. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  12. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  13. Integrating passive and active remote sensing methods to assess and map soil salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Chudnovsky Chudnovsky, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated lands in Israel are subjected to salinization processes, mostly as a result of using low-quality irrigation water. The Jezre'el Valley in northern Israel is an example of this phenomenon and thus it was selected to carry out this study. This area is characterized by increasing soil salinity over the years, followed by an increase in soil SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ration), which leads to a significant deterioration of the soil structure and a reduced infiltration rate. The traditional methods of mapping, by soil sampling (sampling, laboratory checks, and mapping) are time-consuming and do not provide near real-time information. An alternative method is suggested herein using active and passive remote sensing methods: (1) an hyperspectral data from the ground ASD field spectrometer and from the air, by AISA air-born sensor (2) EFDM- Frequency Domain Electro-Magnetic, and (3) GPR- ground penetration radar. The constructed PLS model was applied on the hyperspectral images, producing an EC thematic map of the surface. In addition, a sub-surface salinity map was generated by applying the surface - sub-surface correlation on the surface EC thematic map. The generated maps were found to be in good agreement with maps based on chemical data. The results indicated that traditional methods are correlated with the remote sensing ones and that merging the three remote sensing methodologies may yield a better picture than each of them alone. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of applied in this study methods. It can be concluded that it is possible to account for soil salinity based on active and passive remote sensing means.

  14. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  15. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  16. Ocean Optical Remote Sensing Capability Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    illustrated in relation toIother oceanographic parameters. > reevavy programs which have supported the Remote Sensing Branch’s developments in water ...optics are described. The Navy relevance of water optics to these programs is indicated.’ "I 1 ’ ( ;j "IJl: ,t n ! /H i.i OCEAN OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING...Development Activity (NORDA) Remote Sensing Branch (Code 321) has been conducting investigative programs in water optics since 1977. The major thrust of

  17. Evapotranspiration and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.

    1982-01-01

    There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.

  18. Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    conducted studies of the sediments, seagrass and corals . The objective is to correlate the hyperspectral imagery with the detailed in-situ measurements...seagrass and coral reefs (Mazel, 1998). In addition to the basic science there is a directed effort in remote sensing for seafloor imaging and...area includes different bottom types – coral , sand, seagrass – sometimes within the same local area, at a variety of depths. Most of the region is quite

  19. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  20. Research activity of the greenhouse gas measurements using optical remote sensing in Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, K.

    2009-12-01

    Japan might be one of the most active countries dedicating themselves to studying the greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements using optical remote sensing not only on the ground but also from space. There are two reasons; one of them ascends to the Kyoto Protocol, agreed in December 1997 in Kyoto, an ancient city of Japan until 19th centuries, was designed to address the international response to serious climate change due to greenhouse gases. The other reason is due to a revision of the Basic Environment Law of Japan in order to meet the Kyoto Protocol in 1998. The State makes efforts to ensure international collaboration so as to effectively promote the monitoring, observation and measurement of the environmental situation with regard to global warming. Main activities are listed in a Table1. They are divided into two categories, i.e. the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), launched on Jan.23, 2009 and active remote sensing using lidar technology. In case of GOSAT, an initial analysis of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations was obtained for clear-sky scenes over land. In the future, after further calibration and validation of the data, observation data and corresponding analyzed products will be made available. On the other hand, studies of the laser remote sensing for measuring GHG have been actively carrying out to achieve reliable data with a higher accuracy at wavelengths of 1.6micron meter (Tokyo Metropolitan University, JAXA, Mitsubishi Electric Co.) and 2 micron meter (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology). As well-known, one of the most interests regarding atmospheric CO2 measurements is that carbon dioxide molecule measured are due to anthropological emission from fossil fuel burning or due to natural one from forest fires etc. We proposed a newly advanced CO2/CO DIAL using a hybrid of pulsed Tm,Ho:YLF and pulsed OPO pumped by it for better understanding them. Now, our effort is directed to find out the most suitable

  1. New Active Remote-sensing Capabilities: Laser Ablation Spectrometer and Lidar Atmospheric Species Profile Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, R. J.; Bergstralh, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: With the anticipated development of high-capacity fission power and electric propulsion for deep-space missions, it will become possible to propose experiments that demand higher power than current technologies (e.g. radioisotope power sources) provide. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), the first mission in the Project Prometheus program, will explore the icy moons of Jupiter with a suite of high-capability experiments that take advantage of the high power levels (and indirectly, the high data rates) that fission power affords. This abstract describes two high-capability active-remote-sensing experiments that will be logical candidates for subsequent Prometheus-class missions.

  2. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of small ellipsoidal scatterers. [of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kubacsi, M. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied within the Rayleigh approximation to calculate the backscattering cross section of a layer of randomly positioned and oriented small ellipsoids. The orientation of the ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative approach to first order in albedo. In the half space limit the results are identical to those obtained via the approach of Foldy's and distorted Born approximation. Numerical results of the theory are illustrated using parameters encountered in active remote sensing of vegetation layers. A distinctive characteristic is the strong depolarization shown by vertically aligned leaves.

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  4. A framework for nowcasting and forecasting of rainfall-triggered landslide activity using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing data offers the unique perspective to provide situational awareness of hydrometeorological hazards over large areas in a way that is impossible to achieve with in situ data. Recent work has shown that rainfall-triggered landslides, while typically local hazards that occupy small spatial areas, can be approximated over regional or global scales in near real-time. This work presents a regional and global approach to approximating potential landslide activity using the landslide hazard assessment for situational awareness (LHASA) model. This system couples remote sensing data, including Global Precipitation Measurement rainfall data, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and other surface variables to estimate where and when landslide activity may be likely. This system also evaluates the effectiveness of quantitative precipitation estimates from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 to provide a 24 forecast of potential landslide activity. Preliminary results of the LHASA model and implications for are presented for a regional version of this system in Central America as well as a prototype global approach.

  5. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  6. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  7. Wave Correlation Effects in Active Microwave Remote Sensing of the Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadr, Nagi Mahmoud

    This study examines the wave correlation effects that arise in active microwave remote sensing of the environment. These correlation effects, or coherent interference effects, are not accounted for by the regular phenomenological transport and radar equations, in which intensities, as a rule, are added incoherently. In particular, two types of correlation effects are examined: those associated with the medium and those associated with the source. The study method is the analytical wave approach to propagation and scattering from random media. This entails using Maxwell's equations to arrive at expressions for the first and second moments of the field. Unlike previous studies, however, in which plane wave incidence is assumed, here the radar is directly incorporated into the analytical wave formulation, and the antenna fields replaced via their plane wave representations. In this way, analysis of both the medium and source correlation effects on a per plane wave basis becomes a straightforward matter. The medium correlation effects are responsible for backscatter enhancement. Although the enhancement effect has been studied before on numerous occasions, careful characterization of the enhancement for microwave scattering from environmental scenes, such as vegetation canopies, has been lacking. The study at hand therefore fills this void and, in addition, quantifies the influence of this enhancement on phase difference statistics, a new and potentially important environmental remote sensing tool. The source correlation effects arise as a result of both the nature of the source and the geometry of the particular problem. By including these effects, a more general expression than the radar equation is obtained analytically. Quantitative examples show that, under certain circumstances, the results of this general expression deviate substantially from the results provided by the radar equation. This finding verifies the importance of considering source correlation

  8. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  9. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  10. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  11. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  12. Discrimination of active and inactive sand from remote sensing - Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paisley, Elizabeth C. I.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Landsat TM images, field data, and laboratoray reflectance spectra were examined for the Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California to assess the use of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) remote sensing data to discriminate aeolian sand populations on the basis of spectral brightness. Results show that areas of inactive sand have a larger percentage of dark, fine-grained materials compared to those composed of active sand, which contain less dark fines and a higher percentage of quartz sand-size grains. Both areas are spectrally distinct in the VNIR, suggesting that VNIR spectral data can be used to discriminate active and inactive sand populations in the Mojave Desert. Analysis of laboratory spectra was complicated by the presence of magnetite in the active sands, which decreases their laboratory reflectance values to those of inactive sands. For this application, comparison of TM and laboratory spectra suggests that less than 35 percent vegetation cover does not influence the TM spectra.

  13. Physical fundamentals of remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanda, E.

    The physical principles describing the propagation of EM waves in the atmosphere and their interactions with matter are discussed as they apply to remote sensing, in an introductory text intended for graduate science students, environmental-science researchers, and remote-sensing practitioners. The emphasis is on basic effects rather than an specific remote-sensing techniques or observational results. Chapters are devoted to basic relations, the spectral lines of atmospheric gases, the spectral properties of condensed matter, and radiative transfer.

  14. Multisensor of Remotely Sensed Data for Characterizing Seismotectonic Activities in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Anuar Jamaludin, Tajul; Tongkul, Felix; Mohamad, Zakaria; Ramli, Zamri; Abd Manap, Mohamad; Rahman, Muhammad Zulkarnain Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Seismically induced events pose serious hazards yet are difficult to predict. Despite remarkable efforts of mapping, monitoring and modelling of such great events at regional or local scales, the understanding of the processes in the Earth's dynamic system remains elusive. Although Malaysia is in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, the current trend and pattern of seismotectonic activities triggered a series of fundamental study to better understand the relationship between the earthquakes, recent tectonics and seismically active fault zones. Several conventional mapping techniques have been intensively used but shown some limitations. Remote sensing is the preferable mean to quantify the seismic activity accurately in a larger area within a short period. Still, only few of such studies have been carried out in this subduction region. Characterization of seismotectonic activities from space in a tropical environment is very challenging given the complexity of its physiographic, climatic, geologic conditions and anthropogenic activities. There are many factors controlling the success rate of the implementation mainly due to the lack of historical earthquakes, geomorphological evidence, and proper identification of regional tectonic patterns. In this study, we aim at providing better insight to extract and characterize seismotectonic activities by integrating passive and active remotely-sensed data, geodetic data, historical records, GIS-based data analysis and in-situ measurements as well quantify them based on field investigation and expert knowledge. It is crucial to perform spatiotemporal analysis of its activities in the most seismically induced region in North-Western Sabah. A comprehensive geodatabase of seismotectonic events are developed and allowed us to analyse the spatiotemporal activities. A novelty of object-based image method for extracting tropical seismically active faults and related seismotectonic features are introduced and evaluated. We aim to

  15. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  16. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  17. Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.

  18. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Shin, Robert T.; Nghiem, Son V.; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Han, Hsiu C.; Lim, Harold H.; Arnold, David V.

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing of earth terrain is examined. The layered random medium model is used to investigate the fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from vegetation. The model is used to interpret the measured data for vegetation fields such as rice, wheat, or soybean over water or soil. Accurate calibration of polarimetric radar systems is essential for the polarimetric remote sensing of earth terrain. A polarimetric calibration algorithm using three arbitrary in-scene reflectors is developed. In the interpretation of active and passive microwave remote sensing data from the earth terrain, the random medium model was shown to be quite successful. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric radar returns from earth terrain. In the terrain cover classification using the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, the applications of the K-distribution model will provide better performance than the conventional Gaussian classifiers. The layered random medium model is used to study the polarimetric response of sea ice. Supervised and unsupervised classification procedures are also developed and applied to synthetic aperture radar polarimetric images in order to identify their various earth terrain components for more than two classes. These classification procedures were applied to San Francisco Bay and Traverse City SAR images.

  19. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  20. Polarimetric Interferometry - Remote Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it

  1. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  2. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  3. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Shin, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts from 46 refereed journal and conference papers are presented for research on remote sensing of earth terrain. The topics covered related to remote sensing include the following: mathematical models, vegetation cover, sea ice, finite difference theory, electromagnetic waves, polarimetry, neural networks, random media, synthetic aperture radar, electromagnetic bias, and others.

  4. Estimating the amount of Ship Recycling Activity Using Remote Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watagawa, M.; Shinoda, T.; Hasegawa, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched for earth observation and there are more than 6 million scenes of archives including coastal areas during period of five years. The wealth of satellite imagery is noticeable for investigating monitoring methods such as ship detection in wide ocean area. Especially, it is useful way to estimate past behaviour from satellite imagery compared to reference data. We collected satellite imagery and analysis breaking process in major ship breaking yards between year 2009 and 2011. Comparing the number of recycling ships by satellite imagery to the world statistics is in good agreement. In this study, Remote Sensing Application has been discussed in order to assess the potential to be used for economic activities such as ship recycling in wide coastal area. It was used to evaluate the performance of ship recycling monitoring by Satellite imagery. Additionally, an approach for recognizing ships by SAR imagery regardless of weather conditions is presented.

  5. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of nonspherical particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied to calculate the scattering by a layer of randomly positioned and oriented nonspherical particles. The scattering amplitude functions of each individual particle are calculated with Waterman's T matrix method, which utilizes vector spherical wave functions for expansion of incident, scattered, and surface fields. The orientation of the particles is described by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. A rotation matrix is used to relate the T matrix of the principal frame to that of the natural frame of the particle. The extinction matrix and phase matrix of the radiative transfer equations are expressed in terms of the T matrix elements. The extinction matrix for nonspherical particles is generally nondiagonal. There are only two attenuation rates in a specified direction of propagation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative method to first order in albedo. Numerical results are illustrated as functions of incidence angle and frequency with applications to active remote sensing.

  6. Active Ground Optical Remote Sensing for Improved Monitoring of Seedling Stress in Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Eitel, Jan U. H.; Keefe, Robert F.; Long, Dan S.; Davis, Anthony S.; Vierling, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    Active ground optical remote sensing (AGORS) devices mounted on overhead irrigation booms could help to improve seedling quality by autonomously monitoring seedling stress. In contrast to traditionally used passive optical sensors, AGORS devices operate independently of ambient light conditions and do not require spectral reference readings. Besides measuring red (590–670 nm) and near-infrared (>760 nm) reflectance AGORS devices have recently become available that also measure red-edge (730 nm) reflectance. We tested the hypothesis that the additional availability of red-edge reflectance information would improve AGORS of plant stress induced chlorophyll breakdown in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Our results showed that the availability of red-edge reflectance information improved AGORS estimates of stress induced variation in chlorophyll concentration (r2 > 0.73, RMSE < 1.69) when compared to those without (r2 = 0.57, RMSE = 2.11). PMID:22319275

  7. Modelling Rift Valley fever (RVF) disease vector habitats using active and passive remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Linthicum, K. G.; Bailey, C. L.; Sebesta, P.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Ames Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases are conducting research to detect Rift Valley fever (RVF) vector habitats in eastern Africa using active and passive remote-sensing. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated from Landsat TM and SPOT data is used to characterize the vegetation common to the Aedes mosquito. Relationships have been found between the highest NDVI and the 'dambo' habitat areas near Riuru, Kenya on both wet and dry data. High NDVI values, when combined with the vegetation classifications, are clearly related to the areas of vector habitats. SAR data have been proposed for use during the rainy season when optical systems are of minimal use and the short frequency and duration of the optimum RVF mosquito habitat conditions necessitate rapid evaluation of the vegetation/moisture conditions; only then can disease potential be stemmed and eradication efforts initiated.

  8. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  9. State remote sensing (LANDSAT) programs catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This directory lists the technical capabilities, personnel, and program structure for remote sensing activities as they existed in each state in late 1980. The institutional framework, participating agencies, applications, status, equipment, software, and funding sources are also indicated.

  10. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  11. Flood mapping by combining the strengths of optical and Sentinel active radar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, H. C.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Westerhoff, R.; Huizinga, J.; Villars, N.; Bishop, C.

    2012-04-01

    Flood mapping with remote sensing plays an important role in large scale disaster management procedures. For this purpose, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) gained experience since 1993 with the production of flood maps from optical satellite imagery and has currently established, together with NASA collaborators, a fully automated, global, near real-time service. Another consortium is also presently working on an automated, near real-time, global flood mapping procedure called the 'Global Flood Observatory' (GFO), which will make use of high resolution Sentinel data. The procedure is currently tested on Envisat active radar (ASAR) imagery. Both the DFO and GFO projects provide open data output of their data and maps. The optical and radar approaches to flood mapping each have advantages and suffer from shortcomings. Optical remote sensing via the U.S. MODIS and VIIRS sensors is constrained by cloud cover but can attain a high revisit frequency (>2 /day), whereas the Envisat ASAR is not affected by cloud cover, but uses a lower revisit frequency (generally once/3 days, depending on the location). In this contribution, we demonstrate the combination of both approaches into one flood mapping result. This results in improved flood mapping in a case study over the Chao Phraya basin (Bangkok surroundings) during the recent October-November 2011 extreme flooding. The combined map shows that during overpass, ASAR reveals flooded regions over cloud-obscured areas, which clearly follow elevated features in the landscape such as roads, embankments and railways. Meanwhile, the high frequency of delivery of the optical information ensures timely information. Also, the quite different water classification methods used for the optical and ASAR data sources show good agreement and have been successfully merged into one GIS data product. This can also be automatically generated and disseminated on a global basis.

  12. REMOTE SENSING DEVELOPMENTS, RESEARCH AND ACTIVITIES AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 30+ year history of providing remote sensing support to EPA Regional and Program Offices. In addition to the its standard Technical Support mission, EPIC has developed a research program related to emerging technol...

  13. Enhancement of remote sensing through microwave technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cehelsky, M.; Kiebler, J.

    1980-01-01

    This overview begins with a brief look at remote sensing to date, focusing on the state of the art and the benefits that have been derived from it. Current and future microwave sensing developments are discussed pointing out special advantages and capabilities and noting the anticipated benefits. The frequency requirements of microwave sensing are outlined and the particular need to both allocate, and when necessary, protect active and passive operational sensing frequencies is emphasized.

  14. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  15. Implementation of Active Teaching Methods and Emerging Topics in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student's team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) for identifying deep and surface approaches to

  16. Remote sensing, imaging, and signal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.

  17. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  18. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  19. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2014-06-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

  20. Physical Principles of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.

    2001-09-01

    Substantially revised and expanded, this new edition includes a discussion of the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques and interferometric radar, an expanded list of problems (with solutions), and a discussion of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This book forms the basis of an introductory course in remote sensing. The main readership will be students and researchers in remote sensing, geography, cartography, surveying, meteorology, earth sciences and environmental sciences generally, as well as physicists, mathematicians and engineers.

  1. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  2. Remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.

    1976-01-01

    The surface emissivity and reflectivity of soil are strong functions of its moisture content. Changes in emissivity, observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry), and changes in reflectivity, observed by active microwave techniques (radar), can provide information on the moisture content of the 0 to 5 cm surface layer. In addition, the thermal inertia of the surface layer, which can be remotely sensed by observing the diurnal range of surface temperature, is an indicator of soil moisture content. The thermal infrared approach to remote sensing of soil moisture has little utility in the presence of cloud cover, but provides soil moisture data at high spatial resolutions and thermal data which are a potentially useful indicator of crop status. Microwave techniques can penetrate cloud covers. The passive technique has been demonstrated by both aircraft and spacecraft instruments, but spatial resolution is limited by the size of the antenna which can be flown. Active microwave systems offer the possibility of better spatial resolution, but have yet to be demonstrated from aircraft or spacecraft platforms.

  3. Eighth year projects and activities of the Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (ERSAL). [Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Projects completed for the NASA Office of University Affairs include the application of remote sensing data in support of rehabilitation of wild fire damaged areas and the use of LANDSAT 3 return beam vidicon in forestry mapping applications. Continuing projects for that office include monitoring western Oregon timber clearcut; detecting and monitoring wheat disease; land use monitoring for tax assessment in Umatilla, Lake, and Morrow Counties; and the use of Oregon Air National Guard thermal infrared scanning data. Projects funded through other agencies include the remote sensing inventory of elk in the Blue Mountains; the estimation of burned agricultural acreage in the Willamette Valley; a resource inventory of Deschutes County; and hosting a LANDSAT digital workshop.

  4. Ultra-fast coherent optical system for active remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shubhashish; Becker, Don; Joshi, Abhay; Howard, Roy

    2008-04-01

    Active optical remote sensing has numerous applications including battlefield target recognition and tracking, atmospheric monitoring, structural monitoring, collision avoidance systems, and terrestrial mapping. The maximum propagation distance in LIDAR sensors is limited by the signal attenuation. Sensor range could be improved by increasing the transmitted pulse energy, at the expense of reduced resolution and information bandwidth. Coherent detection can operate at low optical power levels without sacrificing sensor bandwidth. Utilizing a high power LO laser to increase the receiver gain, coherent systems provide shot noise-limited gain thereby increasing the sensing range. To fully exploit high LO powers without incurring performance penalties due to the RIN of the LO, high power handling balanced photodiodes are used. The coherent system has superior dynamic range, bandwidth, and noise performance than small-signal APD-based systems. Coherent detection is a linear process that is sensitive to the amplitude, phase and polarization of the received signal. Therefore, Doppler shifts and vibration signatures can be easily recovered. RF adaptive filtering following photodetection enables channel equalization, atmospheric turbulence compensation, and efficient background light filtering. We demonstrate a coherent optical transmission system using 15mA high power handling balanced photodetectors. This system has an IF linewidth <1Hz, employing a proprietary phase locked loop design. Data is presented for 100ps pulsed transmission. We have demonstrated amplitude and phase modulated 10Gb/s communication links with sensitivities of 132 and 72 photons per bit respectively. Investigations into system performance in the presence of laboratory induced atmospheric turbulence are shown.

  5. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  6. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  7. Monitoring active volcanism using ASTER satellite remote sensing: Volcan de Colima, Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvertooth, Maggie Lin

    Scope and Method of Study. ASTER satellite data was collected and analyzed in order to quantify changes in temperature, vesicularity, and morphology of the dome and crater that support evidence of constructive and destructive phases of lava dome growth and destruction cycles. These cycles are characterized by sporadic growth of a lava dome that is subsequently destroyed by a Vulcanian or Pelean style eruption. Activity reports were compared with ASTER images and new deposits were mapped along the flanks of the volcano. There is no way to distinguish between pyroclastic material, rockfall deposits, lahar deposits or lava flows therefore all new flows were mapped. Findings and Conclusions. During a constructive phase, magma that is low in volatiles rises and forms a new dome. The low amount of volatiles leads to a decrease in vesicularity. Therefore during a destructive phase vesicularity is increased. Examining changes in temperature on the dome, it appears that temperatures are at a maximum before an eruptive event, such as incandescent material being extruded at the edge of the dome. Immediately after the lava dome is removed by an explosive event, a decrease in temperature is observed. Once activity resumes, increase in temperature is seen. Morphological changes on the dome can be due to explosive events, gravitational collapse, and factors affecting the endogenous and exogenous growth of the dome. Satellite data provides a synoptic view allowing for observation of new activity to be observed earlier than ground based data may allow. In the case of the Volcan de Colima, satellite remote sensing provided insight to the constructive and destructive phases of the lava dome and current activity.

  8. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  9. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  10. Coherence Effects in L-Band Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Quasi-Periodic Corn Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their highly random nature, vegetation canopies can be modeled using the incoherent transport theory for active and passive remote sensing applications. Agricultural vegetation canopies however are generally more structured than natural vegetation. The inherent row structure in agricultural canopies induces coherence effects disregarded by the transport theory. The objective of this study is to demonstrate, via Monte-Carlo simulations, these coherence effects on L-band scattering and thermal emission from corn canopies consisting of only stalks.

  11. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  12. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  13. Laser Remote Sensing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing active remote sensors to monitor the health of Planet Earth and for exploration of other planets. Development and deployment of these remote sensors can have a huge economic impact. Lasers for these active remote sensors span the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared spectral regions. Development activities range from quantum mechanical modeling and prediction of new laser materials to the design, development, and demonstration be deployed in the field.

  14. Viewing marine bacteria, their activity and response to environmental drivers from orbit: satellite remote sensing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D Jay; Ford, Tim E; Colwell, Rita R; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions.

  15. Remote sensing procurement package: Remote Sensing Industry Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A directory of over 140 firms and organizations which contains detailed information in the types of products, services and equipment which they offer is presented. Also included for each firm or organization are addresses, phone numbers, contact person(s), and experience in the remote sensing field.

  16. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.

  17. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  18. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  19. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  20. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.; Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  1. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  2. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  3. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  4. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.

  5. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  6. Irrigated lands: Monitoring by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Vitorelli, I.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.

  7. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  8. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. Remote sensing data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A digest of information on remote sensor data systems is given. It includes characteristics of spaceborne sensors and the supportive systems immediately associated therewith. It also includes end-to-end systems information that will assist the user in appraising total data system impact produced by a sensor. The objective is to provide a tool for anticipating the complexity of systems and potential data system problems as new user needs are generated. Materials in this handbook span sensor systems from the present to those planned for use in the 1990's. Sensor systems on all planned missions are presented in digest form, condensed from data as available at the time of compilation. Projections are made of anticipated systems.

  10. Microwave backscattering theory and active remote sensing of the ocean surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. S.; Miller, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    The status is reviewed of electromagnetic scattering theory relative to the interpretation of microwave remote sensing data acquired from spaceborne platforms over the ocean surface. Particular emphasis is given to the assumptions which are either implicit or explicit in the theory. The multiple scale scattering theory developed during this investigation is extended to non-Gaussian surface statistics. It is shown that the important statistic for the case is the probability density function of the small scale heights conditioned on the large scale slopes; this dependence may explain the anisotropic scattering measurements recently obtained with the AAFE Radscat. It is noted that present surface measurements are inadequate to verify or reject the existing scattering theories. Surface measurements are recommended for qualifying sensor data from radar altimeters and scatterometers. Additional scattering investigations are suggested for imaging type radars employing synthetically generated apertures.

  11. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  12. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  13. Remote sensing of volcanos and volcanic terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Francis, Peter W.; Wilson, Lionel; Pieri, David C.; Self, Stephen; Rose, William I.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using remote sensing to monitor potentially dangerous volcanoes is discussed. Thermal studies of active volcanoes are considered along with using weather satellites to track eruption plumes and radar measurements to study lava flow morphology and topography. The planned use of orbiting platforms to study emissions from volcanoes and the rate of change of volcanic landforms is considered.

  14. Technology transfer of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic philosophy and some current activities of MSFC Technology Transfer with regard to remote sensing technology are briefly reviewed. Among the problems that may be alleviated through such technology transfer are the scarcity of energy and mineral resources, the alteration of the environment by man, unpredictable natural disasters, and the effect of unanticipated climatic change on agricultural productivity.

  15. Remote-Sensing Practice and Potential

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    Six essential processes that must be accomplished if use of a remote - sensing system is to result in useful information are defined as problem...to be useful in remote - sensing projects are described. An overview of the current state-of-the-art of remote sensing is presented.

  16. Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Engman, E.T.

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires.

  17. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    remote sensing methods for identification and assessment of expanses of aquatic plants. Both materials and techniques are examined for cost effectiveness and capability to sense aquatic plants on both the local and regional scales. Computer simulation of photographic responses was employed; Landsat, high-altitude photography, side-looking airborne radar, and low-altitude photography were examined to determine the capabilities of each for identifying and assessing aquatic plants. Results of the study revealed Landsat to be the most cost effective for regional surveys,

  18. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  19. Remote sensing of foliar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

  20. Technology Trends and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The science and application of remote sensing is flourishing in the digital age. Geographical information systems can provide a broad range of information tailored to the specific needs of disaster managers. Recent advances in airborne platforms, sensors and information technologies have come together provide the ability to put geo-registered, multispectral imagery on the web in near real-time. Highlights of a demonstration of NASA's First Response Experiment (FiRE) will be presented.

  1. Satellite remote sensing. An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, which is the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of the resources and features of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere from satellites, is an exciting, fast-growing technique used by environmental scientists to improve their knowledge of our planet. The non-military and non-communications satellites launched by the US, USSR, and the European Community produce digital images of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. These images are used to search for undiscovered mineral resources, to conduct population, land use and resource censuses, to control pests and pollution, to illustrate weather movements on television and much more. This introductory book examines the physical basis of remote sensing-the sensors and satellites used to collect data, and the methods used to process these data as well as the application of satellite remote sensing in the study of vegetation, land use, geology, soils, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The last chapter looks at the future: space stations, international coordination, etc.

  2. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  3. Active and passvie microwave remote sensing of springtime near-surface soil that at mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, L.; Tsunekawa, A.; Tsubo, M.

    2010-12-01

    Springtime near-surface soil thaw event is important for understanding the near-surface earth system. Previous researches based on both active and passive microwave remote sensing technologies have paid scant attention, especially at mid-latitudes where the near-surface earth system has been changed substantially by climate change and human activities, and are characterized by more complex climate and land surface conditions than the permafrost areas. SSM/I brightness temperature and QuikSCAT Ku-band backscatter were applied in this study at a case study area of northern China and Mongolia in springtime. The soil freeze-thaw algorithm was employed for SSM/I data, and a random sampling technique was applied to determine the brightness temperature threshold for 37 GHz vertically polarized radiation: 258.2 and 260.1 K for the morning and evening satellite passes, respectively. A multi-step method was proposed for QuikSCAT Ku-band backscatter based on both field observed soil thaw events and the typical signature of radar backscatter time series when soil thaw event occurred. The method is mainly focuses on the estimated boundary of thaw events and detection of primary thaw date. Finally, based on those results, a theoretical method by applying both active and passive microwave remote sensing was proposed for understanding different types of frozen grounds and their specific characters (e.g. initial and end date of springtime soil freeze-thaw transition period) in mid-latitudes.

  4. Remote sensing using airships

    SciTech Connect

    Lavan, C.K. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Loral Defense Systems-Akron (LDSA) has developed a laser-based mine detection system in response to the US Navy`s requirements for detecting, localizing and classifying mines in deep water shipping channels. This sensor system was tested recently at the Navy`s David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) at Bethesda, MD and at the US Army`s Camp Perry near Lake Erie. The testing at Camp Perry involved installation of the sensor system on the Goodyear Tim & Rubber Company`s airship {open_quotes}Spirit of Akron{close_quotes} and the conduct of control flight test experiments over Lake Erie. Resultant imagery has been analyzed in terms of water optical properties. Further tests are planned in a multispectral mode incorporating both active illumination and passive detection. The system can be extended to the detection of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) in government test ranges and to detection of other devices both buried and at the surface. The utility of the airship (blimp) makes the approach practical due to long endurance, wide speed range and platform flexibility. 14 figs.

  5. An inexpensive active optical remote sensing instrument for assessing aerosol distributions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, John E; Sharma, Nimmi C P

    2012-02-01

    Air quality studies on a broad variety of topics from health impacts to source/sink analyses, require information on the distributions of atmospheric aerosols over both altitude and time. An inexpensive, simple to implement, ground-based optical remote sensing technique has been developed to assess aerosol distributions. The technique, called CLidar (Charge Coupled Device Camera Light Detection and Ranging), provides aerosol altitude profiles over time. In the CLidar technique a relatively low-power laser transmits light vertically into the atmosphere. The transmitted laser light scatters off of air molecules, clouds, and aerosols. The entire beam from ground to zenith is imaged using a CCD camera and wide-angle (100 degree) optics which are a few hundred meters from the laser. The CLidar technique is optimized for low altitude (boundary layer and lower troposphere) measurements where most aerosols are found and where many other profiling techniques face difficulties. Currently the technique is limited to nighttime measurements. Using the CLidar technique aerosols may be mapped over both altitude and time. The instrumentation required is portable and can easily be moved to locations of interest (e.g. downwind from factories or power plants, near highways). This paper describes the CLidar technique, implementation and data analysis and offers specifics for users wishing to apply the technique for aerosol profiles.

  6. Remotely sensing homochirality, a powerful generic biosignature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Hough, J. H.; Kolokolova, L.; Germer, T.; Robb, F.

    2014-03-01

    A high quality biosignature arises uniquely from biological processes. If a biosignature can additionally be used in remote sensing, then it can be useful for future telescopic studies of extrasolar planets where remote sensing is a necessity. The remarkable phenomenon of homochirality may be such a biosignature. The optical activity of biological molecules, together with their handedness, can yield a unique signature in circular polarization. Photosynthesis, a surface phenomenon relying on strong polarization-sensitive transitions in the visible, where light from the host star is abundant, is a natural remote sensing target for this approach. Both microbial photosynthesis, which has dominated terrestrial life for much of the history of Earth, and macroscopic vegetation, may in principle be observed. Precision polarimetry from space is likely to be needed, and we describe a promising, innovative approach to acquire sensitive full Stokes polarimetry with a compact, robust configuration well-suited to space application. The homochirality phenomenon is likely to be generic to all biochemical life, and pure in that abiotic processes do not result in homochirality nor do abiotic processes produce circular polarization features with similar character to the biological ones. This uniquely powerful biosignature is amenable to remote sensing, in principle, through circular polarization spectroscopy.

  7. A robust active contour edge detection algorithm based on local Gaussian statistical model for oil slick remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yu; Wang, Yaxuan; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Zhaoxia

    2015-08-01

    Edge detection is a crucial method for the location and quantity estimation of oil slick when oil spills on the sea. In this paper, we present a robust active contour edge detection algorithm for oil spill remote sensing images. In the proposed algorithm, we define a local Gaussian data fitting energy term with spatially varying means and variances, and this data fitting energy term is introduced into a global minimization active contour (GMAC) framework. The energy function minimization is achieved fast by a dual formulation of the weighted total variation norm. The proposed algorithm avoids the existence of local minima, does not require the definition of initial contour, and is robust to weak boundaries, high noise and severe intensity inhomogeneity exiting in oil slick remote sensing images. Furthermore, the edge detection of oil slick and the correction of intensity inhomogeneity are simultaneously achieved via the proposed algorithm. The experiment results have shown that a superior performance of proposed algorithm over state-of-the-art edge detection algorithms. In addition, the proposed algorithm can also deal with the special images with the object and background of the same intensity means but different variances.

  8. Improving Oil Palm Classification in the Peruvian Amazon by Combining Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Velez, V. H.; DeFries, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Oil palm expansion has led to clearing of extensive forest areas in the tropics. However quantitative assessments of the magnitude of oil palm expansion to deforestation have been challenging due in large part to the limitations presented by conventional optical data sets for discriminating plantations from forests and other tree cover vegetations. Recently available information from active remote sensors has opened the possibility of using these data sources to overcome these limitations. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the accuracy of oil palm classification when using ALOS/PALSAR active satellite data in conjunction with Landsat information, compared to the use of Landsat data only. The analysis takes place in a focused region around the city of Pucallpa in the Ucayali province of the Peruvian Amazon for the year 2010. Oil palm plantations were separated in five categories consisting of four age classes (0-3, 3-5, 5-10 and > 10 yrs) and an additional class accounting for degraded plantations older than 15 yr. Other land covers were water bodies, unvegetated land, short and tall grass, fallow, secondary vegetation, and forest. Classifications were performed using random forests. Training points for calibration and validation consisted of 411 polygons measured in areas representative of the land covers of interest and totaled 6,367 ha. Overall classification accuracy increased from 89.9% using only Landsat data sets to 94.3% using both Landast and ALOS/PALSAR. Both user's and producer's accuracy increased in all classes when using both data sets except for producer's accuracy in short grass which decreased by 1%. The largest increase in user's accuracy was obtained in oil palm plantations older than 10 years from 62 to 80% while producer's accuracy improved the most in plantations in age class 3-5 from 63 to 80%. Results demonstrate the suitability of data from ALOS/PALSAR and other active remote sensors to improve classification of oil palm

  9. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    resistance development. The two agencies have entered into an agreement which could potentially lead to the development of next generation NASA sensors that will more specifically address the requirements of the USEPA's resistance development strategy and offer opportunities to study the ever changing ecosystem complexities. The USEPA/NASA/ITD team has developed a broad research project entitled CERES (Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies). CERES is a research effort leading to decision support system tools that are designed to integrate multi-resolution NASA remote sensing data products and USEPA geo -spatial models to monitor the potential for insect pest resistance development from the regional to the landscape and then to the field level.

  10. Integration method to estimate above-ground biomass in arid prairie regions using active and passive remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Minfeng; He, Binbin; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-01-01

    The use of microwave remote sensing for estimating vegetation biomass is limited in arid grassland regions because of the heterogeneous distribution of vegetation, sparse vegetation cover, and the strong influence from soil. To minimize the problem, a synergistic method of active and passive remote sensing data for retrieval of above-ground biomass (AGB) was developed in this paper. Vegetation coverage, which can be easily estimated from optical data, was combined in the scattering model. The total backscattering was divided into the amount attributed to areas covered with vegetation and that attributed to areas of bare soil. Backscattering coefficients were simulated using the established scattering model. A look-up table was established using the relationship between the vegetation water content and the backscattering coefficient for water content retrieval. Then, AGB was estimated using the relationship between the vegetation water content and the AGB. The method was applied to estimate the AGB of the Wutumeiren prairie. Finally, the accuracy and sources of error in this innovative AGB retrieval method were evaluated. The results showed that the predicted AGB correlated with the measured AGB (R2=0.8414, RMSE=0.1953 kg/m2). Thus, the method has operational potential for the estimation of the AGB of herbaceous vegetation in arid regions.

  11. Spaceborne Radar Remote Sensing: Radar Interferometry, Scatterometry and Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Yueh, Simon H.; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing instruments allow the acquisition of global and synoptic information for Earth Science investigations. In particular, active microwave remote sensing that have contributed geophysical measurements of a scale and accuracy which surpass what could be accomplished with ariborne or in-situ observations.

  12. All you ever wanted to know about remote sensing. [terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of remote sensing state-of-the-art is presented. Emphasis is placed on an understanding of remote sensing terminology. Passive and active sensors and sensor platforms from the spacecraft program to the ground truth program are described.

  13. Hydrological Application of Remote Sensing: Surface States -- Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing research of snow cover has been accomplished for nearly 40 years. The use of visible, near-infrared, active and passive-microwave remote sensing for the analysis of snow cover is reviewed with an emphasis on the work on the last decade.

  14. Combined Use of Active and Passive Remote Sensing for Mapping Distribution and Biomass of Coastal Mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, A.; Rahman, A. F.; Warren, M.; Robeson, S. M.; Darusman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing provides a potentially fast, cost-effective, and efficient tool for mapping and monitoring mangroves located in relatively inaccessible areas where field measurements are often difficult and expensive. In this study, we examined the utility of combining Landsat-8 (LDCM), ALOS-PALSAR, and SRTM satellite imagery for mapping mangrove species composition, its canopy height and biomass distribution in the Mimika District of Papua, Indonesia. Image segmentation of ALOS-PALSAR radar data were used to delineate mangrove areas, while flexible statistical expert-based classification of spectral signatures from Landsat-8 (LDCM) images were used to classify mangrove associations. The overall accuracy of mangrove mapping for the entire area was 94.38% with kappa coefficient of 0.94 when validated with field data and QuickBird image data with 2.44 m spatial resolution. Mangrove height and biomass were mapped using the SRTM-based elevation, which were calibrated with field-measured canopy height via regression models. There was a strong linear relationship between the SRTM data and field-measured vegetation height (r = 0.87 and adjusted R2 = 0.76). A bootstrap simulation of 10,000 runs with replacement resulted in an error of 3.03 m (RMSE) and 2.33 m (MAE) for mean tree height over 30 m pixels. SRTM-derived canopy height and plot-level biomass from the 22 mangrove plots showed a strong non-linear relationship with an R2=0.75. Our results showed that mangrove standing biomass in the Mimika District varies from 70.32 Mg/ha to 511.80 Mg/ha with mean biomass error of 65.23 Mg/ha (RMSE) and 58.10 Mg/ha (MAE) over a pixel of 90 m. This study explored a set of reliable methodologies which can be applied for mapping and monitoring mangrove dynamics of large areas in Indonesia.

  15. Optical and Radar Satellite Remote Sensing for Large Area Analysis of Landslide Activity in Southern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessner, S.; Behling, R.; Teshebaeva, K. O.; Motagh, M.; Wetzel, H. U.

    2014-12-01

    The presented work has been investigating the potential of optical and radar satellite remote sensing for the spatio-temporal analysis of landslide activity at a regional scale along the eastern rim of the Fergana Basin representing the area of highest landslide activity in Kyrgyzstan. For this purpose a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing database has been established for a 12.000 km2 study area in Southern Kyrgyzstan containing a multitude of optical data acquired during the last 28 years as well as TerraSAR-X and ALOS-PALSAR acquired since 2007. The optical data have been mainly used for creating a multi-temporal inventory of backdated landslide activity. For this purpose an automated approach for object-oriented multi-temporal landslide detection has been developed which is based on the analysis of temporal NDVI-trajectories complemented by relief information to separate landslide-related surface changes from other land cover changes. Applying the approach to the whole study area using temporal high resolution RapidEye time series data has resulted in the automated detection of 612 landslide objects covering a total area of approx. 7.3 km². Currently, the approach is extended to the whole multi-sensor time-series database for systematic analysis of longer-term landslide occurrence at a regional scale. Radar remote sensing has been focussing on SAR Interferometry (InSAR) to detect landslide related surface deformation. InSAR data were processed by repeat-pass interferometry using the DORIS and SARScape software. To better assess ground deformation related to individual landslide objects, InSAR time-series analysis has been applied using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method. Analysis of the results in combination with optical data and DEM information has revealed that most of the derived deformations are caused by slow movements in areas of already existing landslides indicating the reactivation of older slope failures. This way, InSAR analysis can

  16. Improved Assessments of Ecosystem Services through Active-Remote Sensing: Quantification of Timber and Snow Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinkham, Wade T.

    Over the last century the natural environment has experienced an accelerated rate of climatic change in terms of both temperature and precipitation. The call for remote sensing methodologies that can provide reliable and accurate estimates of ecosystem services has never been stronger. This need is vital for assessing resources like above ground carbon stocks and water availability (from snow) as these resources have already been shown to be influenced by our changing climate. Although LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is still a relatively young technology, only moving into mainstream use in the mid 1980's, it has since become the most promising remote sensing technique for high resolution elevation measurements in rugged and remote landscapes. Progressing our understanding of LiDAR error structure spatially, resulting from the interactions of vegetation and terrain, will allow us to generate more reliable assessments of carbon and water stocks in remote mountainous regions. The research within this dissertation is focused on improving the assessment of ecosystem services, by advancing our understanding of LiDAR-derived DEM vertical error and applying that knowledge to quantify the accuracy of associated value-added products. The work first evaluates the performance of two open-source and one commercial black-box LiDAR classification algorithms and identifies their sources of error in diverse landscapes. This showed that across algorithm there was no statistical difference, but that orders of magnitude differences could be found between different terrain and cover types. This demonstrated that LiDAR-derived DEM vertical error has little impact (<3% of timber volume) on derived forest metrics. These principals are then deployed in the development of LiDAR-aware allometrics for Abies grandis stem volume and biomass. Taking advantage of LiDAR's ability to measure tree height, it was shown that height based allometrics are as reliably accurate as traditional

  17. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  18. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  19. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  20. What more have we learned from thermal infrared remote sensing of active volcanoes other than they are hot? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing has been used for decades to detect changes in the heat output of active and reawakening volcanoes. The data from these thermally anomalous pixels are commonly used either as a monitoring tool or to calculate parameters such as effusion rate and eruptive style. First and second generation TIR data have been limited in the number of spectral channels and/or the spatial resolution. Two spectral channels with only one km spatial resolution has been the norm and therefore the number of science applications is limited to very large or very hot events. The one TIR channel of the Landsat ETM+ instrument improved the spatial resolution to 60 m, but it was not until the launch of ASTER in late 1999 that orbital TIR spectral resolution increased to five channels at 90 m per pixel. For the first time, the ability existed to capture multispectral emitted radiance from volcanic surfaces, which has allowed the extraction of emissivity as well as temperature. Over the past decade ASTER TIR emissivity data have been examined for a variety of volcanic processes including lava flow emplacement at Kilauea and Kluichevskoi, silicic lava dome composition at Sheveluch, Bezymianny and Mt. St. Helens, low temperature fumaroles emissions at Cerro Negro, and textural changes on the pyroclastic flow deposits at Merapi, Sheveluch and Bezymianny. Thermal-temporal changes at the 90 m scale are still an important monitoring tool for active volcanoes using ASTER TIR data. However, the ability to extract physical parameters such as micron-scale roughness and bulk mineralogy has added tremendously to the science derived from the TIR region. This new information has also presented complications such as the effects of sub-pixel thermal heterogeneities and amorphous glass on the emissivity spectra. If better understood, these complications can provide new insights into the physical state of the volcanic surfaces. Therefore, new data processing algorithms

  1. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  2. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Herng-Aung; Kong, Jin AU

    1991-01-01

    In remote sensing, the encountered geophysical media such as agricultural canopy, forest, snow, or ice are inhomogeneous and contain scatters in a random manner. Furthermore, weather conditions such as fog, mist, or snow cover can intervene the electromagnetic observation of the remotely sensed media. In the modelling of such media accounting for the weather effects, a multi-layer random medium model has been developed. The scattering effects of the random media are described by three-dimensional correlation functions with variances and correlation lengths corresponding to the fluctuation strengths and the physical geometry of the inhomogeneities, respectively. With proper consideration of the dyadic Green's function and its singularities, the strong fluctuation theory is used to calculate the effective permittivities which account for the modification of the wave speed and attenuation in the presence of the scatters. The distorted Born approximation is then applied to obtain the correlations of the scattered fields. From the correlation of the scattered field, calculated is the complete set of scattering coefficients for polarimetric radar observation or brightness temperature in passive radiometer applications. In the remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems, the development of microwave remote sensing technology and the potential of SAR to measure vegetation structure and biomass have increased effort to conduct experimental and theoretical researches on the interactions between microwave and vegetation canopies. The overall objective is to develop inversion algorithms to retrieve biophysical parameters from radar data. In this perspective, theoretical models and experimental data are methodically interconnected in the following manner: Due to the complexity of the interactions involved, all theoretical models have limited domains of validity; the proposed solution is to use theoretical models, which is validated by experiments, to establish the region in which

  3. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  4. Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The roles and activities of NASA and the National Conference of State Legislatures in fostering remote sensing technology utilization by the states and in promoting interstate communication and cooperation are reviewed. The reduction and interpretation of LANDSAT MSS and aerial reconnaissance data for resources management and environment assessment are described as well as resource information systems, and the value of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT 4 data.

  5. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  6. LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1. Scott Tyo 5e. TASK...and tested at the University of Arizona, and preliminary images are shown in this final report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote Sensing , polarimetry 16...7.0 LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, 85721 tyo

  7. Analysis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  8. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  9. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  10. A preliminary study of air-pollution measurement by active remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.; Proctor, E. K.; Gasiorek, L. S.; Liston, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollutants are identified, and the needs for their measurement from satellites and aircraft are discussed. An assessment is made of the properties of these pollutants and of the normal atmosphere, including interactions with light of various wavelengths and the resulting effects on transmission and scattering of optical signals. The possible methods for active remote measurement are described; the relative performance capabilities of double-ended and single-ended systems are compared qualitatively; and the capabilities of the several single-ended or backscattering techniques are compared quantitatively. The differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is shown to be superior to the other backscattering techniques. The lidar system parameters and their relationships to the environmental factors and the properties of pollutants are examined in detail. A computer program that models both the atmosphere (including pollutants) and the lidar system is described. The performance capabilities of present and future lidar components are assessed, and projections are made of prospective measurement capabilities for future lidar systems. Following a discussion of some important operational factors that affect both the design and measurement capabilities of airborne and satellite-based lidar systems, the extensive analytical results obtained through more than 1000 individual cases analyzed with the aid of the computer program are summarized and discussed. The conclusions are presented. Recommendations are also made for additional studies to investigate cases that could not be explored adequately during this study.

  11. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  12. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  13. Remotely-sensed active fire data for protected area management: eight-year patterns in the Manas National Park, India.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  14. Remotely-Sensed Active Fire Data for Protected Area Management: Eight-Year Patterns in the Manas National Park, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E.

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  15. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  16. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  17. NASA remote sensing programs: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.

  18. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  19. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  20. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

  1. Satellite remote sensing over ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.

  2. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  3. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  4. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  5. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  6. Flood Management Enhancement Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanowski, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which

  7. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  8. Remote sensing and reflectance profiling in entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...

  9. Sandia multispectral analyst remote sensing toolkit (SMART).

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian Nelson; Smith, Jody Lynn; Geib, Peter L.; Nandy, Prabal; Wang, Nancy Nairong

    2003-03-01

    This remote sensing science and exploitation work focused on exploitation algorithms and methods targeted at the analyst. SMART is a 'plug-in' to commercial remote sensing software that provides algorithms to enhance the utility of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) and other multispectral satellite data. This toolkit has been licensed to 22 government organizations.

  10. Conference of Remote Sensing Educators (CORSE-78)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ways of improving the teaching of remote sensing students at colleges and universities are discussed. Formal papers and workshops on various Earth resources disciplines, image interpretation, and data processing concepts are presented. An inventory of existing remote sensing and related subject courses being given in western regional universities is included.

  11. What does remote sensing do for ecology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughgarden, J.; Running, S. W.; Matson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to ecological investigations is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the recruitment problem in marine population dynamics, the regional analysis of terrestrial ecosystems, and the monitoring of ecological changes. Impediments to the use of remote sensing data in ecology are addressed.

  12. Planning and Implementation of Remote Sensing Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: TEKTITE II experiment-upwelling detection (NASA Mx 138); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 159); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 165); Experiments on thermal pollution; Remote sensing newsletter; Symposium on remote sensing in marine biology and fishery resources.

  13. Ionospheric Profiles from Ultraviolet Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    The long-term goal of this project is to obtain ionospheric profiles from ultraviolet remote sensing of the ionosphere from orbiting space platforms... Remote sensing of the nighttime ionosphere is a more straightforward process because of the absence of the complications brought about by daytime

  14. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  15. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  16. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  17. Oceanographic Remote Sensing; A Position Paper,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-26

    The purpose of a Navy R&D remote sensing plan should be to set forth the requirements and direction of basic and exploratory research in satellite... remote sensing which supports the overall Navy oceanographic research and operational programs. The aim of the plan would be to outline the established...addressed. The plan should help serve as a single technology and program reference for implementation and planning of Navy related satellite remote

  18. Monitoring boreal ecosystem phenology with integrated active/passive microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Njoku, E.; Kimball, J.; Running, S.; Thompson, C.; Lee, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    The important role of the high latitudes in the functioning of global processes is becoming well established. The size and remoteness of arctic and boreal ecosystems, however, pose a challenge to quantification of both terrestrial ecosystem processes and their feedbacks to regional and global climate conditions. Boreal and arctic regions form a complex land cover mosaic where vegetation structure, condition and distribution are strongly regulated by environmental factors such as moisture availability, permafrost, growing season length, disturbance and soil nutrients.

  19. Sensitivity of Active Remotely Sensed Total Column Observations to Atmospheric State Estimation Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Moore, B.

    2013-12-01

    The proposed Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission will retrieve total column CO2 using a laser-based measurement. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) approach utilizes the difference in absorption between neighboring spectral lines to effectively determine the difference in absorption due to CO2. The actual measured quantity is equivalent to the differential absorption, defined by Δτ = ∫ q(p) Δξ(p) dp / g m, where m is the molar mass of air and Δξ is the differential absorption cross section. The main use of the measurement is the characterization of sources and sinks using atmospheric inverse methods. Changes in surface pressure or Δξ can change Δτ independent of sources and sinks and are, thus "nuisance variables". Δξ is strongly dependent on variations in temperature (T) and water vapor (w), which are usually taken from numerical models as estimates of the local atmospheric state. The authors seek to determine observable that contains the most information on the model column of CO2, which will provide the best estimates of sources and sinks in a transport model inversion. Three candidate observables are the differential optical depth on a CO2 line, the ratio of this to the differential optical depth on an O2 line, the weighting function averaged column CO2. Each of these observables will have different sensitivities to surface pressure and spectroscopy by virtue of the functional form that defines them. For example, the O2 measurement should be less sensitive to surface pressure fluctuations due to the near constancy of O2 in the atmosphere. The information contained in the observation about the model state is encapsulated in the quantity HTR-1H, where R is the observation error covariance and H is the Jacobian of the observation operator with respect to the model mixing ratio of CO2. We can decompose the error variance for a particular observation into contributions from the surface pressure errors

  20. Overview of Outreach Activities of the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Balthasar, H.; Dumke, A.; Gross, C.; Michael, G.; Neu, D.; Platz, T.; Rosenberg, H.; Schreiner, B.; Walter, S. H. G.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary Sciences teach us how special our homeplanet is in the solar system. Incorporating a broad variety of natural science topics they count to the most fundamental branches of scientific research with a strong interdisciplinary character. However, since planetary sciences are not a school subject, children as well as adults are often lacking an overall awareness and understanding of that field. The mission of planetary education has to be fulfilled by research institutions. With several platforms and activities our group is engaged to address this topic. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) is involved in space missions such as Mars Express with the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), Cassini to Saturn, and Dawn to the asteroids Vesta and Ceres. Moreover, we participate in developing a planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Information of our planetary research activities can be found on our institutes website [1]. Our outreach activities include press releases, an image download hub, permanent and special exhibition support, 3D-HD-animation production, science fairs, workshops, hands-on courses, public talks at observatories and schools, as well as media appearances in radio, press and TV.

  1. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  2. Microwave remote sensing of hydrologic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    A perspective on the implementation of microwave sensors in future airborne and spaceborne observations of hydrologic parameters is presented. The rationale is based on a review of the status and future trends of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave research as applied to the remote sensing of soil moisture content, snowpack water equivalent, freeze/thaw boundaries, lake ice thickness, surface water area, and the specification of watershed runoff coefficients. Analyses and observations based on data acquired from ground based, airborne and spaceborne platforms, and an evaluation of advantages and limitations of microwave sensors are included.

  3. Prediction of health levels by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing for terrestrial applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Murali Krishna Gumma,; Venkateswarlu Dheeravath,

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing data are considered hyperspectral when the data are gathered from numerous wavebands, contiguously over an entire range of the spectrum (e.g., 400–2500 nm). Goetz (1992) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The acquisition of images in hundreds of registered, contiguous spectral bands such that for each picture element of an image it is possible to derive a complete reflectance spectrum.” However, Jensen (2004) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The simultaneous acquisition of images in many relatively narrow, contiguous and/or non contiguous spectral bands throughout the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Remote sensing and urban public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  6. Compressive optical remote sensing via fractal classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Quan-sen; Liu, Ji-xin

    2015-11-01

    High resolution and large field of view are two major development trends in optical remote sensing imaging. But these trends will cause the difficult problem of mass data processing and remote sensor design under the limitation of conventional sampling method. Therefore, we will propose a novel optical remote sensing imaging method based on compressed sensing theory and fractal feature extraction in this study. We could utilize the result of fractal classification to realize the selectable partitioned image recovery with undersampling measurement. The two experiments illustrate the availability and feasibility of this new method.

  7. Remote sensing and global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, A.; Cracknell, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    This book, based on lectures from the Dundee Summer Schools in Remote Sensing in 1992, focuses on aspects of remote sensing related to climatic change. The organization of the book focuses on particular parts of the climate system and then discusses the different satellite systems relevant to their measurement. The following subject areas are included in the book: background information about the climate system and remote sensing; atmospheric applications in both lower and upper atmosphere; land surface including snow and ice, altimetry in Antarctica, land surface energy budget and albedo; marine science; ecological monitoring in St. Petersburg, Russia.

  8. Remote sensing for exploration - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Rock, B. N.; Rowan, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing in resource exploration is reviewed, with emphasis placed on new developments in high spectral resolution remote-sensing techniques for mineralogic and vegetation mapping. Topics discussed include aerial photography and satellite remote sensing, concepts and principles of spectral data collection, spectral properties of rocks and minerals, spectral properties of vegetation, and botanical aspects of geochemical stress. The discussion also covers applications of Landsat multispectral scanner data to lithologic and geobotanic studies and the future development of data acquisition and data interpretation techniques.

  9. Paleovalleys mapping using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibatsha, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    For work materials used multispectral satellite imagery Landsat (7 channels), medium spatial resolution (14,25-90 m) and a digital elevation model (data SRTM). For interpretation of satellite images and especially their infrared and thermal channels allocated buried paleovalleys pre-paleogene age. Their total length is 228 km. By manifestation of the content of remote sensing paleovalleys distinctly divided into two types, long ribbon-like read in materials and space survey highlights a network of small lakes. By the nature of the relationship established that the second type of river paleovalleys flogs first. On this basis, proposed to allocate two uneven river paleosystem. The most ancient paleovalleys first type can presumably be attributed to karst erosion, blurry chalk and carbon deposits foundation. Paleovalleys may include significant groundwater resources as drinking and industrial purposes. Also we can control the position paleovalleys zinc and bauxite mineralization area and alluvial deposits include uranium mineralization valleys infiltration type and placer gold. Direction paleovalleys choppy, but in general they have a north-east orientation, which is controlled by tectonic zones of the foundation. These zones are defined as the burial place themselves paleovalleys and position of karst cavities in areas interfacing with other structures orientation. The association of mineralization to the caverns in the beds paleovalleys could generally present conditions of formation of mineralization and carry it to the "Niagara" type. The term is obviously best reflects the mechanism of formation of these ores.

  10. Suntracker for atmospheric remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawat, Toufic-Michel; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Torguet, Roger J.

    1998-05-01

    A heliostat is designed and built to track the sun for optical remote sensing of the stratosphere from a balloon- borne pointed gondola. The tracking mechanism is controlled by two direct torque motors used to drive a single flat acquisition mirror. A horizontal turntable, rigidly attached to the azimuth drive, supports the elevation assembly. A position sensor receiving a small part of the solar beam reflected off the main acquisition mirror is used for the fine servo control. Using a CCD camera prepointing of the acquisition mirror is achieved when the sun is in the field of view of the heliostat. This system is coupled with a high-resolution (0.02-cm-1) Fourier transform IR spectrometer to retrieve stratospheric trace species concentration profiles. The suntracker directs the solar radiation in a stable direction along the spectrometer optical axis. The pointing precision is 1 arcmin from a stratospheric gondola, which has static and dynamic angular excursions up to 6 deg. The heliostat coupled to the Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere instrument performs successfully on several balloon flights. The description, ground tests, and balloon flight results of the suntracker are presented.

  11. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two monographs and 85 journal and conference papers on remote sensing of earth terrain have been published, sponsored by NASA Contract NAG5-270. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric data from earth terrain with polarizations HH, HV, VH, and VV. In this approach, correlated polarizations of radar signals, as characterized by a covariance matrix, are treated as the sum of N n-dimensional random vectors; N obeys the negative binomial distribution with a parameter alpha and mean bar N. Subsequently, and n-dimensional K-distribution, with either zero or non-zero mean, is developed in the limit of infinite bar N or illuminated area. The probability density function (PDF) of the K-distributed vector normalized by its Euclidean norm is independent of the parameter alpha and is the same as that derived from a zero-mean Gaussian-distributed random vector. The above model is well supported by experimental data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the form of polarimetric measurements.

  12. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Fourth Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-4, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    State of the art applications of remote sensing in geological exploration programs are discussed along with research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology for exploration geology. The topics considered include: technical issues in the state of the art; regional exploration models; remote sensing applications for hydrocarbon exploration; commercialization of remote sensing satellites; and data integration. Also addressed are: remote sensing applications for mineral exploration; geobotanical and environmental remote sensing; image processing techniques and applications; advanced sensors, radar, and airborne systems; and engineering, logistics, and marine applications.

  13. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Fourth Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, San Francisco, CA, April 1-4, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    State of the art applications of remote sensing in geological exploration programs are discussed along with research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology for exploration geology. The topics considered include: technical issues in the state of the art; regional exploration models; remote sensing applications for hydrocarbon exploration; commercialization of remote sensing satellites; and data integration. Also addressed are: remote sensing applications for mineral exploration; geobotanical and environmental remote sensing; image processing techniques and applications; advanced sensors, radar, and airborne systems; and engineering, logistics, and marine applications.

  14. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  15. Application of remote sensing for planning purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Types of remotely sensed data are many and varied but, all are primarily dependent on the sensor platform and the kind of sensing system used. A sensor platform is the type of aircraft or satellite to which a sensing system is attached; each platform has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Selected attributes of several current or recently used platforms are outlined. Though sensing systems are highly varied, they may be divided into various operational categories such as cameras, electromechanical scanners, and radars.

  16. Microwave remote sensing from space for earth resource surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.

  17. Relationship between methanesulfonate (MS-) in atmospheric particulate and remotely sensed phytoplankton activity in oligo-mesotrophic central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, S.; Lazzara, L.; Fani, F.; Marchese, C.; Traversi, R.; Severi, M.; di Sarra, A.; Sferlazzo, D.; Piacentino, S.; Bommarito, C.; Dayan, U.; Udisti, R.

    2013-11-01

    The coupling between oceanic and atmospheric sulfur cycles is fundamental for the understanding of the role of sulfate particles as potential climate regulators. We discuss existing relationships among methanesulfonate (MS- - one of the end products of oxidation of biogenic dimethylsulfide - DMS) in the atmospheric particulate, phytoplankton biomass, and remotely-sensed activity in the central Mediterranean. The MS- concentration in the aerosol particles is based on PM10 sampling (from 2005 to 2008) of atmospheric aerosols at the island of Lampedusa (35.5°N, 12.6°E) in the central Mediterranean Sea. The marine primary production in the sea sector surrounding the sampling site is obtained by using Ocean Color remote sensed data (SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua). In particular, primary production is calculated using a bio-optical model of sea reflectance and a Wavelength-Depth-Resolved Model (WDRM), fed by elaborated satellite data (chlorophyll concentration in the euphotic layer - Chl, sea surface temperature) and daily solar surface irradiance measurements. The multi-year evolution of MS- atmospheric concentration shows a well-defined seasonal cycle with a summer maximum, corresponding to the annual peak of solar radiation and a minimum of phytoplankton biomass (expressed as Chl). Statistically significant linear relationships between monthly means of atmospheric MS- and both the phytoplankton productivity index PB (r2 = 0.84, p < 0.001) and the solar radiation dose (SRD; r2 = 0.87, p < 0.001) in the upper mixed layer of the sea around Lampedusa are found. These correlations are mainly driven by the common seasonal pattern and suggest that DMS production in the marine surface layer is mainly related to the phytoplankton physiology. High values of PB are also the expression of stressed cells. The main stress factors in Mediterranean Sea during summer are high irradiance and shallow depth of the upper mixed layer, which lead to enhanced DMS emissions and higher MS- amounts in

  18. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Istvan, L. B.; Roller, N. E.; Sattinger, I. J.; Sellman, A. N.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    The application of NASA earth resource survey technology to resource management and environmental protection in Michigan was investigated. Remote sensing techniques to aid Michigan government agencies were applied in the following activities: (1) land use inventory and management, (2) great lakes shorelands protection and management, (3) wetlands protection and management, and (4) soil survey. In addition, information was disseminated on remote sensing technology, and advice and assistance was provided to a number of users.

  19. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  20. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  1. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  2. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-02

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  3. EPA Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, H. K.; Szykman, J. J.; Plessel, T.; Freeman, M.; Dimmick, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Information Gateway was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist researchers in easily obtaining and combining a variety of environmental datasets related to air quality research. Current datasets available include, but are not limited to surface PM2.5 and O3 data, satellite derived aerosol optical depth , and 3-dimensional output from U.S. EPA's Models 3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The presentation will include a demonstration that illustrates several scenarios of how researchers use the tool to help them visualize and obtain data for their work; with a particular focus on episode analysis related to biomass burning impacts on air quality. The presentation will provide an overview on how RSIG works and how the code has been—and can be—adapted for other projects. One example is the Virtual Estuary, which focuses on automating the retrieval and pre-processing of a variety of data needed for estuarine research. RSIG’s source codes are freely available to researchers with permission from the EPA principal investigator, Dr. Jim Szykman. RSIG is available to the community and can be accessed online at http://www.epa.gov/rsig. Once the JAVA policy file is configured on your computer you can run the RSIG applet on your computer and connect to the RSIG server to visualize and retrieve available data sets. The applet allows the user to specify the temporal/spatial areas of interest, and the types of data to retrieve. The applet then communicates with RSIG subsetter codes located on the data owners’ remote servers; the subsetter codes assemble and transfer via ordinary Internet protocols only the specified data to the researcher’s computer. This is much faster than the usual method of transferring large files via FTP and greatly reduces network traffic. The RSIG applet then visualizes the transferred data on a latitude-longitude map, automatically locating the data in the correct

  4. Information Processing of Remote-Sensing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, P. A. M.; Meadows, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the current status of satellite remote sensing data, including problems with efficient storage and rapid retrieval of the data, and appropriate computer graphics to process images. Areas of research concerned with overcoming these problems are described. (16 references) (CLB)

  5. Applications of remote sensing surveys in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.

  6. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  7. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  8. Remote sensing: An inventory of earth's resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1974-01-01

    The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.

  9. Scripps Ocean Modeling and Remote Sensing (SOMARS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-20

    Topics in this brief reports include: Kalman filtering of oceanographic data; Remote sensing of sea surface temperature; Altimetry and Surface heat fluxes; Ocean models of the marine mixed layer; Radar altimetry; Mathematical model of California current eddies.

  10. Using GPS Reflections for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickler, David

    2000-01-01

    GPS signals that have reflected off of the ocean's surface have shown potential for use in oceanographic and atmospheric studies. The research described here investigates the possible deployment of a GPS reflection receiver onboard a remote sensing satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coverage and resolution characteristics of this receiver are calculated and estimated. This mission analysis examines using reflected GPS signals for several remote sensing missions. These include measurement of the total electron content in the ionosphere, sea surface height, and ocean wind speed and direction. Also discussed is the potential test deployment of such a GPS receiver on the space shuttle. Constellations of satellites are proposed to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for the aforementioned remote sensing missions. These results provide a starting point for research into the feasibility of augmenting or replacing existing remote sensing satellites with spaceborne GPS reflection-detecting receivers.

  11. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  12. A Teacher's Introduction to Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines remote sensing as the examination of something without touching it. Generally, this refers to satellite and aerial photographic images. Discusses how this technology and resulting knowledge can be integrated into geography classes. Includes a sample unit using images. (MJP)

  13. Remote Sensing of Snow and Evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The use of snowmelt runoff models from both the U.S. and Japan for simulating discharge on basins in both countries is discussed as well as research in snowpack properties and evapotranspiration using remotely sensed data.

  14. Laser Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    of Cross-Correlation and Signal Averaging Appendix B: Laser Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Ammonia using a 33 C02 LIDAR System Ac-’,i- n For AVE...of CO2 differential-absorption LIDAR (DIAL) for the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants was continued during FY84 and consisted of two...individual LIDAR signals and then taking the ratios of the averaged signals in order to deduce the differential-absorption value. This is in contrast to

  15. Pilot interministerial operation for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamare, J. M.; Bied-Charreton, M.; Couzy, A.; Jahan, A.; Ledder, J.; Pasquet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of obtaining required information for land and resources management and the possibilities of remote sensing are discussed. The services available, organization and objectives of the pilot operation are presented. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary dialog among designers, builders, operators, interpreters and users in all phases. The principles, operation and practical applications of remote sensing systems and processing systems under the pilot operation are presented.

  16. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.

  17. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    I. Remote Sensing Basics
    A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
    B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
    1. Sp...

  18. Productivity, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and light use efficiency in crops: implications for remote sensing of crop primary production.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Suyker, Andrew E

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation productivity metrics such as gross primary production (GPP) at the canopy scale are greatly affected by the efficiency of using absorbed radiation for photosynthesis, or light use efficiency (LUE). Thus, close investigation of the relationships between canopy GPP and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation is the basis for quantification of LUE. We used multiyear observations over irrigated and rainfed contrasting C3 (soybean) and C4 (maize) crops having different physiology, leaf structure, and canopy architecture to establish the relationships between canopy GPP and radiation absorbed by vegetation and quantify LUE. Although multiple LUE definitions are reported in the literature, we used a definition of efficiency of light use by photosynthetically active "green" vegetation (LUE(green)) based on radiation absorbed by "green" photosynthetically active vegetation on a daily basis. We quantified, irreversible slowly changing seasonal (constitutive) and rapidly day-to-day changing (facultative) LUE(green), as well as sensitivity of LUE(green) to the magnitude of incident radiation and drought events. Large (2-3-fold) variation of daily LUE(green) over the course of a growing season that is governed by crop physiological and phenological status was observed. The day-to-day variations of LUE(green) oscillated with magnitude 10-15% around the seasonal LUE(green) trend and appeared to be closely related to day-to-day variations of magnitude and composition of incident radiation. Our results show the high variability of LUE(green) between C3 and C4 crop species (1.43 g C/MJ vs. 2.24 g C/MJ, respectively), as well as within single crop species (i.e., maize or soybean). This implies that assuming LUE(green) as a constant value in GPP models is not warranted for the crops studied, and brings unpredictable uncertainties of remote GPP estimation, which should be accounted for in LUE models. The uncertainty of GPP estimation due to facultative and

  19. Remote Sensing Training for Middle School through the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the

  20. Detection of Rift Valley fever viral activity in Kenya by satellite remote sensing imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Bailey, Charles L.; Davies, F. Glyn; Tucker, Compton J.

    1987-01-01

    Data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's polar-orbiting meteorological satellites have been used to infer ecological parameters associated with Rift Valley fever (RVF) viral activity in Kenya. An indicator of potential viral activity was produced from satellite data for two different ecological regions in Kenya, where RVF is enzootic. The correlation between the satellite-derived green vegetation index and the ecological parameters associated with RVF virus suggested that satellite data may become a forecasting tool for RVF in Kenya and, perhaps, in other areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, Remote Sensing Systems, Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-17

    Partial Contents: Short Introduction to Nation’s Remote Sensing Units, Domestic Airborne Remote - Sensing System, Applications in Monitoring Natural...Disasters, Applications of Imagery From Experimental Satellites Launched in 1985, 1986, Current Status, Future Prospects for Domestic Remote - Sensing -Satellite...Ground Station, and Radar Remote - Sensing Technology Used to Monitor Yellow River Delta,

  3. Applicability of satellite remote sensing for detection and monitoring of coal strip mining activities. [Kentucky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Principal Investigator); Parra, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large areas covered by orbital photography allows the user to estimate the acreage of strip mining activity from a few frames. Infrared photography both in color and in black and white transparencies was found to be the best suited for this purpose.

  4. A comparison of remote sensing of active fires from MODIS and VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, I.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Ellicott, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-04-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua satellites was the first sensor on medium-resolution polar orbiting missions with dedicated bands for the detection and characterization of high temperature objects, predominantly actively burning fires. The MODIS active fire data record now extends to over a decade and is a result of multiple re-processing of the data with improved algorithms resulting from extensive product validation. The active fire product from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, launched on October 28, 2011, and on future JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) satellites, represents a continuation of the MODIS data record. VIIRS has capabilities for active fire detection and characterization for a broad range of fires, and observing and environmental conditions. While NPP and Aqua have similar orbital characteristics and compatible sampling of the diurnal cycle of fire activity, sensor differences result in inherent differences in the expected fire observations. The differences between the MODIS and VIIRS moderate resolution "M" band pixel sizes (nominally, 1km vs. 750m at nadir) lead to differences in the lower detection limits. The VIIRS along-scan aggregation scheme is aimed at reducing the increase of pixel size towards the edges of the swath and thus results in an overall improvement of performance for off-nadir conditions, but also in a more complex variation of detection limits with satellite view angle. In addition, spatial aggregation impacts within-pixel variation of contribution to the radiometric signal, which in turn impacts retrieval of the Fire Radiative Power. These issues can be analyzed by purely theoretical simulations and by a hybrid empirical-theoretical modeling framework that incorporates actual fire observations from higher spatial resolution sensors, such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and

  5. Remote OP-FTIR sensing of magmatic gases driving Yasur trachyandesitic explosive activity, Vanuatu island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.; Burton, M.; Sawyer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Yasur volcano, located in the southern part of the Vanuatu island arc (Tanna island), is a small trachyandesitic cone that has grown in the resurgent (17 cm y-1) Siwi caldera. Since about 1,400 years Yasur has displayed almost continuous Strombolian-Vulcanian explosive activity and is one of the most actively erupting volcanoes worldwide. Using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy from the crater rim (260-300 m slanting distance) and molten lava as the radiation source, we measured during several days the high frequency compositional variations of magmatic gases driving this explosive activity. Our results expand previous observations from a first FTIR measurement in 2005 [1] and complement in-situ gas measurements made in 2007 [2] within our same research framework (French ANR 'VOLGASPEC' project). FTIR absorption spectra allowed simultaneous retrieval of the molar path amounts of volcanic H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl and CO, corrected for air background in case of H2O, CO2 and CO. We observe a rather steady composition of the crater gas release between the explosions (~one every 1-3 mn) and sharp compositional variations (increases of SO2/HCl, CO2/SO2 and CO/CO2 ratios, decrease of H2O/SO2) associated with the explosions, which demonstrate the ascent and bursting of deeper-derived, CO2-SO2-CO-enriched gas slugs. Such abrupt compositional changes of magmatic gases driving explosive activity at Yasur do resemble those recorded at Stromboli volcano [3]. However, in contrast to Stromboli, Yasur explosions generate dense ash clouds whose fast expansion significantly affects the measured column gas amounts at the onset of each event (an effect considered in our data elaboration). When referred to the pressure-related behaviour of dissolved volatiles in the trachyandesitic magma feeding Yasur (melt inclusions [2]), our results provide new constraints on the source depth(s) of the explosions and the magma degassing processes controlling the volcanic activity

  6. Remote sensing-a geophysical perspective.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1985-01-01

    In this review of developments in the field of remote sensing from a geophysical perspective, the subject is limited to the electromagnetic spectrum from 0.4 mu m to 25cm. Three broad energy categories are covered: solar reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave.-from Authorremote sensing electromagnetic spectrum solar reflected thermal infrared microwave geophysics

  7. Spatial heterogeneity in vegetation canopies and remote sensing of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation - A modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Myneni, R. B.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    A 3D radiative transfer model is used to investigate the relationship between spectral indices and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in horizontally heterogeneous vegetation canopies. Canopy reflection at optical wavelengths and PAR absorption are simulated. Data obtained indicate that the leaf area index of a canopy is less of an instructive parameter than the ground cover and clump leaf area index for these canopies. It is found that the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index and fraction of absorbed PAR is almost linear and independent of spatial heterogeneity.

  8. Wetlands Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Myers, D. A.; Anderson, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    The application of remote sensing methods to estimate evapotranspiration has the advantage of good spatial resolution and excellent spatial coverage, but may have the disadvantage of infrequent sampling and considerable expense. The GOES satellites provide enhanced temporal resolution with hourly estimates of solar radiation and have a spatial resolution that is significantly better than that available from most ground-based pyranometer networks. As solar radiation is the primary forcing variable in wetland evapotranspiration, the opportunity to apply GOES satellite data to wetland hydrologic analyses is great. An accuracy assessment of the remote sensing product is important and the subsequent validation of the evapotranspiration estimates are a critical step for the use of this product. A wetland field experiment was conducted in the Paynes Prairie Preserve, North Central Florida during a growing season characterized by significant convective activity. Evapotranspiration and other surface energy balance components of a wet prairie community dominated by Panicum hemitomon (maiden cane), Ptilimnium capillaceum (mock bishop's weed), and Eupatorium capillifolium (dog fennel) were investigated. Incoming solar radiation derived from GOES-8 satellite observations, in combination with local meteorological measurements, were used to model evapotranspiration from a wetland. The satellite solar radiation, derived net radiation and estimated evapotranspiration estimates were compared to measured data at 30-min intervals and daily times scales.

  9. Passive Remote Sensing of Cloud Ice Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Wang, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Hurricanes, blizzards and other weather events are important to understand not only for disaster preparation, but also to track the global energy balance and to improve weather and climate forecasts. For several decades, passive radiometers and active radars on aircraft and satellites have been employed to remotely sense rain rates and the properties of liquid particles. In the past few years the relationships between frozen particles and millimeter-wave observations have become understood well enough to estimate the properties of ice in clouds. A brief background of passive remote sensing of precipitation will be presented followed by a focused discussion of recent research at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center estimating the properties of frozen particles in clouds. The retrievals are for (1) ice that will eventually melt into rain, (2) for solid precipitation falling in northern climates, and (3) cirrus ice clouds. The electromagnetic absorption and scattering properties and differences of liquid rain versus frozen particles will be summarized for frequencies from 6 to 340+ GHz. Challenges of this work including surface emissivity variability, non-linear and under-constrained relationships, and frozen particle unknowns will be discussed. Retrieved cloud particle contents and size distributions for ice above the melting layer in hurricanes, retrieved snowfall rates for a blizzard, and cirrus ice estimates will be presented. Future directions of this work will also be described.

  10. Energy and remote sensing. [satellite exploration, monitoring, siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    Exploration for uranium, thorium, oil, gas and geothermal activity through remote sensing techniques is considered; satellite monitoring of coal-derived CO2 in the atmosphere, and the remote assessment of strip mining and land restoration are also mentioned. Reference is made to color ratio composites based on Landsat data, which may aid in the detection of uranium deposits, and to computer-enhanced black and white airborne scanning imagery, which may locate geothermal anomalies. Other applications of remote sensing to energy resources management, including mapping of transportation networks and power plant siting, are discussed.

  11. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; Van de water, Peter K.; Levetin, Estelle; Crimmins, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  12. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  13. The U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched a program to enhance the acquisition, preservation, and use of remotely sensed data for USGS science programs, as well as for those of cooperators and customers. Remotely sensed data are fundamental tools for studying the Earth's land surface, including coastal and near-shore environments. For many decades, the USGS has been a leader in providing remotely sensed data to the national and international communities. Acting on its historical topographic mapping mission, the USGS has archived and distributed aerial photographs of the United States for more than half a century. Since 1972, the USGS has acquired, processed, archived, and distributed Landsat and other satellite and airborne remotely sensed data products to users worldwide. Today, the USGS operates and manages the Landsats 5 and 7 missions and cooperates with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to define and implement future satellite missions that will continue and expand the collection of moderate-resolution remotely sensed data. In addition to being a provider of remotely sensed data, the USGS is a user of these data and related remote sensing technology. These data are used in natural resource evaluations for energy and minerals, coastal environmental surveys, assessments of natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides), biological surveys and investigations, water resources status and trends analyses and studies, and geographic and cartographic applications, such as wildfire detection and tracking and as a source of information for The National Map. The program furthers these distinct but related roles by leading the USGS activities in providing remotely sensed data while advancing applications of such data for USGS programs and a wider user community.

  14. Soil Moisture Retrieval Through Changing Corn Using Active/Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P. E.; Joseph, A.; DeLannoy, G.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Kim, E.; Houser, P.; Gish, T.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive field experiment was conducted from May-early October, 2002 at the heavily instrumented USDA-ARS (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service) OPE3 (Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement) test site in Beltsville, MD to acquire data needed to address active/passive microwave algorithm, modeling, and ground validation issues for accurate soil moisture retrieval. During the experiment, a tower-mounted 1.4 GHz radiometer (Lrad) and a truck-mounted dual-frequency (1.6 and 4.75 GHz) radar system were deployed on the northern edge of the site. The soil in this portion of the field is a sandy loam (silt 23.5%, sand 60.3%, clay 16.1%) with a measured bulk density of 1.253 g/cu cm. Vegetation cover in the experiment consisted of a corn crop which was measured from just after planting on April 17, 2002 through senescence and harvesting on October 2. Although drought conditions prevailed during the summer, the corn yield was near average, with peak biomass reached in late July.

  15. Application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, H. C.; Kong, Jin AU; Shin, Robert T.; Nghiem, Son V.; Kwok, R.

    1992-01-01

    The random medium model is used to interpret the polarimetric active and passive measurements of saline ice. The ice layer is described as a host ice medium embedded with randomly distributed inhomogeneities, and the underlying sea water is considered as a homogeneous half-space. The scatterers in the ice layer are modeled with an ellipsoidal correlation function. The orientation of the scatterers is vertically aligned and azimuthally random. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is employed to calculate the effective permittivity and the distorted Born approximation is used to obtain the polarimetric scattering coefficients. We also calculate the thermal emissions based on the reciprocity and energy conservation principles. The effects of the random roughness at the air-ice, and ice-water interfaces are accounted for by adding the surface scattering to the volume scattering return incoherently. The above theoretical model, which has been successfully applied to analyze the radar backscatter data of the first-year sea ice near Point Barrow, AK, is used to interpret the measurements performed in the CRRELEX program.

  16. NASA'S Earth Science Enterprise Embraces Active Laser Remote Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luther, Michael R.; Paules, Granville E., III

    1999-01-01

    Several objectives of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise are accomplished, and in some cases, uniquely enabled by the advantages of earth-orbiting active lidar (laser radar) sensors. With lidar, the photons that provide the excitation illumination for the desired measurement are both controlled and well known. The controlled characteristics include when and where the illumination occurs, the wavelength, bandwidth, pulse length, and polarization. These advantages translate into high signal levels, excellent spatial resolution, and independence from time of day and the sun's position. As the lidar technology has rapidly matured, ESE scientific endeavors have begun to use lidar sensors over the last 10 years. Several more lidar sensors are approved for future flight. The applications include both altimetry (rangefinding) and profiling. Hybrid missions, such as the approved Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) sensor to fly on the ICESat mission, will do both at the same time. Profiling applications encompass aerosol, cloud, wind, and molecular concentration measurements. Recent selection of the PICASSO Earth System Science Pathfinder mission and the complementary CLOUDSAT radar-based mission, both flying in formation with the EOS PM mission, will fully exploit the capabilities of multiple sensor systems to accomplish critical science needs requiring such profiling. To round out the briefing a review of past and planned ESE missions will be presented.

  17. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey land remote sensing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, T.; Feuquay, J.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been a provider of remotely sensed information for decades. As the availability and use of satellite data has grown, USGS has placed increasing emphasis on expanding the knowledge about the science of remote sensing and on making remotely sensed data more accessible. USGS encourages widespread availability and distribution of these data and through its programs, encourages and enables a variety of research activities and the development of useful applications of the data. The science of remote sensing has great potential for assisting in the monitoring and assessment of the impacts of natural disasters, management and analysis of environmental, biological, energy, and mineral investigations, and supporting informed public policy decisions. By establishing the Land Remote Sensing Program (LRS) as a major unit of the USGS Geography Program, USGS has taken the next step to further increase support for the accessibility, understanding, and use of remotely sensed data. This article describes the LRS Program, its mission and objectives, and how the program has been structured to accomplish its goals.

  19. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community. PMID:22666057

  20. Remote sensing terminology: past experience and recent needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    2013-10-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Terminology accuracy is essential during all phases of international cooperation. It is crucial to keep up with the latest quantitative and qualitative developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have wide and ever extending applications in various domains of human activity. The importance of the correct use of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in many disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. The paper is devoted to terminology issues that refer to all aspects of remote sensing research and application areas. The attention is drawn on the recent needs and peculiarities of compiling specialized dictionaries in the subject area of remote sensing. Details are presented about the work in progress on the preparation of an English-Bulgarian dictionary of remote sensing terms focusing on Earth observations and geoinformation science. Our belief is that the elaboration of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and glossaries in this spreading, most technically advanced and promising field of human expertise is of great practical importance. Any interest in cooperation and initiating of suchlike collaborative multilingual projects is welcome and highly appreciated.

  1. Multiple classifier system for remote sensing image classification: a review.

    PubMed

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  2. Multiscale and Multitemporal Urban Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesev, V.

    2012-07-01

    The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.

  3. Ocean and polarization observations from active remote sensing: atmospheric and ocean science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, D.; Hou, W.; Pelon, J.; Hu, Y.; Tanelli, S.; Ferrare, R.; Burton, S.; Pascal, N.

    2015-05-01

    In the past few years, we have demonstrated how the surface return measured by the active instruments onboard CloudSat and CALIPSO could be used to retrieve the optical depth and backscatter phase function (lidar ratio) of aerosols and ice clouds. This methodology lead to the development of a data fusion product publicly available at the ICARE archive center using the Synergized Optical Depth of Aerosols and Ice Clouds (SODA & ICE) algorithm1. This algorithm, also allowing to derive ocean surface wind speed, has been extended to include dense cloud surface return to analyze aerosol and cloud properties above such clouds. This low level data fusion of CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes has been used by several researchers to explore different research paths. Among them, we can cite: • A new characterization of the lidar ratio of cirrus clouds2 • The analysis of the precipitable water and development of a new Millimeter-Wave Propagation Model for the W-Band observations (EMPIRIMA3) • The analysis of the lidar ratio of sea-spray aerosols4, and of Aerosol multilayer lidar ratio and extinction5 • A contribution to the retrieval of the subsurface particulate backscatter coefficients of phytoplankton particles6 In this paper, we present the main features of SODA & ICE, summarizing some of the results obtained. This low level data fusion of CALIPSO and CloudSat ocean surface echoes has been used by several researchers to explore different research paths. Among them, we can cite: A new characterization of the lidar ratio of cirrus clouds2 The analysis of the precipitable water and development of a new Millimeter-Wave Propagation Model for the W-Band observations (EMPIRIMA3) The analysis of the lidar ratio of sea-spray aerosols4, and of Aerosol multilayer lidar ratio and extinction5 A contribution to the retrieval of the subsurface particulate backscatter coefficients of phytoplankton particles6 In this paper, we present the main features of SODA & ICE

  4. Simulation of Melting Ice-Phase Precipitation Hydrometeors for Use in Passive and Active Microwave Remote-Sensing Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, with active and passive microwave remote-sensing instruments, was designed to be sensitive to precipitation-sized particles. The shape of these particles naturally influences the distribution of scattered microwaves. Therefore, we seek to simulate ice-phase precipitation using accurate models of the physical properties of individual snowflakes and aggregate ice crystals, similar to those observed in precipitating clouds. A number of researchers have examined the single-scattering properties of individual ice crystals and aggregates, but only a few have started to look at the properties of melting these particles. One of the key difficulties, from a simulation perspective, is characterizing the distribution of melt-water on a melting particle. Previous studies by the author and others have shown that even for spherical particles, the relative distribution of liquid water on an ice-particle can have significant effects on the computed scattering and absorption properties in the microwave regime. This, in turn, strongly influences forward model simulations of passive microwave TBs, radar reflectivities, and path-integrated attenuation. The present study examines the sensitivity of the single scattering properties of melting ice-crystals and aggregates to variations in the volume fraction of melt water, and the distribution of meltwater. We make some simple simulations 1-D vertical profiles having melting layers, and compute the radar reflectivities consistent with the GPM DPR at Ku- and Ka-band. We also compute the top-of-the-atmosphere brightness temperatures at GPM GMI channels for the same vertical profiles, and discuss the sensitivities to variances in the aforementioned physical properties.

  5. A comparison of cloud layers from ground and satellite active remote sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Xia, Xiang'ao; Chen, Hongbin

    2017-03-01

    Using the data collected over the Southern Great Plains ARM site from 2006 to 2010, the surface Active Remote Sensing of Cloud (ARSCL) and CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite (CC) retrievals of total cloud and six specified cloud types [low, mid-low (ML), high-mid-low (HML), mid, high-mid (HM) and high] were compared in terms of cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), cloud-top height (CTH) and cloud thickness (CT), on different temporal scales, to identify their respective advantages and limitations. Good agreement between the two methods was exhibited in the total CF. However, large discrepancies were found between the cloud distributions of the two methods at a high (240-m) vertical grid spacing. Compared to the satellites, ARSCL retrievals detected more boundary layer clouds, while they underestimated high clouds. In terms of the six specific cloud types, more low- and mid-level clouds but less HML- and high-level clouds were detected by ARSCL than by CC. In contrast, the ARSCL retrievals of ML- and HM-level clouds agreed more closely with the estimations from the CC product. Lower CBHs tended to be reported by the surface data for low-, ML- and HML-level clouds; however, higher CTHs were often recorded by the satellite product for HML-, HM- and high-level clouds. The mean CTs for low- and ML-level cloud were similar between the two products; however, the mean CTs for HML-, mid-, HM- and high-level clouds from ARSCL were smaller than those from CC.

  6. Linking tree size distribution to active remote sensing parameters: consequences for observation strategies and impacts on biomass retrieval (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Behrman, K. D.; Keitt, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation 3D structure measurements from active remote sensing (i.e. lidar and radar) are usually averaged and reported at the regional level. However, environmental gradients and disturbance can structure vegetation patterns at multiple scales. Thus, a critical challenge in designing global observation strategies is to obtain confidence intervals on vegetation parameters as a function of biome, sensor, and resolution of observation. We present strategies to gain knowledge on forest spatial heterogeneity that can be translated into confidence intervals for above ground biomass and canopy height measurements. We use data from two airborne systems: the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) and the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) acquired over sites in the US (NH and ME), Canada (Quebec) and Costa Rica. We first describe two parameters (alpha and beta) that summarize tree size distribution for individual patches, thereby capturing forest successional stage. In this scenario, the uncertainty in predicting above ground biomass stems from: (1) the ability to estimate alpha and beta with the lidar/radar signals, and (2) the error in deriving above ground biomass from tree size distribution statistics. The processes of competition and self-thinning create skewed tree size distributions where smaller individuals are common and large individuals are rare. Using a global dataset of spaceborne lidar points from the sensor ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), we show the importance of sampling extreme values when using spatially sparse data. This raises the need to obtain expectations for the second-order properties of forest stands. To this end, we employed wavelet transforms to quantify variation in lidar-derived canopy height metrics across >20 Km transects and asked whether environmental gradients such as elevation can constrain the spatial autocorrelation among large trees.

  7. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  8. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). PMID:22163432

  9. Practical applications of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.

  10. Remote sensing in Virginia agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.

  11. Geological remote sensing for hydrocarbon exploration in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, G.L.; Phelps, J.C.; Eisenberg, L.L.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most active hydrocarbon exploration provinces of the last decade has been the fold and thrust belt of Papua New Guinea. Geologic remote sensing is an indispensable part of the exploration process in that remote and rugged area where usable seismic data are obtainable only locally, if at all. Photointerpretation of stereo synthetic aperture radar imagery has been especially useful in conventional lithostratigraphic mapping, both local and regional. Results of remote sensing imagery interpretation, integrated with surface geologic data, limited seismic, and balanced structural cross sections, facilitated the documentation of structural styles and provided the basis for a new, regional structural model. The role of remote sensing during various stages of the exploration process is summarized; imagery and map examples are presented.

  12. Survey and analysis of potential users of remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing applications for the activities of the regional interstate organizations, the federal agencies, and the private sector are examined. The survey covered activities in all 50 states. Emphasis has been placed on on-going operational programs and no attempt was made to cover the activities of the federal agencies except insofar as they impinged on State or other regional or metropolitan programs.

  13. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, M.A.; Groffman, P.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper addresses the question of soil moisture variation within the field of view of a remote sensing pixel. Remote sensing is the only practical way to sense soil moisture over large areas, but it is known that there can be large variations of soil moisture within the field of view of a pixel. The difficulty with this is that many processes, such as gas exchange between surface and atmosphere can vary dramatically with moisture content, and a small wet spot, for example, can have a dramatic impact on such processes, and thereby bias remote sensing data results. Here the authors looked at the impact of surface topography on the level of soil moisture, and the interaction of both on the variability of soil moisture sensed by a push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR). In addition the authors looked at the question of whether variations of soil moisture within pixel size areas could be used to assign errors to PBMR generated soil moisture data.

  14. Remote Sensing May Provide Unprecedented Hydrological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R.; Houser, P.; Engman, E.; Kustas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Basic hydrological research and water resources management may reap tremendous benefits from remote sensing technology, studies are showing. Satellite coverage may allow unprecedented accuracy in the quantification of the global hydrological cycle, for example. Yet despite such benefits, few hydrologists currently use such data. This is partly because the needed tools and algorithms are not fully developed. Such development requires field experiments that combine remotely sensed data with detailed in situ observations. AGU's Remote Sensing in Hydrology Committee has constructed a Web site (http://Iand.gsfc.nasa.gov/RSHC.html) that gives an overview of many such experiments. Included on the site is information on each experiment's overall goal, the types of in situ and remotely sensed measurements taken, relevant climate and vegetation conditions, and so forth. Links to additional relevant Web sites are included. The site is designed to be a suitable starting point for those interested in learning more about remote sensing in hydrology. It lists members of the committee who can be contacted for further information. Hydrologists have recognized the potential of remote sensing technology since the 1970s. It offers a way to avoid the logistical and economic difficulties associated with obtaining continuous in situ measurements of various hydrological variables, difficulties that are particularly pronounced in remote regions. Microwave instruments in particular can potentially provide all-weather, areally averaged estimates of certain variables (such as precipitation, soil moisture, and snow water content) that have been essentially unattainable in the past. In remote sensing, the conversion of emitted and reflected radiances into useful hydrological data is a complex problem. The measured radiances, for example, reflect the integrated character of a pixel area, a scale inconsistent with the point measurements of traditional hydrology. To develop the needed algorithms

  15. Determination of cirrus radiative parameters from combination between active and passive remote sensing measurements during FRENCH/DIRAC 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogniez, Gérard; Parol, Frédéric; Bécu, Laurianne; Pelon, Jacques; Jourdan, Olivier; Gayet, Jean-François; Auriol, Frédérique; Verwaerde, Christian; Balois, Jean-Yves; Damiri, Bahaiddin

    2004-11-01

    In the context of the next AQUA Train satellite experiment, airborne measurements were carried out to simulate satellite measurements. They were conducted between September 25 and October 12, 2001, off the coast of southern France over the Atlantic Ocean and over the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. During the intensive Field Radiation Experiment on Natural Cirrus and High-level clouds (FRENCH/DIRAC 2001), natural ice clouds were sampled from in situ and remote sensing measurements. On October 5 and 7, 2001, cirrus cloud decks were described by a complete data set acquired by: (i) in situ microphysical instruments onboard the TBM-700 aircraft: PMS probe, and Polar Nephelometer (ii) and downward-looking radiative instruments onboard the Mystère 20 aircraft: an infrared radiometer, a lidar, a visible imager with polarisation capabilities, and a middle infrared radiometer. Moreover, classical thermodynamical measurements were carried out onboard the Mystère 20. Mean microphysical characteristics of cirrus deck are derived from interpretation of remote sensing measurements. These properties are compared with those derived from in situ microphysical measurements in order to evaluate the radiative impact of natural cirrus clouds.

  16. High resolution derivative spectra in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir H.; Steven, Michael D.; Clark, Jeremy A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed. Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in remote sensing are considered.

  17. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  18. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  19. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  20. Towards a coherent remote sensing data policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa R.; Backlund, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Access to space-based remote sensing data is critical for earth science and the study of global change. This article summarizes a variety of U.S. government earth science data policies and problems. The authors examine current efforts to develop data policies for the next generation of U.S. remote sensing programs, noting likely problems based on past experiences. They argue that the goal of U.S. earth science data policy should be to provide the widest possible dissemination of data. Setting such a goal permits the development of a simple, coherent data policy that serves scientific, commercial, and U.S. government interests.

  1. Interpretation of Airphotos and Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsworth, Thomas L.; Jansen, Robert

    With the proliferation of easily accessible remotely sensed imagery over the last several years, image analysts from a wide variety of working environments are in high demand. These analysts do not always have advanced technical backgrounds in science. Robert Arnold's useful and timely laboratory manual serves as an adequate introduction to interpreting remotely sensed photographs and imagery. The book poses a graduated set of examples and questions with a generally increasing but low level of sophistication. It is easy to read, and considerable care has been exercised in the layout of the subject index and overall organization of the manual.

  2. Ionospheric Profiles from Ultraviolet Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    remote sensing of the ionosphere from orbiting space platforms. Remote sensing of the nighttime ionosphere is a relatively straightforward process due to the absence of the complications brought about by daytime solar radiation. Further, during the nighttime hours, the O(+)-H(+) transition level in both the mid- and low-latitude ionospheres lies around 750 km, which is within the range of accuracy of the path matrix inversion. The intensity of the O(+)-e(-) recombination radiation as observed from orbiting space platforms can now be used to

  3. High-speed spectroradiometer for remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Shimizu, H; Yasuoka, Y

    1987-11-15

    A high-speed spectroradiometer designed for spectral reflectance measurement in remote sensing is described. This instrument uses a monochromatic grating and a photomultiplier system for light detection and sweeps over the 400-850-nm wavelength spectral range with the spectral resolution of 2 nm within 1 s. The instrument has the inherent advantage of portability and speed of operation which make it particularly suitable for field work in the area of fast moving surfaces, e.g., water with wave motion. Some applications of its use in laboratory and field experiments also have been presented. The instrument would seem to be an appropriate instrument for ground data collection in remote sensing.

  4. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  5. Remote Sensing of Body Signs and Signatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    REMOTE SENSING OF BODY SIGNS AND SIGNATURES LPrepared For Naval Medical Research and Development Command National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda...BODY SIGNS AND SIGNATURES S~By James C. Lin and Karen H. Chan Department of Bioengineering University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL 60680 Abstract...Filters Di-t lb io. I AN!ý,z.biiity Codes I’ A.IDist jor p REMOTE SENSING OF BODY SIGNS AND SIGNATURES By James C. Lin and Karen H. Chan Department

  6. Remote sensing of land surface phenology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.

  7. Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W L; Kasameyer, P W; Martini, B A; Potts, D C; Silver, E A

    2001-05-22

    This paper presents a plan for increasing the mapped resource base for geothermal exploration in the Western US. We plan to image large areas in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults, surface effluents, historical signatures, and discover subtle hidden faults and hidden thermal systems. Large regions can be imaged at reasonable costs. The technique of geobotanical remote sensing for geothermal signatures is based on recent successes in mapping faults and effluents the Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain in California.

  8. Remote sensing/vegetation classification. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, I. E.

    1981-01-01

    The CALVEG classification system for identification of vegetation is described. This hierarchical system responds to classification requirements and to interpretation of vegetation at various description levels, from site description to broad identification levels. The system's major strength is its flexibility in application of remote sensing technology to assess, describe and communicate data relative to vegetative resources on a state-wide basis. It is concluded that multilevel remote sensing is a cost effective tool for assessment of the natural resource base. The CLAVEG system is found to be an economically efficient tool for both existing and potential vegetation.

  9. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-01-30

    Spectroscopic chemical sensing research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing advanced sensors for detecting the production of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons; use of chemical weapons; or the presence of explosives, firearms, narcotics, or other contraband of significance to homeland security in airports, cargo terminals, public buildings, or other sensitive locations. For most of these missions, the signature chemicals are expected to occur in very low concentrations, and in mixture with ambient air or airborne waste streams that contain large numbers of other species that may interfere with spectroscopic detection, or be mistaken for signatures of illicit activity. PNNL’s emphasis is therefore on developing remote and sampling sensors with extreme sensitivity, and resistance to interferents, or selectivity. PNNL’s research activities include: 1. Identification of signature chemicals and quantification of their spectral characteristics, 2. Identification and development of laser and other technologies that enable breakthroughs in sensitivity and selectivity, 3. Development of promising sensing techniques through experimentation and modeling the physical phenomenology and practical engineering limitations affecting their performance, and 4. Development and testing of data collection methods and analysis algorithms. Close coordination of all aspects of the research is important to ensure that all parts are focused on productive avenues of investigation. Close coordination of experimental development and numerical modeling is particularly important because the theoretical component provides understanding and predictive capability, while the experiments validate calculations and ensure that all phenomena and engineering limitations are considered.

  10. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  11. Wind Predictability and Remote Sensing Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents the unclassified findings from the Investigation of Airborne Wind Sensing Systems conducted under AIRTASK A30303/323/70F17311002. Included is a summary of the current accuracy of wind speed and direction forecasts, a list of possible methods for remote sensing meteorological data, a list of areas of application of the given methods and a list of contacts made for information relevant to this evaluation. (Author)

  12. Optimization of a Frequency-Stabilized Laser Reference at 1.57μM for AN Active Laser Remote Sensing of CO2 from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Petway, L. B.; Lee, H. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.

    2011-12-01

    Several airborne flight campaigns have shown that active remote sensing of carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) in the atmosphere using either an Intensity Modulated-Continuous Wave (IM-CW) Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS) at 1.57 μm or a pulsed laser CO2 sounder at 1.57 μm is a promising technique for an accurate space measurement approach for the Active Sensing of CO2 over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission [1, 2]. In order to achieve a measurement accuracy of one part per million (ppmv) for CO2 column density and associated mixing ratio by volume, the frequency stability (frequency or wavelength variance) of the lasers at 1.57 μm for a space-borne active remote sensing system should be greater than 1.5e-9 (less than 300 kHz or less than 2.5e-3 pm) is required for most moderate-size instruments [3]. In this paper, we report a design and optimization of a frequency-locking laser reference with an integration of Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD) and Proportional Integration Derivation (PID) feed-back control techniques to stabilize laser frequency associated to one of CO or CO2 absorption lines at 1.57 μm. The optimized sensitivity based on PSD signals in terms of the modulation frequency, the length of the gas cell, and the pressure of the gas will be provided. The design and optimization has been demonstrated at a 2-μm CO2 absorption line and is applicable to the active remote sensing systems at 1.57 μm. [1] E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore III, "Development and Validation of CO2 and O2 Laser Measurements for Future Active XCO2 Space Mission", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, EGU2011-12598, 2011 [2] J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allen, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, S. Biraud, "Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 column Absorption", Tellus (2010), 62B, 770-783 [3] E. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, 2008: Space

  13. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  14. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.

    1977-01-01

    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  15. Remote Sensing for Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is being used more and more for decision-making and policy development. Specific examples are: (1) Providing constraints on climate models used in IPCC assessments (2) Framing discussions about greenhouse gas monitoring (3) Providing support for hazard assessment and recovery.

  16. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise Michael G...frequency sound propagation in the ocean , and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. We seek to understand the...fundamental limits to signal processing imposed by ocean variability to enable advanced signal processing techniques, including matched field processing

  17. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  18. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  19. Microwave remote sensing of natural stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperatore, Pasquale; Iodice, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele

    2011-11-01

    The response of natural stratification to electromagnetic wave has received much attention in last decades, due to its crucial role played in the remote sensing arena. In this context, when the superficial structure of the Earth, whose formation is inherently layered, is concerned, the most general scheme that can be adopted includes the characterization of layered random media. Moreover, a key issue in remote sensing of Earth and other Planets is to reveal the content under the surface illuminated by the sensors. For such a purpose, a quantitative mathematical analysis of wave propagation in three-dimensional layered rough media is fundamental in understanding intriguing scattering phenomena in such structures, especially in the perspective of remote sensing applications. Recently, a systematic formulation has been introduced to deal with the analysis of a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces. Specifically, the results of the Boundary Perturbation Theory (BPT) lead to polarimetric, formally symmetric and physical revealing closed form analytical solutions. The comprehensive scattering model based on the BPT methodologically permits to analyze the bi-static scattering patterns of 3D multilayered rough media. The aim of this paper is to systematically show how polarimetric models obtainable in powerful BPT framework can be successfully applied to several situations of interest, emphasizing its wide relevance in the remote sensing applications scenario. In particular, a proper characterization of the relevant interfacial roughness is adopted resorting to the fractal geometry; numerical examples are then presented with reference to representative of several situations of interest.

  20. Remote sensing of geobotanical relations in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arden, D. D., Jr.; Westra, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to geological investigations, with special attention to geobotanical factors, was evaluated. The general areas of investigation included: (1) recognition of mineral deposits; (2) geological mapping; (3) delineation of geological structure, including areas of complex tectonics; and (4) limestone areas where ground withdrawal had intensified surface collapse.

  1. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  2. Remote sensing, a sketch of the technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Information is provided on how a potential user of remote sensing technology can gain access to all of the products and services he will need to get started. It was envisioned that these include data, training, hardware, and software. A very brief tutorial summary of the fundamentals of the technology is presented.

  3. Optical remote sensing small satellite project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xibin; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhaowei; Xu, Guodong

    2004-01-01

    Optical Remote Sensing Small Satellite is for high-tech flight demonstration's test and three dimensions mapping. Its system overview is presented in the paper, and it includes such items as mission objective and mission requirements, satellite system scheme, reliability, cost budget project schedule and management and operation.

  4. Integrated remotely sensed datasets for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Timothy; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart

    2008-10-01

    Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North America's NTSC and European SECAM and PAL television systems that are then recorded using various video formats. This technology has recently being employed as a front-line, remote sensing technology for damage assessment post-disaster. This paper traces the development of spatial video as a remote sensing tool from the early 1980s to the present day. The background to a new spatial-video research initiative based at National University of Ireland, Maynooth, (NUIM) is described. New improvements are proposed and include; low-cost encoders, easy to use software decoders, timing issues and interoperability. These developments will enable specialists and non-specialists collect, process and integrate these datasets within minimal support. This integrated approach will enable decision makers to access relevant remotely sensed datasets quickly and so, carry out rapid damage assessment during and post-disaster.

  5. Thermal remote sensing: theory, sensors, and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of thermal infrared remote sensing for Earth science research are both varied and wide in scope. They range from understanding thermal energy responses that drive land-atmosphere energy exchanges in the hydrologic cycle, to measurement of dielectric surface properties for snow, ice, an...

  6. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  7. Wave climate assessment by satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Barstow, S.F.; Krogstad, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    Satellite remote sensing is quickly becoming a major information source for wave climate assessments. The present paper surveys various measurement principles and illustrates applications of satellite altimeter wave data from both the GEOSAT, Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 Exact Repeat missions. The paper also discusses use of Wave Mode and Image Mode SAR data obtained by ERS-1.

  8. Multivariate Density Estimation and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Current efforts to develop methods and computer algorithms to effectively represent multivariate data commonly encountered in remote sensing applications are described. While this may involve scatter diagrams, multivariate representations of nonparametric probability density estimates are emphasized. The density function provides a useful graphical tool for looking at data and a useful theoretical tool for classification. This approach is called a thunderstorm data analysis.

  9. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  10. Remote sensing analysis of forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  11. Second Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L. (Editor); Witt, R. G. (Editor); Kugelmann, D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Participants from state and local governments share experiences in remote sensing applications with one another and with users in the Federal government, universities, and the private sector during technical sessions and forums covering agriculture and forestry; land cover analysis and planning; surface mining and energy; data processing; water quality and the coastal zone; geographic information systems; and user development programs.

  12. Water Column Correction for Coral Reef Studies by Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zoffoli, Maria Laura; Frouin, Robert; Kampel, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Human activity and natural climate trends constitute a major threat to coral reefs worldwide. Models predict a significant reduction in reef spatial extension together with a decline in biodiversity in the relatively near future. In this context, monitoring programs to detect changes in reef ecosystems are essential. In recent years, coral reef mapping using remote sensing data has benefited from instruments with better resolution and computational advances in storage and processing capabilities. However, the water column represents an additional complexity when extracting information from submerged substrates by remote sensing that demands a correction of its effect. In this article, the basic concepts of bottom substrate remote sensing and water column interference are presented. A compendium of methodologies developed to reduce water column effects in coral ecosystems studied by remote sensing that include their salient features, advantages and drawbacks is provided. Finally, algorithms to retrieve the bottom reflectance are applied to simulated data and actual remote sensing imagery and their performance is compared. The available methods are not able to completely eliminate the water column effect, but they can minimize its influence. Choosing the best method depends on the marine environment, available input data and desired outcome or scientific application. PMID:25215941

  13. Water column correction for coral reef studies by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Zoffoli, Maria Laura; Frouin, Robert; Kampel, Milton

    2014-09-11

    Human activity and natural climate trends constitute a major threat to coral reefs worldwide. Models predict a significant reduction in reef spatial extension together with a decline in biodiversity in the relatively near future. In this context, monitoring programs to detect changes in reef ecosystems are essential. In recent years, coral reef mapping using remote sensing data has benefited from instruments with better resolution and computational advances in storage and processing capabilities. However, the water column represents an additional complexity when extracting information from submerged substrates by remote sensing that demands a correction of its effect. In this article, the basic concepts of bottom substrate remote sensing and water column interference are presented. A compendium of methodologies developed to reduce water column effects in coral ecosystems studied by remote sensing that include their salient features, advantages and drawbacks is provided. Finally, algorithms to retrieve the bottom reflectance are applied to simulated data and actual remote sensing imagery and their performance is compared. The available methods are not able to completely eliminate the water column effect, but they can minimize its influence. Choosing the best method depends on the marine environment, available input data and desired outcome or scientific application.

  14. Laser Remote Sensing: FY07 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, Jason S.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2007-09-30

    Standoff detection and characterization of chemical plumes using Frequency Modulated Differential Absorption Lidar (FM-DIAL) is a promising technique for the detection of nuclear proliferation activities. For the last several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been developing an FM-DIAL based remote sensing system as part of PNNL's Infrared Sensors project within NA-22's Enabling Technologies portfolio. In FY06 the remote sensing effort became a stand-alone project within the Plutonium Production portfolio with the primary goal of transitioning technology from the laboratory to the user community. Current systems remotely detect trace chemicals in the atmosphere over path lengths of hundreds of meters for monostatic operation (without a retro-reflector target) and up to ten kilometers for bistatic operation (with a retro-reflector target). The FM-DIAL sensor is sensitive and highly selective for chemicals with narrow-band absorption features on the order of 1-2 cm-1; as a result, the FM-DIAL sensors are best suited to simple di-atomic or tri-atomic molecules and other molecules with unusually narrow absorption features. A broadband sensor is currently being developed. It is designed to detect chemicals with spectral features on the order of several 10s of wavenumbers wide. This will expand the applicability of this technology to the detection of more complicated molecules. Our efforts in FY07 focused on the detection of chemicals associated with the PUREX process. The highest value performance measure for FY07, namely the demonstration of the Broadband Laser Spectrometer (BLS) during chemical release experiments, was successfully achieved in June, July and August of this year. Significant advancements have been made with each of the other tasks as well. A short-wave infrared version of the miniature FM-DIAL (FM-Mini) instrument was successfully demonstrated during field tests in June. During FY07 another version of the FM-Mini was built using

  15. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Kaufmann, Robert K; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B; Baret, Frédéric; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-01-15

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact--it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  17. Earth Remote Sensing Potential of INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulla Kamlesh, P.

    opportunity to geography, remote sensing and GIS community to build and expand the capabilities of geospatial sciences. The ISS includes a nadir-viewing, optical quality window located in the United States Laboratory of ISS.Through this window earth observations image data will be collected with various sensors. An overview of the ISS remote sensing capabilities and integration of this data with the existing databases, and spatial technologies of GIS are the objectives of this paper. The opportunities to participate in the International Space Station Earth observations and imaging activities are highlighted. Earth observations from human observers in space have increased in scope and complexity resulting in enhances science contributions and public awareness of global dynamics.With the addition of new sensors, enhanced optical quality, and a nadir-viewing onboard the ISS, future opportunities for developing new database with global coverage will be available. Further linkages with developed GIS databases will provide additional opportunities for remote sensing/GIS studies.

  18. Application of remote sensing image interpretation in seismic safety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wei, Wen-xia; Wang, Gang

    2005-10-01

    As one of essential design gist in important engineering projects, the seismic safety evaluation on choosing engineering site has been applied widely. Using remote sensing images, the analysis to regional seismotectonic environment can bring macroscopic, integrative, dynamic and high efficiency information, so the application of remote sensing technology in seismic safety evaluation of engineering site has fine prospect and will bring great benefit. In this paper, based on remote sensing interpretation to Landsat7 ETM images, also using GIS and field geological investigations, as a case study in Qingdao City, we analyze the physiognomy environment, new tectonic movement, faults activities, and the distributing of deleterious geological objects around the site. Then we find this method can provide good basic geological information for seismic safety evaluation.

  19. Nasa's Land Remote Sensing Plans for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higg, H. C.; Butera, K. M.; Settle, M.

    1985-01-01

    Research since the launch of LANDSAT-1 has been primarily directed to the development of analysis techniques and to the conduct of applications studies designed to address resource information needs in the United States and in many other countries. The current measurement capabilities represented by MSS, TM, and SIR-A and B, coupled with the present level of remote sensing understanding and the state of knowledge in the discipline earth sciences, form the foundation for NASA's Land Processes Program. Science issues to be systematically addressed include: energy balance, hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, biological productivity, rock cycle, landscape development, geological and botanical associations, and land surface inventory, monitoring, and modeling. A global perspective is required for using remote sensing technology for problem solving or applications context. A successful model for this kind of activity involves joint research with a user entity where the user provides a test site and ground truth and NASA provides the remote sensing techniques to be tested.

  20. Remote Sensing For Water Resources And Hydrology. Recommended research emphasis for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The problems and the areas of activity that the Panel believes should be emphasized in work on remote sensing for water resources and hydrology in the 1980's are set forth. The Panel deals only with those activities and problems in water resources and hydrology that the Panel considers important, and where, in the Panel's opinion, application of current remote sensing capability or advancements in remote sensing capability can help meet urgent problems and provide large returns in practical benefits.

  1. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-12

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series Tuesday, July 12, 2016 ... you of a free training opportunity: Introduction to Remote Sensing for Air Quality Applications Webinar Series Beginning in ...

  2. Remote sensing and snowpack management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1974-01-01

    The present work describes the use of an airborne electromagnetic sensing system for measuring snowpack depth, density, and water content. A transmitter sends a sequence of pulses of stepped frequencies, and the reflections are measured by a sensitive receiver. The combination of the snowpack and the earth interacts with the electromagnetic wave so as to modify the characteristics of the reflected signals. The variation of the reflected intensity with frequency provides the desired data. A theoretical analysis of return signal and snowpack parameter relationships is given, and the results of experimental verification of the theory are discussed.

  3. Bibliography of Remote Sensing Techniques Used in Wetland Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    remote sensing technology for detecting changes in wetland environments. This report documents a bibliographic search conducted as part of that work unit on applications of remote sensing techniques in wetland research. Results were used to guide research efforts on the use of remote sensing technology for wetland change detection and assessment. The citations are presented in three appendixes, organized by wetland type, sensor type, and author.... Change detection, Wetland assessment, Remote sensing ,

  4. Superflux I, II, and III experiment design: Remote sensing aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Esaias, W. E.; Hypes, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay plume study called Superflux is described. The study was initiated to incorporate the disciplines of both resources management and remote sensing in accomplishing the following objectives: (1) process oriented research to understand the impact of estuarine outflows on continental shelf ecosystems; (2) monitoring and assessment to delineate the role of remote sensing in future monitoring and assessment programs; and (3) remote sensing research: to advance the state of the art in remote sensing systems as applied to sensing of the marine environment, thereby hastening the day when remote sensing can be used operationally for monitoring and assessment and for process oriented research.

  5. High-resolution remote sensing data to monitor active volcanic areas: an application to the 2011-2015 eruptive activity of Mount Etna (Italy) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria

    2016-10-01

    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, remote sensing proved to have remarkable potentialities to follow the evolution of lava flow, as well as to detect slope instability processes induced by volcanic activity. By exploiting SAR and optical data a methodology for observing and quantifying eruptive processes was developed. The approach integrates HR optical images and SAR interferometric products and can optimize the observational capability of standard surveillance activities based on in-situ video camera network. A dedicated tool for mapping the evolution of the lava field, using both ground-based and satellite data, was developed and tested to map lava flows during the 2011-2015 eruptive activities. Ground based data were collected using the permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and allowed to downscale the information derived from satellite data and to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the framework of the EU-FP7 project "MED-SUV" (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes).

  6. Triple-Pulsed Two-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar: A New Active Remote Sensing Capability with Path to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    The two-micron wavelength is suitable for monitoring atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide, the two most dominant greenhouse gases. Recent advances in 2-micron laser technology paved the way for constructing state-of-the-art lidar transmitters for active remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new triple-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar is presented. This lidar is capable of measuring either two species or single specie with two different weighting functions, simultaneously and independently. Development of this instrument is conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. Instrument scaling for projected future space missions will be discussed.

  7. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  8. GPS Remote Sensing Measurements Using Aerosonde UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.

  9. Remote sensing utilization of developing countries: An appropriate technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conitz, M. W.; Lowe, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the Agency for international development were discussed. Regional and national training centers were established to create an understanding of the role and impact of remote sensing on the developing process. Workshops, training seminars, and demonstration projects were conducted. Research on application was carried out and financial and technical assistance to build or strengthen a country's capability were granted.

  10. Remote sensing using MIMO systems

    DOEpatents

    Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D

    2015-04-28

    A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.

  11. History and future of remote sensing technology and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.

  12. Education in Environmental Remote Sensing: Potentials and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)

  13. Reflections on Earth--Remote-Sensing Research from Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the uses of remote sensing in different areas, and introduces the program "Reflections on Earth" which provides access to basic and instructional information on remote sensing to students and teachers. Introduces students to concepts related to remote sensing and measuring distances. (YDS)

  14. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  15. Permafrost vulnerability and active layer thickness increases over the high northern latitudes inferred from satellite remote sensing and process model assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hotaek; Kim, Youngwook

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost extent (PE) and active layer thickness (ALT) are important for assessing high northern latitude (HNL) ecological and hydrological processes, and potential land-atmosphere carbon and climate feedbacks. We developed a new approach to infer PE from satellite microwave remote sensing of daily landscape freeze-thaw (FT) status. Our results document, for the first time, the use of satellite microwave FT observations for monitoring permafrost extent and condition. The FT observations define near-surface thermal status used to determine permafrost extent and stability over a 30-year (1980-2009) satellite record. The PE results showed similar performance against independent inventory and process model (CHANGE) estimates, but with larger differences over heterogeneous permafrost subzones. A consistent decline in the ensemble mean of permafrost areas (-0.33 million km2 decade-1; p < 0.05) coincides with regional warming (0.4 °C decade-1; p < 0.01), while more than 40% (9.6 million km2) of permafrost areas are vulnerable to degradation based on the 30-year PE record. ALT estimates determined from satellite (MODIS) and ERA-Interim temperatures, and CHANGE simulations, compared favorably with independent field observations and indicate deepening ALT trends consistent with widespread permafrost degradation under recent climate change. The integration of remote sensing and modeling of permafrost and active layer conditions developed from this study may facilitate regular and effective regional monitoring of these parameters, and expand applications of remote sensing for examining permafrost-related feedbacks and consequences for biogeochemical and hydrological cycling in the Arctic.

  16. Remote rainfall sensing for landslide hazard analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; McWreath, Harry; Davenport, Clay

    2001-01-01

    Methods of assessing landslide hazards and providing warnings are becoming more advanced as remote sensing of rainfall provides more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Two recent landslide disasters are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. For the June 27, 1995, storm in Madison County, Virginia, USA, National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar provided rainfall estimates based on a relation between cloud reflectivity and moisture content on a 1 sq. km. resolution every 6 minutes. Ground-based measurements of rainfall intensity and precipitation total, in addition to landslide timing and distribution, were compared with the radar-derived rainfall data. For the December 14-16, 1999, storm in Vargas State, Venezuela, infrared sensing from the GOES-8 satellite of cloud top temperatures provided the basis for NOAA/NESDIS rainfall estimates on a 16 sq. km. resolution every 30 minutes. These rainfall estimates were also compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and landslide distribution. In both examples, the remotely sensed data either overestimated or underestimated ground-based values by up to a factor of 2. The factors that influenced the accuracy of rainfall data include spatial registration and map projection, as well as prevailing wind direction, cloud orientation, and topography.

  17. Computational Ghost Imaging for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.

    2012-01-01

    This work relates to the generic problem of remote active imaging; that is, a source illuminates a target of interest and a receiver collects the scattered light off the target to obtain an image. Conventional imaging systems consist of an imaging lens and a high-resolution detector array [e.g., a CCD (charge coupled device) array] to register the image. However, conventional imaging systems for remote sensing require high-quality optics and need to support large detector arrays and associated electronics. This results in suboptimal size, weight, and power consumption. Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a computational alternative to this traditional imaging concept that has a very simple receiver structure. In CGI, the transmitter illuminates the target with a modulated light source. A single-pixel (bucket) detector collects the scattered light. Then, via computation (i.e., postprocessing), the receiver can reconstruct the image using the knowledge of the modulation that was projected onto the target by the transmitter. This way, one can construct a very simple receiver that, in principle, requires no lens to image a target. Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging modality that has been receiving much attention owing to a rich interconnection of novel physical characteristics and novel signal processing algorithms suitable for active computational imaging. The original ghost imaging experiments consisted of two correlated optical beams traversing distinct paths and impinging on two spatially-separated photodetectors: one beam interacts with the target and then illuminates on a single-pixel (bucket) detector that provides no spatial resolution, whereas the other beam traverses an independent path and impinges on a high-resolution camera without any interaction with the target. The term ghost imaging was coined soon after the initial experiments were reported, to emphasize the fact that by cross-correlating two photocurrents, one generates an image of the target. In

  18. Role of remote sensing in documenting living resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.

  19. Integrated remote sensing for multi-temporal analysis of anthropic activities in the south-east of Mt. Vesuvius National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, C.; Mei, A.; Fontinovo, G.; Allegrini, A.; Bassani, C.

    2016-10-01

    This work shows a downscaling approach for environmental changes study using multi- and hyper-spectral remote sensing data. The study area, located in the south-east of Mt. Vesuvius National Park, has been affected by two main activities during the last decades: mining and consecutive municipal solid waste dumping. These activities had an environmental impact in the neighbouring areas releasing dust and gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere and leachate into the ground. The approach integrated remote sensing data at different spectral and spatial resolutions. Landsat TM images were adopted to study the changes that occurred in the area using environmental indices at a wider temporal scale. In order to identify these indices in the study area, two high spatial and spectral resolution MIVIS aerial images were adopted. The first image, acquired in July 2004, describes the environmental situation after the anthropic activities of extraction and dumping in some sites, while the second image acquired in 2010 reflects the situation after the construction of new landfill in an old quarry. The spectral response of soil and vegetation was applied to interpret stress conditions and other environmental anomalies in the study areas. Some Warning Zones were defined by "core" and "neighbouring" of the anthropic area. Different classification methods were adopted in order to characterize the study area: Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification provided local covers, while Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis (LSMA) identified main fractions changes of vegetation, substrate and dark surfaces. The change detection of spectral indices, supported by thermal anomalies, highlighted potential stressed areas.

  20. REMOTE SENSING OF FUGITIVE ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intentional or accidental release of hazardous substances into the environment is an

    inevitable consequence of anthropogenic activity. Industrial, commercial, mining, military and

    even domestic activities can result in the release of substances into the air, lan...

  1. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems. [for Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Bouchillon, C. W.; Harris, J. C.; Carter, B.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, R.

    1974-01-01

    The primary purpose of the remote sensing applications program is for various members of the university community to participate in activities that improve the effective communication between the scientific community engaged in remote sensing research and development and the potential users of modern remote sensing technology. Activities of this program are assisting the State of Mississippi in recognizing and solving its environmental, resource and socio-economic problems through inventory, analysis, and monitoring by appropriate remote sensing systems. Objectives, accomplishments, and current status of the following individual projects are reported: (1) bark beetle project; (2) state park location planning; and (3) waste source location and stream channel geometry monitoring.

  2. The Colombian Remote Sensing Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Politica Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia. The goals and organization of the program are presented in the last part of this report, together with the description of those activities deemed necessary for performing them.

  3. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  4. Complex vertical layering and mixing of aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean: active and passive remote sensing at the Cyprus University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamouri, R.-E.; Nisantzi, A.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.; Ansmann, A.; Schwarz, A.; Basart, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosols can have a complicated influence on climate conditions, directly as well as indirectly via cloud formation. The southeastern Mediterranean region can be characterized as a cross road of aerosols originating from European, Asian and African continents. Complex vertical aerosol distributions are frequently detected over Cyprus by means of active remote sensing. Observations of such complex aerosol layering and comparison of the measurements with aerosol products of regional and global atmospheric transport models are required to improve our understanding of life cycles of aerosol mixtures and their impact on climate as well as on satellite remote sensing products. In this study, a case of an intense desert dust outbreak from Syria and Saudi Arabia towards the eastern Mediterranean in September 2011 is presented. The observations used in this study were performed with a 532-nm polarization Lidar and a sun/sky AERONET photometer operated at 8 channels from 340 to 1640 nm wavelength. Both instruments belong to remote sensing station of the Cyprus Technical University at Limassol, Cyprus (34°N, 33°E). The lofted dust plume was doped with air masses that crossed sources of biomass burning smoke and anthropogenic pollution. In addition, the shallow marine boundary layer over the Mediterranean Sea and over Limassol became mixed with the anthropogenic haze by sea breeze circulations. The case study demonstrates the potential of combined lidar/photometer observations to deliver detailed vertically resolved information of the aerosol characteristics in terms of particle optical and microphysical properties, separately for the spherical particle fraction as well as for the non-spherical aerosol mode.

  5. Remote Sensing of Ionosphere by IONOLAB Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Feza

    2016-07-01

    Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. Electron density is a complex function of spatial and temporal variations of solar, geomagnetic, and seismic activities. Ionosphere is the main source of error for navigation and positioning systems and satellite communication. Therefore, characterization and constant monitoring of variability of the ionosphere is of utmost importance for the performance improvement of these systems. Since ionospheric electron density is not a directly measurable quantity, an important derivable parameter is the Total Electron Content (TEC), which is used widely to characterize the ionosphere. TEC is proportional to the total number of electrons on a line crossing the atmosphere. IONOLAB is a research group is formed by Hacettepe University, Bilkent University and Kastamonu University, Turkey gathered to handle the challenges of the ionosphere using state-of-the-art remote sensing and signal processing techniques. IONOLAB group provides unique space weather services of IONOLAB-TEC, International Reference Ionosphere extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) model based IRI-Plas-MAP, IRI-Plas-STEC and Online IRI-Plas-2015 model at www.ionolab.org. IONOLAB group has been working for imaging and monitoring of ionospheric structure for the last 15 years. TEC is estimated from dual frequency GPS receivers as IONOLAB-TEC using IONOLAB-BIAS. For high spatio-temporal resolution 2-D imaging or mapping, IONOLAB-MAP algorithm is developed that uses automated Universal Kriging or Ordinary Kriging in which the experimental semivariogram is fitted to Matern Function with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). For 3-D imaging of ionosphere and 1-D vertical profiles of electron density, state-of-the-art IRI-Plas model based IONOLAB-CIT algorithm is developed for regional reconstruction that employs Kalman Filters for state

  6. Symmetry properties in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.

  7. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  8. Advancing remote sensing of volcanic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, William I.

    A second international workshop on the remote sensing of volcanic clouds was recently held to improve and expand the use of satellite-based remote sensing data for hazard mitigation and other research purposes, such as volcano-atmosphere interactions and chemical and meteorological effects on the troposphere and stratosphere. Forty-six researchers attended, representing 11 countries, 10 universities, and several government meteorological and volcanological organizations. Also represented were the Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers in Washington, D.C.; Anchorage; Montreal; Darwin; London; and Tokyo, which monitor volcanic ash plumes and predict their displacement within their areas of responsibility The nine VAACs were established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to address various aviation concerns related to volcanic ash.

  9. Remote sensing of volcanic clouds shows promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, William I.

    An international workshop on the Remote Sensing of Volcanic Clouds was held July 29-August 3, 2001, at Michigan Technological University The workshop's goal was to improve and expand the use of satellite-based remote sensing data for hazard mitigation and other research purposes, such as volcano-atmosphere interactions and chemical and meteorological effects on the troposphere and stratosphere. Forty-six researchers attended, representing 11 countries, 9 universities, and several government meteorological and volcanological organizations, as well as the Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers in Washington, D.C., Anchorage, Montreal, Darwin, London, and Toulouse. (The Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers monitor volcanic ash plumes within their assigned airspace. There are 9 in all and they were created at the request of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other aviation concerns.)

  10. Remote tactile sensing glove-based system.

    PubMed

    Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2010-01-01

    A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics.

  11. Other remote sensing systems: Retrospect and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The history of remote sensing is reviewed and the scope and versatility of the several remote sensing systems already in orbit are discussed, especially those with sensors operating in other EM spectral modes. The multisensor approach is examined by interrelating LANDSAT observations with data from other satellite systems. The basic principles and practices underlying the use of thermal infrared and radar sensors are explored and the types of observations and interpretations emanating from the Nimbus, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, and SEASAT programs are examined. Approved or proposed Earth resources oriented missions for the 1980's previewed include LANDSAT D, Stereosat, Gravsat, the French satellite SPOT-1, and multimission modular spacecraft launched from space shuttle. The pushbroom imager, the linear array pushbroom radiometer, the multispectral linear array, and the operational LANDSAT observing system, to be designed the LANDSAT-E series are also envisioned for this decade.

  12. The Texas Remote Sensing Training Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The project was designed to train federal, state and regional agency managers, scientists and engineers. A one-week seminar was designed and implemented to build vocabulary, introduce technical subject areas and give students enough training to allow them to relate remote sensing technology to operational agency projects. The seminar was designed to perform the dual function of conveying enough remote sensing information to be of value as a stand-alone and preparing students for detailed pattern recognition training. The LARSYS III portion of the training project was executed exactly as designed in the LARSYS training materials package; the LARSYS package did not contain a LANDSAT training module. Two LANDSAT training modules were developed using Texas LANDSAT data. One module contained central Texas data and the second module contained coastal zone data.

  13. Instrumentation for remote sensing over fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfeld, T.; Haugen, G.; Milanovich, F. P.

    1983-09-01

    The sensing and analytical abilities of the laser-fluorescence spectrometer was extended beyond the physical confines of the laboratory by means of communications-grade optical fibers. These fiber probes are extremely rugged, compared with sensitive laboratory equipment, and also extremely inexpensive. Sensitive chemical analyses may be performed in hostile environments without risking damage to the laser and the spectrometer. Special-purpose optrodes that are sensitive to selected chemicals were produced. With multiplexing, a number of fibers whose terminals are at widely scattered locations, gathering information in one central instrument without the expense and delay involved in manual sample gathering are scanned. A remote analyzer for monitoring rare earth ion migration in a nuclear-waste repository, an environment too hostile for any previous remote sensing device is being developed. Optrodes sensitive to a wide variety of non-chemical stimuli are being developed.

  14. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  15. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  16. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  17. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing studies of (a) cultivated peanut areas in Southeastern Virginia; (b) studies at the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station near Painter, Virginia, the Eastern Virginia Research Station near Warsaw, Virginia, the Tidewater Research and Continuing Education Center near Suffolk, Virginia, and the Southern Piedmont Research and Continuing Education Center Blackstone, Virginia; and (c) land use classification studies at Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The practical feasibility of using false color infrared imagery to detect and determine the areal extent of peanut disease infestation of Cylindrocladium black rot and Sclerotinia blight is demonstrated. These diseases pose a severe hazard to this major agricultural food commodity. The value of remote sensing technology in terrain analyses and land use classification of diverse land areas is also investigated. Continued refinement of spectral signatures of major agronomic crops and documentation of pertinent environmental variables have provided a data base for the generation of an agricultural-environmental prediction model.

  18. The California Cooperative Remote Sensing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Sheffner, Edwin J.

    1988-01-01

    The USDA, the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), the Remote Sensing Research Program of the University of California (UCB) and NASA have completed a 4-yr cooperative project on the use of remote sensing in monitoring California agriculture. This report is a summary of the project and the final report of NASA's contribution to it. The cooperators developed procedures that combined the use of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery and digital data with good ground survey data for area estimation and mapping of the major crops in California. An inventory of the Central Valley was conducted as an operational test of the procedures. The satellite and survey data were acquired by USDA and UCB and processed by CDWR and NASA. The inventory was completed on schedule, thus demonstrating the plausibility of the approach, although further development of the data processing system is necessary before it can be used efficiently in an operational environment.

  19. Remote sensing of mesospheric dust layers using active modulation of PMWE by high-power radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Mohebalhojeh, A. R.; Farahani, M. M.; Scales, W. A.; Kosch, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the first study of the modulation of polar mesospheric winter echoes (PMWE) by artificial radio wave heating using computational modeling and experimental observation in different radar frequency bands. The temporal behavior of PMWE response to HF pump heating can be employed to diagnose the charged dust layer associated with mesospheric smoke particles. Specifically, the rise and fall time of radar echo strength as well as relaxation and recovery time after heater turn-on and turnoff are distinct parameters that are a function of radar frequency. The variation of PMWE strength with PMWE source region parameters such as electron-neutral collision frequency, photodetachment current, electron temperature enhancement ratio, dust density, and radius is considered. The comparison of recent PMWE measurements at 56 MHz and 224 MHz with computational results is discussed, and dust parameters in the PMWE generation regime are estimated. Predictions for HF PMWE modification and its connection to the dust charging process by free electrons is investigated. The possibility for remote sensing of dust and plasma parameters in artificially modified PMWE regions using simultaneous measurements in multiple frequency bands are discussed.

  20. Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-05

    University of New Mexico DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A – Unclassified, Unlimited Distribution 7 Robust Image Reconstruction Image reconstruction of...Rotating PSF via Spiraling Pupil Phase Sudhakar Prasad, University of New Mexico Reduced-Measurement Active Polarimetry Full Mueller polarimetry... Universidad de La Serena (La Serena) & Observatorio Mamalluca (Vicuña) • Australia • University of Queensland (Brisbane) • Catholic Education Office of

  1. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  2. Information mining in remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang

    The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and

  3. Adaptive Bayes classifiers for remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulston, H. S.; Pace, M. O.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for a learning, adaptive, statistical pattern classifier for remotely sensed data. The estimation procedure consists of two steps: (1) an optimal stochastic approximation of the parameters of interest, and (2) a projection of the parameters in time and space. The results reported are for Gaussian data in which the mean vector of each class may vary with time or position after the classifier is trained.

  4. Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

  5. Mesoscale Modeling, Forecasting and Remote Sensing Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed

  6. Laser Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    LIDAR Appendix 8: Limitations of Signal Averaging due to Temporal 26 Correlation in Laser Remote-Sensing Measurements Ac cessiol For ICTAB :16t is et ion...following: (1) the initial development of a heterodyne-detection, differential-absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system, (2) the development of a computerized data...near 10 pm. The outputs from these two lasers were directed out the laboratory window and the LIDAR returns collected with a telescope. Through use of

  7. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  8. Approaches to remote sensing data analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To present an overview of the essential steps in the remote sensing data analysis process, and to compare and contrast manual (visual) and automated analysis methods Rationale: This overview is intended to provide a framework for choosing a manual of digital analysis approach to collecting resource information. It can also be used as a basis for understanding/evaluating invited papers and poster sessions during the Symposium

  9. NASA Icing Remote Sensing System Comparisons From AIRS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Individual remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Comparisons between the remote sensing system s fused icing product and in-situ measurements from the research aircraft are reviewed here. While there are areas where improvement can be made, the cases examined indicate that the fused sensor remote sensing technique appears to be a valid approach.

  10. Optical remote sensing of atmospheric compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Gabriel J.

    1996-02-01

    Human activities are altering the earth system at the local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore of the utmost importance to track the workings of mother earth in order to detect any changes at their early stages so that appropriate actions are taken to understand, assess, control or prevent the adverse effects. A number of deleterious effects to the environment can, at least in part, be ascribed to air pollution, namely, the thinning of the ozone layer, the related increase in the occurrence of skin cancer, the warming of the earth system, photochemical smog, acid rain/fog, acidification of soils and waters, forest decline, etc. It is therefore necessary to monitor the most relevant processes of the earth's atmosphere, namely, the energy input, the dynamics and the chemistry. In this contribution I mainly focus on the latter, specifically, on the measurement/monitoring of atmospheric compounds. To understand atmospheric chemistry and air pollution it is necessary to have reliable and accurate values of the mixing ratios of the numerous atmospheric gases and of their diurnal/seasonal variations and long-term trends. In this contribution I present an overview of the most relevant optical remote sensing techniques that are rapidly becoming the methods of choice to probe the chemical composition and physical state of the atmosphere, especially when high selectivity, sensitivity and fast-time response are required.

  11. Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence with GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somkuti, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) emitted by plants as a by-product during photosynthesis carries information about their photosynthetic activity. It is possible to exploit space-based remote sensing measurements to retrieve the fluorescence signal and thus indirectly study carbon fluxes on a global scale. We implement a fluorescence retrieval based on the method pioneered by Frankenberg et al. (2011) into the framework of the University of Leicester Full-Physics GOSAT CO2 retrieval (UoL-FP). This physically-based approach is applied to high-resolution spectra at the edges of the O2 A-Band in the red to NIR range, that feature strong solar as well as a few weak O2 absorption lines. The fluorescence signal, which acts as an additional source, results in an in-filling of the measured solar absorption lines that are used to distinguish Fs from reflectance effects. By analysing GOSAT soundings from 2009 onwards, we examine global and regional long-term trends of Fs and compare them with parameters related to plant physiology, such as spectral vegetation indices and MODIS-derived model GPP values. Following Guanter et al. (2012) and Frankenberg et al. (2011), different regions and biomes are considered and we find that seasonal trends of both model GPP data as well as greenness indicators are well reproduced by our GOSAT-retrieved Fs.

  12. Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2006-05-01

    Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a web-site hosting digital color versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images (www.cambridge.org/9780521662214). Presents a coherent view of practical remote sensing, leading from imaging and field work to the generation of useful thematic maps Explains how to apply physical models to help interpret spectral images Supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book, as well as additional colour figures

  13. Application of Remote Sensing in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarczyk, Jan

    2014-12-01

    With increasing intensity of agricultural crop production increases the need to obtain information about environmental conditions in which this production takes place. Remote sensing methods, including satellite images, airborne photographs and ground-based spectral measurements can greatly simplify the monitoring of crop development and decision-making to optimize inputs on agricultural production and reduce its harmful effects on the environment. One of the earliest uses of remote sensing in agriculture is crop identification and their acreage estimation. Satellite data acquired for this purpose are necessary to ensure food security and the proper functioning of agricultural markets at national and global scales. Due to strong relationship between plant bio-physical parameters and the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected (in certain ranges of the spectrum) from plants and then registered by sensors it is possible to predict crop yields. Other applications of remote sensing are intensively developed in the framework of so-called precision agriculture, in small spatial scales including individual fields. Data from ground-based measurements as well as from airborne or satellite images are used to develop yield and soil maps which can be used to determine the doses of irrigation and fertilization and to take decisions on the use of pesticides.

  14. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2013-09-01

    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.

  15. Autofocus method for scanning remote sensing cameras.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng

    2015-07-10

    Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications.

  16. Improving remote sensing research and education in developing countries: Approaches and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry; Ryerson, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Since the 1970s, a number of different models have been used to develop basic and applied science capacities of remote sensing in developing countries. Those efforts have had varied levels of success. One of the more effective capacity building efforts is extended training workshops held within the targeted developing country institution with existing resources. The extending training format requires participant teams to complete a remote sensing project for their country in their organization. The basic science activity of developing country scientists was documented by a review of six remote sensing journals which determined that a very small percentage of remote sensing manuscript authors are from developing countries. Many developing countries have established internal remote sensing capacities but many others have not. Given the potential importance of remote sensing for natural resource assessment and monitoring as well as economic decision making, more attention must be given to assisting those countries in hardware, software, internet capacity and technical assistance.

  17. Remote sensing of prefrontal cortex function with diffusive light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongyao; Wang, Xin C.; Chance, Britton

    2004-12-01

    A data bank on prefrontal imaging under stressful conditions including deceit, has been gathered over several years on National and International populations using a contact imager pad consisting of 16 detectors and 4 sources, validating the concept of imaging prefrontal responses to stress, not only following the response of the PFC to imaging stress but especially of precognitive activations. We designed a new portable and non-invasive optical detecting system for remote sensing of deceit at 1~2m distance. The signals of pre- and post-cognitive function in deceit can be detected with very high sensitivity for blood volume and blood oxygenation detection at depths sufficient for PFC imaging and sensitivities of sub-micromolar oxy-hemoglobin and blood concentration detection. Thus, remote imaging of the process of decision making seems possible and examples will be presented using both contact and flying spot remote sensing.

  18. Microwave remote sensing of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction mechanisms responsible for the microwave backscattering and emission behavior of snow were investigated, and models were developed relating the backscattering coefficient (sigma) and apparent temperature (T) to the physical parameters of the snowpack. The microwave responses to snow wetness, snow water equivalent, snow surface roughness, and to diurnal variations were investigated. Snow wetness was shown to have an increasing effect with increasing frequency and angle of incidence for both active and passive cases. Increasing snow wetness was observed to decrease the magnitude sigma and increase T. Snow water equivalent was also observed to exhibit a significant influence sigma and T. Snow surface configuration (roughness) was observed to be significant only for wet snow surface conditions. Diurnal variations were as large as 15 dB for sigma at 35 GHz and 120 K for T at 37 GHz. Simple models for sigma and T of a snowpack scene were developed in terms of the most significant ground-truth parameters. The coefficients for these models were then evaluated; the fits to the sigma and T measurements were generally good. Finally, areas of needed additional observations were outlined and experiments were specified to further the understanding of the microwave-snowpack interaction mechanisms.

  19. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  20. Remote temperature distribution sensing using permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Guba, Oksana; Brooks, Carlton F.; Roberts, Christine C.; Van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Nemer, Martin B.

    2016-10-31

    Remote temperature sensing is essential for applications in enclosed vessels where feedthroughs or optical access points are not possible. A unique sensing method for measuring the temperature of multiple closely-spaced points is proposed using permanent magnets and several three-axis magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field theory for multiple magnets is discussed and a solution technique is presented. Experimental calibration procedures, solution inversion considerations and methods for optimizing the magnet orientations are described in order to obtain low-noise temperature estimates. The experimental setup and the properties of permanent magnets are shown. Finally, experiments were conducted to determine the temperature of nine magnets in different configurations over a temperature range of 5 to 60 degrees Celsius and for a sensor-to-magnet distance of up to 35 mm. Furthermore, to show the possible applications of this sensing system for measuring temperatures through metal walls, additional experiments were conducted inside an opaque 304 stainless steel cylinder.

  1. Remote Sensing of Arctic Landscape Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin M.

    Amplified warming in the Arctic has likely increased the rate of landscape change and disturbances in northern high latitude regions. Remote sensing provides a valuable tool for assessing the spatial and temporal patterns associated with arctic landscape dynamics over annual, decadal, and centennial time scales. In this dissertation, I focused on remote sensing studies associated with four primary components of arctic landscape change and disturbance: (1) permafrost coastline erosion, (2) thermokarst lake dynamics, (3) tundra fires, and (4) using repeat airborne LiDAR for the measurement of vertical deformation in an arctic coastal lowland landscape. By combining observations from several high resolution satellite images for a 9 km segment of the Beaufort Sea Coast between 2008 and 2012, I demonstrated that the report of heightened erosion at the beginning of the 2000s was equaled or exceeded in every year except 2010 and that the mean annual erosion rate was tightly coupled to the number of open water days and the number of storms. By combining historical aerial photographs from the 1950s and 1980s with recent high-resolution satellite imagery from the mid-2000s, I assessed the expansion and drainage of thermokarst lakes on the northern Seward Peninsula. I found that more than half of the lakes in the study area were expanding as a result of permafrost degradation along their margins but that the rate of expansion was fairly consistent (0.35 and 0.39 m/yr) between the 1950s and 1980s and 1980s and mid-2000s, respectively. However, it appeared that in a number of instances that expansion of lakes led to the lateral drainage and that over the 55-year study period the total lake area decreased by 24%. While these studies highlight the utility of quantifying disturbance during the remotely sensed image archive period (~1950s to present) they are inherently limited temporally. Thus, I also demonstrated techniques in which field studies and remote sensing data could be

  2. Applications of Remote Sensing to Alien Invasive Plant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cho-ying; Asner, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions. PMID:22408558

  3. The 1994 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 1994)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium focus on remote sensing, particularly on global monitoring of the earth with emphasis on the solution of environmental problems. Topics discussed include remote sensing of clouds and earth troposphere, sea ice remote sensing, optical remote sensing, land monitoring and thermal sensing, atmospheric sounding and monitoring, atmospheric correction, and satellite imaging data. Other subject areas are ecosystems and vegetation monitoring; ocean winds and surface scattering; ocean waves, currents and bathymetry; satellite oceanography; SAR for remote sensing; neural nets application to remote sensing; geographical information systems; and electromagnetic wave propagation. Also discussed environmental monitoring using ERS-1; Topex/Poseidon results; spaceborne instruments; image processing and classification algorithms; and future space missions.

  4. Geologic remote sensing for geothermal exploration: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; van Ruitenbeek, Frank; van der Werff, Harald; de Wijkerslooth, Charlotte; Wechsler, Carolina

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review of the potential for remote sensing in exploring for geothermal resources. Temperature gradients in the earth crust are typically 25-30 °C per kilometer depth, however in active volcanic areas situated in subduction or rift zones gradients of up to 150 °C per kilometer depth can be reached. In such volcanic areas, meteoric water in permeable and porous rocks is heated and hot water is trapped to form a geothermal reservoir. At the Earth's surface hot springs and fumaroles are evidence of hot geothermal water. In low enthalpy systems the heat can be used for heating/cooling and drying while in high enthalpy systems energy is generated using hot water or steam. In this paper we review the potential of remote sensing in the exploration for geothermal resources. We embark from the traditional suite of geophysical and geochemical prospecting techniques to arrive at parameters at the Earth surface that can be measured by earth observing satellites. Next, we summarize direct and indirect detection of geothermal potential using alteration mineralogy, temperature anomalies and heat fluxes, geobotanical anomalies and Earth surface deformation. A section of this paper is dedicated to published remote sensing studies illustrating the principles of mapping: surface deformation, gaseous emissions, mineral mapping, heat flux measurements, temperature mapping and geobotany. In a case study from the La Pacana caldera (Chili) geothermal field we illustrate the cross cutting relationships between various surface manifestations of geothermal reservoirs and how remotely sensed indicators can contribute to exploration. We conclude that although remote sensing of geothermal systems has not reached full maturity, there is great potential for integrating these surface measurements in a exploration framework. A number of recommendations for future research result from our analysis of geothermal systems and the present contributions of remote sensing to

  5. Controlling Malaria and Other Diseases Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing offers the vantage of monitoring a vast area of the Earth continuously. Once developed and launched, a satellite gives years of service in collecting data from the land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. Since the 1980s, attempts have been made to relate disease occurrence with remotely sensed environmental and geophysical parameters, using data from Landsat, SPOT, AVHRR, and other satellites. With higher spatial resolution, the recent satellite sensors provide a new outlook for disease control. At sub-meter to I 10m resolution, surface types associated with disease carriers can be identified more accurately. The Ikonos panchromatic sensor with I m resolution, and the Advanced Land Imager with 1 Om resolution on the newly launched Earth Observing-1, both have displayed remarkable mapping capabilities. In addition, an entire array of geophysical parameters can now be measured or inferred from various satellites. Airborne remote sensing, with less concerns on instrument weight, size, and power consumption, also offers a low-cost alternative for regional applications. NASA/GSFC began to collaborate with the Mahidol University on malaria and filariasis control using remote sensing in late 2000. The objectives are: (1) To map the breeding sites for the major vector species; (2) To identify the potential sites for larvicide and insecticide applications; (3) To explore the linkage of vector population and transmission intensity to environmental variables; (4) To monitor the impact of climate change and human activities on vector population and transmission; and (5) To develop a predictive model for disease distribution. Field studies are being conducted in several provinces in Thailand. Data analyses will soon begin. Malaria data in South Korea are being used as surrogates for developing classification techniques. GIS has been shown to be invaluable in making the voluminous remote sensing data more readily understandable. It will be used throughout this study

  6. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  7. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data for Regulatory Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of the needs that NASA can use for the remote sensing of water quality. The goal of this project is to provide information for decision-making activities (water quality standards) using remotely sensed/satellite based water quality data from MODIS and Landsat data.

  8. Inquiry-Based Learning in Remote Sensing: A Space Balloon Educational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountrakis, Giorgos; Triantakonstantis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Teaching remote sensing in higher education has been traditionally restricted in lecture and computer-aided laboratory activities. This paper presents and evaluates an engaging inquiry-based educational experiment. The experiment was incorporated in an introductory remote sensing undergraduate course to bridge the gap between theory and…

  9. Remote Sensing and Skywave Digital Communication from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Bergadà, Pau; Deumal, Marc; Vilella, Carles; Regué, Joan R.; Altadill, David; Marsal, Santi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the research activities undertaken by La Salle and the Ebro Observatory in the field of remote sensing. On 2003 we started a research project with two main objectives: implement a long-haul oblique ionospheric sounder and transmit the data from remote sensors located at the Spanish Antarctic station Juan Carlos I to Spain. The paper focuses on a study of feasibility of two possible physical layer candidates for the skywave link between both points. A DS-SS based solution and an OFDM based solution are considered to achieve a reliable low-power low-rate communication system between Antarctica and Spain. PMID:22303166

  10. Remote sensing and skywave digital communication from antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bergadà, Pau; Deumal, Marc; Vilella, Carles; Regué, Joan R; Altadill, David; Marsal, Santi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the research activities undertaken by La Salle and the Ebro Observatory in the field of remote sensing. On 2003 we started a research project with two main objectives: implement a long-haul oblique ionospheric sounder and transmit the data from remote sensors located at the Spanish Antarctic station Juan Carlos I to Spain. The paper focuses on a study of feasibility of two possible physical layer candidates for the skywave link between both points. A DS-SS based solution and an OFDM based solution are considered to achieve a reliable low-power low-rate communication system between Antarctica and Spain.

  11. Remote Sensing as a Demonstration of Applied Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Robert N.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the field of remote sensing, including discussions of geo-synchronous and sun-synchronous remote-sensing platforms, the actual physical processes and equipment involved in sensing, the analysis of images by humans and machines, and inexpensive, small scale methods, including aerial photography. (CS)

  12. International Models and Methods of Remote Sensing Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.

    A classification of remote sensing courses throughout the world, the world-wide need for sensing instruction, and alternative instructional methods for meeting those needs are discussed. Remote sensing involves aerial photointerpretation or the use of satellite and other non-photographic imagery; its focus is to interpret what is in the photograph…

  13. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background

  14. Remote Sensing of Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Whitley, T.; Mezentsev, A.; van der Velde, O. A.; Soula, S.; Chanrion, O.; Neubert, T.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Transient Luminous Events are investigated by remote sensing with several networks of radio receivers. Spectacular sprites are detected by use of their characteristic signatures following the continuing current of their parent positive cloud to ground lightning discharges which are recorded with a global network of four radio receivers operating at a frequency range from ~1-1000 Hz. This novel data set reveals a new class of sprites, where the intensity of the sprite exceeds the intensity of the parent lightning discharge, presumably as a result of continued horizontal lightning activity. These Mega-Sprites occur mainly during night-time and with a likelihood of less than ~10% during day-time. The spectra of Mega-Sprites are inferred from the electromagnetic recordings. Sprites with more moderate luminousity are occaisonally associated with weak electromagnetic signatures in the frequency range from ~40-400 kHz. It is shown that one of these signatures coincides with an extremely weak rebrightening of an ongoing sprite. The rebrightening exhibits an emission of ~50 photons over ~1 ms as measured with a fast scanning photomultiplier tube. This optical signature may result from relativisitc electrons in the mesosphere in agreement with corresponding model calculations. To test this hypothesis in more detail, a network of ten wideband digital radio receivers is deployed in southern France to operate as a small scale interferometer. The first results are obatined at a frequency of 100 kHz and show the bearings to radio transmitters and lightning discharges from distant thunderstorms and reveal an anisotropic wave propagation velocity.

  15. Remote Sensing and Quantization of Analog Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    This method enables sensing and quantization of analog strain gauges. By manufacturing a piezoelectric sensor stack in parallel (physical) with a piezoelectric actuator stack, the capacitance of the sensor stack varies in exact proportion to the exertion applied by the actuator stack. This, in turn, varies the output frequency of the local sensor oscillator. The output, F(sub out), is fed to a phase detector, which is driven by a stable reference, F(sub ref). The output of the phase detector is a square waveform, D(sub out), whose duty cycle, t(sub W), varies in exact proportion according to whether F(sub out) is higher or lower than F(sub ref). In this design, should F(sub out) be precisely equal to F(sub ref), then the waveform has an exact 50/50 duty cycle. The waveform, D(sub out), is of generally very low frequency suitable for safe transmission over long distances without corruption. The active portion of the waveform, t(sub W), gates a remotely located counter, which is driven by a stable oscillator (source) of such frequency as to give sufficient digitization of t(sub W) to the resolution required by the application. The advantage to this scheme is that it negates the most-common, present method of sending either very low level signals (viz. direct output from the sensors) across great distances (anything over one-half meter) or the need to transmit widely varying higher frequencies over significant distances thereby eliminating interference [both in terms of beat frequency generation and in-situ EMI (electromagnetic interference)] caused by ineffective shielding. It also results in a significant reduction in shielding mass.

  16. Remote sensing for land management and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Franklin, Janet

    1983-05-01

    The primary role of remote sensing in land management and planning has been to provide information concerning the physical characteristics of the land which influence the management of individual land parcels or the allocation of lands to various uses These physical characteristics have typically been assessed through aerial photography, which is used to develop resource maps and to monitor changing environmental conditions These uses are well developed and currently well integrated into the planning infrastructure at local, state, and federal levels in the United States. Many newly emerging uses of remote sensing involve digital images which are collected, stored, and processed automatically by electromechanical scanning devices and electronic computers Some scanning devices operate from aircraft or spacecraft to scan ground scenes directly; others scan conventional aerial transparencies to yield digital images. Digital imagery offers the potential for computer-based automated map production, a process that can significantly increase the amount and timeliness of information available to land managers and planners. Future uses of remote sensing in land planning and management will involve geographic information systems, which store resource information in a geocoded format. Geographic information systems allow the automated integration of disparate types of resource data through various types of spatial models so that with accompanying sample ground data, information in the form of thematic maps and/ or aerially aggregated statistics can be produced Key issues confronting the development and integration of geographic information systems into planning pathways are restoration and rectification of digital images, automated techniques for combining both quantitative and qualitative types of data in information-extracting procedures, and the compatibility of alternative data storage modes

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  18. Overview of international remote sensing through 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glackin, David L.

    1997-12-01

    The field of Earth remote sensing is evolving from one that contains purely governmental and military standalone systems of high complexity and expense to one that includes an increasing number of commercial systems, focused missions using small satellites, and systems of lower complexity and cost. The evolution of the field from 1980 - 2007 is summarized in this paper, with emphasis on the rapid changes of international scope that are taking place in 1997 which will shape the future of the field. As of three years ago, seven counties had built and flown free-flying earth observation satellite systems. Projections are for the number of countries operating such systems to approximately double by three years from now. Rapid changes are taking place in terms of spatial resolution, spectral resolution, proliferation of small satellites, ocean color, commercialization and privatization. Several fully commercial high-resolution systems will be launched over the next three years. Partly commercial synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems became a reality with the launch of Radarsat in 1995. Only a handful of small satellite remote sensing missions have been launched to date, while a large number will be launched over the next few years, including minisats from Australia, Brazil, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and the USA, as well as microsats from many countries including Malaysia, Pakistan and South Africa. Systems with far greater spectral resolution will also become a reality as hyperspectral instruments are launched. In 1997, we truly stand on the cusp of tremendous change in the burgeoning field of Earth remote sensing.

  19. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1996-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.

  20. Spatial reasoning in remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J.; Ehrich, R. W.; Elliott, D.; Haralick, R. M.; Wang, S.

    1981-01-01

    Photointerpreters employ a variety of implicit spatial models to provide interpretations from remotely sensed aerial or satellite imagery. In this paper one application is illustrated: how ridges and valleys can be automatically interpreted from Landsat imagery of a mountainous area, and how a relative elevation terrain model can be constructed from this interpretation. How to examine valleys for the possible presence of streams or rivers is shown, and how a spatial relational model can be set up to make a final interpretation of the river drainage network is explored.

  1. Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

  2. Applications of remote sensing to estuarine management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.; Hennigar, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was used in the resolution of estuarine problems facing federal and Virginia governmental agencies. A prototype Elizabeth River Surface Circulation Atlas was produced from photogrammetry to aid in oil spill cleanup and source identification. Aerial photo analysis twice led to selection of alternative plans for dredging and spoil disposal which minimized marsh damage. Marsh loss due to a mud wave from a highway dyke was measured on sequential aerial photographs. An historical aerial photographic sequence gave basis to a potential Commonwealth of Virginia legal claim to accreting and migrating coastal islands.

  3. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of remotely sensed digital data in a computer based information system is seen to be equivalent to the incorporation of any other spatially oriented layer of data. The growing interest in such systems indicates a need to develop a generalized geographically oriented data base management system that could be made commercially available for a wide range of applications. Some concepts that distinguish geographic information systems were reviewed, and a simple model which can serve as a conceptual framework for the design of a generalized geographic information system was examined.

  4. Identification of Terrestrial Reflectance From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Nolf, Scott R.; Stacy, Kathryn (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Correcting for atmospheric effects is an essential part of surface-reflectance recovery from radiance measurements. Model-based atmospheric correction techniques enable an accurate identification and classification of terrestrial reflectances from multi-spectral imagery. Successful and efficient removal of atmospheric effects from remote-sensing data is a key factor in the success of Earth observation missions. This report assesses the performance, robustness and sensitivity of two atmospheric-correction and reflectance-recovery techniques as part of an end-to-end simulation of hyper-spectral acquisition, identification and classification.

  5. Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

  6. Shape saliency for remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Hong, Huo; Fang, Tao; Li, Deren

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a shape saliency measure for only shape feature of each object in the image is described. Instead biologically-inspired bottom-up Itti model, the dissimilarity is measured by the shape feature. And, Fourier descriptor is used for measuring dissimilarity in this paper. In the model, the object is determined as a salient region, when it is far different from others. Different value of the saliency is ranged to generate a saliency map. It is shown that the attention shift processing can be recorded. Some results from psychological images and remote sensing images are shown and discussed in the paper.

  7. Satellite remote sensing of meteorological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in remote atmospheric sensing are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to vertical temperature and humidity profiles, cloud structure, and wind. Present capabilities and projections of future improvements in accuracy and resolution are given for the Microwave Sounding Unit, High Resolution Infrared Sounder, Defence Meteorological Satellite Project, and VISSR Atmospheric Sounder. It is noted that future sounding systems will require (1) high spectral resolution; (2) multispectral observations of the atmosphere and the surface in order to correct for most of the geophysical processes contaminating the outgoing radiance; and (3) a control algorithm capable of using information from multispectral channels to identify those parameters that have errors larger than a specified value.

  8. Remote Sensing for Farmers and Flood Watching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Sciences Directorate, part of NASA s Science Mission Directorate, makes use of the Agency s remote-sensing capabilities to acquire detailed information about our home planet. It uses this information for a variety of purposes, ranging from increasing agricultural efficiency to protecting homeland security. Sensors fly over areas of interest to detect and record information that sometimes is not even visible from the ground with the human eye. Scientists analyze these data for a variety of purposes and make maps of the areas. These maps are often used to answer questions about the environment, weather, natural resources, community growth, and natural disasters.

  9. Spectrophotometric remote sensing of planets and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent comprehensive results on spectrophotometric remote sensing of planets and satellites are reviewed. The moon and terrestrial planets are considered in terms of individual surface elements, reflectance spectra being analyzed to show the composition of the soils of these bodies. For more distant, unresolved objects, including the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, the small satellites of Jupiter, the rings and satellites of Saturn and Uranus, as well as Triton and Pluto, the global or hemispheric averages of surface composition are the objects of study. The absorptions due to methane gas and frost are indicated.

  10. Remote Sensing of Inner Heliospheric Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-15

    Colloquium 133 held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August, 1991, Z. Svestka, B.V. Jackson and M.E. Machado, eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, (1992) (pg. 322 - 328...Physics, 399, the proceedings of IAU Colloquium 133 held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August, 1991, Z. Svestka, B.V. Jackson and M.E. Machado, eds...133 on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 Au- gust (1991). 9. Jackson, B.V. "Remote Sensing Observations of Mass Ejections and Shocks

  11. Remote Sensing of Inner Heliospheric Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-14

    Solar Mass Ejection hnager in Low-Earth Orbit", in press in the IAU Colloquium 133 proceedings on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6...Colloquium 133 proceedings on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August (1991) (10 pages). + Work In Progress 1. Jackson, B.V. and H.R...34, presented at IAU Colloquium 133 on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August (1991). 9. Jackson, B.V. "Remote Sensing Observations of

  12. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  13. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  14. Remote sensing for control of tsetse flies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Remotely sensed information is discussed which has potential for aiding in the control or eradication of tsetse flies. Data are available from earth resources meteorological, and manned satellites, from airborne sensors, and possibly from data collection platforms. A new zone discrimination technique, based on data from meteorological satellites may also allow the identification of zones hospitable to one or another species of tsetse. For background, a review is presented of the vegetation of Tanzania and Zanzibar, and illustrations presented of automatic processing of data from these areas. In addition, a review is presented of the applicability of temperature data to tsetse areas.

  15. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  16. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.

  17. Non-Imaging Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Spectrometric, radiometric and polarimetric remote sensing observations of wavelengths from gamma-rays to microwaves are addressed. The basic form of the data is one dimensional arrays. At the high energy end of the spectrum, data are typically presented as pulse count versus energy, and at lower energies, as intensity versus wavelength. High spectral resolution measurements (better 1% of wavelength) are particularly useful for identifying atomic, molecular, and ionic species while broader band measurements are adequate for identifying minerals and for determining total energy fluxes. Polarization data permit the study of finely divided material such as clouds and surfaces.

  18. Remote sensing for rural development planning in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunford, C.; Mouat, D. A.; Norton-Griffiths, M.; Slaymaker, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Multilevel remote-sensing techniques were combined to provide land resource and land-use information for rural development planning in Arusha Region, Tanzania. Enhanced Landsat imagery, supplemented by low-level aerial survey data, slope angle data from topographic sheets, and existing reports on vegetation and soil conditions, was used jointly by image analysts and district-level land-management officials to divide the region's six districts into land-planning units. District-planning officials selected a number of these land-planning units for priority planning and development activities. For the priority areas, natural color aerial photographs provided detailed information for land-use planning discussions between district officials and villagers. Consideration of the efficiency of this remote sensing approach leads to general recommendations for similar applications. The technology and timing of data collection and interpretation activities should allow maximum participation by intended users of the information.

  19. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  20. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  1. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  2. Remotely sensed blue and red fluorescence emission for monitoring vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, I.; Guyot, G.; Goulas, Y.

    For monitoring plant canopies, fluorescence signals emitted by plants underlaser or daylight excitation appear to be a promising tool among the various remote sensing techniques available. Chlorophyll fluorenscece is a nature emission exhibiting a broad inverse relation with the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of green plants. Besides this specific red fluorescence, a second emission with a comparable intensity is observed in the blue region of the spectrum, when the vegetation is excited by near-UV radiation. The origin of blue fluorescence is still under discussion, but increasing evidence is found to associate it with non-photosynthetic parts of the plant tissue including cellular wall components or precursors, skin waxes and vacuolar metabolites. Experimental results show that the blue fluorescence signal depends on the type of vegetation and is highly affected by stress. For a better characterization of vegetation, blue and red fluorescence should be considered simultaneously because they contain complementary information and are highly specific to vegetation. Two approaches, which are currently considered feasible for the remote detection of fluorescence signals, are analyzed and discussed: laser induced fluorescence (active remote sensing) and solar stimulated fluorescence (passive remote sensing).

  3. Spectral vegetation indexes and the remote sensing of biophysical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1992-01-01

    Combinations of remotely sensed data from different spectral bands have been combined into spectral vegetation indexes (SVIs) and used to determine biophysical parameters. The characteristics of two-band SVIs made up of visible and near-infrared reflectances are examined. Two canopy reflectance models, a turbid media model and a geometrical model, are used to study the effects of different canopy structures on the measurement of leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically intercepted active radiation.

  4. Investigation of forestry resources and other remote sensing data. 1: LANDSAT. 2: Remote sensing of volcanic emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnie, R. W.; Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Computer classification of LANDSAT data was used for forest type mapping in New England. The ability to classify areas of hardwood, softwood, and mixed tree types was assessed along with determining clearcut regions and gypsy moth defoliation. Applications of the information to forest management and locating potential deer yards were investigated. The principal activities concerned with remote sensing of volcanic emissions centered around the development of remote sensors for SO2 and HCl gas, and their use at appropriate volcanic sites. Two major areas were investigated (Masaya, Nicaragua, and St. Helens, Washington) along with several minor ones.

  5. Identification of active erosion areas and areas at risk by remote sensing: an example in the Esera-Isabena watershed, the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Beguería, S.

    2009-04-01

    Maps of active erosion areas and areas at risk of erosion are of great potential use to environmental (governmental and private) agencies, as they allow erosion prevention efforts to be concentrated in those places where the benefit will be highest. In this study remote sensing data and a classification method based on the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve were used to determine erosion and erosion risk areas in a badlands landscape in the Ésera—Isábena watershed (Central Spanish Pyrenees). The method involved several steps: i) application of a supervised classification algorithm (maximum likelihood) for obtaining a spectral distance map to the bare soil signature characteristic of badlands on marls; ii) selection of a classification threshold based on the ROC curve; iv) two classification performance statistics, the model's sensitivity and specificity, were calculated as a means of expressing the uncertainty—omission and commission errors—associated to both maps; and finally, v) DTM was used as a primary tool for morphological exploration. This study has demonstrated the utility of remote sensing data in basic and applied geomorphologic research at regional scales (between 10 and 10,000 km2). The use of a supervised classification method based on the maximum likelihood algorithm plus the ROC curve analysis for choosing the most appropriate classification threshold enabled reliable mapping of areas with active erosion. The erosion risk areas bordering the badlands coincided with transition zones from badlands to forest, where the soil was poorly covered by vegetation (10-50% cover). The geomorphologic analysis by means of the DTM showed an asymmetry in the development of badland areas as a function of the slope exposure, with more development of badlands on shady hillsides because of weathering. In contrast, the slope gradient did not appear to have a significant effect on badlands formation in the study area.

  6. Remote sensing utility in a disaster struck urban environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.

    1974-01-01

    A project to determine the ways in which remote sensing can contribute to solutions of urban public health problems in time of natural disaster is discussed. The objectives of the project are to determine and describe remote sensing standard operating procedures for public health assistance during disaster relief operations which will aid the agencies and organizations involved in disaster intervention. Proposed tests to determine the validity of the remote sensing system are reported.

  7. Experimental Sea Slicks in the Marsen (Maritime Remote Sensing) Exercise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-30

    Experimental slicks with various surface properties were generated in the North Sea as part of the MARSEN (Maritime Remote Sensing ) exercise. The one...with remote sensing instrumentation. Because of the numerous effects of surface films on air-sea interfacial processes, these experiments were designed...information was obtained on the influence of sea surface films on the interpretation of signals received by remote sensing systems. Criteria for the

  8. SYMPOSIUM ON REMOTE SENSING IN THE POLAR REGIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Arctic Institute of North America long has been interested in encouraging full and specific attention to applications of remote sensing to polar...research problems. The major purpose of the symposium was to acquaint scientists and technicians concerned with remote sensing with some of the...special problems of the polar areas and, in turn, to acquaint polar scientists with the potential of the use of remote sensing . The Symposium therefore was

  9. Methods of Determining Playa Surface Conditions Using Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-08

    NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) METHODS OF DETERMINING PLAYA SURFACE CONDITIONS USING REMOTE SENSING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J. PONDER...PLAYA SURFACE CONDITIONS USING REMOTE SENSING J. Ponder Henley U. S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060-5546 "ABSTRACT...geochemistry, hydrology and remote sensing but all of these are important to the understanding of these unique geomorphic features. There is a large body

  10. Expedition Earth and Beyond: An Introduction to Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current usages of remote sensing, and the science of remote sensing. Included as examples of remote sensing, are emissivity (i.e., infrared) and reflectance (i.e., visible to shortwave infrared) graphs of several minerals, and vegetation spectra. Also, there are pictures of several places on Earth from the photographs that were taken by Astronauts during the earliest missions to later missions.

  11. [A review on polarization information in the remote sensing detection].

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie-Qiong; Zhan, Hai-Gang; Liu, Da-Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Polarization is one of the inherent characteristics. Because the surface of the target structure, internal structure, and the angle of incident light are different, the earth's surface and any target in atmosphere under optical interaction process will have their own characteristic nature of polarization. Polarimetric characteristics of radiation energy from the targets are used in polarization remote sensing detection as detective information. Polarization remote sensing detection can get the seven-dimensional information of targets in complicated backgrounds, detect well-resolved outline of targets and low-reflectance region of objectives, and resolve the problems of atmospheric detection and identification camouflage detection which the traditional remote sensing detection can not solve, having good foreground in applications. This paper introduces the development of polarization information in the remote sensing detection from the following four aspects. The rationale of polarization remote sensing detection is the base of polarization remote sensing detection, so it is firstly introduced. Secondly, the present researches on equipments that are used in polarization remote sensing detection are particularly and completely expatiated. Thirdly, the present exploration of theoretical simulation of polarization remote sensing detection is well detailed. Finally, the authors present the applications research home and abroad of the polarization remote sensing detection technique in the fields of remote sensing, atmospheric sounding, sea surface and underwater detection, biology and medical diagnosis, astronomical observation and military, summing up the current problems in polarization remote sensing detection. The development trend of polarization remote sensing detection technology in the future is pointed out in order to provide a reference for similar studies.

  12. Archimedean Witness: The Application of Remote Sensing as an Aid to Human Rights Prosecutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James Robin

    The 21st century has seen a significant increase in the use of remote sensing technology in the international human rights arena for the purposes of documenting crimes against humanity. The nexus between remote sensing, human rights activism, and international criminal prosecutions sits at a significant crossroads within geographic thought, calling attention to the epistemological and geopolitical implications that stem from the "view from nowhere" afforded by satellite imagery. Therefore, this thesis is divided into three sections. The first looks at the geographical questions raised by the expansion of remote sensing use in the context of international activism. The second explores the complications inherent in the presentation of remote sensing data as evidence of war crimes. Building upon the first two, the third section is a case study in alternate forms of analysis, aimed at expanding the utility of remote sensing data in international criminal prosecutions.

  13. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  14. Progress in remote sensing (1972-1976)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, W. A.; Hemphill, W.R.; Kover, Allan

    1976-01-01

    This report concerns the progress in remote sensing during the period 1972–1976. Remote sensing has been variously defined but is basically the art or science of telling something about an object without touching it. During the past four years, the major research thrusts have been in three areas: (1) computer-assisted enhancement and interpretation systems; (2) earth science applications of Landsat data; (3) and investigations of the usefulness of observations of luminescence, thermal infrared, and microwave energies. Based on the data sales at the EROS Data Center, the largest users of the Landsat data are industrial companies, followed by government agencies (both national and foreign), and academic institutions. Thermal surveys from aircraft have become largely operational, however, significant research is being undertaken in the field of thermal modeling and analysis of high altitude images. Microwave research is increasing rapidly and programs are being developed for satellite observations. Microwave research is concentrating on oil spill detection, soil moisture measurement, and observations of ice distributions. Luminescence investigations offer promise for becoming a quantitative method of assessing vegetation stress and pollutant concentrations.

  15. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  16. Support for global science: Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.

  17. Foreland Basin Structures and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Rocky Mountain foreland basins are somewhat unique in that the basins may exhibit a variety of structural styles. It is generally agreed that shortening has occurred in the foreland basement but the cause is controversial: vertical vs compressional horizontal tectonics. Even when shortening is attributed to compression, the attitude (dip) of the fault plane and whether the horizontal or vertical component of movement is dominant is unconstrained. The controversy is difficult to resolve from surface data alone due to the variety of possible interpretations. Detailed surface mapping and geologic modeling are needed to constrain subsurface interpretations. In many areas of the Wind River and Bighorn basins detailed geologic maps do not exist. State-of-the-art remote sensing data could potentially provide an efficient means of mapping surface geology. State-of-the-art remote sensing systems now provide geometrically correct data at 30 meter pixel size and increased spectral coverage, capable of more detailed geologic analyses. These data can be photographically enlarged to 1:24,000 scale and combined with 7 1/2' uses topographic quads to provide an excellent base map for geologic interpretations.

  18. [Hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-jiong; Fan, Wen-jie; Cui, Yao-kui; Zhou, Lei; Yan, Bin-yan; Wu, Dai-hui; Xu, Xi-ru

    2010-10-01

    The distributing of China's grassland is abroad and the status of grassland degradation is in serious condition. So achieving real-time and exactly grassland ecological monitoring is significant for the carbon cycle, as well as for climate and on regional economies. With the field measured spectra data as data source, hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation was researched in the present article. The warm meadow grassland in Hulunbeier was chosen as a study object. Reflectance spectra of leaves and pure canopies of some dominant grassland species such as Leymus chinensis, Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigid, as well as reflectance spectra of mixed grass community were measured. Using effective spectral feature parametrization methods, the spectral feature of leaves and pure canopies were extracted, so the constructive species and degenerate indicator species can be exactly distinguished. Verification results showed that the accuracy of spectral identification was higher than 95%. Taking it as the foundation, the spectra of mixed grass community were unmixed using linear mixing models, and the proportion of all the components was calculated, and the errors were less than 5%. The research results of this article provided the evidence of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation.

  19. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  20. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  1. Spatial Inference for Distributed Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braverman, A. J.; Katzfuss, M.; Nguyen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data are inherently spatial, and a substantial portion of their value for scientific analyses derives from the information they can provide about spatially dependent processes. Geophysical variables such as atmopsheric temperature, cloud properties, humidity, aerosols and carbon dioxide all exhibit spatial patterns, and satellite observations can help us learn about the physical mechanisms driving them. However, remote sensing observations are often noisy and incomplete, so inferring properties of true geophysical fields from them requires some care. These data can also be massive, which is both a blessing and a curse: using more data drives uncertainties down, but also drives costs up, particularly when data are stored on different computers or in different physical locations. In this talk I will discuss a methodology for spatial inference on massive, distributed data sets that does not require moving large volumes of data. The idea is based on a combination of ideas including modeling spatial covariance structures with low-rank covariance matrices, and distributed estimation in sensor or wireless networks.

  2. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  3. Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.

    Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.

  4. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  5. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  6. Proceedings of the Conference on Practical Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers dealing with the principles of remote sensing are summarized. Summaries cover problem solving capabilities within the realms of urbanism, agriculture, forestry, and environmental impact assessment.

  7. The availability of conventional forms of remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturdevant, James A.; Holm, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    For decades Federal and State agencies have been collecting aerial photographs of various film types and scales over parts of the United States. More recently, worldwide Earth resources data acquired by orbiting satellites have inundated the remote sensing community. Determining the types of remotely sensed data that are publicly available can be confusing to the land-resource manager, planner, and scientist. This paper is a summary of the more commonly used types of remotely sensed data (aircraft and satellite) and their public availability. Special emphasis is placed on the National High-Altitude Photography (NHAP) program and future remote-sensing satellites.

  8. Communicating remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, R.

    1981-01-01

    Although remote sensing is currently multidisciplinary in its applications, many of its terms come from the engineering sciences, particularly from the field of pattern recognition. Scholars from fields such as the social sciences, botany, and biology, may experience initial difficulty with remote sensing terminology, even though parallel concepts exist in their own fields. Some parallel concepts and terminologies from nonengineering fields, which might enhance the understanding of remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary situation are identified. Feedbacks which this analogue strategy might have on remote sensing itself are explored.

  9. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  10. Spatial and Temporal Scaling of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Goel, Narendra S.

    1995-01-01

    Although remote sensing has a central role to play in the acquisition of synoptic data obtained at multiple spatial and temporal scales to facilitate our understanding of local and regional processes as they influence the global climate, the use of thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data in this capacity has received only minimal attention. This results from some fundamental challenges that are associated with employing TIR data collected at different space and time scales, either with the same or different sensing systems, and also from other problems that arise in applying a multiple scaled approach to the measurement of surface temperatures. In this paper, we describe some of the more important problems associated with using TIR remote sensing data obtained at different spatial and temporal scales, examine why these problems appear as impediments to using multiple scaled TIR data, and provide some suggestions for future research activities that may address these problems. We elucidate the fundamental concept of scale as it relates to remote sensing and explore how space and time relationships affect TIR data from a problem-dependency perspective. We also describe how linearity and non-linearity observation versus parameter relationships affect the quantitative analysis of TIR data. Some insight is given on how the atmosphere between target and sensor influences the accurate measurement of surface temperatures and how these effects will be compounded in analyzing multiple scaled TIR data. Last, we describe some of the challenges in modeling TIR data obtained at different space and time scales and discuss how multiple scaled TIR data can be used to provide new and important information for measuring and modeling land-atmosphere energy balance processes.

  11. Remote sensing data supporting EULAKES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, Mariano; Matta, Erica; Giardino, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    EULAKES Project (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors), funded by Central Europe Programme 2010-2013, includes four European lakes study: Garda Lake (Italy), Charzykowskie Lake (Poland), Neusiedl Lake (Austria) and Balaton Lake (Hungary). Aim of the Project is to evaluate lakes exposure to different type of risks in order to provide some useful tools to improve natural resources planning and management. The goal is to build an informatics system to support decision makers' purposes, which also provides a list of possible measures to be undertaken for water quality protection. Thanks to remote sensing techniques water quality characteristics have been assessed. Our activity provided photosynthetic cyanobacteria specific pigments spatial distribution in Charzykowskie Lake, macrophyte mapping in Garda Lake using MIVIS images, and common reeds change detection in Neusiedl Lake through Landsat satellite images analysis. 4800 MODIS 11A products, from 2004 to 2010, have been acquired to evaluate surface water temperature trends, significant input data for future global change scenarios. Temperature analysis allowed the evaluation of lakes different characteristics, temperature temporal trends and temperature spatial variability inside each lake. Optical active parameters (Chlorophyll-a, Total Suspended Matter, Colored Dissolved Organic Matter), as well as water transparency, have been estimated from 250 MERIS images processing. Satellite images, acquired following Water Frame Directive monitoring rules, have been corrected for adjacent effects using ESA Beam-Visat software (ICOL tool). Atmospheric correction has been performed applying different softwares: 6S radiative transfer code and Beam Neural-Network. Different algorithms for the water quality parameters estimation have been applied to reflectance values, after their validation with spectroradiometric field measures. Garda Lake has been analysed with ESA Case 2 Regional algorithm, while for Balaton and

  12. Making Sense of Remotely Sensed Ultra-Spectral Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California, Earth Observing System (EOS) programs, the Deep Space Network (DSN), and various Department of Defense (DOD) technology demonstration programs, combined their technical expertise to develop SEASCRAPE, a software program that obtains data when thermal infrared radiation passes through the Earth's atmosphere and reaches a sensor. Licensed by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), SEASCRAPE automatically inverts complex infrared data and makes it possible to obtain estimates of the state of the atmosphere along the ray path. Former JPL staff members created a small entrepreneurial firm, Remote Sensing Analysis Systems, Inc., of Altadena, California, to commercialize the product. The founders believed that a commercial version of the software was needed for future U.S. government missions and the commercial monitoring of pollution. With the inversion capability of this software and remote sensing instrumentation, it is possible to monitor pollution sources from safe and secure distances on a noninterfering, noncooperative basis. The software, now know as SEASCRAPE_Plus, allows the user to determine the presence of pollution products, their location and their abundance along the ray path. The technology has been cleared by the Department of Commerce for export, and is currently used by numerous research and engineering organizations around the world.

  13. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  14. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, F.; Kent, J.; Adam, M.; Buxmann, J.; Francis, P.; Haywood, J.

    2016-06-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA), has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK) will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  15. The use of remotely sensed data for operational fisheries oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiuza, Armando F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are used under two contexts in fisheries: as a tool for fisheries research and as a means to provide operational support to fishing activities. Fishing operations need synoptic data provided timely; fisheries research needs that type of data and, also, good short-term climatologies. A description is given of several experiences conducted around the world which have employed or are using satellite data for operational fisheries problems. An overview is included of the Portuguese program for fisheries support using remotely sensed data provided by satellites and in situ observations conducted by fishermen. Environmental products useful for fisheries necessarily combine satellite and in situ data. The role of fishermen as a source of good, near-real-time in situ environmental data is stressed; so far, this role seems to have been largely overlooked.

  16. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  17. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  18. Remote temperature distribution sensing using permanent magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yi; Guba, Oksana; Brooks, Carlton F.; ...

    2016-10-31

    Remote temperature sensing is essential for applications in enclosed vessels where feedthroughs or optical access points are not possible. A unique sensing method for measuring the temperature of multiple closely-spaced points is proposed using permanent magnets and several three-axis magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field theory for multiple magnets is discussed and a solution technique is presented. Experimental calibration procedures, solution inversion considerations and methods for optimizing the magnet orientations are described in order to obtain low-noise temperature estimates. The experimental setup and the properties of permanent magnets are shown. Finally, experiments were conducted to determine the temperature of ninemore » magnets in different configurations over a temperature range of 5 to 60 degrees Celsius and for a sensor-to-magnet distance of up to 35 mm. Furthermore, to show the possible applications of this sensing system for measuring temperatures through metal walls, additional experiments were conducted inside an opaque 304 stainless steel cylinder.« less

  19. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  20. Technology Advancements for Active Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide from Space using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Nehrir, A. R.; Liu, Z.; Chen, S.; Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Choi, Y.; Plant, J.; Yang, M. M.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.; Meadows, B.; Dobler, J. T.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    This work describes advances in critical lidar technologies and techniques developed as part of the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) system for measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The ACES design demonstrates advancements in: (1) enhanced power-aperture product through the use and operation of multiple co-aligned laser transmitters and a multi-aperture telescope design; (2) high-efficiency, high-power Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs); (3) high-bandwidth, low-noise HgCdTe detector and transimpedence amplifier (TIA) subsystem capable of long-duration operation; and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The ACES instrument, an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar, was designed for high-altitude aircraft operations and can be directly applied to space instrumentation to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. Specifically, the lidar simultaneously transmits three IM-CW laser beams from the high power EDFAs operating near 1571 nm. The outgoing laser beams are aligned to the field of view of three fiber-coupled 17.8-cm diameter telescopes, and the backscattered light collected by the same three telescopes is sent to the detector/TIA subsystem, which has a bandwidth of 4.9 MHz and operates service-free with a tactical Dewar and cryocooler. The electronic bandwidth is only slightly higher than 1 MHz, effectively limiting the noise level. Two key laser modulation approaches are being tested to significantly mitigate the effects of thin clouds on the retrieved CO2 column amounts. This work provides an over view of these technologies, the modulation approaches, and results from recent test flights.

  1. Boundary Layer Remote Sensing with Combined Active and Passive Techniques: GPS Radio Occultation and High-Resolution Stereo Imaging (WindCam) Small Satellite Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, A.J.; Wu, D.L.; Teixeira, J.; Ao, C.O.; Xie, F.; Diner, D.J.; Wood, R.; Turk, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: significant progress in understanding low-cloud boundary layer processes. This is the Single largest uncertainty in climate projections. Radio occultation has unique features suited to boundary layer remote sensing (1) Cloud penetrating (2) Very high vertical resolution (approximately 50m-100m) (3) Sensitivity to thermodynamic variables

  2. Synergy of tectonic geomorphology, applied geophysics and remote sensing techniques reveals new data for active extensional tectonism in NW Peloponnese (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulis, Ioannis; Vassilakis, Emmanuel; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Alexopoulos, John; Dilalos, Spyridon; Erkeki, Athanasia

    2015-05-01

    In tectonically active areas, such as in the northwest Peloponnese of western Greece, geomorphic processes are strongly influenced by active faulting; in many cases such faults cannot be easily identified. In this paper we apply multidisciplinary analysis (morphotectonic indices, neotectonic mapping, geophysical surveys and remote sensing techniques) to map the recently-recognized east-west trending Pineios River normal fault zone with a high degree of accuracy, and to better understand its contribution to the evolution of the ancient region of Elis during Holocene time. Fault activity seems to be related to frequent changes in river flow patterns and to displacements of the nearby shoreline. We argue that fault activity is the main reason for migration of Pineios river mouth as documented for several time periods during historical time. Quantitative constraints on deformation caused by the faulting were applied through the application of the morphotectonic indices proposed in this paper, including drainage network asymmetry and sinuosity, and mountain front sinuosity, all of which indicate that this is a highly active structure. Slip rates calculated to be as high as 0.48 mm/yr for the last 209 ka (based on previously published dating) were verified by applied geophysical methods. The fault surface discontinuity was identified at depth using vertical electrical resistivity measurements and depositional layers of different resistivity were found to be clearly offset. Displacement increases toward the west, reaching an observed maximum of 110 m. The most spectacular landform alteration due to surface deformation is the north-south migration of the river estuary into completely different open sea areas during the late Quaternary, mainly during the Holocene. The sediment transport path has been altered several times due to these changes in river geometry with and the most recent seeming to have occurred almost 2000 years ago. The river estuary migrated to its

  3. Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain papers discussing the state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing, along with the research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The following topics are addressed: spectral geology, U.S. and international hydrocarbon exporation, radar and thermal infrared remote sensing, engineering geology and hydrogeology, mineral exploration, remote sensing for marine and environmental applications, image processing and analysis, geobotanical remote sensing, and data integration and geographic information systems. Particular attention is given to spectral alteration mapping with imaging spectrometers, mapping the coastal plain of the Congo with airborne digital radar, applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety, remote sensing of ferric iron minerals as guides for gold exploration, principal component analysis for alteration mappping, and the application of remote sensing techniques for gold prospecting in the north Fujian province.

  4. Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain papers discussing the state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing, along with the research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The following topics are addressed: spectral geology, US and international hydrocarbon exporation, radar and thermal infrared remote sensing, engineering geology and hydrogeology, mineral exploration, remote sensing for marine and environmental applications, image processing and analysis, geobotanical remote sensing, and data integration and geographic information systems. Particular attention is given to spectral alteration mapping with imaging spectrometers, mapping the coastal plain of the Congo with airborne digital radar, applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety, remote sensing of ferric iron minerals as guides for gold exploration, principal component analysis for alteration mappping, and the application of remote sensing techniques for gold prospecting in the north Fujian province.

  5. Long-term remote sensing monitoring coal mining activity in resource-based cities: a case study of Qitaihe City, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zhou, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining activity has strongly impacted the sustainable socioeconomic development of resource-based cities. The systematic monitoring of the change in mining activity can provide evidence for the transition and future development of resource-based cities. This paper chose Qitaihe, one of the four coal mining cities in northeastern China as the study area. Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technique, as well as methods on landscape pattern analysis were used to study the evolution of mining activity from 4 different periods over 58 years’ time. Results showed that the area of land used in mining increased by about six times during the study period with cultivated land the main type that contributed to this increase. Mining activity showed an eastward trend, developing from one concentration circle to four circles, from a disordered system to a relatively integrated system. It was also suggested that differentiated policies should be adopted in different mining circles. This study also provides a framework for future city planning and sustainable development.

  6. Overview of the NASA tropospheric environmental quality remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allario, F.; Ayers, W. G.; Hoell, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper will summarize the current NASA Tropospheric Environmental Quality Remote Sensing Program for studying the global and regional troposphere from space, airborne and ground-based platforms. As part of the program to develop remote sensors for utilization from space, NASA has developed a series of passive and active remote sensors which have undergone field test measurements from airborne and ground platforms. Recent measurements with active lidar and passive gas filter correlation and infrared heterodyne techniques will be summarized for measurements of atmospheric aerosols, CO, SO2, O3, and NH3. These measurements provide the data base required to assess the sensitivity of remote sensors for applications to urban and regional field measurement programs. Studies of Earth Observation Satellite Systems are currently being performed by the scientific community to assess the capability of satellite imagery to detect regions of elevated pollution in the troposphere. The status of NASA sponsored research efforts in interpreting satellite imagery for determining aerosol loadings over land and inland bodies of water will be presented, and comments on the potential of these measurements to supplement in situ and airborne remote sensors in detecting regional haze will be made.

  7. Feasibility of remote sensing for detecting thermal pollution. Part 1: Feasibility study. Part 2: Implementation plan. [coastal ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.; Lee, S. S.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study for the development of a three-dimensional generalized, predictive, analytical model involving remote sensing, in-situ measurements, and an active system to remotely measure turbidity is presented. An implementation plan for the development of the three-dimensional model and for the application of remote sensing of temperature and turbidity measurements is outlined.

  8. Remote sensing for the geobotanical and biogeochemical assessment of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, J.; Chesley, M.; Lancaster, J.; Mouat, D.

    1993-01-01

    Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI`s obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information about a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics.

  9. Air Quality Remote Sensing From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David P.

    2006-08-01

    Recent advances in tropospheric remotesensing have opened the way for measuring,monitoring, and understanding processesthat lead to atmospheric pollution.As part of an integrated observing strategy,satellite measurements provide a contextfor localized observations and help toextend these observations to continentaland global scales. The challenge for futurespace-borne missions will be directlyaccessing the local scale and facilitatingthe use of remotely sensed information forimproving local- and regional-scale airquality (AQ) forecasts. Achieving this goalcould provide important societal dividendsfor public health, for policy applicationsrelated to managing national AQ, and forassessing the impact of daily human activityon the distributions of important tracegases and aerosols and their short-timescalevariability-known as `chemicalweather'-as well as on climate.

  10. Remote sensing and characterization of anomalous debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.

  11. Remote sensing of some sedimentary rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. A.; Lintz, J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks including varying sized clastics and carbonates were overflown by aircraft between 1966 and 1971 producing data in the ultraviolet to microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reports that multispectral analysis increases the ease and rapidity of discrimination of rock types having subtle differences in physical characteristics, but fails to enhance and may degrade distinctions where physical characteristics are significantly different. Brief resumes of color and color IR photographic data are presented. Thermal infrared is found to be useful in the mapping of rock units, but limitations such as moisture variation, soil cover, and vegetation may exceed in one formation the distinction between differing lithologies. A brief review of previously published SLAR data is included for completeness. Remote sensing techniques should reduce field geological effort by as much as 50%.

  12. Applications of remote sensing to hydrologic planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H., Jr.; Fowler, T.; Castruccio, P.

    1978-01-01

    The transfer of LANDSAT remote sensing technology from the research sector to user operational applications requires demonstration of the utility and accuracy of LANDSAT data in solving real problems. This report describes such a demonstration project in the area of water resources, specifically the estimation of non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutants were estimated from land cover data from LANDSAT images. Classification accuracies for three small watersheds were above 95%. Land cover was converted to pollutant loads for a fourth watershed through the use of coefficients relating significant pollutants to land use and storm runoff volume. These data were input into a simulator model which simulated runoff from average rainfall. The result was the estimation of monthly expected pollutant loads for the 17 subbasins comprising the Magothy watershed.

  13. Remote sensing of potential aircraft icing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Nakhtigalova, Daria P.; Shelekhov, Alexander P.; Shelekhova, Evgeniya A.; Baranov, Nikolay A.; Kizhner, Lubov I.

    2015-11-01

    Remote sensing technique of detection of potential aircraft icing areas based on temperature profile measurements, using meteorological temperature profiler, and the data of the Airfield Measuring and Information System (AMIS-RF), was proposed, theoretically described and experimentally validated during the field project in 2012 - 2013 in the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport. Spatial areas of potential aircraft icing were determined using the RAP algorithm and Godske formula. The equations for the reconstruction of profiles of relative humidity and dew point using data from AMIS-RF are given. Actual data on the aircraft icing for the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport on 11 October 2012 and 17 March 2013 are presented in this paper. The RAP algorithm and Godske formula show similar results for the location of spatial areas of potential icing. Though, the results obtained using the RAP algorithm are closer to the actual data on the icing known from aircraft crew reports.

  14. Recent Advances in VLF Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    In this work, we present a complete analysis of a new signal processing method for MSK-modulated VLF signals with the purpose to produce reliable amplitude and phase measurements for ionospheric remote sensing. We analyze the bit-error rate and the resulting amplitude and phase measurements as a function of signal-to-noise ratio under different background noise environments. We also compare the new method to other methods presently in use. We highlight the transient response characteristics by analyzing naturally occurring ionospheric events observed in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We apply the method to observations of solar X-ray flares, lightning-induced electron precipitation, and transient luminous events.

  15. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  16. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  17. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the large contrast between the dielectric constant of liquid water and that of dry soil at microwave wavelength, there is a strong dependence of the thermal emission and radar backscatter from the soil on its moisture content. This dependence provides a means for the remote sensing of the moisture content in a surface layer approximately 5 cm thick. The feasibility of these techniques is demonstrated from field, aircraft and spacecraft platforms. The soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetative cover affect the sensitivity of the microwave response to moisture variations with vegetation being the most important. It serves as an attenuating layer which can totally obscure the surface. Research indicates that it is possible to obtain five or more levels of moisture discrimination and that a mature corn crop is the limiting vegetation situation.

  18. Method to analyze remotely sensed spectral data

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Christopher L.; Van Benthem, Mark H.

    2009-02-17

    A fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm is applied to remotely sensed spectral data. The algorithm is applicable in the solar-reflective spectral region, comprising the visible to the shortwave infrared (ranging from approximately 0.4 to 2.5 .mu.m), midwave infrared, and thermal emission spectral region, comprising the thermal infrared (ranging from approximately 8 to 15 .mu.m). For example, employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, MCR can be used to successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. Further, MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of a gas plume component near the minimum detectable quantity.

  19. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  20. Unsupervised classification of remote multispectral sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.