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Sample records for activity requires adult

  1. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  2. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  3. V-ATPase Proton Pumping Activity Is Required for Adult Zebrafish Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D.; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C.; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration. PMID:24671205

  4. V-ATPase proton pumping activity is required for adult zebrafish appendage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration.

  5. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  6. Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Methods A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. Results In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8–0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97). Conclusion Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk. PMID:26068411

  7. Thiamin requirement of the adult human.

    PubMed

    Sauberlich, H E; Herman, Y F; Stevens, C O; Herman, R H

    1979-11-01

    Young adult male subjects maintained on a metabolic ward were fed diets providing controlled intakes of thiamin and either 2800 or 3600 kcal. The higher level of calories was attained by an increased intake of carbohydrates. Constant weights were maintained by the subjects by adjusting daily activity and exercise schedules. Thiamin requirements were evaluated in terms of erythrocyte transketolase activity and urinary excretion of the vitamin. The results of the study revealed that a relationship exists between thiamin requirement and caloric intake and expenditure. Thus, when the calories being utilized were derived primarily from carbohydrate sources, the minimum adult male requirement for thiamin appeared to be 0.30 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal. Urinary excretion of thiamin and erythrocyte transketolase activity appear to be reasonably reliable reflections of thiamin intakes and thiamin nutritional status. The use of these measurements in nutrition surveys appears justified. The microbiological assay (Lactobacillus viridescens) for measuring thiamin levels in urine samples appears to be a somewhat more sensitive but valid procedure as an alternate for the thiochrome method. Judged from the results of this study, the recommended intake for the adult human of 0.40 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal by FAO/WHO and the recommended allowance of 0.5 mg per 1000 kcal by the Food and Nutrition Board of the NAS-NRC appear reasonable and amply allow for biological variations and other factors that may influence the requirement for this vitamin.

  8. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-09-11

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example.

  9. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example. PMID:26358557

  10. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenggang; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-12-01

    Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s). In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC), a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs), spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages. PMID:26624996

  11. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  12. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  13. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  14. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  15. 20 CFR 663.820 - What are the eligibility requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adults to receive needs-related payments? 663.820 Section 663.820 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE... requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments? Adults must: (a) Be unemployed, (b) Not qualify...

  16. 20 CFR 663.820 - What are the eligibility requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adults to receive needs-related payments? 663.820 Section 663.820 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE... requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments? Adults must: (a) Be unemployed, (b) Not qualify...

  17. 20 CFR 663.820 - What are the eligibility requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adults to receive needs-related payments? 663.820 Section 663.820 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE... requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments? Adults must: (a) Be unemployed, (b) Not qualify...

  18. Requirement of rapid Ca2+ entry and synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors for the induction of long-term depression in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Otani, S; Connor, J A

    1998-09-15

    1. During block of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A-mediated inhibition, low-frequency stimulation (2 Hz, 900 pulses) to Schaffer collateral-CA1 neuron synapses of adult rat hippocampus induced an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-independent, postsynaptic Ca2+-dependent depression of synaptic strength (long-term depression; LTD). 2. Ratio imaging with fura-2 revealed moderate dendritic [Ca2+] increases (approximately 500 nM) during only the initial approximately 30 s of the 7.5 min stimulation period. Conditioning for 30 s was, however, insufficient to induce LTD. 3. The [Ca2+] changes were insensitive to the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). MCPG, however, completely blocked LTD when present during conditioning. 4. The [Ca2+] changes were abolished by postsynaptic hyperpolarization (-110 mV at the soma). Hyperpolarizing neurons to -110 mV during conditioning significantly attenuated LTD induction. 5. LTD induction was also blocked by the postsynaptic presence of the protein kinase C inhibitor peptide PKC(19-36). 6. These results suggest that LTD induction in adult hippocampus by prolonged low-frequency stimulation depends on both a rapid Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive channels and synaptic stimulation of mGluRs which may be coupled to phospholipase C.

  19. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    PubMed

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). PMID:24300060

  20. 20 CFR 663.820 - What are the eligibility requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adults to receive needs-related payments? 663.820 Section 663.820 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.820 What are the eligibility requirements for adults...

  1. 20 CFR 663.820 - What are the eligibility requirements for adults to receive needs-related payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adults to receive needs-related payments? 663.820 Section 663.820 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.820 What are the eligibility requirements for adults...

  2. Competency-Based Adult Education Sample Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.; Bryant, Nerissa

    For use by adult basic education teachers, this curriculum guide is intended as a frame of reference for building a total instructional program designed around a competency-based and skill-based curriculum. The 104 sample activities are categorized under subheadings of the following topics: Occupational Knowledge, Health, Government and Law,…

  3. Physical activity is medicine for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Denise

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence from high quality studies to strongly support the positive association between increased levels of physical activity, exercise participation and improved health in older adults. Worldwide, around 3.2 million deaths per year are being attributed to inactivity. In industrialised countries where people are living longer lives, the levels of chronic health conditions are increasing and the levels of physical activity are declining. Key factors in improving health are exercising at a moderate-to-vigorous level for at least 5 days per week and including both aerobic and strengthening exercises. Few older adults achieve the level of physical activity or exercise that accompanies health improvements. A challenge for health professionals is to increase physical activity and exercise participation in older adults. Some success in this has been reported when physicians have given specific, detailed and localised information to their patients, but more high quality research is needed to continue to address this issue of non-participation in physical activity and exercise of a high enough level to ensure health benefits. PMID:24255119

  4. Origins for the estimations of water requirements in adults.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, A P

    2012-12-01

    Water homeostasis generally occurs without conscious effort; however, estimating requirements can be necessary in settings such as health care. This review investigates the derivation of equations for estimating water requirements. Published literature was reviewed for water estimation equations and original papers sought. Equation origins were difficult to ascertain and original references were often not cited. One equation (% of body weight) was based on just two human subjects and another equation (ml water/kcal) was reported for mammals and not specifically for humans. Other findings include that some equations: for children were subsequently applied to adults; had undergone modifications without explicit explanation; had adjusted for the water from metabolism or food; and had undergone conversion to simplify application. The primary sources for equations are rarely mentioned or, when located, lack details conventionally considered important. The sources of water requirement equations are rarely made explicit and historical studies do not satisfy more rigorous modern scientific method. Equations are often applied without appreciating their derivation, or adjusting for the water from food or metabolism as acknowledged by original authors. Water requirement equations should be used as a guide only while employing additional means (such as monitoring short-term weight changes, physical or biochemical parameters and urine output volumes) to ensure the adequacy of water provision in clinical or health-care settings.

  5. [Investigation of physical activity among adults].

    PubMed

    Meboniia, N M; Kalandadze, I L; Chachava, T D; Sadzhaia, M V

    2006-06-01

    Lack of physical activity as well as smoking, overweight, high blood cholesterol level and hypertension are independent risk factors for development of various chronic diseases. Lack of physical activity is a main cause of non-communicable diseases morbidity and mortality in about 23% of cases (WHO, 2002). Goal of the survey was the identification and characteristics of physical activity among adults. We conducted epidemiologic survey among the school-children and students in Tbilisi. Survey was carried out in 40 schools from all regions of Tbilisi and 9 state and private institutes. Schools were selected by randomized trail in each region of Tbilisi and in each school were questioned all teen-agers from 14-17 year old. For selecting group of survey was used method of "proportional probability of value". There were questioned 2 500 school children and 1000 students, 38% boys and 62% girls. The results of survey ascertained that 23,5%-39,5% of respondents are training or engaged in sport everyday, or several times per week; 17,2% - once in a month; 9,3% once in a year; or 10,5% - never. Adults are less informed about useful effect of physical activity. Respondents had different point of on the role of physical activity: some of them thought it controls weight; others - prevents development of different diseases; the rest thinks that it copes with psycho-emotional stress, and none of them precise about effectiveness of physical activity in all cases mentioned above. Propaganda of healthy life stile must be associated with the effectiveness of physical activity on health.

  6. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  7. Different Requirement for Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Limb Regeneration of Larval and Adult Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Maruoka, Tamae; Ochi, Haruki; Aruga, Akio; Ohgo, Shiro; Ogino, Hajime; Tamura, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Background In limb regeneration of amphibians, the early steps leading to blastema formation are critical for the success of regeneration, and the initiation of regeneration in an adult limb requires the presence of nerves. Xenopus laevis tadpoles can completely regenerate an amputated limb at the early limb bud stage, and the metamorphosed young adult also regenerates a limb by a nerve-dependent process that results in a spike-like structure. Blockage of Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibits the initiation of tadpole limb regeneration, but it remains unclear whether limb regeneration in young adults also requires Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Methodology/Principal Findings We expressed heat-shock-inducible (hs) Dkk1, a Wnt antagonist, in transgenic Xenopus to block Wnt/β-catenin signaling during forelimb regeneration in young adults. hsDkk1 did not inhibit limb regeneration in any of the young adult frogs, though it suppressed Wnt-dependent expression of genes (fgf-8 and cyclin D1). When nerve supply to the limbs was partially removed, however, hsDkk1 expression blocked limb regeneration in young adult frogs. Conversely, activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by a GSK-3 inhibitor rescued failure of limb-spike regeneration in young adult frogs after total removal of nerve supply. Conclusions/Significance In contrast to its essential role in tadpole limb regeneration, our results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not absolutely essential for limb regeneration in young adults. The different requirement for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in tadpoles and young adults appears to be due to the projection of nerve axons into the limb field. Our observations suggest that nerve-derived signals and Wnt/β-catenin signaling have redundant roles in the initiation of limb regeneration. Our results demonstrate for the first time the different mechanisms of limb regeneration initiation in limb buds (tadpoles) and developed limbs (young adults) with reference to nerve-derived signals

  8. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.; Self, W.H.; Wunderink, R.G.; Fakhran, S.; Balk, R.; Bramley, A.M.; Reed, C.; Grijalva, C.G.; Anderson, E.J.; Courtney, D.M.; Chappell, J.D.; Qi, C.; Hart, E.M.; Carroll, F.; Trabue, C.; Donnelly, H.K.; Williams, D.J.; Zhu, Y.; Arnold, S.R.; Ampofo, K.; Waterer, G.W.; Levine, M.; Lindstrom, S.; Winchell, J.M.; Katz, J.M.; Erdman, D.; Schneider, E.; Hicks, L.A.; McCullers, J.A.; Pavia, A.T.; Edwards, K.M.; Finelli, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radio-graphically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among adults 18 years of age or older in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville. Patients with recent hospitalization or severe immunosuppression were excluded. Blood, urine, and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for culture, serologic testing, antigen detection, and molecular diagnostic testing. Study radiologists independently reviewed chest radiographs. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization according to age and pathogen. RESULTS From January 2010 through June 2012, we enrolled 2488 of 3634 eligible adults (68%). Among 2320 adults with radiographic evidence of pneumonia (93%), the median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range, 46 to 71); 498 patients (21%) required intensive care, and 52 (2%) died. Among 2259 patients who had radio-graphic evidence of pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a pathogen was detected in 853 (38%): one or more viruses in 530 (23%), bacteria in 247 (11%), bacterial and viral pathogens in 59 (3%), and a fungal or mycobacterial pathogen in 17 (1%). The most common pathogens were human rhinovirus (in 9% of patients), influenza virus (in 6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 5%). The annual incidence of pneumonia was 24.8 cases (95% confidence interval, 23.5 to 26.1) per 10,000 adults, with the highest rates among adults 65 to 79 years of age (63.0 cases per 10,000 adults) and those 80 years of age or older (164.3 cases per 10,000 adults). For each pathogen, the incidence increased with age. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia

  9. Contractile activity of cultured adult Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed

    Bowen, John M; Vitayavirasuk, Banjong

    2004-01-30

    A method for long-term maintenance of adult heartworms (HW) in culture for use in contractile activity studies was developed. Culture conditions included Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) containing Earle's balanced salt solution and MEM vitamins and supplemented with 10% horse serum, pH 7.6, 37 degrees C, and humidified 5% CO2:95% room air atmosphere. Motility was observed for up to 91 days. Reducing the culture atmosphere from 20% oxygen to 5% oxygen reduced acid production and survival to 28 days or less. Spontaneous contractile activity of adult HW coils (1 cm diameter) was measured using an isometric force displacement transducer system. Activity had an arrhythmic pattern of good magnitude that could be recorded after up to 50 days in culture for male HW and after up to 40 days in culture for female HW. Analyses of contractile activity included determination of its amplitude, frequency, contraction index, and basal tension. Amplitude for males (3.4 +/- 1.2 g) (mean +/- S.D.) was significantly greater (P < 0.02) than that for females (3.0 +/- 1.1 g), whereas frequency for females (8.2 +/- 2.3 min) was significantly greater (P < 0.03) than that for males (7.5 +/- 2.3 min). The contraction index for females was 16.7 +/- 13.7 mm/min and for males, 14.4 +/- 9.0 mm/min. The difference was not significant. The contraction index was based on line integration of the record of contractile activity. Amplitude and frequency of contractile activity for anterior segments (2.5 cm), suspended lengthwise, from cultured adult female HW, were not significantly different from results for coils, but the contraction index (34.5 +/- 33.8) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) indicating that the pattern of activity was more uniform in the segments. An applied basal tension of about 4 g was suitable for the coils, while a suitable basal tension for segments was about 1.5 g. For coils, amplitude, frequency, and contraction index increased significantly (P < 0.02) with increase in

  10. Requirements of older adults for a daily use of an internet-based cognitive training platform.

    PubMed

    Haesner, Marten; O'Sullivan, Julie L; Gövercin, Mehmet; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    A decline of cognitive abilities is a part of normal human ageing. However, recent research has demonstrated that an enriched environment can have a beneficial impact on cognitive function in old age. Accordingly, mentally and socially active lifestyles are associated with less cognitive decline in old age. Specific interventions such as computerized cognitive training programs for older adults are also known to have a positive effect on the level of cognitive functioning. Therefore, online platforms combining cognitive training with web 2.0 features may yield multiple benefits for older users. However, to date only little research exists on technological acceptance and media use in this age-group especially for cognitively-impaired seniors. Therefore, in order to assess specific preferences and potential barriers of older adults regarding a web-based platform for cognitive training, we conducted qualitative interviews with 12 older adults. Half of the participants were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Most importantly, our results show that cognitive exercises should incorporate themes and topics older adults are interested in. Additional communication features could serve as ideal methods for increasing user motivation. Furthermore, we derived eight critical requirements of older adults concerning daily use of a web-based cognitive training platform. Implications for future research and development are discussed.

  11. The Relationships among Anomia, Attitude toward Adult Education, and Nonparticipation in Formal Adult Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garry, Mark W.

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between anomia (a feeling of alienation, of being cut off from society), attitude toward adult education, and nonparticipation in formal adult education activities. The subjects of the study were adults who lived in a specific area in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which had the following characteristics:…

  12. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  13. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  14. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  15. Notch2 is required for maintaining sustentacular cell function in the adult mouse main olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Steve; Sickles, Heather M.; DeLeonardis, Chris; Alcaraz, Ana; Gridley, Thomas; Lin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Notch receptors are expressed in neurons and glia in the adult nervous system, but why this expression persists is not well-understood. Here we examine the role of the Notch pathway in the postnatal mouse main olfactory system, and show evidence consistent with a model where Notch2 is required for maintaining sustentacular cell function. In the absence of Notch2, the laminar nature of these glial-like cells is disrupted. Hes1, Hey1, and Six1, which are downstream effectors of the Notch pathway, are down-regulated, and cytochrome P450 and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression by sustentacular cells is reduced. Functional levels of GST activity are also reduced. These disruptions are associated with increased olfactory sensory neuron degeneration. Surprisingly, expression of Notch3 is also down-regulated. This suggests the existence of a feedback loop where expression of Notch3 is initially independent of Notch2, but requires Notch2 for maintained expression. While the Notch pathway has previously been shown to be important for promoting gliogenesis during development, this is the first demonstration that the persistent expression of Notch receptors is required for maintaining glial function in adult. PMID:18155189

  16. How Do Adults With Down Syndrome Perceive Physical Activity?

    PubMed

    Love, Adam; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis

    2016-07-01

    Adults with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have low physical activity levels, which may relate to how they perceive participation in physical activities. The current study entailed interviews with 30 adults with DS (age 18-71 yr, 18 women) to examine how they perceived physical activity, exercise, and sport. Through qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory, the investigators found that adults with DS have positive perceptions of physical activity that center on enjoyment. Three facets of enjoyment were identified: interaction, achievement, and process. Interaction reflected enjoyment of social contact with others including relatives, peers, caregivers, and animals. Achievement involved enjoyment of achieving particular ends including accomplishment of tasks, material rewards, formation of athletic identities, and improvement of health. Process represented enjoyment from performing a particular activity itself. This multifaceted enjoyment expressed by adults with DS may facilitate physical activity and should be considered when developing programs to improve their well-being. PMID:27623609

  17. Determinants of variance in the habitual physical activity of overweight adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of days of data and number of subjects necessary to estimate total physical activity (TPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) requires an understanding of within-and between-subject variances, and the influence of sex, body composition, and age. Seventy-one adults wore ac...

  18. Cited2 is required for the maintenance of glycolytic metabolism in adult hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinwei; Li, Qiang; Tang, Fangqiang; Puchowitz, Michelle A; Fujioka, Hisashi; Dunwoodie, Sally L; Danielpour, David; Yang, Yu-Chung

    2014-01-15

    Mammalian adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment and display a distinct metabolic phenotype compared with their progenitors. It has been proposed that HSCs generate energy mainly through anaerobic glycolysis in a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (Pdk)-dependent manner. Cited2 is an essential regulator for HSC quiescence, apoptosis, and function. Herein, we show that conditional deletion of Cited2 in murine HSCs results in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, decreased cellular glutathione content, increased mitochondrial activity, and decreased glycolysis. At the molecular level, Cited2 deficiency significantly reduced the expression of genes involved in metabolism, such as Pdk2, Pdk4, and lactate dehydrogenases B and D (LDHB and LDHD). Cited2-deficient HSCs also exhibited increased Akt signaling, concomitant with elevated mTORC1 activity and phosphorylation of FoxOs. Further, inhibition of PI3/Akt, but not mTORC1, partially rescued the repression of Pdk4 caused by deletion of Cited2. Altogether, our results suggest that Cited2 is required for the maintenance of adult HSC glycolytic metabolism likely through regulating Pdk2, Pdk4, LDHB, LDHD, and Akt activity. PMID:24083546

  19. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  20. Adults' Reading Practices and Activities: Age, Educational and Occupational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.

    Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…

  1. Reading Skills and Activities for the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite Royjier-Poncefonte

    This book contains more than 200 one-page exercises designed to give adults practice in basic reading and handwriting skills. The exercises are arranged according to the areas with which they deal: visual discrimination; letter recognition; manuscript practice and sequence; script practice; numeral writing; initial consonants; final consonants;…

  2. Juvenile Hormone Is Required in Adult Males for Drosophila Courtship

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Thilini P.; Saurabh, Sumit; Dauwalder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) has a prominent role in the regulation of insect development. Much less is known about its roles in adults, although functions in reproductive maturation have been described. In adult females, JH has been shown to regulate egg maturation and mating. To examine a role for JH in male reproductive behavior we created males with reduced levels of Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyl Transferase (JHAMT) and tested them for courtship. JHAMT regulates the last step of JH biosynthesis in the Corpora Allata (CA), the organ of JH synthesis. Males with reduced levels of JHAMT showed a reduction in courtship that could be rescued by application of Methoprene, a JH analog, shortly before the courtship assays were performed. In agreement with this, reducing JHAMT conditionally in mature flies led to courtship defects that were rescuable by Methoprene. The same result was also observed when the CA were conditionally ablated by the expression of a cellular toxin. Our findings demonstrate that JH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of male mating behavior. PMID:27003411

  3. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  4. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  5. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  6. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  7. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  8. Requirement of matrix metalloproteinase-1 for intestinal homeostasis in the adult Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Park, Joung-Sun; Kim, Young-Shin; Chung, Hae-Young; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2012-03-10

    Stem cells are tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes, modulate the turnover of numerous substrates, including cytokine precursors, growth factors, and ECM molecules. However, the roles of MMPs in the regulation of adult stem cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we utilize the Drosophila midgut, which is an excellent model system for studying stem cell biology, to show that Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The results showed that Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut and that its expression increases with age and with exposure to oxidative stress. Mmp1 knockdown or Timp-overexpressing flies and flies heterozygous for a viable, hypomorphic Mmp1 allele increased ISC proliferation in the gut, as shown by staining with an anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody and BrdU incorporation assays. Reduced Mmp1 levels induced intestinal hyperplasia, and the Mmp1depletion-induced ISC proliferation was rescued by the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that Mmp1 regulates ISC proliferation through the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, adult gut-specific knockdown and whole-animal heterozygotes of Mmp1 increased additively sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress and shortened lifespan. Our data suggest that Drosophila Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation for maintenance of gut homeostasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1-related ISC proliferation is associated with EGFR signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 in the gut is required for the intestinal homeostasis and longevity.

  9. Status of Older Adult Physical Activity Programs in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, Helen M.

    1984-01-01

    Physical fitness and recreation programs can be a deterrent to premature aging. State-funded physical activity programs for older adults in Illinois offer minimal benefits due to volunteer and untrained personnel. Results of this study are presented. (DF)

  10. Different cryopreservation requirements in foetal versus adult skin cells from an endangered mammal, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    León-Quinto, Trinidad; Simón, Miguel A; Cadenas, Rafael; Martínez, Africa; Serna, Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Cryobanking somatic foetal cells acquire much relevance in endangered species for biodiversity conservation purposes. Such cells could be later used to reintroduce the lost genes into the breeding pool, by inducing pluripotency and/or nuclear transfer if necessary. Since requirements for preserving foetal cells are not always the same as for adult ones, we evaluated the cryosensitivity of foetal skin cells in comparison with adult ones from the critically endangered Iberian lynx. Responses to cryoinjury were analyzed in both thawed cell types by means of cell viability and functionality (by analyzing their membrane integrity, metabolic activity, glycosaminoglycan content and proliferative activity). Freezing media included the permeating cryoprotectant Me2SO, either alone or along with the non-permeating cryoprotectant sucrose at 0.1 or 0.2M. When Me2SO was the only cryoprotectant, survival rate fell in thawed foetal cells to 54±4% (against 89±6% for thawed adult ones) and both proliferative and metabolic activities remained significantly lower than values for thawed adult cells. However, the combination of sucrose (both 0.1 as 0.2) and Me2SO in foetal cells significantly increased their survival rates (to 71±4% and 73±5%, respectively), proliferative activities (partially at day 7 and completely at day 14 after thawing) and metabolic activities. Our findings clearly show a difference between foetal and adult cells concerning their cryopreservation sensitivity and requirements, as well as their recovery time after thawing. These results are of relevance for the cryopreservation of foetal and adult cells from the Iberian lynx and could be also useful for other mammals.

  11. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation rooms or an area for individual and group treatments for occupational therapy, physical therapy... two staff, and barrier free. (8) Adequate storage space. There should be space to store arts and...). Physical therapy 5 (per participant). Office, if required 120 Occupational therapy 5 (per...

  12. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation rooms or an area for individual and group treatments for occupational therapy, physical therapy... two staff, and barrier free. (8) Adequate storage space. There should be space to store arts and...). Physical therapy 5 (per participant). Office, if required 120 Occupational therapy 5 (per...

  13. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation rooms or an area for individual and group treatments for occupational therapy, physical therapy... two staff, and barrier free. (8) Adequate storage space. There should be space to store arts and...). Physical therapy 5 (per participant). Office, if required 120 Occupational therapy 5 (per...

  14. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation rooms or an area for individual and group treatments for occupational therapy, physical therapy... two staff, and barrier free. (8) Adequate storage space. There should be space to store arts and...). Physical therapy 5 (per participant). Office, if required 120 Occupational therapy 5 (per...

  15. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation rooms or an area for individual and group treatments for occupational therapy, physical therapy... two staff, and barrier free. (8) Adequate storage space. There should be space to store arts and...). Physical therapy 5 (per participant). Office, if required 120 Occupational therapy 5 (per...

  16. Family Science Activities for Adult Basic and Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Action Southwest, Waynesburg, PA.

    A staff development project created a series of family science activities to be used in adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) and family literacy programs and a training guide for staff and volunteers. The training guide provides background principles and concepts for science activities. The activities identify materials and indicate ways the…

  17. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option. PMID:25789413

  18. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option.

  19. Active training for amblyopia in adult rodents

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Alessandro; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most diffused form of visual function impairment affecting one eye, with a prevalence of 1–5% in the total world population. Amblyopia is usually caused by an early functional imbalance between the two eyes, deriving from anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, leading to severe deficits in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. While amblyopia can be efficiently treated in children, it becomes irreversible in adults, as a result of a dramatic decline in visual cortex plasticity which occurs at the end of the critical period (CP) in the primary visual cortex. Notwithstanding this widely accepted dogma, recent evidence in animal models and in human patients have started to challenge this view, revealing a previously unsuspected possibility to enhance plasticity in the adult visual system and to achieve substantial visual function recovery. Among the new proposed intervention strategies, non invasive procedures based on environmental enrichment, physical exercise or visual perceptual learning (vPL) appear particularly promising in terms of future applicability in the clinical setting. In this survey, we will review recent literature concerning the application of these behavioral intervention strategies to the treatment of amblyopia, with a focus on possible underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. PMID:26578911

  20. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  1. Agrin and Synaptic Laminin Are Required to Maintain Adult Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Melanie A.; Valdez, Gregorio; Tapia, Juan C.; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    As synapses form and mature the synaptic partners produce organizing molecules that regulate each other’s differentiation and ensure precise apposition of pre- and post-synaptic specializations. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ), these molecules include agrin, a nerve-derived organizer of postsynaptic differentiation, and synaptic laminins, muscle-derived organizers of presynaptic differentiation. Both become concentrated in the synaptic cleft as the NMJ develops and are retained in adulthood. Here, we used mutant mice to ask whether these organizers are also required for synaptic maintenance. Deletion of agrin from a subset of adult motor neurons resulted in the loss of acetylcholine receptors and other components of the postsynaptic apparatus and synaptic cleft. Nerve terminals also atrophied and eventually withdrew from muscle fibers. On the other hand, mice lacking the presynaptic organizer laminin-α4 retained most of the synaptic cleft components but exhibited synaptic alterations reminiscent of those observed in aged animals. Although we detected no marked decrease in laminin or agrin levels at aged NMJs, we observed alterations in the distribution and organization of these synaptic cleft components suggesting that such changes could contribute to age-related synaptic disassembly. Together, these results demonstrate that pre- and post-synaptic organizers actively function to maintain the structure and function of adult NMJs. PMID:23056392

  2. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  3. Health-Promoting Physical Activity of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.; Frey, Georgia C.

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be…

  4. Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries among Sedentary and Physically Active Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hootman, Jennifer M.; Macera, Carol A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Martin, Malissa; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries among adults with above average activity levels enrolled in the Dallas Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participant surveys and examinations indicated that one-quarter of all respondents reported musculoskeletal injuries (most of which were activity- related). Sport participants had the…

  5. Adult Basic Learning in an Activity Center: A Demonstration Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Adult Education Program, San Jose, CA.

    Escuela Amistad, an activity center in San Jose, California, is now operating at capacity, five months after its origin. Average daily attendance has been 125 adult students, 18-65, most of whom are females of Mexican-American background. Activities and services provided by the center are: instruction in English as a second language, home…

  6. Physical Activity among Rural Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling…

  7. Physical Activity and Perceived Self-Efficacy in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary E.; Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of self-efficacy in older adults, with physical activity, age, and sex as the predictor variables. Regression analyses revealed physical activity to be the only statistically significant predictor of self-efficacy. These findings may be of interest to counselors who work with older people.…

  8. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  9. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  10. Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥ 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors.

  11. Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥ 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors. PMID:23689245

  12. What Turns Older Adults on to Education. Research Describing Participation in Educational Activities by Active Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, James C.

    A study identified distinguishing characteristics of active older adults who participate in educational activities and measured factors that motivated participation. The dependent variables were participation and nonparticipation; independent variables were educational attainment, anomie, life satisfaction, and certain learning-related factors. A…

  13. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  14. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.

  15. A Sodium Leak Current Regulates Pacemaker Activity of Adult Central Pattern Generator Neurons in Lymnaea Stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tom Z.; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The resting membrane potential of the pacemaker neurons is one of the essential mechanisms underlying rhythm generation. In this study, we described the biophysical properties of an uncharacterized channel (U-type channel) and investigated the role of the channel in the rhythmic activity of a respiratory pacemaker neuron and the respiratory behaviour in adult freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Our results show that the channel conducts an inward leak current carried by Na+ (ILeak-Na). The ILeak-Na contributed to the resting membrane potential and was required for maintaining rhythmic action potential bursting activity of the identified pacemaker RPeD1 neurons. Partial knockdown of the U-type channel suppressed the aerial respiratory behaviour of the adult snail in vivo. These findings identified the Na+ leak conductance via the U-type channel, likely a NALCN-like channel, as one of the fundamental mechanisms regulating rhythm activity of pacemaker neurons and respiratory behaviour in adult animals. PMID:21526173

  16. ReadySteady: App for Accelerometer-based Activity Monitoring and Wellness-Motivation Feedback System for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vankipuram, Mithra; McMahon, Siobhan; Fleury, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Increased physical activity and exercise have been found to reduce falls and decrease mortality and age-related morbidity in older adults. However, a large percentage of this population fail to achieve the necessary levels of activity needed to support health living. In this work, we present a mobile app developed on the iOS platform that monitors activity levels using accelerometry. The data captured by the sensor is utilized to provide real-time motivational feedback to enable reinforcement of positive behaviors in older adults. Pilot experiments (conducted with younger adults) performed to assess validity of activity measurement showed that system accurately measures sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activities in a controlled lab setting. Pilot tests (conducted with older adults) in the user setting showed that while the app is adept at capturing gross body activity (such as sitting, walking and jogging), additional sensors may be required to capture activities involving the extremities. PMID:23304368

  17. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  18. Services for Older Adults. Reference Book [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…

  19. Activation of oligodendroglial Stat3 is required for efficient remyelination.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Andrew J; Zhou, Yun; Koito, Hisami; Kim, SunJa; Payne, H Ross; Lu, Q Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most prevalent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is histologically characterized by perivascular demyelination as well as neurodegeneration. While the degree of axonal damage is correlated with clinical disability, it is believed that remyelination can protect axons from degeneration and slow disease progression. Therefore, understanding the intricacies associated with myelination and remyelination may lead to therapeutics that can enhance the remyelination process and slow axon degeneration and loss of function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) family cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin 11 (IL-11) are known to promote oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination in experimental models of demyelination. Because CNTF family member binding to the gp130 receptor results in activation of the JAK2/Stat3 pathway we investigated the necessity of oligodendroglial Stat3 in transducing the signal required for myelination and remyelination. We found that Stat3 activation in the CNS coincides with myelination during development. Stimulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with CNTF or LIF promoted OPC survival and final differentiation, which was completely abolished by pharmacologic blockade of Stat3 activation with JAK2 inhibitor. Similarly, genetic ablation of Stat3 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells prevented CNTF-induced OPC differentiation in culture. In vivo, while oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling appears to be dispensable for developmental CNS myelination, it is required for oligodendrocyte regeneration and efficient remyelination after toxin-induced focal demyelination in the adult brain. Our data suggest a critical function for oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling in myelin repair. PMID:27060559

  20. Activation of oligodendroglial Stat3 is required for efficient remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Steelman, Andrew J.; Zhou, Yun; Koit, Hisami; Kim, SunJa; Payne, H. Ross; Lu, Q. Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most prevalent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is histologically characterized by perivascular demyelination as well as neurodegeneration. While the degree of axonal damage is correlated with clinical disability, it is believed that remyelination can protect axons from degeneration and slow disease progression. Therefore, understanding the intricacies associated with myelination and remyelination may lead to therapeutics that can enhance the remyelination process and slow axon degeneration and loss of function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) family cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin11(IL-11) are known to promote oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination in experimental models of demyelination. Because CNTF family member binding to the gp 130 receptor results in activation of the JAK2/Stat3 pathway we investigated the necessity of oligodendroglial Stat3 in transducing the signal required for myelination and remyelination. We found that Stat3 activation in the CNS coincides with myelination during development. Stimulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with CNTF or LIF promoted OPC survival and final differentiation, which was completely abolished by pharmacologic blockade of Stat3 activation with JAK2 inhibitor. Similarly, genetic ablation of Stat3 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells prevented CNTF-induced OPC differentiation in culture. In vivo, while oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling appears to be dispensable for developmental CNS myelination, it is required for oligodendrocyte regeneration and efficient remyelination after toxin-induced focal demyelination in the adult brain. Our data suggest a critical function for oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling in myelin repair. PMID:27060559

  1. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood.

  2. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  3. Environmental enrichment improves learning and memory and long-term potentiation in young adult rats through a mechanism requiring mGluR5 signaling and sustained activation of p70s6k.

    PubMed

    Hullinger, Rikki; O'Riordan, Kenneth; Burger, Corinna

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies from our lab have demonstrated that mild cognitive impairments identified early in life are predictive of cognitive deficits that develop with age, suggesting that enhancements in cognition at an early age can provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. Environmental enrichment has been shown to improve learning and memory in the rodent, but the impact of enrichment on synaptic plasticity and the molecular mechanisms behind enrichment are not completely understood. To address these unresolved issues, we have housed 2-month old rats in environmentally enriched (EE), socially enriched (SE), or standard housing (SC) and conducted tests of learning and memory formation at various time intervals. Here we demonstrate that animals that have been exposed to one month of social or environmental enrichment demonstrate enhanced learning and memory relative to standard housed controls. However, we have found that after 4months EE animals perform better than both SE and SC groups and demonstrate an enhanced hippocampal LTP. Our results demonstrate that this LTP is dependent on mGluR5 signaling, activation of ERK and mTOR signaling cascades, and sustained phosphorylation of p70s6 kinase, thus providing a potential target mechanism for future studies of cognitive enhancement in the rodent.

  4. Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*

    PubMed Central

    Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

    1970-01-01

    New pyrethrin-like compounds are compared with earlier synthetic pyrethroids and natural pyrethrins for intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos and for residual contact activity. Two of the compounds are at least as toxic as pyrethrin I to female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Residues of these compounds are very persistent in the dark or in very subdued lighting but they decompose on exposure to normal intensities of daylight and rapidly lose their insecticidal activity. PMID:4392939

  5. Effects of Neuroendocrine CB1 Activity on Adult Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Endocannabinoids control male reproduction acting at central and local level via cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 has been characterized in the testis, in somatic and germ cells of mammalian and non-mammalian animal models, and its activity related to Leydig cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, spermiogenesis, sperm quality, and maturation. In this short review, we provide a summary of the insights concerning neuroendocrine CB1 activity in male reproduction focusing on adult Leydig cell ontogenesis and steroid biosynthesis. PMID:27375550

  6. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ian A; Ohayon, David; Li, Huiliang; de Faria, Joana Paes; Emery, Ben; Tohyama, Koujiro; Richardson, William D

    2014-10-17

    Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills. PMID:25324381

  7. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  8. Adult Schistosoma mansoni express cathepsin L proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Dalton, J P; Clough, K A; Kilbane, C L; Harrop, S A; Hole, N; Brindley, P J

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the deduced amino acid sequence of a novel cathepsin L proteinase from Schistosoma mansoni, and describes cathepsin L-like activity in extracts of adult schistosomes. Using consensus primers specific for cysteine proteinases, gene fragments were amplified from adult S. mansoni cDNA by PCR and cloned. One of these fragments showed marked identity to Sm31, the cathepsin B cysteine proteinase of adult S. mansoni, whereas another differed from Sm31 and was employed as a probe to isolate two cDNAs from an adult S. mansoni gene library. Together these cDNAs encoded a novel preprocathepsin L of 319 amino acids; this zymogen is predicted to be processed in vivo into a mature, active cathepsin L proteinase of 215 amino acids. Closest homologies were with cathepsins L from rat, mouse, and chicken (46-47% identity). Southern hybridization analysis suggested that only one or a few copies of the gene was present per genome, demonstrated that its locus was distinct from that of Sm31, and that a homologous sequence was present in Schistosoma japonicum. Because these results indicated that schistosomes expressed a cathepsin L proteinase, extracts of adult S. mansoni were examined for acidic, cysteine proteinase activity. Based on rates of cleavage of peptidyl substrates employed to discriminate between classes of cysteine proteinases, namely cathepsin L (Z-phe-arg-AMC), cathepsin B (Z-arg-arg-AMC) and cathepsin H (Bz-arg-AMC), the extracts were found to contain vigorous cathepsin L-like activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Self-Selected Walking Speed is Predictive of Daily Ambulatory Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Addie; Fulk, George D; Beets, Michael W; Herter, Troy M; Fritz, Stacy L

    2016-04-01

    Daily ambulatory activity is associated with health and functional status in older adults; however, assessment requires multiple days of activity monitoring. The objective of this study was to determine the relative capabilities of self-selected walking speed (SSWS), maximal walking speed (MWS), and walking speed reserve (WSR) to provide insight into daily ambulatory activity (steps per day) in community-dwelling older adults. Sixty-seven older adults completed testing and activity monitoring (age 80.39 [6.73] years). SSWS (R2 = .51), MWS (R2 = .35), and WSR calculated as a ratio (R2 = .06) were significant predictors of daily ambulatory activity in unadjusted linear regression. Cutpoints for participants achieving < 8,000 steps/day were identified for SSWS (≤ 0.97 m/s, 44.2% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, 10.28 +LR, 0.58 -LR) and MWS (≤ 1.39 m/s, 60.5% sensitivity, 78.3% specificity, 2.79 +LR, 0.50 -LR). SSWS may be a feasible proxy for assessing and monitoring daily ambulatory activity in older adults. PMID:26371593

  10. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury.

  11. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  12. Insomnia and physical activity in adults with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Chasens, Eileen R; Yang, Kyeongra

    2012-08-01

    This secondary analysis study examines the relationship between physical activity and symptoms of insomnia among adults with prediabetes (N = 958) from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample of participants were generally obese, middle-aged, and racially diverse. NHANES questions included symptoms of insomnia, sleep duration, and sleep latency. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight; at least 2 days of ActiGraph activity monitor data determined mean steps walked. Men walked more steps than women; however, women had more insomnia symptoms. There were significant associations between insomnia symptoms and increased sleep latency and decreased sleep duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that younger age, lower BMI, higher self-rated health, high school education, and fewer insomnia symptoms were significantly related to increased steps walked. The findings indicate that insomnia in adults with prediabetes may be a barrier to their adapting an active lifestyle. PMID:21788447

  13. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  14. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at the... dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then immunization treatment must...

  15. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  16. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  17. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at the... dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then immunization treatment must...

  18. Frequency requirements for active earth observation sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The foundation and rationale for the selection of microwave frequencies for active remote sensing usage and for subsequent use in determination of sharing criteria and allocation strategies for the WARC-79 are presented.

  19. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  20. Evaluating an Online Cognitive Training Platform for Older Adults: User Experience and Implementation Requirements.

    PubMed

    Haesner, Marten; Steinert, Anika; O'Sullivan, Julie Lorraine; Weichenberger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Decline of cognitive function is a part of aging. However, intensive cognitive training can improve important cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Because existing systems are not older adult-friendly and are usually not based on scientific evidence, an online platform was developed for cognitive training with information and communication features and evaluated in an 8-week field test. In a randomized clinical trial with 80 older adults, findings from log data analysis and questionnaires revealed a good use of the online platform. Communication or assistive features were not used often. Good usability ratings were given to the cognitive exercises. Subjective improvements of cognitive functions due to the training were reported. The current article presents concrete requirements and recommendations for deploying cognitive training software in older adult residential homes.

  1. Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life.

  2. Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  3. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  4. Functional MRI of cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dominic T.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Stanton, Mark E.; Desmond, John E.; Pienaar, Mariska; Dodge, Neil C.; Power, John M.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Disterhoft, John F.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized human cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) in children and adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, participants were administered delay conditioning trials, in which the conditioned stimulus (a tone) precedes, overlaps, and coterminates with the unconditioned stimulus (a corneal airpuff). Behavioral eyeblink responses and brain activation were measured concurrently during two phases: pseudoconditioning, involving presentations of tone alone and airpuff alone, and conditioning, during which the tone and airpuff were paired. Although all participants demonstrated significant conditioning, the adults produced more conditioned responses (CRs) than the children. When brain activations during pseudoconditioning were subtracted from those elicited during conditioning, significant activity was distributed throughout the cerebellar cortex (Crus I– II, lateral lobules IV–IX, and vermis IV–VI) in all participants, suggesting multiple sites of associative learning-related plasticity. Despite their less optimal behavioral performance, the children showed greater responding in the pons, lateral lobules VIII, IX, and Crus I, and vermis VI, suggesting that they may require greater activation and/or the recruitment of supplementary structures to achieve successful conditioning. Correlation analyses relating brain activations to behavioral CRs showed a positive association of activity in cerebellar deep nuclei (including dentate, fastigial, and interposed nuclei) and vermis VI with CRs in the children. This is the first study to compare cerebellar cortical and deep nuclei activations in children versus adults during eyeblink classical conditioning. PMID:23674498

  5. Functional MRI of cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dominic T; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E; Pienaar, Mariska; Dodge, Neil C; Power, John M; Molteno, Christopher D; Disterhoft, John F; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-04-01

    This study characterized human cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) in children and adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, participants were administered delay conditioning trials, in which the conditioned stimulus (a tone) precedes, overlaps, and coterminates with the unconditioned stimulus (a corneal airpuff). Behavioral eyeblink responses and brain activation were measured concurrently during two phases: pseudoconditioning, involving presentations of tone alone and airpuff alone, and conditioning, during which the tone and airpuff were paired. Although all participants demonstrated significant conditioning, the adults produced more conditioned responses (CRs) than the children. When brain activations during pseudoconditioning were subtracted from those elicited during conditioning, significant activity was distributed throughout the cerebellar cortex (Crus I-II, lateral lobules IV-IX, and vermis IV-VI) in all participants, suggesting multiple sites of associative learning-related plasticity. Despite their less optimal behavioral performance, the children showed greater responding in the pons, lateral lobules VIII, IX, and Crus I, and vermis VI, suggesting that they may require greater activation and/or the recruitment of supplementary structures to achieve successful conditioning. Correlation analyses relating brain activations to behavioral CRs showed a positive association of activity in cerebellar deep nuclei (including dentate, fastigial, and interposed nuclei) and vermis VI with CRs in the children. This is the first study to compare cerebellar cortical and deep nuclei activations in children versus adults during EBC.

  6. Differential requirement for irf8 in formation of embryonic and adult macrophages in zebrafish

    DOE PAGES

    Shiau, Celia E.; Kaufman, Zoe; Meireles, Ana M.; Talbot, William S.

    2015-01-23

    Interferon regulatory factor 8 (Irf8) is critical for mammalian macrophage development and innate immunity, but its role in teleost myelopoiesis remains incompletely understood. Specifically, genetic tools to analyze the role of irf8 in zebrafish macrophage development at larval and adult stages are lacking. In this study, we generated irf8 null mutants in zebrafish using TALEN-mediated targeting. Our analysis defines different requirements for irf8 at different stages. irf8 is required for formation of all macrophages during primitive and transient definitive hematopoiesis, but not during adult-phase definitive hematopoiesis starting at 5-6 days postfertilization. At early stages, irf8 mutants have excess neutrophils andmore » excess cell death in pu.1-expressing myeloid cells. Macrophage fates were recovered in irf8 mutants after wildtype irf8 expression in neutrophil and macrophage lineages, suggesting that irf8 regulates macrophage specification and survival. In juvenile irf8 mutant fish, mature macrophages are present, but at numbers significantly reduced compared to wildtype, indicating an ongoing requirement for irf8 after embryogenesis. As development progresses, tissue macrophages become apparent in zebrafish irf8 mutants, with the possible exception of microglia. Our study defines distinct requirement for irf8 in myelopoiesis before and after transition to the adult hematopoietic system.« less

  7. The Nuclear Receptor TLX Is Required for Gliomagenesis within the Adult Neurogenic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuhua; Niu, Wenze; Qin, Song; Downes, Michael; Burns, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) continually generate functional neurons in the adult brain. Due to their ability to proliferate, deregulated NSCs or their progenitors have been proposed as the cells of origin for a number of primary central nervous system neoplasms, including infiltrating gliomas. The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for proliferation of adult NSCs, and its upregulation promotes brain tumor formation. However, it is unknown whether TLX is required for gliomagenesis. We examined the genetic interactions between TLX and several tumor suppressors, as well as the role of TLX-dependent NSCs during gliomagenesis, using mouse models. Here, we show that TLX is essential for the proliferation of adult NSCs with a single deletion of p21, p53, or Pten or combined deletion of Pten and p53. While brain tumors still form in Tlx mutant mice, these tumors are less infiltrative and rarely associate with the adult neurogenic niches, suggesting a non-stem-cell origin. Taken together, these results indicate a critical role for TLX in NSC-dependent gliomagenesis and implicate TLX as a therapeutic target to inhibit the development of NSC-derived brain tumors. PMID:23028043

  8. Antifreeze glycoprotein agents: structural requirements for activity.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Rondanelli, Patricio A; Marshall, Sergio H; Guzman, Fanny

    2011-11-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are considered to be the most efficient means to reduce ice damage to cell tissues since they are able to inhibit growth and crystallization of ice. The key element of antifreeze proteins is to act in a non-colligative manner which allows them to function at concentrations 300-500 times lowers than other dissolved solutes. During the past decade, AFGPs have demonstrated tremendous potential for many pharmaceutical and food applications. Presently, the only route to obtain AFGPs involves the time consuming and expensive process of isolation and purification from deep-sea polar fishes. Unfortunately, it is not amenable to mass production and commercial applications. The lack of understanding of the mechanism through which the AFGPs inhibit ice growth has also hampered the realization of industrial and biotechnological applications. Here we report the structural motifs that are essential for antifreeze activity of AFGPs, and propose a unified mechanism based on both recent studies of short alanine peptides and structure activity relationship of synthesized AFGPs.

  9. Preoperative Thromboelastometry as a Predictor of Transfusion Requirements during Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fayed, Nirmeen; Mourad, Wessam; Yassen, Khaled; Görlinger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to predict transfusion requirements may improve perioperative bleeding management as an integral part of a patient blood management program. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate preoperative thromboelastometry as a predictor of transfusion requirements for adult living donor liver transplant recipients. Methods The correlation between preoperative thromboelastometry variables in 100 adult living donor liver transplant recipients and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements was examined by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Thresholds of thromboelastometric parameters for prediction of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets, and cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements were determined with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The attending anesthetists were blinded to the preoperative thromboelastometric analysis. However, a thromboelastometry-guided transfusion algorithm with predefined trigger values was used intraoperatively. The transfusion triggers in this algorithm did not change during the study period. Results Univariate analysis confirmed significant correlations between PRBCs, FFP, platelets or cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements and most thromboelastometric variables. Backward stepwise logistic regression indicated that EXTEM coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and INTEM CT, clot formation time (CFT) and MCF are independent predictors for PRBC transfusion. EXTEM CT, CFT and FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for FFP transfusion. Only EXTEM and INTEM MCF were independent predictors of platelet transfusion. EXTEM CFT and MCF, INTEM CT, CFT and MCF as well as FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for cryoprecipitate transfusion. Thromboelastometry-based regression equation accounted for 63% of PRBC, 83% of FFP, 61% of cryoprecipitate, and 44% of platelet transfusion requirements. Conclusion Preoperative thromboelastometric analysis is

  10. Physical Activity Among Rural Older Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling elders with diabetes completed in 2 rural North Carolina counties. Outcome measures were as follows: first, physical activity in the past year, and second, days physically active in the prior week (0-7). Potential correlates included personal and health characteristics and were evaluated for statistical significance using logistic regression models. Findings About half (52.5%) of the participants stated that they had engaged in physical activity in the past year. Among those, 42.5% stated that they had no days with at least 30 minutes of continuous physical activity in the prior week, while 21.5% reported daily physical activity. Common activities were walking and housework. Correlates of physical activity in the past year and days active in the prior week included measures of physical health and mobility. Conclusions Physical activity in this ethnically diverse sample of rural elders with diabetes is limited. Effort must be invested to increase physical activity in these groups. PMID:16606429

  11. Physical activity efficacy and effectiveness among older adults and minorities.

    PubMed

    Clark, D O

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study was to consider efficacy and effectiveness of physical activity for the prevention and management of NIDDM among minorities and older adults of the U.S. Relevant population trends and projections are discussed, followed by a review of the efficacy of physical activity based on theoretical, prospective cohort, and intervention studies. With few empirical studies available, the assessment of effectiveness is largely theoretical and focuses on potentially important issues for future studies among older adults and minorities. Efficacy studies have shown that moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with a one- to two-thirds lower incidence of NIDDM over 4-14 years and 15-20% lower glycosylated hemoglobin over 3-4 months among people with NIDDM. With physical inactivity prevalence at 60-70%, much work remains to be done to improve physical activity effectiveness. In the most vulnerable populations, physician referral and community involvement structured around stage of change and self-efficacy theories are suggested as the most promising approaches to promoting physical activity adoption and maintenance. Effectiveness or demonstration studies that test and build on stage of change, self-efficacy, and other concepts of physical activity promotion and outcomes would likely prove to be highly valuable investments for public health.

  12. Genotypic structure of a Drosophila population for adult locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grechanyi, G.V.; Korzun, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the variation of adult locomotor activity in four samples taken at different times from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster showed that the total variation of this trait is relatively stable in time and has a substantial genetic component. Genotypic structure of the population for locomotor activity is characterized by the presence of large groups of genotypes with high and low values of this trait. A possible explanation for the presence of such groups in a population is cyclic density-dependent selection.

  13. Oral Alimentation in Neonatal and Adult Populations Requiring High-Flow Oxygen via Nasal Cannula.

    PubMed

    Leder, Steven B; Siner, Jonathan M; Bizzarro, Matthew J; McGinley, Brian M; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Use of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula (HFO2-NC) is increasingly common in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Despite the critical interface between respiration and swallowing, and the high acuity of patients in ICUs, the impact of HFO2-NC on feeding and swallowing is unknown. The present prospective, single-center, cohort study investigated the impact of HFO2-NC use on oral alimentation in neonatal and adult ICU patients. Oral alimentation status was evaluated in 100 consecutive ICU inpatients (50 neonatal and 50 adult) requiring HFO2-NC. Participant characteristics, respiratory support, successful initiation of oral feeding in neonates, and successful resumption of oral feeding in adults were recorded. Seventeen of 50 (34 %) neonates requiring HFO2-NC were deemed developmentally and medically appropriate by the neonatologist and nursing to begin oral alimentation. All 17 (100 %) were successful with initiation of oral feedings. Thirty-three of 50 (66 %) continued nil per os due to prematurity or medical conditions precluding oral alimentation at time of data collection. Thirty-nine of 50 (78 %) adults requiring HFO2-NC were deemed medically appropriate by the intensivist and nursing to resume oral alimentation (n = 34) or with a functional swallow without aspiration on FEES (n = 5). All 39 (100 %) resumed oral alimentation successfully. Eleven of 50 (22 %) continued nil per os due to severe respiratory issues precluding both swallow testing and oral alimentation at time of data collection. All developmentally and medically appropriate neonatal and adult patients requiring HFO2-NC were successful with either the introduction or resumption of oral alimentation. Patients requiring HFO2-NC who are identified as having feeding or swallowing issues should be referred for swallowing evaluations using the same criteria as patients who do not require HFO2-NC, as it is not the use of HFO2-NC but rather patient-specific determinants of feeding and swallowing

  14. Oral Alimentation in Neonatal and Adult Populations Requiring High-Flow Oxygen via Nasal Cannula.

    PubMed

    Leder, Steven B; Siner, Jonathan M; Bizzarro, Matthew J; McGinley, Brian M; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Use of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula (HFO2-NC) is increasingly common in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Despite the critical interface between respiration and swallowing, and the high acuity of patients in ICUs, the impact of HFO2-NC on feeding and swallowing is unknown. The present prospective, single-center, cohort study investigated the impact of HFO2-NC use on oral alimentation in neonatal and adult ICU patients. Oral alimentation status was evaluated in 100 consecutive ICU inpatients (50 neonatal and 50 adult) requiring HFO2-NC. Participant characteristics, respiratory support, successful initiation of oral feeding in neonates, and successful resumption of oral feeding in adults were recorded. Seventeen of 50 (34 %) neonates requiring HFO2-NC were deemed developmentally and medically appropriate by the neonatologist and nursing to begin oral alimentation. All 17 (100 %) were successful with initiation of oral feedings. Thirty-three of 50 (66 %) continued nil per os due to prematurity or medical conditions precluding oral alimentation at time of data collection. Thirty-nine of 50 (78 %) adults requiring HFO2-NC were deemed medically appropriate by the intensivist and nursing to resume oral alimentation (n = 34) or with a functional swallow without aspiration on FEES (n = 5). All 39 (100 %) resumed oral alimentation successfully. Eleven of 50 (22 %) continued nil per os due to severe respiratory issues precluding both swallow testing and oral alimentation at time of data collection. All developmentally and medically appropriate neonatal and adult patients requiring HFO2-NC were successful with either the introduction or resumption of oral alimentation. Patients requiring HFO2-NC who are identified as having feeding or swallowing issues should be referred for swallowing evaluations using the same criteria as patients who do not require HFO2-NC, as it is not the use of HFO2-NC but rather patient-specific determinants of feeding and swallowing

  15. Adult attachment and approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicole E; Meredith, Pamela J; Strong, Jenny; Donohue, Genevieve F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The way in which individuals with chronic pain habitually approach activity engagement has been shown to impact daily functioning, with both avoidance of one’s daily activities and overactivity (activity engagement that significantly exacerbates pain) associated with more pain, higher levels of physical disability and poorer psychological functioning. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the development of maladaptive habitual approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain by applying an attachment theory framework. METHODS: A sample of 164 adults with chronic pain completed selfreport measures of attachment, approach to activity and pain cognitions. Mediation analyses were undertaken to examine the direct association between attachment variables and maladaptive approaches to activity, and to test for the mediating role of pain cognitions (catastrophizing and thought suppression). RESULTS: Results demonstrated that higher levels of secure attachment were associated with lower levels of activity avoidance, which was fully mediated by lower levels of pain catastrophizing; higher levels of preoccupied or fearful attachment were directly associated with higher levels overactivity; higher levels of preoccupied attachment were associated with higher levels of activity avoidance, which was partially mediated by higher levels of pain catastrophizing; and higher levels of fearful attachment were indirectly associated with higher levels of activity avoidance through higher levels of catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide preliminary support for the suggestion that insecure attachment may be a source of vulnerability to the development of disabling activity patterns in chronic pain. PMID:25337857

  16. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions. PMID:22496702

  17. Pedagogical Beliefs, Activity Choice and Structure, and Adult-Child Interaction in Nursery Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blay, Josepha A.; Ireson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative analysis of four cooking activities undertaken in two nursery classes reveals relationships between the adults' pedagogical beliefs, the choice and structuring of activities, and the nature of adult-child participation. Four adults each planned and carried out separately, one cooking activity of their choice with a small group of…

  18. Sonic hedgehog cascade is required for penile postnatal morphogenesis, differentiation, and adult homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, Carol A; Zelner, David J; Jiang, Hong Bin; Tang, Yi; Houston, John; McKenna, Kevin E; McVary, Kevin T

    2003-02-01

    The penis is unique in that it undergoes morphogenesis and differentiation primarily in the postnatal period. For complex structures such as the penis to be made from undifferentiated precursor cells, proliferation, differentiation, and patterning are required. This process involves coordinated activity of multiple signals. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) forms part of a regulatory cascade that is essential for growth and morphogenesis of many tissues. It is hypothesized that the penis utilizes regulatory mechanisms similar to those of the limb and accessory sex organs to pattern penile postnatal morphogenesis and differentiation and that the Shh cascade is critical to this process. To test this hypothesis, Shh, BMP-4, Ptc, and Hoxa-10 localization and function were examined in Sprague-Dawley rat penes by means of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. These genes were expressed in the penis during postnatal morphogenesis in a spatially and temporally restricted manner in adjacent layers of the corpora cavernosal sinusoids. The function of Shh and BMP-4 is to establish and maintain corpora cavernosal sinusoids. The data suggest that Ptc and Hoxa-10 are also important in penile morphogenesis. The continuing function of Shh and targets of its signaling in maintaining penile homeostasis in the adult is significant because disruption of Shh signaling affects erectile function. This is the first report that demonstrates the significant role that Shh plays in establishing and maintaining penile homeostasis and how this relates to erectile function. These studies provide valuable insight that may be applied to improve treatment options for erectile dysfunction. PMID:12533405

  19. Normalisation of frontal theta activity following methylphenidate treatment in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, Caroline; McLoughlin, Grainne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with cognitive performance and functional brain changes that are sensitive to task conditions, indicating a role for dynamic impairments rather than stable cognitive deficits. Prominent hypotheses consistent with this observation are a failure to optimise brain arousal or activation states. Here we investigate cortical activation during different conditions. Using a sample of 41 non-comorbid adults with ADHD and 48 controls, we examine quantitative EEG activity during a resting state, a cued continuous performance test with flankers (CPT-OX) and the sustained attention to response task (SART). We further investigate the effects of methylphenidate in a subsample of 21 ADHD cases. Control participants showed a task-related increase in theta activity when engaged in cognitive tasks, primarily in frontal and parietal regions, which was absent in participants with ADHD. Treatment with methylphenidate resulted in normalisation of the resting state to task activation pattern. These findings suggest that ADHD in adults is associated with insufficient allocation of neuronal resources required for normal cortical activation commensurate with task demands. Further work is required to clarify the causal role of the deficit in cortical activation and provide a clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  20. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  1. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  2. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  3. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  4. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  5. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  6. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  7. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  8. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  9. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  10. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  11. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  12. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  13. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  14. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  15. 18 CFR 390.2 - Activities requiring registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Activities requiring registration. 390.2 Section 390.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES ELECTRONIC REGISTRATION § 390.2 Activities requiring registration. (a) Electronic registration is...

  16. Recruitment to Adult Education in the Nordic Countries--Research and Outreaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    This paper presents a review of the research in adult education recruitment and an overview of current outreach activities in adult education in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The author identifies three general trends of research in adult education: (1) studies aimed at describing participants in adult education; (2) studies aimed at…

  17. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  18. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. Methods In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. Findings While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). Conclusions The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies. PMID:26554376

  19. Homeostatic plasticity mechanisms are required for juvenile, but not adult, ocular dominance plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, Adam; Cheetham, Claire E. J.; Fox, Kevin; Sengpiel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the visual cortex is a classic model system for understanding developmental plasticity, but the visual cortex also shows plasticity in adulthood. Whether the plasticity mechanisms are similar or different at the two ages is not clear. Several plasticity mechanisms operate during development, including homeostatic plasticity, which acts to maintain the total excitatory drive to a neuron. In agreement with this idea, we found that an often-studied substrain of C57BL/6 mice, C57BL/6JOlaHsd (6JOla), lacks both the homeostatic component of OD plasticity as assessed by intrinsic signal imaging and synaptic scaling of mEPSC amplitudes after a short period of dark exposure during the critical period, whereas another substrain, C57BL/6J (6J), exhibits both plasticity processes. However, in adult mice, OD plasticity was identical in the 6JOla and 6J substrains, suggesting that adult plasticity occurs by a different mechanism. Consistent with this interpretation, adult OD plasticity was normal in TNFα knockout mice, which are known to lack juvenile synaptic scaling and the homeostatic component of OD plasticity, but was absent in adult α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II;T286A (αCaMKIIT286A) mice, which have a point mutation that prevents autophosphorylation of αCaMKII. We conclude that increased responsiveness to open-eye stimulation after monocular deprivation during the critical period is a homeostatic process that depends mechanistically on synaptic scaling during the critical period, whereas in adult mice it is mediated by a different mechanism that requires αCaMKII autophosphorylation. Thus, our study reveals a transition between homeostatic and long-term potentiation–like plasticity mechanisms with increasing age. PMID:22232689

  20. Perception and reality - Portuguese adults' awareness of active lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Ramos, Madalena; Yazigi, Flávia; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess awareness of physical activity levels among adults and to investigate the variables associated with different types of awareness. The participants were 1042 men and 1316 women aged 31-60 years old (43.3 ± 6.1). Data were collected on physical activity behaviour, physical activity awareness, perceptions and psychological factors. Awareness was assessed by comparing self-rated physical activity with achieving physical activity guidelines. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. About 32.4% were considered active. Moreover, 61% accurately reported their physical activity (38.3% realistic inactive and 22.7% realistic active), 29.2% overestimated their physical activity (overestimators) and 9.7% incorrectly described themselves as inactive (underestimators). Perception of an excellent health status (odds ratio, OR = 4.07, 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.07-8.00, p < 0.001) was the strongest positive association with being realistic active, followed by having a high socio-economic status (SES) (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10-2.12, p < 0.05). Overestimator participants were more likely to have an excellent perception of health (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.47-4.52, p < 0.01) and had a good experience in physical education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI:1.03-2.08, p < 0.05). Almost half of these participants erroneously perceived themselves as physically active. Gender, body mass index (BMI) and the quality of physical education at school were associated with those who misperceived their physical activity.

  1. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  2. Discretionary time among older adults: how do physical activity promotion interventions affect sedentary and active behaviors?

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; King, Abby C

    2003-01-01

    Investigation goals were to document discretionary time activities among older adults, determine whether time spent in discretionary activities varied by gender, and investigate whether participation in a prescribed physical activity (P) intervention increased the time that older adults spend in discretionary time physical activities that were not specifically prescribed by interventions. Longitudinal data were drawn from 2 published studies of older adults. Study 1 compared 2 PA interventions in healthy older men and women (N = 103, M =70.2 years), and Study 2 compared a PA intervention with a nutrition intervention in healthy older women (N =93, M =63.1 years). Participants in both studies completed similar assessments of their discretionary time activities using the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire. Across both studies, at baseline, over 95% of participants reported talking on the telephone and reading as frequent sedentary discretionary time activities; over 80% reported visiting with friends and watching television or listening to the radio. Women engaged in significantly greater hours of social activities and household maintenance activities than did men (p <.05). From baseline to 12-month posttest, social, recreational, and household activities remained stable by gender and across time after participating in a PA intervention. Despite previously documented 2- to 3-hr increases in physical activities occurring in response to the study interventions, increases did not generalize for most participants to activities not prescribed by the intervention. Older adults are participating in numerous sedentary social and recreational activities that appear to remain stable across time and in the face of PA intervention prescriptions. PMID:12704013

  3. 12 CFR 980.3 - New business activity notice requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... undertaking a new business activity, except as provided in § 980.4(b), a Bank shall submit to the Finance... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New business activity notice requirement. 980.3 Section 980.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES...

  4. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  5. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  6. Differences in Amounts and Types of Physical Activity by Obesity Status in US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spees, Colleen K.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the physical activity patterns across levels of obesity among US adults. Methods: The frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activities were compared across obesity status in 7695 adults from NHANES, 1999-2006. Results: Significantly more normal-weight adults engaged in moderate- and vigorous- intensity activities…

  7. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. PMID:25959329

  8. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait.

  9. Volume-activated Na/H exchange activity in fetal and adult pig red cells: inhibition by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, S; Sohn, D H; Kim, H D

    1989-08-01

    Hyposmotic swelling of pig red cells leads to a selective increase in K permeability, whereas hyperosmotic cell shrinkage augments the Na permeability. In this regard, the ouabain-resistant (OR) Na flux of red cells of newborn and adult pigs is characterized in detail. A reduction in cell volume by approximately 18% leads to an increase in the OR Na efflux of fetal and adult cells by 15- and fourfold, respectively. The OR Na influx in both cell types is equally influenced by cell shrinkage. Depletion of cellular K does not influence the volume-activated OR Na efflux. Nor does OR Na influx require external K. Both OR Na efflux and influx activated by shrinkage are inhibited by the diuretics furosemide and amiloride. The rank order of decreasing anion sensitivity for diuretic-sensitive Na efflux was acetate greater than chloride greater than gluconate greater than nitrate. Cell shrinkage induced by the addition of hypertonic salts results in an acidification of the unbuffered and CO2-free media, provided that both Na and DIDS are present. The acidification process can be reversed by either of the diuretic agents. These findings suggest that the shrinkage-activated OR Na flux is primarily mediated by a Na/H exchanger rather than by a Na/K/Cl cotransporter. Once loaded with either cAMP or cGMP, cell swelling can no longer activate the Na/H exchanger. The Na/H exchanger activity is detectable in the fetal cells of normal volume but quiescent in adult cells, indicating that the exchanger undergoes a developmental change during the transition from the fetal to adult stage. PMID:2552123

  10. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities.

  11. On Site Training for Adult Day Care Program Aides that Meet State Certification Requirements and National Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Pamilea

    This document describes a practicum that was conducted to develop a training program appropriate for adult day care program aides that would meet Oklahoma state certification requirements and national standards. The training curriculum for use in delivering onsite competency-based training to students studying to become adult day care program…

  12. Comparison of Selected Requirements for the Ph.D. and Ed.D. in Adult Education in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Barbara J.; Carl, Linda

    A survey was conducted for the Graduate Student Section of the Adult Education Association to determine the differences in requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) degrees in adult education. Of forty-three institutions identified as offering both degrees, forty participated in answering the…

  13. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  14. Poly-methyl pentene oxygenators have improved gas exchange capability and reduced transfusion requirements in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, Espeed; Roberts, Neil; Harvey, Chris; Machin, David; Killer, Hilliary; Peek, Giles J; Sosnowski, Andrzej W; Firmin, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    The performance of poly-methyl pentene (PMP) oxygenators (Medos Hilite 7000LT) was compared with that of silicone membrane (SM) oxygenators (Medtronic 1-4500-2A) for adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Forty consecutive patients were selected retrospectively pre- and post-introduction of PMP oxygenators. They were selected according to the dates they received ECMO and were separated into two equal groups with similar backgrounds. The flow path resistance, gas and heat exchange efficiency, consumption of coagulation factors and platelets, blood transfusion requirements, and incidence of clots for each oxygenator type was assessed. Adult PMP oxygenators showed lower blood path resistance than SM oxygenators. However, lower consumption of blood products in these oxygenators was a direct result of their smaller surface area and heparin coated design, reducing contact activation of coagulation factors. These oxygenators are noticeably smaller, require lower priming volumes, and have better gas exchange capability than SM oxygenators. They showed greater stability and preservation of coagulation factors and platelets compared with SM oxygenators. They also had the advantage of a functioning integrated heat exchanger. Using a single PMP oxygenator in the first instance may be adequate for the majority of patients and would significantly reduce red blood cell consumption during ECMO.

  15. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  16. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  17. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  18. Notch Is Required in Adult Drosophila Sensory Neurons for Morphological and Functional Plasticity of the Olfactory Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Struhl, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) convey odor information to the central brain, but like other sensory neurons were thought to play a passive role in memory formation and storage. Here we show that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila ORNs for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. Specifically, we show that Notch activity in ORNs is necessary for the odor specific increase in the volume of glomeruli that occurs as a consequence of prolonged odor exposure. Calcium imaging experiments indicate that Notch in ORNs is also required for the chronic odor induced changes in the physiology of ORNs and the ensuing changes in the physiological response of their second order projection neurons (PNs). We further show that Notch in ORNs acts by both canonical cleavage-dependent and non-canonical cleavage-independent pathways. The Notch ligand Delta (Dl) in PNs switches the balance between the pathways. These data define a circuit whereby, in conjunction with odor, N activity in the periphery regulates the activity of neurons in the central brain and Dl in the central brain regulates N activity in the periphery. Our work highlights the importance of experience dependent plasticity at the first olfactory synapse. PMID:26011623

  19. Differential requirements for Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 during adult myogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bryantsev, Anton L.; Baker, Phillip W.; Lovato, TyAnna L.; Jaramillo, MaryAnn S.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Identifying the genetic program that leads to formation of functionally and morphologically distinct muscle fibers is one of the major challenges in developmental biology. In Drosophila, the Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factor is important for all types of embryonic muscle differentiation. In this study we investigated the role of MEF2 at different stages of adult skeletal muscle formation, where a diverse group of specialized muscles arises. Through stage- and tissue- specific expression of Mef2 RNAi constructs, we demonstrate that MEF2 is critical at the early stages of adult myoblast fusion: mutant myoblasts are attracted normally to their founder cell targets, but are unable to fuse to form myotubes. Interestingly, ablation of Mef2 expression at later stages of development showed MEF2 to be more dispensable for structural gene expression: after myoblast fusion, Mef2 knockdown did not interrupt expression of major structural gene transcripts, and myofibrils were formed. However, the MEF2-depleted fibers showed impaired integrity and a lack of fibrillar organization. When Mef2 RNAi was induced in muscles following eclosion, we found no adverse effects of attenuating Mef2 function. We conclude that in the context of adult myogenesis, MEF2 remains an essential factor, participating in control of myoblast fusion, and myofibrillogenesis in developing myotubes. However, MEF2 does not show a major requirement in the maintenance of muscle structural gene expression. Our findings point to the importance of a diversity of regulatory factors that are required for the formation and function of the distinct muscle fibers found in animals. PMID:22008792

  20. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  1. Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Key Findings from the Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…

  2. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  3. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  4. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging.

  5. Older Adult Learners: A Comparison of Active and Non-Active Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 2004 follow-up study conducted in partnership with the University of Manitoba Continuing Education Division and local senior's organizations. The partnership was formed in 2002-03 to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, develop new and complement existing educational activities, and explore new…

  6. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  7. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  8. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  9. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  10. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations.

  11. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair.

  12. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  13. Executive function is necessary for the regulation of the stepping activity when stepping in place in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher; Sciadas, Ria; Nantel, Julie

    2016-10-01

    To determine the effect of age on stepping performance and to compare the cognitive demand required to regulate repetitive stepping between older and younger adults while performing a stepping in place task (SIP). Fourteen younger (25.4 ± 6.5) and 15 older adults (71.0 ± 9.0) participated in this study. They performed a seated category fluency task and Stroop test, followed by a 60 s SIP task. Following this, both the cognitive and motor tasks were performed simultaneously. We assessed cognitive performance, SIP cycle duration, asymmetry, and arrhythmicity. Compared to younger adults, older adults had larger SIP arrhythmicity both as a single task and when combined with the Category (p < 0.001) and Stroop (p < 0.01) tasks. Older adults also had larger arrhythmicity when dual tasking compared to SIP alone (p < 0.001). Older adults showed greater SIP asymmetry when combined with Category (p = 0.006) and Stroop (p = 0.06) tasks. Finally, they had lower cognitive performance than younger adults in both single and dual tasks (p < 0.01). Age and type of cognitive task performed with the motor task affected different components of stepping. While SIP arrhythmicity was larger for all conditions in older compared to younger adults, cycle duration was not different, and asymmetry tended to be larger during SIP when paired with a verbal fluency task. SIP does not require a high level of control for dynamic stability, therefore demonstrating that higher-level executive function is necessary for the regulation of stepping activity independently of the regulation of postural balance. Furthermore, older adults may lack the cognitive resources needed to adequately regulate stepping activity while performing a cognitive task relying on the executive function.

  14. How many adults with temporal epilepsy have a mild course and do not require epilepsy surgery?

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Buckley, Samantha; Ladino, Lady Diana; Wu, Adam; Moien-Afshari, Farzad; Rizvi, Syed Aa; Téllez-Zenteno, Jose F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults and commonly requires surgical treatment. While an overwhelming preponderance of literature supports the notion that a large percentage of patients with TLE benefit from surgery, there is a paucity of outcome data on patients who demonstrate a sustained response to pharmacological treatment. In this study, we present an adult cohort of patients with TLE, with the purpose of identifying the proportion of patients with a mild course of the disease, as well as potential risk factors. A prospective cohort study of all patients with TLE assessed and followed by the Saskatchewan Epilepsy Program, from 1 March 2007 to Jan 29(th) 2014. Patients were dichotomized as having a mild (seizure freedom without surgical intervention) or severe (surgical intervention required and/or failure to achieve seizure remission) course. Descriptive statistics, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated to identify predictors of seizure freedom. The cohort consisted of 159 patients. Mean patient age at last follow-up visit was 46±14.4 (range: 19-88) years. Mean follow-up period was 43.4±22.6 (6 to 84) months. Forty-six patients (29%) demonstrated mild-course TLE while 113 (71%) had a severe course of TLE. Patients with a mild course of TLE were more likely to be older (p = 0.002), have late-onset epilepsy (p < 0.001) with shorter evolution (p < 0.001). A good response to the first antiepileptic drug (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 2.5-19; p < 0.001) was associated with a mild course of TLE. Although a majority of patients with TLE eventually require surgery, operative treatment is not necessary for all patients. This study identifies prognostic factors that may help patients and clinicians characterize long-term outcome. PMID:27100050

  15. Increased activity in frontal motor cortex compensates impaired speech perception in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Grady, Cheryl L.; Alain, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Understanding speech in noisy environments is challenging, especially for seniors. Although evidence suggests that older adults increasingly recruit prefrontal cortices to offset reduced periphery and central auditory processing, the brain mechanisms underlying such compensation remain elusive. Here we show that relative to young adults, older adults show higher activation of frontal speech motor areas as measured by functional MRI during a syllable identification task at varying signal-to-noise ratios. This increased activity correlates with improved speech discrimination performance in older adults. Multivoxel pattern classification reveals that despite an overall phoneme dedifferentiation, older adults show greater specificity of phoneme representations in frontal articulatory regions than auditory regions. Moreover, older adults with stronger frontal activity have higher phoneme specificity in frontal and auditory regions. Thus, preserved phoneme specificity and upregulation of activity in speech motor regions provide a means of compensation in older adults for decoding impoverished speech representations in adverse listening conditions. PMID:27483187

  16. Predictors of Alzheimer's Disease Caregiver Depression and Burden: What Noncaregiving Adults Can Learn from Active Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Han, GiBaeg; Anderson, Cristina L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined similarities and differences between active caregivers (adult children and spouses whose family member had Alzheimer's disease) and not-as-yet caregiving adults (adult children and spouses whose family members are older, but do not as yet suffer from Alzheimer's disease). The objective was to determine what factors predict…

  17. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  18. Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

  19. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  20. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  1. Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J K P; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M; Benner, Jack S; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A

    2013-12-01

    Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5(m)C) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation.

  2. Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation☆

    PubMed Central

    Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J.K.P.; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M.; Benner, Jack S.; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A.

    2013-01-01

    Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation. PMID:24063805

  3. Daily Physical Activity and Alcohol Use Across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Coffman, Donna L.; Lorek, Amy E.; Rebar, Amanda L.; Roche, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In contrast to proposals that physical activity (PA) can be a substitute for alcohol use, people who engage in greater overall PA generally consume more alcohol on average than less-active peers. Acknowledging that both PA and alcohol use vary considerably from day-to-day, this study evaluated whether established associations reflect daily behavioral coupling within-person, are an artifact of procedures that aggregate behavior over time, or both. Methods A lifespan sample of 150 adults (aged 19–89 years) completed three 21-day measurement bursts of a daily diary study. At the end of each day, they reported on their PA and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed in a negative binomial multilevel regression. Results As expected, both behaviors exhibited limited between-person variation. After controlling for age, sex, and seasonal and social calendar influences, daily deviations in PA were significantly associated with daily total alcohol use. Once the within-person process linking PA and alcohol use was controlled, usual PA and total alcohol use were not associated. Conclusions The established between-person association linking PA and alcohol use reflects the aggregation of a daily process that unfolds within-people over time. Further work is needed to identify mediators of this daily association and to evaluate causality, as well as to investigate these relations in high-risk samples. PMID:25222084

  4. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging adults with an ASD and that reported by their caring adult; (2) examining the barriers to participation reported. Preliminary results demonstrate that the AYA-ACS appears to be a reliable and valid method of identifying emerging adults' participation strengths as well as personal and environmental challenges in a variety of age-appropriate activities. The AYA-ACS could assist service providers by providing an understanding of the challenges to participation faced by this population and aid in developing client centered interventions.

  5. Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people.

  6. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  7. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  8. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  9. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  10. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  11. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  12. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  13. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  14. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  15. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  16. A comparison of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity from human foetuses and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Strange, R C; Johnston, J D; Coghill, D R; Hume, R

    1980-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in partially purified haemolysates of erythrocytes from human foetuses and adults. Enzyme activity was present in erythrocytes obtained between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation. The catalytic properties of the enzyme from foetal cells were similar to those of the enzyme from adult erythrocytes, indicating that probably only one form of the erythrocytes enzyme exists throughout foetal and adult life. PMID:7396875

  17. Numeracy Activities within VOX: The Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvalo, Svein

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces Vox, Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning, an agency of the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research that focuses mainly on improving basic skills in the adult population in the areas of literacy, numeracy and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). Vox is responsible for curriculum…

  18. Critical Environmental Adult Education in Canada: Student Environmental Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Elizabeth; Chubb, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Today recent polls have indicated that the Canadian public considers the environment and climate change as their top concern (De Souza, 2007), perhaps eclipsed only by recent economic fears. In keeping with the historical responsiveness of adult educators, environmental adult education (EAE) is widespread across North America. However, this area…

  19. Mannosyl transferase activity in homogenates of adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Rumjanek, F D; Smithers, S R

    1978-08-01

    Homogenates of adult Schistosoma mansoni contain enzymes which are capable of transferring [14C]mannose from GDP[U-14C]mannose to a lipid acceptor which migrates as a single peak on a silica gel thin-layer plate. This lipid may belong to the class of polyprenol monophosphates which are intermediate elements in the glycosylation of nascent proteins. The schistosome mannosyl transferase activity is associated with membranous particles and is dependent on the presence of Mn2+. However, other divalent metals such as Mg2+ or Ca2+ can, in decreasing order of efficiency, replace Mn2+. When UDP[U-14C]glucose was incubated with the homogenates in the same conditions, relatively little label was transferred to the lipid acceptor. Live worms incubated in a medium containing GDP[U-14C]mannose seem to incorporate the label preferentially on the tegument and on adjacent subtegumental structures. By adding foetal calf serum to the medium, incorporation of the label can be stimulated.

  20. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. Findings: We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural and attitudinal differences exist between Boomers and older residents, and (c) shared age matters less than shared interests. Implications: Our data clearly show the operation of ageism in this community and an equating of being old with being sick. The conflict between these two age cohorts suggests that cohort consciousness among Boomers carries elements of age denial, shared by the older old. It also challenges the Third Age concept as a generational phenomenon. PMID:22391870

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity among Omani adults: the Oman World Health Survey, 2008.

    PubMed

    Mabry, R M; Morsi, M; Al-Lawati, J A; Owen, N

    2016-04-28

    There is an increasing burden of obesity and obesity-related noncommunicable diseases in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, including Oman. This descriptive, epidemiological study assessed physical activity among 2977 Omani adults using a population-based household survey in 2008. Overall, 54.2% of men and 41.6% of women were physically active; the rate was higher in younger cohorts and varied significantly by region of residence. Physical activity related to the transportation (walking and cycling) domain was higher than in the leisure or work domains. Unmarried men aged 30-39 years were twice as likely to be physically active (OR 2.25) and unmarried women aged 40+ years were half as likely to be active (OR 0.58) than their married counterparts. Young women not working were less active (OR 0.18) than working women. Higher education was significantly associated with leisure activity for men aged 30+ years and women aged 40+ years. Further research to understand regional variations and to identify culturally appropriate strategies to promote physical activity is required.

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity among Omani adults: the Oman World Health Survey, 2008.

    PubMed

    Mabry, R M; Morsi, M; Al-Lawati, J A; Owen, N

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasing burden of obesity and obesity-related noncommunicable diseases in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, including Oman. This descriptive, epidemiological study assessed physical activity among 2977 Omani adults using a population-based household survey in 2008. Overall, 54.2% of men and 41.6% of women were physically active; the rate was higher in younger cohorts and varied significantly by region of residence. Physical activity related to the transportation (walking and cycling) domain was higher than in the leisure or work domains. Unmarried men aged 30-39 years were twice as likely to be physically active (OR 2.25) and unmarried women aged 40+ years were half as likely to be active (OR 0.58) than their married counterparts. Young women not working were less active (OR 0.18) than working women. Higher education was significantly associated with leisure activity for men aged 30+ years and women aged 40+ years. Further research to understand regional variations and to identify culturally appropriate strategies to promote physical activity is required. PMID:27180738

  3. Skinny hedgehog, an acyltransferase required for palmitoylation and activity of the hedgehog signal.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Z; Mann, R K; Nellen, D; von Kessler, D P; Bellotto, M; Beachy, P A; Basler, K

    2001-09-14

    One of the most dominant influences in the patterning of multicellular embryos is exerted by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted signaling proteins. Here, we identify a segment polarity gene in Drosophila melanogaster, skinny hedgehog (ski), and show that its product is required in Hh-expressing cells for production of appropriate signaling activity in embryos and in the imaginal precursors of adult tissues. The ski gene encodes an apparent acyltransferase, and we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that Hh proteins from ski mutant cells retain carboxyl-terminal cholesterol modification but lack amino-terminal palmitate modification. Our results suggest that ski encodes an enzyme that acts within the secretory pathway to catalyze amino-terminal palmitoylation of Hh, and further demonstrate that this lipid modification is required for the embryonic and larval patterning activities of the Hh signal.

  4. Physical Activity Benefits and Needs in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…

  5. Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity among Children and Adults: A Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…

  6. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…

  7. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  8. Understanding Older Adults' Physical Activity Behavior: A Multi-Theoretical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodesky, Janene M.; Kosma, Maria; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2006-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a health issue with serious consequences for older adults. Investigating physical activity promotion within a multi-theoretical approach may increase the predictive strength of physical activity determinants and facilitate the development and implementation of effective interventions for older adults. This article examines…

  9. Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

  10. Engagement in Vocational Activities Promotes Behavioral Development for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Smith, Leann E.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations over time between behavioral functioning (autism symptoms, maladaptive behaviors, activities of daily living) and vocational/educational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 153 adults with ASD (M age = 30.2 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study.…

  11. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults. PMID:24412944

  12. MafG Sumoylation Is Required for Active Transcriptional Repression

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hozumi; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Miyoshi, Chika; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Hisato; Francastel, Claire; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    A straightforward mechanism for eliciting transcriptional repression would be to simply block the DNA binding site for activators. Such passive repression is often mediated by transcription factors that lack an intrinsic repressor activity. MafG is a bidirectional regulator of transcription, a repressor in its homodimeric state but an activator when heterodimerized with p45. Here, we report that MafG is conjugated to SUMO-2/3 in vivo. To clarify the possible physiological role(s) for sumoylation in regulating MafG activity, we evaluated mutant and wild-type MafG in transgenic mice and cultured cells. Whereas sumoylation-deficient MafG activated p45-dependent transcription normally and did not affect heterodimer activity, repression by the sumoylation-deficient MafG mutant was severely compromised in vivo. Furthermore, the SUMO-dependent repression activity of MafG was sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibition. Thus, repression by MafG is not achieved through simple passive repression by competing for the activator binding site but requires sumoylation, which then mediates transcriptional repression through recruitment of a repressor complex containing histone deacetylase activity. PMID:16738329

  13. Effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in sedentary elderly adults with mobility limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in community dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized trial of physical activity vs health education, with respiratory variables prespecified as tertiary outcomes over...

  14. Using targeted messaging to increase physical activity in older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Rachel E; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for older adults; however, motivating older adults to engage in and maintain optimal levels of physical activity can be challenging for health care providers. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether any evidence-based methods of delivery or particular content for targeted messaging exist that result in actual improvements in physical activity of older adults. Findings of the review demonstrate that messaging directed toward older adults to be physically active resulted in improvements in physical activity up to 1 year. Across studies many different modes of message delivery were shown to be effective. Message content, whether tailored or not, resulted in significant increases in physical activity. There is evidence to support the use of environmentally mediated messaging (i.e., local walking paths) for stronger results. Targeting the client's stage of change, having an activity partner if preferred, and scheduling physical activity also contribute to improved effects.

  15. Florida's Adult Education Programs. Challenges and Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Adult/Community Education.

    Florida supported a wide range of educational activities for adults through an extensive network of public and private agencies during fiscal year 1989-90. In 1990, 419,429 adults participated in adult education programs. Adult educational programs assisted adults in completing requirements for U.S. citizenship and getting off welfare. A total of…

  16. Physical activity related information sources predict physical activity behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini; Boule, Normand G

    2010-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key management strategy for type 2 diabetes. Despite the known benefits, PA levels are low. Whether the low level of PA is related to lack of knowledge or support is not fully understood. This study was conducted to describe where and how often adults with type 2 diabetes receive and seek information related to PA and examine the relationships between the source and quality of PA information with PA behaviors. A series of questions related to the source and quality of PA information were added to a baseline survey distributed to the participants (N = 244) of the Canadian Aerobic and Resistance Training in Diabetes (CARED) study. Physicians and television were found to be the main sources of PA-related information. In our cross-sectional model, sources of PA-related information other than that from health care professionals explained 14% (p = .05) and 16% (p < .05) of the variance for aerobic-based and resistance training behaviors and 22% (p < .01) and 15% (p < .05) for these behaviors in our longitudinal model. Physical activity (PA)-related information is widely available to adults with type 2 diabetes. Neither the quantity nor the quality of the PA information provided by health care professionals predicted PA behavior. These data provide further insight into the modes with which PA can be promoted to adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21170787

  17. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  18. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  19. Structural Requirements for the Procoagulant Activity of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gansler, Julia; Jaax, Miriam; Leiting, Silke; Appel, Bettina; Greinacher, Andreas; Fischer, Silvia; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids, especially extracellular RNA, are exposed following tissue- or vessel damage and have previously been shown to activate the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway in vitro and in vivo. Yet, no information on structural requirements for the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids is available. A comparison of linear and hairpin-forming RNA- and DNA-oligomers revealed that all tested oligomers forming a stable hairpin structure were protected from degradation in human plasma. In contrast to linear nucleic acids, hairpin forming compounds demonstrated highest procoagulant activities based on the analysis of clotting time in human plasma and in a prekallikrein activation assay. Moreover, the procoagulant activities of the DNA-oligomers correlated well with their binding affinity to high molecular weight kininogen, whereas the binding affinity of all tested oligomers to prekallikrein was low. Furthermore, four DNA-aptamers directed against thrombin, activated protein C, vascular endothelial growth factor and nucleolin as well as the naturally occurring small nucleolar RNA U6snRNA were identified as effective cofactors for prekallikrein auto-activation. Together, we conclude that hairpin-forming nucleic acids are most effective in promoting procoagulant activities, largely mediated by their specific binding to kininogen. Thus, in vivo application of therapeutic nucleic acids like aptamers might have undesired prothrombotic or proinflammatory side effects. PMID:23226277

  20. UPRT, a suicide-gene therapy candidate in higher eukaryotes, is required for Drosophila larval growth and normal adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpan C.; Shimell, MaryJane; Leof, Emma R.; Haley, Macy J.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) is a pyrimidine salvage pathway enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uracil to uridine monophosphate (UMP). The enzyme is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans and yet phylogenetic evidence suggests that UPRT homologues from higher-eukaryotes, including Drosophila, are incapable of binding uracil. Purified human UPRT also do not show any enzymatic activity in vitro, making microbial UPRT an attractive candidate for anti-microbial drug development, suicide-gene therapy, and cell-specific mRNA labeling techniques. Nevertheless, the enzymatic site of UPRT remains conserved across the animal kingdom indicating an in vivo role for the enzyme. We find that the Drosophila UPRT homologue, krishah (kri), codes for an enzyme that is required for larval growth, pre-pupal/pupal viability and long-term adult lifespan. Our findings suggest that UPRT from all higher eukaryotes is likely enzymatically active in vivo and challenges the previous notion that the enzyme is non-essential in higher eukaryotes and cautions against targeting the enzyme for therapeutic purposes. Our findings also suggest that expression of the endogenous UPRT gene will likely cause background incorporation when using microbial UPRT as a cell-specific mRNA labeling reagent in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26271729

  1. Community-based exergaming program increases physical activity and perceived wellness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Strand, Kara A; Francis, Sarah L; Margrett, Jennifer A; Franke, Warren D; Peterson, Marc J

    2014-07-01

    Exergaming may be an effective strategy to increase physical activity participation among rural older adults. This pilot project examined the effects of a 24-wk exergaming and wellness program (8 wk onsite exergaming, 16-wk wellness newsletter intervention) on physical activity participation and subjective health in 46 rural older adults. Sociodemographic data and self-reported physical activity were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Cochran's Q, respectively. Qualitative data were reviewed, categorized on the basis of theme, and tabulated for frequency. Increased physical activity and perceived health were the most reported perceived positive changes. Significant increases in physical activity participation were maintained among participants who were physically inactive at baseline. Best-liked features were physical activity and socialization. Findings suggest that this pilot exergaming and wellness program is effective in increasing physical activity in sedentary rural older adults, increasing socialization, and increasing subjective physical health among rural older adults.

  2. Minocycline treatment results in reduced oral steroid requirements in adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Ammar; Gloria, C J; Taningco, Gladys; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Weiss, Steven; Gelling, Maureen; Roblin, Patricia M; Joks, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    The tetracycline antibiotics have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties that may explain their therapeutic benefit in rheumatoid arthritis and acne. As these agents suppress both cellular and humoral immune responses, they may be of benefit in treating asthma and other allergic disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether minocycline therapy of asthma has steroid sparing effects beyond its inherent antibiotic properties. Adult asthmatic patients (n = 17) were treated with minocycline 150 mg p.o. twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Patients were evaluated for clinical improvement in oral steroid requirements, spirometry, and symptom scores (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire). They underwent assessment for preexisting infection (CT facial sinuses, Chlamydia pneumoniae nasopharyngeal culture, and C. pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae serology). Minocycline use was associated with a 30% reduction in mean daily prednisone use compared with placebo (8.8 mg versus 14.4 mg, respectively; p = 0.02). Pulmonary function testing showed improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC; percent predicted; p = 0.03) and improvement in actual FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (percent predicted) approached statistical significance (p = 0.05 and 0.08, respectively). Minocycline treatment was associated with significant improvement in asthma symptoms brought on by environmental triggers (p = 0.01). This preliminary study of minocycline therapy showed oral steroid-sparing properties for those with moderate persistent and severe persistent asthma.

  3. The Drosophila Couch Potato Gene: An Essential Gene Required for Normal Adult Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, H. J.; Vaessin, H.; Bier, E.; Kolodkin, A.; D'Evelyn, D.; Kooyer, S.; Jan, Y. N.

    1992-01-01

    Through enhancer detection screens we have isolated 14 insertions in an essential gene that is expressed in embryonic sensory mother cells (SMC), in most cells of the mature embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS), and in glial cells of the PNS and the central nervous system (CNS). Embryos homozygote for amorphic alleles die, but show no obvious defects in their cuticle, PNS or CNS. The gene has been named couch potato (cpo) because several insertional alleles alter adult behavior. Homozygous hypomorphic cpo flies recover slowly from ether anaesthesia, show aberrant flight behavior, fail to move toward light and do not exhibit normal negative geotactic behavior. However, the flies are able to groom and walk, and some are able to fly when prodded, indicating that not all processes required for behavior are severely affected. A molecular analysis shows that the 14 insertions are confined to a few hundred nucleotides which probably contain key regulatory sequences of the gene. The orientation of these insertions and their position within this DNA fragment play an important role in the couch potato phenotype. In situ hybridization to whole mount embryos suggest that some insertions affect the levels of transcription of cpo in most cells in which it is expressed. PMID:1644278

  4. Actin-Cytoskeleton- and Rock-Mediated INM Are Required for Photoreceptor Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Lahne, Manuela; Li, Jingling; Marton, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of retinal neurons in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) induces a robust regenerative response mediated by the reentry of the resident Müller glia into the cell cycle. Upon initiating Müller glia proliferation, their nuclei migrate along the apicobasal axis of the retina in phase with the cell cycle in a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). We examined the mechanisms governing this cellular process and explored its function in regenerating the adult zebrafish retina. Live-cell imaging revealed that the majority of Müller glia nuclei migrated to the outer nuclear layer (ONL) to divide. These Müller glia formed prominent actin filaments at the rear of nuclei that had migrated to the ONL. Inhibiting actin filament formation or Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) activity, which is necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain and actin myosin-mediated contraction, disrupted INM with increased numbers of mitotic nuclei remaining in the basal inner nuclear layer, the region where Müller glia typically reside. Double knockdown of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2a (Rock2a) and Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2b (Rock2b) similarly disrupted INM and reduced Müller glial cell cycle reentry. In contrast, Rock inhibition immediately before the onset of INM did not affect Müller glia proliferation, but subsequently reduced neuronal progenitor cell proliferation due to early cell cycle exit. Long-term, Rock inhibition increased the generation of mislocalized ganglion/amacrine cells at the expense of rod and cone photoreceptors. In summary, INM is driven by an actin-myosin-mediated process controlled by Rock2a and Rock2b activity, which is required for sufficient proliferation and regeneration of photoreceptors after light damage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human retina does not replace lost or damaged neurons, ultimately causing vision impairment. In contrast, zebrafish are capable of regenerating lost neurons. Understanding the mechanisms

  5. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  6. “It’s good for me”: Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, E.; Slater, M.; Jeste, D.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity interventions to improve the physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but not available. Older adults with schizophrenia may have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of older adults with schizophrenia about barriers and facilitators to engage in physical activities that promote physical function. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 older adults with schizophrenia. Data were collected and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. Participants expressed interest in becoming more physically active for a variety of perceived benefits including psychiatric symptom management and maintenance of basic function. Key barriers and facilitators to physical activity emerged in five broad categories: Mental Health, No longer a spring chicken, Pride and Sense of Well-being, Comfort and Safety, and Belonging. Interventions in this population should address negative attitudes towards aging and promote routine physical activities that enhance well-being and companionship. PMID:23748553

  7. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  8. Advancing Adult Workforce Skills: Opportunities and Requirements for State Action. EQW Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David W.

    State programs offer greatest promise for practical strategic actions to enhance the quality of the nation's adult work force. Three steps in the recursive process that create a model of state action are as follows: (1) documentation of the platform for action, which consists of current adult work force attributes and current institutional…

  9. PTEN is required to maintain luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Shore, Amy N; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Weston, Matthew C; Zhang, Mei; Xin, Li; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammary gland, PTEN loss in luminal and basal epithelial cells results in differentiation defects and enhanced proliferation, leading to the formation of tumors with basal epithelial characteristics. In breast cancer, PTEN loss is associated with a hormone receptor-negative, basal-like subtype that is thought to originate in a luminal epithelial cell. Here, we show that luminal-specific PTEN loss results in distinct effects on epithelial homeostasis and mammary tumor formation. Luminal PTEN loss increased proliferation of hormone receptor-negative cells, thereby decreasing the percentage of hormone receptor-positive cells. Moreover, luminal PTEN loss led to misoriented cell divisions and mislocalization of cells to the intraluminal space of mammary ducts. Despite their elevated levels of activated AKT, Pten-null intraluminal cells showed increased levels of apoptosis. One year after Pten deletion, the ducts had cleared and no palpable mammary tumors were detected. These data establish PTEN as a critical regulator of luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland, and further show that luminal PTEN loss alone is not sufficient to promote the progression of mammary tumorigenesis.

  10. PTEN is required to maintain luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Shore, Amy N; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Weston, Matthew C; Zhang, Mei; Xin, Li; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammary gland, PTEN loss in luminal and basal epithelial cells results in differentiation defects and enhanced proliferation, leading to the formation of tumors with basal epithelial characteristics. In breast cancer, PTEN loss is associated with a hormone receptor-negative, basal-like subtype that is thought to originate in a luminal epithelial cell. Here, we show that luminal-specific PTEN loss results in distinct effects on epithelial homeostasis and mammary tumor formation. Luminal PTEN loss increased proliferation of hormone receptor-negative cells, thereby decreasing the percentage of hormone receptor-positive cells. Moreover, luminal PTEN loss led to misoriented cell divisions and mislocalization of cells to the intraluminal space of mammary ducts. Despite their elevated levels of activated AKT, Pten-null intraluminal cells showed increased levels of apoptosis. One year after Pten deletion, the ducts had cleared and no palpable mammary tumors were detected. These data establish PTEN as a critical regulator of luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland, and further show that luminal PTEN loss alone is not sufficient to promote the progression of mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:26526198

  11. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  12. Activation of local inhibitory circuits in the dentate gyrus by adult-born neurons.

    PubMed

    Drew, Liam J; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Luna, Victor M; Denny, Christine A; Cloidt, Megan A; Wu, Melody V; Jain, Swati; Scharfman, Helen E; Hen, René

    2016-06-01

    Robust incorporation of new principal cells into pre-existing circuitry in the adult mammalian brain is unique to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We asked if adult-born granule cells (GCs) might act to regulate processing within the DG by modulating the substantially more abundant mature GCs. Optogenetic stimulation of a cohort of young adult-born GCs (0 to 7 weeks post-mitosis) revealed that these cells activate local GABAergic interneurons to evoke strong inhibitory input to mature GCs. Natural manipulation of neurogenesis by aging-to decrease it-and housing in an enriched environment-to increase it-strongly affected the levels of inhibition. We also demonstrated that elevating activity in adult-born GCs in awake behaving animals reduced the overall number of mature GCs activated by exploration. These data suggest that inhibitory modulation of mature GCs may be an important function of adult-born hippocampal neurons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  14. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  15. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  16. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  17. (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of…

  18. Outdoor Built Environment Barriers and Facilitators to Activity among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Huang, Deborah L.; Simonovich, Shannon D.; Belza, Basia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain better understanding of how the built environment impacts neighborhood-based physical activity among midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Design and methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 adults over age 50, which used an assistive device and lived in King County, Washington, U.S. In addition,…

  19. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  20. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  1. Respect and Autonomy in Children's Observation and Participation in Adults' Activities.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Peruvian Quechua children's learning by observing and pitching in. The children concentrate attentively when they observe the activities of the adults and they exercise autonomy in the context of adults' encouragement of measured behaviors while always showing respectful silence in the presence of their elders.

  2. Respect and Autonomy in Children's Observation and Participation in Adults' Activities.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Peruvian Quechua children's learning by observing and pitching in. The children concentrate attentively when they observe the activities of the adults and they exercise autonomy in the context of adults' encouragement of measured behaviors while always showing respectful silence in the presence of their elders. PMID:26955926

  3. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  4. Mature Stuff. Physical Activity for the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David K., Ed.

    This book on physical education for the older adult is divided into three parts. The first part contains a chapter that introduces the reader to the topic of aging in American society and ties that topic to the interests of health professionals. Chapters 2 through 6 address the foundation areas of health, physical education, recreation and dance…

  5. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  6. Thiamin pyrophosphokinase is required for thiamin cofactor activation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ajjawi, Imad; Rodriguez Milla, Miguel A; Cushman, John; Shintani, David K

    2007-09-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is an essential enzyme cofactor required for the viability of all organisms. Whether derived from exogenous sources or through de novo synthesis, thiamin must be pyrophosphorylated for cofactor activation. The enzyme thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPK) catalyzes the conversion of free thiamin to TPP in plants and other eukaryotic organisms and is central to thiamin cofactor activation. While TPK activity has been observed in a number of plant species, the corresponding gene/protein has until now not been identified or characterized for its role in thiamin metabolism. Here we report the functional identification of two Arabidopsis TPK genes, AtTPK1 and AtTPK2 and the enzymatic characterization of the corresponding proteins. AtTPK1 and AtTPK2 are biochemically redundant cytosolic proteins that are similarly expressed throughout different plant tissues. The essential nature of TPKs in plant metabolism is reflected in the observation that while single gene knockouts of either AtTPK1 or AtTPK2 were viable, the double mutant possessed a seedling lethal phenotype. HPLC analysis revealed the double mutant is nearly devoid of TPP and instead accumulates the precursor of the TPK reaction, free thiamin. These results suggest that TPK activity provides the sole mechanism by which exogenous and de novo derived thiamin is converted to the enzyme cofactor TPP.

  7. Active Prospective Control Is Required for Effective Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance. PMID:24194891

  8. A balance between TFPI and thrombin-mediated platelet activation is required for murine embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Ellery, Paul E. R.; Maroney, Susan A.; Cooley, Brian C.; Luyendyk, James P.; Zogg, Mark; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a critical anticoagulant protein present in endothelium and platelets. Mice lacking TFPI (Tfpi−/−) die in utero from disseminated intravascular coagulation. They are rescued by concomitant tissue factor (TF) deficiency, demonstrating that TFPI modulates TF function in vivo. Recent studies have found TFPI inhibits prothrombinase activity during the initiation of coagulation and limits platelet accumulation during thrombus formation, implicating TFPI in modulating platelet procoagulant activity. To examine whether altered platelet function would compensate for the lack of TFPI and rescue TFPI-null embryonic lethality, Tfpi+/− mice lacking the platelet thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4; Par4−/−), or its coreceptor, PAR3, were mated. PAR3 deficiency did not rescue Tfpi−/− embryos, but >40% of expected Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− offspring survived to adulthood. Adult Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice did not exhibit overt thrombosis. However, they had focal sterile inflammation with fibrin(ogen) deposition in the liver and elevated plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes, indicating activation of coagulation at baseline. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice have platelet and fibrin accumulation similar to Par4−/− mice following venous electrolytic injury but were more susceptible than Par4−/− mice to TF-induced pulmonary embolism. In addition, ∼30% of the Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice were born with short tails. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice are the first adult mice described that lack TFPI with unaltered TF. They demonstrate that TFPI physiologically modulates thrombin-dependent platelet activation in a manner that is required for successful embryonic development and identify a role for TFPI in dampening intravascular procoagulant stimuli that lead to thrombin generation, even in the absence of thrombin-mediated platelet activation. PMID:25954015

  9. "It's good for me": physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Slater, Margaret; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions to improve the physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but not available. Older adults with schizophrenia may have unique barriers and facilitators to PA. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of older adults with schizophrenia about barriers and facilitators to engage in physical activities that promote physical function. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 older adults with schizophrenia. Data were collected and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. Participants expressed interest in becoming more physically active for a variety of perceived benefits including psychiatric symptom management and maintenance of basic function. Key barriers and facilitators to PA emerged in five broad categories: Mental Health, No longer a spring chicken, Pride and Sense of Well-being, Comfort and Safety, and Belonging. Interventions in this population should address negative attitudes towards aging and promote routine physical activities that enhance well-being and companionship.

  10. Unmasking Proteolytic Activity for Adult Visual Cortex Plasticity by the Removal of Lynx1

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Noreen; Burman, Poromendro N.; Hussein, Ayan; Demars, Michael P.; Sadahiro, Masato; Brady, Daniel M.; Tsirka, Stella E.; Russo, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Experience-dependent cortical plasticity declines with age. At the molecular level, experience-dependent proteolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) becomes restricted in the adult brain if mice are raised in standard cages. Understanding the mechanism for the loss of permissive proteolytic activity is therefore a key link for improving function in adult brains. Using the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) as a model, we demonstrate that tPA activity in V1 can be unmasked following 4 d of monocular deprivation when the mice older than 2 months are raised in standard cages by the genetic removal of Lynx1, a negative regulator of adult plasticity. This was also associated with the reduction of stubby and thin spine density and enhancement of ocular dominance shift in adult V1 of Lynx1 knock-out (KO) mice. These structural and functional changes were tPA-dependent because genetic removal of tPA in Lynx1 KO mice can block the monocular deprivation-dependent reduction of dendritic spine density, whereas both genetic and adult specific inhibition of tPA activity can ablate the ocular dominance shift in Lynx1 KO mice. Our work demonstrates that the adult brain has an intrinsic potential for experience-dependent elevation of proteolytic activity to express juvenile-like structural and functional changes but is effectively limited by Lynx1 if mice are raised in standard cages. Insights into the Lynx1-tPA plasticity mechanism may provide novel therapeutic targets for adult brain disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Experience-dependent proteolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) becomes restricted in the adult brain in correlation with the decline in cortical plasticity when mice are raised in standard cages. We demonstrated that removal of Lynx1, one of negative regulators of plasticity, unmasks experience-dependent tPA elevation in visual cortex of adult mice reared in standard cages. This proteolytic elevation facilitated dendritic spine reduction

  11. A longitudinal examination of sleep quality and physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Brett; Ruthig, Joelle C

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.

  12. Role of neuronal ras activity in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition.

    PubMed

    Manns, Martina; Leske, Oliver; Gottfried, Sebastian; Bichler, Zoë; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Wahle, Petra; Heumann, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is modulated by various signals like growth factors, hormones, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters. All of these factors can (but not necessarily do) converge on the activation of the G protein Ras. We used a transgenic mouse model (synRas mice) expressing constitutively activated G12V-Harvey Ras selectively in differentiated neurons to investigate the possible effects onto neurogenesis. H-Ras activation in neurons attenuates hippocampal precursor cell generation at an early stage of the proliferative cascade before neuronal lineage determination occurs. Therefore it is unlikely that the transgenically activated H-Ras in neurons mediates this effect by a direct, intracellular signaling mechanism. Voluntary exercise restores neurogenesis up to wild type level presumably mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Reduced neurogenesis is linked to impairments in spatial short-term memory and object recognition, the latter can be rescued by voluntary exercise, as well. These data support the view that new cells significantly increase complexity that can be processed by the hippocampal network when experience requires high demands to associate stimuli over time and/or space.

  13. Differential requirement for irf8 in formation of embryonic and adult macrophages in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, Celia E.; Kaufman, Zoe; Meireles, Ana M.; Talbot, William S.

    2015-01-23

    Interferon regulatory factor 8 (Irf8) is critical for mammalian macrophage development and innate immunity, but its role in teleost myelopoiesis remains incompletely understood. Specifically, genetic tools to analyze the role of irf8 in zebrafish macrophage development at larval and adult stages are lacking. In this study, we generated irf8 null mutants in zebrafish using TALEN-mediated targeting. Our analysis defines different requirements for irf8 at different stages. irf8 is required for formation of all macrophages during primitive and transient definitive hematopoiesis, but not during adult-phase definitive hematopoiesis starting at 5-6 days postfertilization. At early stages, irf8 mutants have excess neutrophils and excess cell death in pu.1-expressing myeloid cells. Macrophage fates were recovered in irf8 mutants after wildtype irf8 expression in neutrophil and macrophage lineages, suggesting that irf8 regulates macrophage specification and survival. In juvenile irf8 mutant fish, mature macrophages are present, but at numbers significantly reduced compared to wildtype, indicating an ongoing requirement for irf8 after embryogenesis. As development progresses, tissue macrophages become apparent in zebrafish irf8 mutants, with the possible exception of microglia. Our study defines distinct requirement for irf8 in myelopoiesis before and after transition to the adult hematopoietic system.

  14. Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Budi, Erine H; Patterson, Larissa B; Parichy, David M

    2011-05-01

    The pigment cells of vertebrates serve a variety of functions and generate a stunning variety of patterns. These cells are also implicated in human pathologies including melanoma. Whereas the events of pigment cell development have been studied extensively in the embryo, much less is known about morphogenesis and differentiation of these cells during post-embryonic stages. Previous studies of zebrafish revealed genetically distinct populations of embryonic and adult melanophores, the ectotherm homologue of amniote melanocytes. Here, we use molecular markers, vital labeling, time-lapse imaging, mutational analyses, and transgenesis to identify peripheral nerves as a niche for precursors to adult melanophores that subsequently migrate to the skin to form the adult pigment pattern. We further identify genetic requirements for establishing, maintaining, and recruiting precursors to the adult melanophore lineage and demonstrate novel compensatory behaviors during pattern regulation in mutant backgrounds. Finally, we show that distinct populations of latent precursors having differential regenerative capabilities persist into the adult. These findings provide a foundation for future studies of post-embryonic pigment cell precursors in development, evolution, and neoplasia.

  15. Innervation is required for sense organ development in the lateral line system of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine; Kawakami, Koichi; Ghysen, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Superficial mechanosensory organs (neuromasts) distributed over the head and body of fishes and amphibians form the "lateral line" system. During zebrafish adulthood, each neuromast of the body (posterior lateral line system, or PLL) produces "accessory" neuromasts that remain tightly clustered, thereby increasing the total number of PLL neuromasts by a factor of more than 10. This expansion is achieved by a budding process and is accompanied by branches of the afferent nerve that innervates the founder neuromast. Here we show that innervation is essential for the budding process, in complete contrast with the development of the embryonic PLL, where innervation is entirely dispensable. To obtain insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the budding process, we focused on the terminal system that develops at the posterior tip of the body and on the caudal fin. In this subset of PLL neuromasts, bud neuromasts form in a reproducible sequence over a few days, much faster than for other PLL neuromasts. We show that wingless/int (Wnt) signaling takes place during, and is required for, the budding process. We also show that the Wnt activator R-spondin is expressed by the axons that innervate budding neuromasts. We propose that the axon triggers Wnt signaling, which itself is involved in the proliferative phase that leads to bud formation. Finally, we show that innervation is required not only for budding, but also for long-term maintenance of all PLL neuromasts.

  16. Environment- and activity-dependent dopamine neurotransmitter plasticity in the adult substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Aumann, Tim D

    2016-04-01

    The ability of neurons to change the amount or type of neurotransmitter they use, or 'neurotransmitter plasticity', is an emerging new form of adult brain plasticity. For example, it has recently been shown that neurons in the adult rat hypothalamus up- or down-regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in response to the amount of light the animal receives (photoperiod), and that this in turn affects anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (Dulcis et al., 2013). In this Chapter I consolidate recent evidence from my laboratory suggesting neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) also undergo DA neurotransmitter plasticity in response to persistent changes in their electrical activity, including that driven by the mouse's environment or behavior. Specifically, we have shown that the amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene promoter activity, TH mRNA and TH protein in SNc neurons increases or decreases after ∼20h of altered electrical activity. Also, infusion of ion-channel agonists or antagonists into the midbrain for 2 weeks results in ∼10% (∼500 neurons) more or fewer TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons, with no change in the total number of SNc neurons (TH+ and TH-). Targeting ion-channels mediating cell-autonomous pacemaker activity in, or synaptic input and afferent pathways to, SNc neurons are equally effective in this regard. In addition, exposing mice to different environments (sex pairing or environment enrichment) for 1-2 weeks induces ∼10% more or fewer TH+ SNc (and ventral tegmental area or VTA) neurons and this is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic transmission in midbrain. Although further research is required to establish SNc (and VTA) DA neurotransmitter plasticity, and to determine whether it alters brain function and behavior, it is an exciting prospect because: (1) It may play important roles in movement, motor learning, reward, motivation, memory and cognition; and (2

  17. Photosensitization is required for antiretroviral activity of hypericin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Susan; Tossberg, John; Kraus, George A.

    1991-06-01

    In a seminal series of papers, Meruelo and co-workers have described the potent antiretroviral effect of hypericin. Interestingly, hypericin was found to inhibit not only the production of infectious virus from chronically infected cells, but was also shown to directly inhibit reverse transcriptase activity of mature virions. The effect of hypericin on cells chronically infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus genetically related to HIV, is demonstrated. At concentrations of 10 (mu) g/ml, hypericin reduced production of infectious EIAV by 99.99 without causing obvious cytopathic effects. Interestingly, the results indicated that the antiretroviral activity of hypericin was wholly dependent on the presence of light. No decrease in viral infectivity was observed when hypericin and virus were incubated in the dark. Moreover, it appeared that light was an absolute requirement for the antiviral activity, as even high concentrations of hypericin (10 (mu) g/ml) were unable to reduce infectivity of as few as 100 infectious virions.

  18. Kid's Play. Activities for Adults and the Children They Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos-Hawkey, Dena, Ed.

    Intended for literacy students who want to share the pleasure of reading with the children they love, this book describes 26 easy, inexpensive activities to expose children to reading. Each activity explains the type of activity, lists materials needed, and provides instructions or suggestions for extending the activity. A suggested book list…

  19. Familial adult onset hyperinsulinism due to an activating glucokinase mutation: Implications for pharmacological glucokinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Challis, Benjamin G.; Harris, Julie; Sleigh, Alison; Isaac, Iona; Orme, Steve M.; Seevaratnam, Nandini; Dhatariya, Ketan; Simpson, Helen L.; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Glucokinase (GCK) phosphorylates and thereby “traps” glucose in cells, thus serving as a gatekeeper for cellular glucose metabolism, particularly in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. In humans, activating GCK mutations cause familial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (GCK-HH), leading to keen interest in the potential of small molecule glucokinase activators (GKAs) as treatments for diabetes mellitus. Many such agents have been developed, however observation of side effects including hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis have delayed their clinical development. Objective To describe the clinical presentation and metabolic profiles of affected family members in a kindred with familial hyperinsulinism of adult presentation due to a known activating mutation in GCK. Design Clinical, biochemical and metabolic assessment, and GCK sequencing in affected family members. Results In the 60 year-old female proband, hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 2.1mmol/mol, insulin 18pmol/l) was confirmed following 34 hours of fasting, however abdominal computed tomography (CT), pancreatic MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, octreotide scintigraphy and selective arterial calcium stimulation failed to localise an insulinoma. A prolonged OGTT revealed fasting hypoglycaemia that was exacerbated after glucose challenge, consistent with dysregulated glucose-stimulated insulin release. A heterozygous activating mutation, p.Val389Leu, in the glucokinase gene (GCK) was found in the proband and four other family members. Of these, two had been investigated elsewhere for recurrent hypoglycaemia in adulthood, while the other two adult relatives were asymptomatic despite profound hypoglycaemia. All three of the available family members with the p.Val389Leu mutation had normal serum lipid profiles, normal rates of fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis and had hepatic triglyceride levels commensurate with their degree of adiposity. Conclusion Activating GCK mutations may

  20. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.01) and internal oblique (p<0.01) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. Furthermore, at 20% and 30% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) and the internal oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. At 10% PEmax, no significant differences were observed in muscle activity. Although we observed no significant difference between 10% and 20% PEmax, activity during 30% PEmax was significantly greater than during 20% PEmax (external oblique: p<0.05; internal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance.

  1. Environmental influences on physical activity in rural Midwestern adults: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults.

  2. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  3. Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity as Perceived by Older Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain…

  4. Physically Active Adults: An Analysis of the Key Variables That Keep Them Moving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of adults are insufficiently physically active, and researchers have yet to determine the factors that enable individuals to maintain adequate levels of physical activity throughout adulthood. Purpose: This study sought to identify the key variables linked with consistent physical activity in adulthood as elucidated…

  5. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  6. Understanding Predictors of Low Physical Activity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Jackson, Alison; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jillian; Melville, Craig; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Mantry, Dipali

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is globally one of the most significant risks to health. The main aims of this study were to describe the types and levels of regular physical activity undertaken by adults with intellectual disabilities, and to investigate the factors predicting low activity. Materials and Methods: Interviews were…

  7. Id2 IS REQUIRED FOR SPECIFICATION OF DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS DURING ADULT OLFACTORY NEUROGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Havrda, Matthew C.; Harris, Brent T.; Mantani, Akio; Ward, Nora M.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Cuzon, Verginia C.; Yeh, Hermes H.; Israel, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the biology of adult neural stem cells has important implications for nervous system development and may contribute to our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders and their treatment. We have characterized the process of olfactory neurogenesis in adult mice lacking Inhibitor of DNA Binding 2 (Id2). We found a diminished olfactory bulb containing reduced numbers of granular and periglomerular neurons with a distinct paucity of dopaminergic periglomerular neurons. While no deficiency of the stem cell compartment was detectable, migrating neuroblasts in Id2−/− mutant mice prematurely undergo astroglial differentiation within a disorganized rostral migratory stream. Further, when evaluated in vitro loss of Id2 results in decreased proliferation of neural progenitors and decreased expression of the Hes1 and Mash1 transcription factors, known mediators of neuronal differentiation. These data support a novel role for sustained Id2 expression in migrating neural progenitors mediating olfactory dopaminergic neuronal differentiation in adult animals. PMID:19109490

  8. In-vitro activation of complement system by lactic acidosis in newborn and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Hecke, F; Hoehn, T; Strauss, E; Obladen, M; Sonntag, J

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Complement activation occurs secondary to a variety of external stimuli. Lactic acidosis has been previously shown to activate the complement factors C3a and C5a. In the present investigation we examined the differential effect of lactic acidosis on anaphylatoxin levels in cord and adult blood. Furthermore we aimed to determine if the entire complement cascade could be activated by lactic acidosis. METHODS: Cord and adult blood samples (n = 20 each) were collected and incubated for one hour in either untreated condition or with the addition of lactate in two concentrations (5.5 mmol/l vs. 22 mmol/l). Following incubation, levels of C3a, C5a and sC5b-9, and blood gas parameters were determined. RESULTS: Anaphylatoxin (C3a and C5a) and sC5b-9 levels increased with the addition of lactate in a dose-dependent manner in cord and adult blood (C3a: 1 h, 5.5 mmo/l, 22 mmol/l: 418/498/622 microg/l in cord blood; 1010/1056/1381 microg/l in adult blood, p<0,05; similar results were found for C5a and sC5b-9). CONCLUSION: Lactic acidosis leads to an activation of the entire complement system in neonates and in adults. This activation is dose-dependent and more pronounced in adults as compared to neonates. PMID:11324901

  9. The reliance on visual feedback control by older adults is highlighted in tasks requiring precise endpoint placement and precision grip.

    PubMed

    Coats, Rachel O; Wann, John P

    2011-09-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether a greater degree of sensory-motor control is required to maintain skills as humans progress to be septuagenarians. Here, we investigate the dependence of older participants upon vision to execute skilled prehension movements. In a first experiment, participants were required to place a small, round peg in one of three randomly cued holes. A mirror apparatus was used to create conditions where they could always see the target locations, but vision of their hand approaching the target could be removed, and we explored end position accuracy. In a second experiment, we examined the ability of participants to precisely control their grasp action under conditions where they could see the objects but not their hands completing the action. The results showed that in Experiment 1, the older adults undershot the target in their primary submovement and hence had to move further in their secondary movement to achieve their goal. In Experiment 2, the older adults spent longer in the final adjustment phase (a near zero velocity phase at the end of the reach) when vision of the hand was unavailable. These findings suggest that older adults are indeed more reliant on visual feedback than the young in tasks that require precise manual control, and this clarifies conflicting accounts in the prior literature.

  10. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  11. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  12. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. PMID:27063068

  13. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings.

  14. Summer at Oxford Requires Academic Rigor from U.S. Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stacy E.

    1987-01-01

    American universities are sponsoring overseas academic programs designed for their alumni and other adults. The programs last for 2 or 3 weeks, make money and cement cross-cultural academic ties. A program run by the University of California at Berkeley is described. (MLW)

  15. Song decrystallization in adult zebra finches does not require the song nucleus NIf.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-08-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.

  16. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  17. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  18. Rhythmic Ganglion Cell Activity in Bleached and Blind Adult Mouse Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Menzler, Jacob; Channappa, Lakshmi; Zeck, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa – a degenerative disease which often leads to incurable blindness- the loss of photoreceptors deprives the retina from a continuous excitatory input, the so-called dark current. In rodent models of this disease this deprivation leads to oscillatory electrical activity in the remaining circuitry, which is reflected in the rhythmic spiking of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It remained unclear, however, if the rhythmic RGC activity is attributed to circuit alterations occurring during photoreceptor degeneration or if rhythmic activity is an intrinsic property of healthy retinal circuitry which is masked by the photoreceptor’s dark current. Here we tested these hypotheses by inducing and analysing oscillatory activity in adult healthy (C57/Bl6) and blind mouse retinas (rd10 and rd1). Rhythmic RGC activity in healthy retinas was detected upon partial photoreceptor bleaching using an extracellular high-density multi-transistor-array. The mean fundamental spiking frequency in bleached retinas was 4.3 Hz; close to the RGC rhythm detected in blind rd10 mouse retinas (6.5 Hz). Crosscorrelation analysis of neighbouring wild-type and rd10 RGCs (separation distance <200 µm) reveals synchrony among homologous RGC types and a constant phase shift (∼70 msec) among heterologous cell types (ON versus OFF). The rhythmic RGC spiking in these retinas is driven by a network of presynaptic neurons. The inhibition of glutamatergic ganglion cell input or the inhibition of gap junctional coupling abolished the rhythmic pattern. In rd10 and rd1 retinas the presynaptic network leads to local field potentials, whereas in bleached retinas additional pharmacological disinhibition is required to achieve detectable field potentials. Our results demonstrate that photoreceptor bleaching unmasks oscillatory activity in healthy retinas which shares many features with the functional phenotype detected in rd10 retinas. The quantitative physiological differences advance the

  19. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was ‘Traffic’ which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the ‘personal’ and ‘economical’. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea. PMID:27656637

  20. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea. PMID:27656637

  1. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was ‘Traffic’ which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the ‘personal’ and ‘economical’. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  2. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  3. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  4. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  5. Formation of Tankyrase Inhibitor-Induced Degradasomes Requires Proteasome Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nina Marie; Thorvaldsen, Tor Espen; Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang; Wenzel, Eva Maria; Stenmark, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In canonical Wnt signaling, the protein levels of the key signaling mediator β-catenin are under tight regulation by the multimeric destruction complex that mediates proteasomal degradation of β-catenin. In colorectal cancer, destruction complex activity is often compromised due to mutations in the multifunctional scaffolding protein Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC), leading to a stabilization of β-catenin. Recently, tankyrase inhibitors (TNKSi), a novel class of small molecule inhibitors, were shown to re-establish a functional destruction complex in APC-mutant cancer cell lines by stabilizing AXIN1/2, whose protein levels are usually kept low via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by the tankyrase enzymes (TNKS1/2). Surprisingly, we found that for the formation of the morphological correlates of destruction complexes, called degradasomes, functional proteasomes are required. In addition we found that AXIN2 is strongly upregulated after 6 h of TNKS inhibition. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 counteracted TNKSi-induced degradasome formation and AXIN2 stabilization, and this was accompanied by reduced transcription of AXIN2. Mechanistically we could implicate the transcription factor FoxM1 in this process, which was recently shown to be a transcriptional activator of AXIN2. We observed a substantial reduction in TNKSi-induced stabilization of AXIN2 after siRNA-mediated depletion of FoxM1 and found that proteasome inhibition reduced the active (phosphorylated) fraction of FoxM1. This can explain the decreased protein levels of AXIN2 after MG132 treatment. Our findings have implications for the design of in vitro studies on the destruction complex and for clinical applications of TNKSi. PMID:27482906

  6. Adults Eligible for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Counseling and Participation in Aerobic Physical Activity - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Paul, Prabasaj; Watson, Kathleen B; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Foltz, Jennifer L; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-09-25

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and physical inactivity is a major risk factor (1). Health care professionals have a role in counseling patients about physical activity for CVD prevention. In August 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that adults who are overweight or obese and have additional CVD risk factors be offered or referred to intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for CVD prevention. Although the USPSTF recommendation does not specify an amount of physical activity, the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans state that for substantial health benefits adults should achieve ≥150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or ≥75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. To assess the proportion of adults eligible for intensive behavioral counseling and not meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This analysis indicated that 36.8% of adults were eligible for intensive behavioral counseling for CVD prevention. Among U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), the prevalence of eligible adults ranged from 29.0% to 44.6%. Nationwide, 19.9% of all adults were eligible and did not meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. These data can inform the planning and implementation of health care interventions for CVD prevention that are based on physical activity.

  7. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  8. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the 'cost of muscle force' approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds--adult humans--accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds--children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits. PMID:26400978

  9. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Usherwood, James R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the ‘cost of muscle force’ approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds – adult humans – accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds – children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits. PMID:26400978

  10. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself. PMID:26955925

  11. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself.

  12. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  13. Body size and physical activity levels of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-09-01

    Few studies of physical activity and energy expenditure have been carried out in the Pacific Region. In this study, the physical activity levels (PALs) of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle by age group and occupation category were determined by a 3 day activity recall diary method. The period of observation included the previous Sunday, as a representative non-working day. A volunteer sample of 332 Cook Islanders aged 22 to 86 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga. Older adults are significantly less active than younger adults during the working week, but not during the weekend. Males are more physically active than females during the working week, but not on weekends. The mean weekday PAL of males engaged in traditional subsistence or who are unemployed is 1.88, while the mean weekday PAL of females engaged in traditional subsistence or who are housewives is 1.69. Male manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.96, while female manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.67. The weekday PAL values for those employed in clerical and administrative work are 1.82 (males) and 1.64 (females), while values for professionals are 1.76 (males) and 1.65 (females). Weekday physical activity is negatively associated with age, in nonlinear fashion. The PALs of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle is lower in older age groups but does not vary by occupation category. PMID:11517738

  14. Examining the effects of an experiential interprofessional education activity with older adults.

    PubMed

    Conti, Gerry; Bowers, Cassandra; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Bruer, Stephen; Bugdalski-Stutrud, Carol; Smith, Geralynn; Bickes, Joan; Mendez, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The need for experienced healthcare professionals to work with older adults is great, yet educational training is limited. In this interprofessional education (IPE) study, 861 students from five professions made 293 visits in the homes or preferred community settings of 208 older adults. Surveys with quantitative and open-text feedback assessed attitudes towards older adults, IPE team functioning, and the value of home visits. Survey results showed strongly positive attitudes towards ageing and older adults. Students from all professions expressed surprise and admiration for the active lives led by these healthier older adults, lives clearly in contrast to stereotypes of ageing. They further acknowledged the value of collaborative team functioning in meeting older adult needs, learned more about the roles and responsibilities of other professions, and identified strengths of the home as a site for care. Students positively valued the experience as part of their professional training, with 82% of all students stating they would welcome additional IPE opportunities. Results suggest that an experiential IPE activity can positively shape student attitudes towards older adults, IPE, and interprofessional collaboration.

  15. Examining the effects of an experiential interprofessional education activity with older adults.

    PubMed

    Conti, Gerry; Bowers, Cassandra; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Bruer, Stephen; Bugdalski-Stutrud, Carol; Smith, Geralynn; Bickes, Joan; Mendez, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The need for experienced healthcare professionals to work with older adults is great, yet educational training is limited. In this interprofessional education (IPE) study, 861 students from five professions made 293 visits in the homes or preferred community settings of 208 older adults. Surveys with quantitative and open-text feedback assessed attitudes towards older adults, IPE team functioning, and the value of home visits. Survey results showed strongly positive attitudes towards ageing and older adults. Students from all professions expressed surprise and admiration for the active lives led by these healthier older adults, lives clearly in contrast to stereotypes of ageing. They further acknowledged the value of collaborative team functioning in meeting older adult needs, learned more about the roles and responsibilities of other professions, and identified strengths of the home as a site for care. Students positively valued the experience as part of their professional training, with 82% of all students stating they would welcome additional IPE opportunities. Results suggest that an experiential IPE activity can positively shape student attitudes towards older adults, IPE, and interprofessional collaboration. PMID:26913632

  16. Numeracy on the Line. Language Based Numeracy Activities for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Beth; And Others

    This document, which was developed to meet the needs of trainers and workers in Australia's automotive industry for learning activities designed to boost auto workers' numeracy skills, contains a total of 33 learning activities organized into 8 sections. The topics covered in the individual sections are as follows: calculators (key words and…

  17. Perceptions of older Latino adults regarding physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Melillo, K D; Williamson, E; Houde, S C; Futrell, M; Read, C Y; Campasano, M

    2001-09-01

    Healthy People 2000 has identified the importance of physical activity for healthy aging, but little is known about what motivates older individuals, older Latino adults, in particular, to be physically active. The purpose of this research was to examine the perceptions of older Latino adults toward physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise. This study used a qualitative focus group design. The sample of Latino adults age 60 and older resided in Northeast Massachusetts and was recruited from community settings which serve older Latino adults. Three focus groups, consisting of four to eight individuals in each group, were conducted and audiotaped. Data analysis used a combination of open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Focus group participants viewed physical fitness as being able to do anything; the mind and body working together; and feeling "light," being healthy. Support was viewed as a motivator of physical activity and exercise and included community resources, group support, cultural unity, and health provider assistance Barriers of fear and a feeling of inappropriateness were identified by focus group participants. Although the study was exploratory and the sample size small, it provides useful cultural knowledge and information for community health and gerontological nurses. Knowledge about older Latino adults' perceptions of motivators and barriers to physical activity and exercise is a necessary first step for nurses to prescribe activities that will help improve functional independence and quality of life. Nurses can serve as links for older Latino adults in accessing community resources. Sociocultural factors that influence Latino adult perceptions must be assessed if health promotion program planning is to be tailored to meet individual and group needs.

  18. Environmental enrichment requires adult neurogenesis to facilitate the recovery from psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, R J; Lehmann, M; Martinowich, K; Manji, H K; Herkenham, M

    2010-01-01

    The subgranular zone of the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus contains a pool of neural stem cells that continuously divide and differentiate into functional granule cells. It has been shown that production of new hippocampal neurons is necessary for amelioration of stress-induced behavioral changes by antidepressants in animal models of depression. The survival of newly born hippocampal neurons is decreased by chronic psychosocial stress and increased by exposure to enriched environments. These observations suggest the existence of a link between hippocampal neurogenesis, stress-induced behavioral changes, and the beneficial effects of enriched environment. To show causality, we subjected transgenic mice with conditionally suppressed neurogenesis to psychosocial stress followed by environmental enrichment. First, we showed that repeated social defeat coupled with chronic exposure to an aggressor produces robust and quantifiable indices of submissive and depressive-like behaviors; second, subsequent exposure to an enriched environment led to extinction of the submissive phenotype, while animals exposed to an impoverished environment retained the submissive phenotype; and third, enrichment was not effective in reversing the submissive and depressive-like behaviors in transgenic mice lacking neurogenesis. Our data show two main findings. First, living in an enriched environment is highly effective in extinguishing submissive behavioral traits developed during chronic social stress, and second, these effects are critically dependent on adult neurogenesis, indicating that beneficial behavioral adaptations are dependent on intact adult neurogenesis. PMID:20308988

  19. Terrestrial activity and conservation of adult California red-legged frogs Rana aurora draytonii in coastal forests and grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulger, J.B.; Scott, N.J.; Seymour, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The federally threatened California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii occupies both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in its adult life stage. The terrestrial activities of this species are not well known and require documentation to assist in the development of appropriate levels of protection under the US Endangered Species Act. We studied the terrestrial activities of radio-tagged red-legged frogs (n = 8-26) inhabiting a coastal watershed in Santa Cruz County, California, during 1997-1998. In particular, we investigated (1) the use of terrestrial habitats by non-migrating adults in relation to season, breeding chronology, and precipitation, and (2) adult migration behavior, including seasonal timing, duration, distances traveled, and the use of corridors. Non-migrating red-legged frogs occupied terrestrial habitats briefly (median = 4-6 days) following infrequent summer rains, but resided nearly continuously on land (median = 20-30 days) from the onset of the winter wet-season until breeding activities commenced 1-2 months later. All of the non-migrating frogs remained within 130 m of their aquatic site of residence (median <25 m). Intervals spent on land were again brief during mid/late winter (median = 1-4 days), despite frequent and copious rainfall. Adult migration to and from breeding sites occurred from late October through mid-May (wet season). We monitored 25 migration events between aquatic sites that were 200-2800 m apart. Short distance movements ( <300 m) were completed in 1-3 days, longer movements required up to 2 months. Most migrating frogs moved overland in approximately straight lines to target sites without apparent regard to vegetation type or topography. Riparian corridors were neither essential nor preferred as migration routes. Frogs traveling overland occurred in upland habitats as far as 500 m from water. Approximately 11-22% of the adult population was estimated to migrate to and from breeding sites annually, whereas the bulk of the

  20. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.

  1. Curriculum Diversity and Young Adult Physical Activity: Reflections from High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    This study was to evaluate if exposure to a diverse curriculum in high school physical education had an impact on young adult physical activity. Students from two universities were surveyed concerning high school physical education content exposure and physical activity in four areas. By investigating relationships between content exposure and…

  2. Relationships between Childhood and Adult Physical Activity Patterns in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.; Polkinghorne, Ori

    This study examined the relationship between adult physical activity levels and patterns of activity that were established during childhood. A random digit telephone survey was conducted of noninstitutionalized residents in a medium sized California city. Subjects ages 18 and over who volunteered to participate were questioned about their…

  3. Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…

  4. "Activities of Older Adults" Survey: Tapping into Student Views of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an exercise used in a life span developmental psychology course to tap into undergraduates' perceptions of activities of the elderly. Students were asked to generate items to be included in a hypothetical Activities of Older Adults survey (to be administered to people 65 years and older). Responses from 1,340 students over a…

  5. Factors Associated with Leisure Activity among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) was applied to examine the factors associated with childhood impairment and leisure activity. Information on leisure activity was obtained using a structured questionnaire from a population-based cohort of young adults with childhood impairment. The…

  6. Virtual Reality as a Leisure Activity for Young Adults with Physical and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2008-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and physical disabilities often experience limited opportunities to participate in leisure activities, virtual reality (VR) technologies may serve to broaden their repertoire of accessible leisure…

  7. Fruit/Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among Adults with High Cholesterol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Jing; Keenan, Nora L.; Dai, Shifan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether hypercholesterolemic adults followed healthy eating and appropriate physical activity. Methods: Using the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we measured greater than or equal to 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day and "Healthy People 2010" recommended physical activity. Results: Of 363,667 adults…

  8. PAKS: Parents-and-Kids Science. 24 Activities for Kids and Adults To Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny L.

    This activity book designed for grades 1-3 provides teachers with ready-to-use materials designed to get parents and children excited about science, help establish a home-school connection, and provide interesting learning activities for children to share with adults. This program gets parents involved in developing their children's science…

  9. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  10. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  11. The Prescribed Amount of Physical Activity in Randomized Clinical Trials in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past two decades, a consensus has formed that increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults are important for physical and cognitive health. Although there is strong evidence that regular physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases, a major concern is ensuring that…

  12. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  13. Older Adults' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Cognitive Health: Implications for Health Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anna E.; Corwin, Sara J.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    Messages promoting physical activity (PA) to maintain cognitive health (CH) may increase PA and enhance CH among older persons. This study examined older adults' perceptions of PA and CH. We conducted 10 focus groups with irregularly active older Black and White women and men (N = 55), ages 65 to 74 in South Carolina. Constant comparison methods…

  14. Adherence to a Physical Activity Program by Older Adults in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature and Older…

  15. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  16. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  17. Physical activity-related injuries in older adults: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; Theou, Olga; Little, Robert M D; Vandervoort, A A; Raina, Parminder

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic scoping review to identify and document the breadth of literature related to physical activity-related injuries in older adults. The population of interest was adults (both males and females) over the age of 65 years, participating in exercise, leisure-time, or sport-type physical activities. The initial search yielded 16,828 articles, with 43 articles ultimately included. The final 43 articles utilized the following study designs: three experimental (two randomized control and one non-randomized control), 14 prospective studies, and 26 retrospective. The results of this scoping review would suggest that it may be premature to provide definitive incidence rates, causes, and correlates of physical activity-related injuries in older adults. However, the current literature does not suggest that older adults are at an increased risk of injury from participation in physical activities. Future research should utilize a consistent definition of 'injury' and consistent and comprehensive descriptors of injuries--including intensity level of engagement of activity and burden/severity of injury. In addition, injury rates in specific populations are needed, particularly for the oldest-old, for those in assisted-living situations, and for subgroups with clinical conditions. Finally, greater surveillance and documentation of older adult initiatives and interventions are needed in order to identify programs successful in reducing the injury rates of their target populations.

  18. A self-assessment tool to measure older adults' perceptions regarding physical fitness and exercise activity.

    PubMed

    Devereaux Melillo, K; Williamson, E; Futrell, M; Chamberlain, C

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualitatively generate and psychometrically assess an instrument which assesses the self-perceived physical fitness and exercise activity levels of community-dwelling older adults and examines perceived factors which enhance or impede their exercise activity level. This research was carried out in two stages: qualitative and quantitative. Items for the instrument were generated through qualitative interviews with 23 community-dwelling older adults, 9 males and 14 females, with an age range of 63 to 82 years. From this qualitative study, 50 items were generated, representing nine categories of elements which enhance or impede physical activity. The 50 items were incorporated into a 4-point, forced-choice, Likert format instrument which was pilot tested for clarity and ease of administration with a convenience sample of community-dwelling older adults. Following the pilot testing, 41 items were retained. The 41-item instrument, entitled Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale, was categorized into the following subscales: Physical Fitness, Barriers, Motivators, and Exercise Frequency. Initial testing of the Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale seems to indicate adequate validity and reliability. Correlation coefficients for the total instrument, as well as the subscales, were significantly positive for both stability and internal consistency. Results with respect to predictive validity were mixed. The Physical Fitness and Motivators subscales were significant predictors of Exercise Frequency. Although the correlation between the Barriers subscale and Exercise Frequency was negative, it was non-significant.

  19. Association Between Fecal Incontinence and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Rao, Satish S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brisk physical activity may facilitate fecal incontinence due to physical activity-induced colonic motility. However, there currently are no studies that have examined the relationship between fecal incontinence and free-living physical activity behavior. Aim: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between fecal incontinence and objectively measured physical activity among adults. Materials and Methods: A national sample of adults in the United States (n = 2565, 20-85 years) completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for a week to objectively measure physical activity behavior. Results: After adjustments, fecal incontinence was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = 0.85, P = 0.04), suggesting that lower perceived severity of fecal incontinence was associated with greater engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Fecal incontinence was not significantly associated with light-intensity physical activity (P = 0.27). Conclusion: Our results suggest that adults in the United States with greater perceived severity of fecal incontinence engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; however, those with greater severity of fecal incontinence do not appear to have different levels of light-intensity physical activity behavior. Given the emerging research showing beneficial effects of light-intensity physical activity, health care professionals should encourage light-intensity physical activity to their patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:25535606

  20. Clinical evidence on high flow oxygen therapy and active humidification in adults.

    PubMed

    Gotera, C; Díaz Lobato, S; Pinto, T; Winck, J C

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in an alternative to conventional oxygen therapy: the heated, humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC). A number of physiological effects have been described with HFNC: pharyngeal dead space washout, reduction of nasopharyngeal resistance, a positive expiratory pressure effect, an alveolar recruitment, greater humidification, more comfort and better tolerance by the patient, better control of FiO2 and mucociliary clearance. There is limited experience of HFNC in adults. There are no established guidelines or decision-making pathways to guide use of the HFNC therapy for adults. In this article we review the existing evidence of HFNC oxygen therapy in adult patients, its advantages, limitations and the current literature on clinical applications. Further research is required to determine the long-term effect of this therapy and identify the adult patient population to whom it is most beneficial.

  1. VGF (TLQP-62)-induced neurogenesis targets early phase neural progenitor cells in the adult hippocampus and requires glutamate and BDNF signaling.

    PubMed

    Thakker-Varia, Smita; Behnke, Joseph; Doobin, David; Dalal, Vidhi; Thakkar, Keya; Khadim, Farah; Wilson, Elizabeth; Palmieri, Alicia; Antila, Hanna; Rantamaki, Tomi; Alder, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic), which has antidepressant-like effects, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis as well as synaptic activity and plasticity in the hippocampus, however the interaction between these processes and the mechanism underlying this regulation remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that VGF-derived peptide TLQP-62 specifically enhances the generation of early progenitor cells in nestin-GFP mice. Specifically, TLQP-62 significantly increases the number of Type 2a neural progenitor cells (NPCs) while reducing the number of more differentiated Type 3 cells. The effect of TLQP-62 on proliferation rather than differentiation was confirmed using NPCs in vitro; TLQP-62 but not scrambled peptide PEHN-62 increases proliferation in a cell line as well as in primary progenitors from adult hippocampus. Moreover, TLQP-62 but not scrambled peptide increases Cyclin D mRNA expression. The proliferation of NPCs induced by TLQP-62 requires synaptic activity, in particular through NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The activation of glutamate receptors by TLQP-62 activation induces phosphorylation of CaMKII through NMDA receptors and protein kinase D through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Furthermore, pharmacological antagonists to CaMKII and PKD inhibit TLQP-62-induced proliferation of NPCs indicating that these signaling molecules downstream of glutamate receptors are essential for the actions of TLQP-62 on neurogenesis. We also show that TLQP-62 gradually activates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-receptor TrkB in vitro and that Trk signaling is required for TLQP-62-induced proliferation of NPCs. Understanding the precise molecular mechanism of how TLQP-62 influences neurogenesis may reveal mechanisms by which VGF-derived peptides act as antidepressant-like agents.

  2. Functional Requirements for Fab-7 Boundary Activity in the Bithorax Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wolle, Daniel; Cleard, Fabienne; Aoki, Tsutomu; Deshpande, Girish; Karch, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin boundaries are architectural elements that determine the three-dimensional folding of the chromatin fiber and organize the chromosome into independent units of genetic activity. The Fab-7 boundary from the Drosophila bithorax complex (BX-C) is required for the parasegment-specific expression of the Abd-B gene. We have used a replacement strategy to identify sequences that are necessary and sufficient for Fab-7 boundary function in the BX-C. Fab-7 boundary activity is known to depend on factors that are stage specific, and we describe a novel ∼700-kDa complex, the late boundary complex (LBC), that binds to Fab-7 sequences that have insulator functions in late embryos and adults. We show that the LBC is enriched in nuclear extracts from late, but not early, embryos and that it contains three insulator proteins, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and E(y)2. Its DNA binding properties are unusual in that it requires a minimal sequence of >65 bp; however, other than a GAGA motif, the three Fab-7 LBC recognition elements display few sequence similarities. Finally, we show that mutations which abrogate LBC binding in vitro inactivate the Fab-7 boundary in the BX-C. PMID:26303531

  3. Functional Requirements for Fab-7 Boundary Activity in the Bithorax Complex.

    PubMed

    Wolle, Daniel; Cleard, Fabienne; Aoki, Tsutomu; Deshpande, Girish; Schedl, Paul; Karch, Francois

    2015-11-01

    Chromatin boundaries are architectural elements that determine the three-dimensional folding of the chromatin fiber and organize the chromosome into independent units of genetic activity. The Fab-7 boundary from the Drosophila bithorax complex (BX-C) is required for the parasegment-specific expression of the Abd-B gene. We have used a replacement strategy to identify sequences that are necessary and sufficient for Fab-7 boundary function in the BX-C. Fab-7 boundary activity is known to depend on factors that are stage specific, and we describe a novel ∼700-kDa complex, the late boundary complex (LBC), that binds to Fab-7 sequences that have insulator functions in late embryos and adults. We show that the LBC is enriched in nuclear extracts from late, but not early, embryos and that it contains three insulator proteins, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and E(y)2. Its DNA binding properties are unusual in that it requires a minimal sequence of >65 bp; however, other than a GAGA motif, the three Fab-7 LBC recognition elements display few sequence similarities. Finally, we show that mutations which abrogate LBC binding in vitro inactivate the Fab-7 boundary in the BX-C.

  4. Pdx-1 is required for activation in vivo from a duodenum-specific enhancer.

    PubMed

    Dusing, M R; Florence, E A; Wiginton, D A

    2001-04-27

    The purine metabolic gene adenosine deaminase (ADA) is expressed along a defined spatiotemporal pattern in the developing mammalian small intestine, where high-level expression is limited to the villous epithelium of the duodenum. This activation is observed in rodents as the intestine completes the final maturation resulting in adult crypt-villus structures at 2-3 weeks postpartum. A regulatory module responsible for this pattern of expression has been identified in the second intron of the human ADA gene. Of the multiple duodenal proteins that can interact with this small duodenal enhancer region, the studies contained in this work describe the identification of five of these proteins as the dispersed homeobox protein PDX-1. This transcription factor exhibits a profile of expression in the small intestine similar to that observed for ADA, making it an ideal candidate factor for the duodenum-specific ADA enhancer. Loss of PDX-1 binding, via a PDX-1 mutated enhancer transgenic construction, resulted in complete loss of high-level activation in the duodenum, demonstrating the absolute requirement for this factor in vivo. However, co-transfection experiments suggest that other proteins that bind the enhancer are also required for enhancer function because PDX-1 alone was incapable of significant transactivation.

  5. Lipoprotein lipase activity is required for cardiac lipid droplet production.

    PubMed

    Trent, Chad M; Yu, Shuiqing; Hu, Yunying; Skoller, Nathan; Huggins, Lesley A; Homma, Shunichi; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-04-01

    The rodent heart accumulates TGs and lipid droplets during fasting. The sources of heart lipids could be either FFAs liberated from adipose tissue or FAs from lipoprotein-associated TGs via the action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Because circulating levels of FFAs increase during fasting, it has been assumed that albumin transported FFAs are the source of lipids within heart lipid droplets. We studied mice with three genetic mutations: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α deficiency, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) deficiency, and heart-specific LpL deletion. All three genetically altered groups of mice had defective accumulation of lipid droplet TGs. Moreover, hearts from mice treated with poloxamer 407, an inhibitor of lipoprotein TG lipolysis, also failed to accumulate TGs, despite increased uptake of FFAs. TG storage did not impair maximal cardiac function as measured by stress echocardiography. Thus, LpL hydrolysis of circulating lipoproteins is required for the accumulation of lipids in the heart of fasting mice.

  6. Lipoprotein lipase activity is required for cardiac lipid droplet production.

    PubMed

    Trent, Chad M; Yu, Shuiqing; Hu, Yunying; Skoller, Nathan; Huggins, Lesley A; Homma, Shunichi; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-04-01

    The rodent heart accumulates TGs and lipid droplets during fasting. The sources of heart lipids could be either FFAs liberated from adipose tissue or FAs from lipoprotein-associated TGs via the action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Because circulating levels of FFAs increase during fasting, it has been assumed that albumin transported FFAs are the source of lipids within heart lipid droplets. We studied mice with three genetic mutations: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α deficiency, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) deficiency, and heart-specific LpL deletion. All three genetically altered groups of mice had defective accumulation of lipid droplet TGs. Moreover, hearts from mice treated with poloxamer 407, an inhibitor of lipoprotein TG lipolysis, also failed to accumulate TGs, despite increased uptake of FFAs. TG storage did not impair maximal cardiac function as measured by stress echocardiography. Thus, LpL hydrolysis of circulating lipoproteins is required for the accumulation of lipids in the heart of fasting mice. PMID:24493834

  7. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  8. Phenoloxidase activity in larval and juvenile homogenates and adult plasma and haemocytes of bivalve molluscs.

    PubMed

    Luna-González, Antonio; Maeda-Martínez, Alfonso N; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Robles-Mungaray, Miguel

    2003-10-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity was studied in larval and juvenile homogenates and in the plasma and haemocytes of adult Crassostrea gigas, Argopecten ventricosus, Nodipecten subnodosus, and Atrina maura. Samples were tested for the presence of PO activity by incubation with the substrate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine using trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, laminarin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to elicit activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. PO activity was not detected in larval homogenate. In juvenile homogenate, PO activity was found only in C. gigas and N. subnodosus. PO activity was present in adult samples and was enhanced by elicitors in the plasma of all species tested, but in haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) of only N. subnodosus. Activation of proPO by laminarin was suppressed by a protease inhibitor cocktail (P-2714) in plasma and HLS of all species tested.

  9. HENMT1 and piRNA Stability Are Required for Adult Male Germ Cell Transposon Repression and to Define the Spermatogenic Program in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shu Ly; Geoghegan, Joel; Hempfling, Anna-Lena; Bergmann, Martin; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Ormandy, Christopher J.; Wong, Lee; Mann, Jeff; Scott, Hamish S.; Jamsai, Duangporn; Adelson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    piRNAs are critical for transposable element (TE) repression and germ cell survival during the early phases of spermatogenesis, however, their role in adult germ cells and the relative importance of piRNA methylation is poorly defined in mammals. Using a mouse model of HEN methyltransferase 1 (HENMT1) loss-of-function, RNA-Seq and a range of RNA assays we show that HENMT1 is required for the 2’ O-methylation of mammalian piRNAs. HENMT1 loss leads to piRNA instability, reduced piRNA bulk and length, and ultimately male sterility characterized by a germ cell arrest at the elongating germ cell phase of spermatogenesis. HENMT1 loss-of-function, and the concomitant loss of piRNAs, resulted in TE de-repression in adult meiotic and haploid germ cells, and the precocious, and selective, expression of many haploid-transcripts in meiotic cells. Precocious expression was associated with a more active chromatin state in meiotic cells, elevated levels of DNA damage and a catastrophic deregulation of the haploid germ cell gene expression. Collectively these results define a critical role for HENMT1 and piRNAs in the maintenance of TE repression in adult germ cells and setting the spermatogenic program. PMID:26496356

  10. HENMT1 and piRNA Stability Are Required for Adult Male Germ Cell Transposon Repression and to Define the Spermatogenic Program in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Qu, Zhi Peng; Kortschak, R Daniel; Lawrence, David M; Geoghegan, Joel; Hempfling, Anna-Lena; Bergmann, Martin; Goodnow, Christopher C; Ormandy, Christopher J; Wong, Lee; Mann, Jeff; Scott, Hamish S; Jamsai, Duangporn; Adelson, David L; O'Bryan, Moira K

    2015-10-01

    piRNAs are critical for transposable element (TE) repression and germ cell survival during the early phases of spermatogenesis, however, their role in adult germ cells and the relative importance of piRNA methylation is poorly defined in mammals. Using a mouse model of HEN methyltransferase 1 (HENMT1) loss-of-function, RNA-Seq and a range of RNA assays we show that HENMT1 is required for the 2' O-methylation of mammalian piRNAs. HENMT1 loss leads to piRNA instability, reduced piRNA bulk and length, and ultimately male sterility characterized by a germ cell arrest at the elongating germ cell phase of spermatogenesis. HENMT1 loss-of-function, and the concomitant loss of piRNAs, resulted in TE de-repression in adult meiotic and haploid germ cells, and the precocious, and selective, expression of many haploid-transcripts in meiotic cells. Precocious expression was associated with a more active chromatin state in meiotic cells, elevated levels of DNA damage and a catastrophic deregulation of the haploid germ cell gene expression. Collectively these results define a critical role for HENMT1 and piRNAs in the maintenance of TE repression in adult germ cells and setting the spermatogenic program. PMID:26496356

  11. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to make themselves available for work in that State, as well as which newspapers in each traditional... employment in which the employer's work is to be performed as required in paragraph (i)(2) of this section... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth...

  12. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  13. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  14. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  15. 12 CFR 1272.3 - New business activity notice requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... targeted by the activity; (iii) The delivery system for the activity; and (iv) The effect of the activity... chapter; and (4) A demonstration of the Bank's capacity, personnel, technology, experience and...

  16. Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Feracci, Helene; Raptis, Leda

    2010-03-10

    Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

  17. Abnormal functional activation during a simple word repetition task: A PET study of adult dyslexics.

    PubMed

    McCrory, E; Frith, U; Brunswick, N; Price, C

    2000-09-01

    Eight dyslexic subjects, impaired on a range of tasks requiring phonological processing, were matched for age and general ability with six control subjects. Participants were scanned using positron emission tomography (PET) during three conditions: repeating real words, repeating pseudowords, and rest. In both groups, speech repetition relative to rest elicited widespread bilateral activation in areas associated with auditory processing of speech; there were no significant differences between words and pseudowords. However, irrespective of word type, the dyslexic group showed less activation than the control group in the right superior temporal and right post-central gyri and also in the left cerebellum. Notably, the right anterior superior temporal cortex (Brodmann's area 22 [BA 22]) was less activated in each of the eight dyslexic subjects, compared to each of the six control subjects. This deficit appears to be specific to auditory repetition as it was not detected in a previous study of reading which used the same sets of stimuli (Brunswick, N., McCrory, E., Price, C., Frith, C.D., & Frith, U. [1999]. Explicit and implicit processing of words and pseudowords by adult developmental dyslexics: A search for Wernicke's Wortschatz? Brain, 122, 1901-1917). This implies that the observed neural manifestation of developmental dyslexia is task-specific (i.e., functional rather than structural). Other studies of normal subjects indicate that attending to the phonetic structure of speech leads to a decrease in right-hemisphere processing. Lower right hemisphere activation in the dyslexic group may therefore indicate less processing of non-phonetic aspects of speech, allowing greater salience to be accorded to phonological aspects of attended speech. PMID:11054918

  18. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462

  19. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise.

  20. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise. PMID:27318305

  1. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  2. Endothelium dependency of contractile activity differs in infant and adult vertebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Charpie, J R; Schreur, K D; Papadopoulos, S M; Webb, R C

    1994-01-01

    Contractions to serotonin (5-HT) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in infant (0-2 yr) and adult (38-71 yr) vertebral arteries were examined in the presence of either the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide production. In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were characterized in arteries contracted with agonist. The results showed that: (a) Contractions of infant arteries to 5-HT or ET-1 decreased to 44 +/- 8% and 27 +/- 13%, respectively, within 10 min. Indomethacin or removal of endothelium abolished this decreased response, whereas L-NMMA had no effect. (b) Adult arteries produced sustained contractions to 5-HT or ET-1 that were unaffected by indomethacin, endothelium denudation, or L-NMMA. (c) Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were greater in infant than adult arteries and were abolished by indomethacin (but not L-NMMA) in infants and L-NMMA (but not indomethacin) in adults. Thus, endothelium-dependent responses in infant arteries are attenuated because of increased prostaglandin activity not observed in adult tissues. Additionally, there is an age-dependent change in the primary mechanism responsible for acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. Apparently, endothelium dependency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation is highly dependent on cyclooxygenase activity in the infant vertebral artery, but in the adult artery, nitric oxide is linked to the vasodilator response. Images PMID:8132776

  3. Physical Activity Patterns among U.S. Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…

  4. Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... you will try): ❑ Biking slowly ❑ Canoeing ❑ Dancing ❑ General gardening (raking, trimming shrubs) ❑ Tennis (doubles) ❑ Using your manual ... activities a couple of days a week: • Heavy gardening (digging,shoveling) • Lifting weights • Push-ups on the ...

  5. Discrepancy between use of lean body mass or nitrogen balance to determine protein requirements for adult cats.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Dorothy P; Hannah, Steven S

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to contrast the minimum protein intake needed to maintain nitrogen balance or lean body mass (LBM) in adult cats using a prospective evaluation of 24 adult, neutered male cats fed one to three different diets. Following a 1-month baseline period during which all cats consumed a 34% protein diet, cats were fed a 20% (LO), 26% (MOD) or 34% (HI) protein diet for 2 months. During the baseline period and following the 2-month feeding period, nitrogen balance was assessed using a 96-h complete collection of urine and feces, and LBM was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight loss increased in a linear manner with decreasing protein intake (P <0.01), despite no significant difference in calorie intake. Linear regression of the data indicated that approximately 1.5 g protein/kg (2.1 g/kg(0.75)) body weight is needed to maintain nitrogen balance, while 5.2 g protein/kg (7.8 g/kg(0.75)) body weight is needed to maintain LBM. This study provides evidence that nitrogen balance studies are inadequate for determining optimum protein requirements. Animals, including cats, can adapt to low protein intake and maintain nitrogen balance while depleting LBM. Loss of LBM and an associated reduction in protein turnover can result in compromised immune function and increased morbidity. Current Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and National Research Council (NRC) standards for protein adequacy may not provide adequate protein to support LBM. The minimum daily protein requirement for adult cats appears to be at least 5.2 g/kg (7.8 g/kg(0.75)) body weight, well in excess of current AAFCO and NRC recommendations. Further research is needed to determine the effect, if any, of body condition, age and gender on protein requirements. PMID:23362342

  6. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults in the United Arab Emirates: Clinical Features and Factors Related to Insulin-Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Maddaloni, Ernesto; Lessan, Nader; Al Tikriti, Alia; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Pozzilli, Paolo; Barakat, Maha T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To describe and to characterize clinical features of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) compared to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the UAE. Methods In this cross-sectional study a dataset including 18,101 subjects with adult-onset (>30 years) diabetes was accessed. 17,072 subjects fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data about anthropometrics, demographics, autoantibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GADA) and to Islet Antigen 2 (anti-IA2), HbA1c, cholesterol and blood pressure were extracted. LADA was diagnosed according to GADA and/or anti-IA2 positivity and time to insulin therapy. Results 437 (2.6%) patients were identified as LADA and 34 (0.2%) as classical type 1 diabetes in adults. Mean age at diagnosis, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and HbA1c significantly differed between, LADA, type 2 and type 1 diabetes, LADA showing halfway features between type 2 and type 1 diabetes. A decreasing trend for age at diagnosis and waist circumference was found among LADA subjects when subdivided by positivity for anti-IA2, GADA or for both antibodies (p=0.013 and p=0.011 for trend, respectively). There was a gradual downward trend in autoantibody titre in LADA subjects requiring insulin within the first year from diagnosis to subjects not requiring insulin after 10 years of follow-up (p<0.001). Conclusions This is the first study describing the clinical features of LADA in the UAE, which appear to be different from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we showed that the clinical phenotype of LADA is dependent on different patterns of antibody positivity, influencing the time to insulin requirement. PMID:26252955

  7. Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen

  8. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  9. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-03-10

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  10. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  11. Activating neurons by light in free-moving adult flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Chin; Hsiao, Po-Yen; Chu, Li-An; Lin, Yen-Yin; Fu, Chien-Chung; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, we show our preliminary results which is related to neurons activation in vivo by laser. A laser scanning system was adopted to guide laser beam to an assigned fly and an assigned position. A 473-nm laser can be a heat punishment source to restrain a wild-type fly's moving area. Furthermore, neurons in optogenetics transgene flies can be triggered by the blue laser in this system.

  12. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status?

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C

    2014-07-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking. PMID:24084049

  13. Meis1 Is Required for Adult Mouse Erythropoiesis, Megakaryopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle Erin; Rosten, Patty; Lemieux, Madeleine E; Lai, Courteney; Humphries, R Keith

    2016-01-01

    Meis1 is recognized as an important transcriptional regulator in hematopoietic development and is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia, both as a Hox transcription factor co-factor and independently. Despite the emerging recognition of Meis1's importance in the context of both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis, there is not yet a full understanding of Meis1's functions and the relevant pathways and genes mediating its functions. Recently, several conditional mouse models for Meis1 have been established. These models highlight a critical role for Meis1 in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a mediator of Meis1 function in this compartment. There are, however, several reported differences between these studies in terms of downstream progenitor populations impacted and effectors of function. In this study, we describe further characterization of a conditional knockout model based on mice carrying a loxP-flanked exon 8 of Meis1 which we crossed onto the inducible Cre localization/expression strains, B6;129-Gt(ROSA)26Sor(tm1(Cre/ERT)Nat)/J or B6.Cg-Tg(Mx1-Cre)1Cgn/J. Findings obtained from these two inducible Meis1 knockout models confirm and extend previous reports of the essential role of Meis1 in adult HSC maintenance and expansion and provide new evidence that highlights key roles of Meis1 in both megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Gene expression analyses point to a number of candidate genes involved in Meis1's role in hematopoiesis. Our data additionally support recent evidence of a role of Meis1 in ROS regulation. PMID:26986211

  14. Meis1 Is Required for Adult Mouse Erythropoiesis, Megakaryopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michelle Erin; Rosten, Patty; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Lai, Courteney; Humphries, R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Meis1 is recognized as an important transcriptional regulator in hematopoietic development and is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia, both as a Hox transcription factor co-factor and independently. Despite the emerging recognition of Meis1’s importance in the context of both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis, there is not yet a full understanding of Meis1’s functions and the relevant pathways and genes mediating its functions. Recently, several conditional mouse models for Meis1 have been established. These models highlight a critical role for Meis1 in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a mediator of Meis1 function in this compartment. There are, however, several reported differences between these studies in terms of downstream progenitor populations impacted and effectors of function. In this study, we describe further characterization of a conditional knockout model based on mice carrying a loxP-flanked exon 8 of Meis1 which we crossed onto the inducible Cre localization/expression strains, B6;129-Gt(ROSA)26Sortm1(Cre/ERT)Nat/J or B6.Cg-Tg(Mx1-Cre)1Cgn/J. Findings obtained from these two inducible Meis1 knockout models confirm and extend previous reports of the essential role of Meis1 in adult HSC maintenance and expansion and provide new evidence that highlights key roles of Meis1 in both megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Gene expression analyses point to a number of candidate genes involved in Meis1’s role in hematopoiesis. Our data additionally support recent evidence of a role of Meis1 in ROS regulation. PMID:26986211

  15. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  16. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 322.4 Section 322.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... established Federal harbor lines before May 27, 1970 (see 33 CFR 320.4(o)) do not require section 10 permits... States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant...

  17. Anemia, Blood Transfusion Requirements and Mortality Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Requiring Acute Medical Admission to Hospital in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Lawn, Stephen D.; Schutz, Charlotte; Burton, Rosie; Boulle, Andrew; Cobelens, Frank J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality. We investigated the relationship between anemia, blood transfusions, and mortality in a South African district hospital. Methods. Unselected consecutive HIV-infected adults requiring acute medical admission to a Cape Town township district hospital were recruited. Admission hemoglobin concentrations were used to classify anemia severity according to World Health Organization/AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria. Vital status was determined at 90 days, and Cox regression analyses were used to determine independent predictors of mortality. Results. Of 585 HIV-infected patients enrolled, 578 (98.8%) were included in the analysis. Anemia was detected in 84.8% of patients and was severe (hemoglobin, 6.5–7.9 g/dL) or life-threatening (hemoglobin, <6.5 g/dL) in 17.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Within 90 days of the date of admission, 13.5% (n = 78) patients received at least 1 blood transfusion with red cell concentrate and 77 (13.3%) patients died. In univariable analysis, baseline hemoglobin and receipt of blood transfusion were associated with increased mortality risk. However, in multivariable analysis, neither hemoglobin nor receipt of a blood transfusion were independently associated with greater mortality risk. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome-defining illnesses other than tuberculosis and impaired renal function independently predicted mortality. Conclusions. Newly admitted HIV-infected adults had a high prevalence of severe or life-threatening anemia and blood transfusions were frequently required. However, after adjustment for confounders, blood transfusions did not confer an

  18. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  19. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  20. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults' Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin

    2016-03-04

    Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45-65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants' (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA.

  1. Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity Is Required for Prostatic Budding in the Developing Mouse Prostate.

    PubMed

    Gamat, Melissa; Malinowski, Rita L; Parkhurst, Linnea J; Steinke, Laura M; Marker, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO) to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effect in mediating

  2. Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity Is Required for Prostatic Budding in the Developing Mouse Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Gamat, Melissa; Malinowski, Rita L.; Parkhurst, Linnea J.; Steinke, Laura M.; Marker, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO) to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effect in mediating

  3. Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Determined Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Suburban Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Haeuchi, Yuki; Nofuji, Yu Y; Matsuo, Eri; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge regarding accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SED) levels is scarce for Japanese older adults. The aims of this study were therefore to 1) describe levels of PA and SED in Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using tri-axial accelerometer; 2) examine the variation of PA and SED with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Participants of this study were from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, who were 65 years or older and not certified as those requiring long-term care. PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using tri-axial accelerometer. A total of 1,739 participants (median age: 72 years, men: 38.0%) with valid PA data were included. Overall, participants in the present study spent 54.5% of their waking time being sedentary and 45.5% being active, of which 5.4% was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Women accumulated more minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA compared with men. In contrast, men spent more time being sedentary. Mean steps per day did not differ between sexes. Furthermore, participants with higher BMI (BMI ≥25) had lower PA levels, and longer SED compared with those with lower BMI (BMI <). PA levels were lower and SED was longer with age. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. In particular, women were more active compared with men, providing unique insight into the current level of PA in older adults. Data presented in the study will enable further investigation of additional determinants of PA and SED in order to develop effective population-based intervention strategies to promote PA and reduce prolonged SED in the Japanese population and possibly other rapidly aging societies. Key points Accelerometer, that is capable to assess PA more precisely in large scale epidemiological studies, provides opportunity for improving

  4. Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, M D; Heron, M

    1999-02-01

    Is a shorter life with more years lived in poor health a defining attribute of the life cycle of disadvantaged groups? Based on the 1990 5% Public Use Microdata Survey, we develop life table models of healthy (or active) life for the major racial groups, by sex, in the United States. The analysis underscores the complexity of the relationship between morbidity and mortality in the population. For Asians, longer life is associated with fewer years lived in poor health. In contrast, Native Americans' relatively longer lives are accompanied by extended periods of chronic health problems. Of all racial groups, blacks live the fewest years, and they live a high proportion of those years with a chronic health problems. Hispanics also live substantially fewer years, yet the period of life they spend with a health problem is relatively compressed. Racial differences in the link between morbidity and mortality point to the importance of investigating how chronic diseases and disease prevention and treatment are related to active life across the population subgroups.

  5. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  6. Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Tessa M; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H; Sereno, Martin I

    2014-12-01

    Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these "semantic" sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7-10 years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects' written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words' sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood. PMID:25463817

  7. The Effect of Productive Activities on Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults With Dual Sensory Loss.

    PubMed

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of three productive activities (paid employment, volunteer work, and informal helping) to mitigate the negative effects of dual sensory loss (DSL) on depressive symptoms among older adults. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. The sample consisted of 2,688 persons: 1,380 who developed DSL during the study and 1,308 who did not. Although participation in each of the productive activities was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for older adults with DSL, volunteering was also the only variable that moderated the relationship between DSL and depressive symptoms. Persons with a DSL who volunteered exhibited a larger decrease in depressive symptoms compared to persons without sensory loss who volunteered. A volunteer intervention for older adults with DSL may be a viable option to help reduce depression in this population.

  8. Effect of hindlimb unloading on motor activity in adult rats: impact of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Canu, M H; Darnaudéry, M; Falempin, M; Maccari, S; Viltart, O

    2007-02-01

    Environmental changes that occur in daily life or, in particular, in situations like actual or simulated microgravity require neuronal adaptation of sensory and motor functions. Such conditions can exert long-lasting disturbances on an individual's adaptive ability. Additionally, prenatal stress also leads to behavioral and physiological abnormalities in adulthood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (a) to evaluate in adult rats the behavioral motor adaptation that follows 14 days of exposure to simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading) and (b) to determine whether restraint prenatal stress influences this motor adaptation. For this purpose, the authors assessed rats' motor reactivity to novelty, their skilled walking on a ladder, and their swimming performance. Results showed that unloading severely impaired motor activity and skilled walking. By contrast, it had no effect on swimming performance. Moreover, results demonstrated for the first time that restraint prenatal stress exacerbates the effects of unloading. These results are consistent with the role of a steady prenatal environment in allowing an adequate development and maturation of sensorimotor systems to generate adapted responses to environmental challenges during adulthood. PMID:17324062

  9. More Active Living–oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity—United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Nicholson, Lisa M.; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA. PMID:27587898

  10. Activity-Dependent Rapid Local RhoA Synthesis Is Required for Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Briz, Victor; Zhu, Guoqi; Wang, Yubin; Liu, Yan; Avetisyan, Mariam; Bi, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic protein synthesis and actin cytoskeleton reorganization are important events required for the consolidation of hippocampal LTP and memory. However, the temporal and spatial relationships between these two processes remain unclear. Here, we report that treatment of adult rat hippocampal slices with BDNF or with tetraethylammonium (TEA), which induces a chemical form of LTP, produces a rapid and transient increase in RhoA protein levels. Changes in RhoA were restricted to dendritic spines of CA3 and CA1 and require de novo protein synthesis regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). BDNF-mediated stimulation of RhoA activity, cofilin phosphorylation, and actin polymerization were completely suppressed by protein synthesis inhibitors. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injections of RhoA antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibited theta burst stimulation (TBS)-induced RhoA upregulation in dendritic spines and prevented LTP consolidation. Addition of calpain inhibitors after BDNF or TEA treatment maintained RhoA levels elevated and prolonged the effects of BDNF and TEA on actin polymerization. Finally, the use of isoform-selective calpain inhibitors revealed that calpain-2 was involved in RhoA synthesis, whereas calpain-1 mediated RhoA degradation. Overall, this mechanism provides a novel link between dendritic protein synthesis and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in hippocampal dendritic spines during LTP consolidation. PMID:25653381

  11. Activity-dependent rapid local RhoA synthesis is required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Briz, Victor; Zhu, Guoqi; Wang, Yubin; Liu, Yan; Avetisyan, Mariam; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Dendritic protein synthesis and actin cytoskeleton reorganization are important events required for the consolidation of hippocampal LTP and memory. However, the temporal and spatial relationships between these two processes remain unclear. Here, we report that treatment of adult rat hippocampal slices with BDNF or with tetraethylammonium (TEA), which induces a chemical form of LTP, produces a rapid and transient increase in RhoA protein levels. Changes in RhoA were restricted to dendritic spines of CA3 and CA1 and require de novo protein synthesis regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). BDNF-mediated stimulation of RhoA activity, cofilin phosphorylation, and actin polymerization were completely suppressed by protein synthesis inhibitors. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injections of RhoA antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibited theta burst stimulation (TBS)-induced RhoA upregulation in dendritic spines and prevented LTP consolidation. Addition of calpain inhibitors after BDNF or TEA treatment maintained RhoA levels elevated and prolonged the effects of BDNF and TEA on actin polymerization. Finally, the use of isoform-selective calpain inhibitors revealed that calpain-2 was involved in RhoA synthesis, whereas calpain-1 mediated RhoA degradation. Overall, this mechanism provides a novel link between dendritic protein synthesis and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in hippocampal dendritic spines during LTP consolidation.

  12. Effects of Force Requirements on Pinch Force Production in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aisha; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of fine motor control have focused on the ability of participants to match their grip force production to a visually provided template. We investigated differences exhibited in pinch force control during variable force production templates, including sine-, sawtooth-, and square-wave templates. Our results indicate that increased force requirements are associated with increased error rates and a noisier frequency spectrum, consistent with previous studies. Our results also indicate that visual feedback, in the form of template shape, directly affect pinch force production features and motor unit firing patterns, despite the use of consistent baseline force requirements, amplitude changes, and visual signal frequency. This suggests that CNS modulation of motor unit responses can be triggered by basic changes in visual feedback unrelated to force requirements. The potential implications of error compensation based on this study due to aging are also discussed.

  13. Functional Mapping of Protein Kinase A Reveals Its Importance in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    de Saram, Paulu S. R.; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J.; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and ‘smart’ anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology

  14. Patterns of Physical Activity Among Older Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; Joshi, Spruha; Cerdá, Magdalena; Quinn, James W.; Beard, John R.; Kennedy, Gary J.; Benjamin, Ebele O.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little research to date has explored typologies of physical activity among older adults. An understanding of physical activity patterns may help to both determine the health benefits of different types of activity and target interventions to increase activity levels in older adults. This analysis, conducted in 2014, used a latent class analysis approach to characterize patterns of physical activity in a cohort of older adults. Methods A total of 3,497 men and women aged 65–75 years living in New York City completed the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) in 2011. PASE scale items were used to classify subjects into latent classes. Multinomial regression was then used to relate individual and neighborhood characteristics to class membership. Results Five latent classes were identified: “least active,” “walkers,” “domestic/gardening,” “athletic,” and “domestic/gardening athletic.” Individual-level predictors, including more education, higher income, and better self-reported health, were associated with membership in the more-active classes, particularly the athletic classes. Residential characteristics, including living in single-family housing and living in the lower-density boroughs of New York City, were predictive of membership in one of the domestic/gardening classes. Class membership was associated with BMI even after controlling for total PASE score. Conclusions This study suggests that individual and neighborhood characteristics are associated with distinct physical activity patterns in a group of older urban adults. These patterns are associated with body habitus independent of overall activity. PMID:26091927

  15. Functional mapping of protein kinase A reveals its importance in adult Schistosoma mansoni motor activity.

    PubMed

    de Saram, Paulu S R; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Walker, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and 'smart' anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology.

  16. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p < .001) and self-perceived access to non-residential uses (b = 2.89, p = .031) were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031), measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006), and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003). Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall

  17. Animal-assisted activity: experiences of institutionalized Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Namiko; Niiyama, Masayoshi; Niiyama, Harue

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a group of institutionalized elderly Japanese women perceived animal-assisted activity (AAA) and how their perceptions may be relevant to clinical nursing practices in the AAA context. The participants in this study, 8 elderly Japanese women residing in a nursing home in a northern Japanese city, had attended AAA sessions two times per month for 2 years prior to this study's data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and data were analyzed using phenomenological procedures. Six themes emerged concerning the interactive relationships between the participants and the animals; in addition, participants were able to develop interest in themselves, other residents, and their environment, due to feelings of ease and the development of one-on-one relationships with the AAA dogs. Volunteers from outside the nursing home made residents feel refreshed and gave them opportunities to broaden their contact with society. PMID:19227109

  18. The association between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat in American adults.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E J; Byers, T; Coates, R J; Serdula, M K; Mokdad, A H; Heath, G W

    1995-01-01

    Relations between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat were examined in a population-based probability sample of 29,672 adults in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Consumption of 13 high-fat food items and participation in physical activities were measured, and fat and activity scores were calculated. Dietary fat and physical activity were strongly and inversely associated. This association was independent of nine other demographic and behavioral risk factors. Etiologic researchers should consider that diet and physical activity can potentially confound each other, and creators of public health messages that target one behavior should consider including the other. PMID:7856785

  19. Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in older adults: invariance of the physical activity enjoyment scale (paces) across groups and time

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a sample of older adults. Participants within two different exercise groups were assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Group and longitudinal invariance was established for a novel, 8-item version of the PACES. The shortened, psychometrically sound measure provides researchers and practitioners an expedited and reliable instrument for assessing the enjoyment of physical activity. PMID:21951520

  20. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dranow, Daniel B; Hu, Kevin; Bird, April M; Lawry, S Terese; Adams, Melissa T; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F; Draper, Bruce W

    2016-09-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle.

  1. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kevin; Lawry, S. Terese; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  2. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dranow, Daniel B; Hu, Kevin; Bird, April M; Lawry, S Terese; Adams, Melissa T; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F; Draper, Bruce W

    2016-09-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  3. Gsx2 controls region-specific activation of neural stem cells and injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    López-Juárez, Alejandro; Howard, Jennifer; Ullom, Kristy; Howard, Lindsey; Grande, Andrew; Pardo, Andrea; Waclaw, Ronald; Sun, Yu-Yo; Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Campbell, Kenneth; Nakafuku, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in widespread regions along the lateral ventricle and generate diverse olfactory bulb (OB) interneuron subtypes in the adult mouse brain. Molecular mechanisms underlying their regional diversity, however, are not well understood. Here we show that the homeodomain transcription factor Gsx2 plays a crucial role in the region-specific control of adult NSCs in both persistent and injury-induced neurogenesis. In the intact brain, Gsx2 is expressed in a regionally restricted subset of NSCs and promotes the activation and lineage progression of stem cells, thereby controlling the production of selective OB neuron subtypes. Moreover, Gsx2 is ectopically induced in damaged brains outside its normal expression domains and is required for injury-induced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). These results demonstrate that mobilization of adult NSCs is controlled in a region-specific manner and that distinct mechanisms operate in continuous and injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult brain. PMID:23723414

  4. Gsx2 controls region-specific activation of neural stem cells and injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    López-Juárez, Alejandro; Howard, Jennifer; Ullom, Kristy; Howard, Lindsey; Grande, Andrew; Pardo, Andrea; Waclaw, Ronald; Sun, Yu-Yo; Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Campbell, Kenneth; Nakafuku, Masato

    2013-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in widespread regions along the lateral ventricle and generate diverse olfactory bulb (OB) interneuron subtypes in the adult mouse brain. Molecular mechanisms underlying their regional diversity, however, are not well understood. Here we show that the homeodomain transcription factor Gsx2 plays a crucial role in the region-specific control of adult NSCs in both persistent and injury-induced neurogenesis. In the intact brain, Gsx2 is expressed in a regionally restricted subset of NSCs and promotes the activation and lineage progression of stem cells, thereby controlling the production of selective OB neuron subtypes. Moreover, Gsx2 is ectopically induced in damaged brains outside its normal expression domains and is required for injury-induced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). These results demonstrate that mobilization of adult NSCs is controlled in a region-specific manner and that distinct mechanisms operate in continuous and injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  5. Employment and activity limitations among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Anne G; Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

    2015-03-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of progressive respiratory conditions, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, characterized by airflow obstruction and symptoms such as shortness of breath, chronic cough, and sputum production. COPD is an important contributor to mortality and disability in the United States. Healthy People 2020 has several COPD-related objectives,* including to reduce activity limitations among adults with COPD. To assess the state-level prevalence of COPD and the association of COPD with various activity limitations among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among U.S. adults in all 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and two U.S. territories, 6.4% (an estimated 15.7 million adults) had been told by a physician or other health professional that they have COPD. Adults who reported having COPD were more likely to report being unable to work (24.3% versus 5.3%), having an activity limitation caused by health problems (49.6% versus 16.9%), having difficulty walking or climbing stairs (38.4% versus 11.3%), or using special equipment to manage health problems (22.1% versus 6.7%), compared with adults without COPD. Smokers who have been diagnosed with COPD are encouraged to quit smoking, which can slow the progression of the disease and reduce mobility impairment. In addition, COPD patients should consider participation in a pulmonary rehabilitation program that combines patient education and exercise training to address barriers to physical activity, such as respiratory symptoms and muscle wasting.

  6. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  7. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijay R.; Chuang, Yi-fang; Harris, Gregory C.; Tan, Erwin J.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor (SAM) on 92, non-demented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared to the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult sample. Findings suggest the importance of better

  8. Converging action of alcohol consumption and cannabinoid receptor activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Mouret, Aurélie; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Lepousez, Gabriel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; López-Moreno, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by successive periods of abstinence and relapse, resulting from long-lasting changes in various circuits of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to the endocannabinoid system as one of the most relevant biochemical systems mediating alcohol addiction. The endocannabinoid system regulates adult neurogenesis, a form of long-lasting adult plasticity that occurs in a few areas of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. Because exposure to psychotropic drugs regulates adult neurogenesis, it is possible that neurogenesis might be implicated in the pathophysiology, and hence treatment, of neurobiological illnesses related to drugs of abuse. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to alcohol and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN). Specifically, we analysed the potential link between alcohol relapse, cannabinoid receptor activation, and adult neurogenesis. Adult rats were exposed to subchronic alcohol binge intoxication and received the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN. Another group of rats were subjected to an alcohol operant self-administration task. Half of these latter animals had continuous access to alcohol, while the other half were subjected to alcohol deprivation, with or without WIN administration. WIN treatment, when administered during alcohol deprivation, resulted in the greatest increase in alcohol consumption during relapse. Together, forced alcohol binge intoxication and WIN administration dramatically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, adult neurogenesis inversely correlated with voluntary consumption of alcohol. These findings suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a key factor involved in drug abuse and that it may provide a new strategy for the treatment of alcohol addiction and dependence.

  9. The activity intensities reached when playing active tennis gaming relative to sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations in young adults.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Arkinstall, Hayley; Dalbo, Vincent J; Humphries, Brendan J; Jennings, Cameron T; Kingsley, Michael I C

    2013-09-01

    Although active gaming is popular and can increase energy expenditure in young adults, its efficacy as a prescriptive exercise tool is not well understood. This study aimed to: (a) compare the activity intensities experienced by young adults while playing active tennis gaming with conventional sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations for health; and (b) identify changes in activity intensities across playing time. After habitualization, 10 active young adults (age: 20.2 ± 0.4 years; stature: 1.74 ± 0.03 m; body mass: 67.7 ± 3.3 kg) completed 3 experimental trials (sedentary gaming, active tennis gaming, and tennis game-play) on separate days in a randomized order. Heart rate (HR) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were averaged across 5 minutes and 10 minutes intervals, and the entire 20 minutes bout within each condition. Active gaming produced greater intensities across 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 minutes time intervals compared with sedentary gaming (p < 0.01). Tennis game-play elicited greater HR (67 ± 5% HR(max)) and METs (5.0 ± 0.2) responses than both sedentary (40 ± 2% HR(max), 1.1 ± 0.1 METs) and active gaming (45 ± 2% HR(max), 1.4 ± 0.1 METs) (p < 0.001). Only tennis game-play produced activity intensities meeting current recommendations for health benefit. Lower HR intensities were reached across 0-5 minutes than during later time intervals during active gaming (6%) and tennis game-play (9%) (p < 0.01). Activity intensities elicited by active gaming were greater than sedentary gaming but less than tennis game-play and insufficient to contribute toward promoting and maintaining good health in young adults. These data suggest that active tennis gaming should not be recommended by exercise professionals as a substitute for actual sports participation in young adults.

  10. Hhex is Required at Multiple Stages of Adult Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Goodings, Charnise; Smith, Elizabeth; Mathias, Elizabeth; Elliott, Natalina; Cleveland, Susan M.; Tripathi, Rati M.; Layer, Justin H.; Chen, Xi; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Hamid, Rizwan; Du, Yang; Davé, Utpal P.

    2015-01-01

    Hhex encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is widely expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell populations. Its enforced expression induces T-cell leukemia and we have implicated it as an important oncogene in early T-cell precursor leukemias where it is immediately downstream of an LMO2-associated protein complex. Conventional Hhex knockouts cause embryonic lethality precluding analysis of adult hematopoiesis. Thus, we induced highly efficient conditional knockout (cKO) using vav-Cre transgenic mice. Hhex cKO mice were viable and born at normal litter sizes. At steady state, we observed a defect in B-cell development that we localized to the earliest B-cell precursor, the pro-B-cell stage. Most remarkably, bone marrow transplantation using Hhex cKO donor cells revealed a more profound defect in all hematopoietic lineages. In contrast, sublethal irradiation resulted in normal myeloid cell repopulation of the bone marrow but markedly impaired repopulation of T- and B-cell compartments. We noted that Hhex cKO stem and progenitor cell populations were skewed in their distribution and showed enhanced proliferation compared to WT cells. Our results implicate Hhex in the maintenance of LT-HSCs and in lineage allocation from multipotent progenitors especially in stress hematopoiesis. PMID:25968920

  11. Hhex is Required at Multiple Stages of Adult Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Goodings, Charnise; Smith, Elizabeth; Mathias, Elizabeth; Elliott, Natalina; Cleveland, Susan M; Tripathi, Rati M; Layer, Justin H; Chen, Xi; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Hamid, Rizwan; Du, Yang; Davé, Utpal P

    2015-08-01

    Hhex encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is widely expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell populations. Its enforced expression induces T-cell leukemia and we have implicated it as an important oncogene in early T-cell precursor leukemias where it is immediately downstream of an LMO2-associated protein complex. Conventional Hhex knockouts cause embryonic lethality precluding analysis of adult hematopoiesis. Thus, we induced highly efficient conditional knockout (cKO) using vav-Cre transgenic mice. Hhex cKO mice were viable and born at normal litter sizes. At steady state, we observed a defect in B-cell development that we localized to the earliest B-cell precursor, the pro-B-cell stage. Most remarkably, bone marrow transplantation using Hhex cKO donor cells revealed a more profound defect in all hematopoietic lineages. In contrast, sublethal irradiation resulted in normal myeloid cell repopulation of the bone marrow but markedly impaired repopulation of T- and B-cell compartments. We noted that Hhex cKO stem and progenitor cell populations were skewed in their distribution and showed enhanced proliferation compared to WT cells. Our results implicate Hhex in the maintenance of LT-HSCs and in lineage allocation from multipotent progenitors especially in stress hematopoiesis.

  12. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  13. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2007-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for 7 days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or vehicle) and locomotor activity was measured. Five days later cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) was begun. Rats were trained for 3 days, in the morning with saline and in the afternoon with 10 mg/kg cocaine in 30 min sessions, and tested on the fourth day. MDMA stimulated activity in both age groups, but with a greater effect in the adult rats. Sensitization to the locomotor-stimulant effects of the lower dose of MDMA occurred in adult rats and in both groups to the higher dose. Cocaine did not produce a CPP in vehicle-treated adolescent rats, but a significant CPP was observed subsequent to treatment with MDMA. In contrast, cocaine-induced CPP was diminished after MDMA in adult rats. These effects were still evident 2 weeks later upon retest. Thus, under the present conditions, MDMA increased cocaine conditioned reward in adolescent and decreased it in adult rats. These findings suggest that exposure to MDMA during this critical developmental period may carry a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of stimulant abuse after use of MDMA.

  14. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…

  15. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  17. The Experience of Choice in Physical Activity Contexts for Adults with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphy, Lorraine Y.; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study described the experiences of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments. The experiences of 3 female and 2 males with mobility impairments between 18 and 23 years of age were described using the interpretive phenomenological methods of individual interviews, written stories, and field notes.…

  18. Hypothalamic-Ptuitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Activity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presland, A. D.; Clare, I. C. H.; Broughton, S.; Luke, L.; Wheeler, E.; Fairchild, G.; Watson, P. C.; Chan, W. Y. S.; Kearns, A.; Ring, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cortisol is a marker of physiological arousal, exhibiting a characteristic pattern of diurnal activity. The daily cortisol profile has been examined extensively and is atypical in a number of clinical disorders. However, there are very few studies focussing on the cortisol profile in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This…

  19. A Cost Analysis of a Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3x weekly for 8 weeks, 2x weekly for weeks 9-24 and we...

  20. "I'd Rather Watch TV": An Examination of Physical Activity in Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Georgia C.; Buchanan, Alice M.; Rosser Sandt, Dawn D.

    2005-01-01

    Interpretive ethnography was used as a framework to examine perceptions of physical activity behavior of 12 adults with mild mental retardation. Four parents and two job supervisors also agreed to participate. Multiple data sources included in-depth interviews, diaries, accelerometry, and informal observations. Participants reported many physical…

  1. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  2. Pedometers and Brief E-Counseling: Increasing Physical Activity for Overweight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical inactivity has emerged as a public health epidemic and is associated with the rising obesity rate. A multiple-treatments reversal design was utilized to test whether pedometer-aided self-monitoring and brief e-counseling could help 3 overweight adults increase their physical activity. Dependent measures were taken for pedometer steps and…

  3. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  4. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  5. Magnetoencephalographic Analysis of Cortical Activity in Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, N.; Cheung, T.; Weeks, D.; Herdman, A. T.; Cheyne, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This preliminary study served as a pilot for an ongoing analysis of spectral power in adults with Down syndrome (DS) using a 151 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG). The present study is the first step for examining and comparing cortical responses during spontaneous and task related activity in DS. Method: Cortical…

  6. Health Worry, Physical Activity Participation, and Walking Difficulty among Older Adults: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of health worry (i.e., cognitive aspect of anxiety resulting from concern for health) on walking difficulty in a nationally representative sample (N = 7,527) of older adults (M age = 76.83 years). The study further tested whether physical activity mediates the effect of health worry on walking difficulty in a 6-year…

  7. Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Report on a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgorski, Carol Ann; Kessler, Karen; Cacia, Barbara; Peterson, Derick R.; Henderson, C. Michael

    2004-01-01

    A 12-week pilot project on physical activity was introduced in a day habilitation setting to a group of 12 older adults with intellectual disability and a variety of physical and behavioral conditions. Our purpose was to determine whether (a) this intervention would positively impact physical function in this population, (b) consumers would choose…

  8. Postural activity and motion sickness during video game play in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Tseng, Li-Ya; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2012-03-01

    Research has confirmed that console video games give rise to motion sickness in many adults. During exposure to console video games, there are differences in postural activity (movement of the head and torso) between participants who later experience motion sickness and those who do not, confirming a prediction of the postural instability theory of motion sickness. Previous research has not addressed relations between video games, movement and motion sickness in children. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of a commercially available console video game in both adults and 10-year-old children. Individuals played the game for up to 50 min and were instructed to discontinue immediately if they experienced any symptoms of motion sickness, however mild. During game play, we monitored movement of the head and torso. Motion sickness was reported by 67% of adults and by 56% of children; these rates did not differ. As a group, children moved more than adults. Across age groups, the positional variability of the head and torso increased over time during game play. In addition, we found differences in movement between participants who later reported motion sickness and those who did not. Some of these differences were general across age groups but we also found significant differences between the movement of adults and children who later reported motion sickness. The results confirm that console video games can induce motion sickness in children and demonstrate that changes in postural activity precede the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness in children.

  9. Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E; Berry, C B; Schnyder, V N; Vickers, S R

    1992-11-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic fitness levels of 189 African-American young adult college freshmen. LTPA was measured with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise, and the College Alumnus physical activity questionnaires. The Physical Activity Index (PAI), an index of walking, stair climbing, and recreational sports participation, was obtained from the College Alumnus questionnaire. Aerobic fitness was measured indirectly with the Cooper 12-Minute Walking/Running Test. More women (82%) than men (53%) were classified as inactive (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and much less active than peers) or low active (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and as active or more active than peers) on the LRC Questionnaire. The PAI scores were moderately low in men (1,521 +/- 1,634 kcal.week-1) and very low in women (706 +/- 868 kcal.week-1). The majority of men (71%) and women (82%) were classified as 'very poor' in aerobic fitness levels. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fatness, was classified as 'overweight' or 'obese' for 39% of men and 37% of women (BMI = 25.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m2), reflecting inactive LTPA habits. These findings are consistent with studies showing low LTPA in middle-age African-American adults. School and community-level interventions are recommended to increase LTPA and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult African-Americans.

  10. Perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted gastric sleeve resection

    PubMed Central

    Joselyn, Anita; Bhalla, Tarun; McKee, Christopher; Pepper, Victoria; Diefenbach, Karen; Michalsky, Marc; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One of the major advantages for patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery as compared to an open surgical procedure is the improved recovery profile and decreased opioid requirements in the perioperative period. There are no definitive studies comparing the analgesic requirements in patients undergoing two different types of minimally invasive procedure. This study retrospectively compares the perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted, laparoscopic gastric sleeve resection. Materials and Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval, the medication administration records of all severely obese patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-operative analgesic and adjuvant medications administered, postoperative analgesic requirements, and visual analog pain scores were compared between those undergoing a laparoscopic procedure versus a robotic-assisted procedure. Results: This study cohort included a total of 28 patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection surgery with 14 patients in the laparoscopic group and 14 patients in the robotic-assisted group. Intra-operative adjuvant administration of both intravenous acetaminophen and ketorolac was similar in both groups. Patients in the robotic-assisted group required significantly less opioid during the intra-operative period as compared to patients in the laparoscopic group (0.15 ± 0.08 mg/kg vs. 0.19 ± 0.06 mg/kg morphine, P = 0.024). Cumulative opioid requirements for the first 72 postoperative h were similar in both the groups (0.64 ± 0.25 vs. 0.68 ± 0.27 mg/kg morphine, P = NS). No difference was noted in the postoperative pain scores. Conclusion: Although intraoperative opioid administration was lower in the robotic-assisted group, the postoperative opioid requirements, and the postoperative pain scores were similar in both groups. PMID:26543465

  11. Health-related physical activity levels in Spanish youth and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cocca, Armando; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana-Ramírez, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the current physical activity (PA) levels in youth and young adults from Granada, Spain, and to assess if they accomplish the recommendations for healthy PA. A sample of 1,832 boys and 1,840 girls was administered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results showed that most of the children (72.2%) and adolescents (56.4%) reached the recommended PA levels, whereas only 40% of young adults achieved recommended levels of PA. The most active were students from Primary schools, whereas university students were the least active. Youth of college and university ages were found to be at higher risk for engagement in PA. PMID:24724525

  12. Association Between Social and Physical Activities and Insomnia Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Endeshaw, Yohannes W.; Yoo, Wonsuk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between organized social activity, walking exercise, and insomnia symptoms. Material and Method Data for analysis are derived from the National Health Aging Trends Study (NHATS). At baseline, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, sleep-related problems, and health status were assessed using questionnaires. Results Data for 7,162 community-dwelling older adults were available for analysis. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and both insomnia symptoms were reported by 12%, 5%, and 11% of the participants, respectively. The proportion of participants who reported engaging in organized social activity, walking exercise, and both activities were 11%, 35%, and 26%, respectively. Participants who reported engaging in organized social activity and/or walking exercise were significantly less likely to report insomnia symptoms. Conclusion These results have important implications for future studies that plan to implement nonpharmacological interventions for management of insomnia among older adults. PMID:26690253

  13. "I'd rather watch TV": an examination of physical activity in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Frey, Georgia C; Buchanan, Alice M; Rosser Sandt, Dawn D

    2005-08-01

    Interpretive ethnography was used as a framework to examine perceptions of physical activity behavior of 12 adults with mild mental retardation. Four parents and two job supervisors also agreed to participate. Multiple data sources included in-depth interviews, diaries, accelerometry, and informal observations. Participants reported many physical activity barriers, benefits, and leisure choices similar to the general population; however, two particularly salient themes related to negative influences and lack of guidance from support systems were apparently unique to this group. Results suggest that (a) adults with mental retardation need specially designed physical activity education and training programs and (b) supports system providers should be educated regarding the importance of physical activity to health for these individuals.

  14. Engagement in vocational activities promotes behavioral development for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Smith, Leann E; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations over time between behavioral functioning (autism symptoms, maladaptive behaviors, activities of daily living) and vocational/educational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 153 adults with ASD (M age = 30.2 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at two time points separated by 5.5 years. Cross-lag models were used, which accounted for stability over time while testing both directions of cross-lagged effects. Results suggested that greater vocational independence and engagement was related to subsequent reductions in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, and improvements in activities of daily living. Relations between earlier behavioral variables (symptoms, behaviors, and activities of daily living) and later vocational independence were not statistically significant. PMID:24287880

  15. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  16. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  17. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  18. Anatomical gradients of adult neurogenesis and activity: young neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are activated by water maze training

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Radik, Ruvim; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; Cameron, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal function varies in a subregion-specific fashion: spatial processing is thought to rely on the dorsal hippocampus, while anxiety-related behavior relies more on the ventral hippocampus. During development, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus proceeds along ventral to dorsal as well as suprapyramidal to infrapyramidal gradients, but it is unclear whether regional differences in neurogenesis are maintained in adulthood. Moreover, it is unknown whether young neurons in the adult exhibit subregion-specific patterns of activation. We therefore examined the magnitude of neurogenesis and the activation of young and mature granule cells in dentate gyrus subregions in adult rats that learned a spatial water maze task, swam with no platform, or were left untouched. We found that both adult neurogenesis and granule cell activation, as defined by c-fos expression in the granule cell population as a whole, were higher in the dorsal than the ventral dentate gyrus. In contrast, c-fos expression in adult-born granule cells, identified by PSA-NCAM or location in the subgranular zone, occurred at a higher rate in the opposite subregion, the ventral dentate gyrus. Interestingly, c-fos expression in the entire granule cell population was equivalent in water maze-trained rats and swim control rats, but was increased in the young granule cells only in the learning condition. These results provide new evidence that hippocampally-relevant experience activates young and mature neurons in different dentate gyrus subregions and with different experiential specificity, and suggest that adult-born neurons may play a specific role in anxiety-related behavior or other non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function. PMID:19004012

  19. 30 CFR 580.25 - When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BOEM require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 580.25 When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  20. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  1. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  2. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  3. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  4. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  5. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  6. Reduced physical activity in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes who curtail their sleep

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J.N.; Bromley, L.E.; Darukhanavala, A.P.; Whitmore, H.R.; Imperial, J.G.; Penev, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes have high metabolic morbidity, which is exacerbated by physical inactivity. Self-reported sleep <6 h/day is associated with increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, which may be mediated in part by sleep-loss-related reduction in physical activity. We examined the relationship between habitual sleep curtailment and physical activity in adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (27F/21M; mean [SD] age 26 [4] y; BMI 23.8 [2.5] kg/m2) each completed 13 [2] days of sleep and physical activity monitoring by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry while following their usual lifestyle at home. Laboratory polysomnography was used to screen for sleep disorders. The primary outcome of the study was the comparison of total daily activity counts between participants with habitual sleep <6 vs. ≥6 h/night. Secondary measures included daily time spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Short sleepers had no sleep abnormalities and showed signs of increased sleep pressure consistent with a behavioral pattern of habitual sleep curtailment. Compared to participants who slept ≥6 h/night, short sleepers had 27% fewer daily activity counts (P=0.042), spent less time in moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity (−43 min/day; P=0.010), and remained more sedentary (+69 min/day; P=0.026). Our results indicate that young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes who habitually curtail their sleep have less daily physical activity and more sedentary living, which may enhance their metabolic risk. PMID:21996665

  7. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans. PMID:24280057

  8. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  9. Ref(2)P, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of mammalian p62, is required for the formation of protein aggregates in adult brain.

    PubMed

    Nezis, Ioannis P; Simonsen, Anne; Sagona, Antonia P; Finley, Kim; Gaumer, Sébastien; Contamine, Didier; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald; Brech, Andreas

    2008-03-24

    P62 has been proposed to mark ubiquitinated protein bodies for autophagic degradation. We report that the Drosophila melanogaster p62 orthologue, Ref(2)P, is a regulator of protein aggregation in the adult brain. We demonstrate that Ref(2)P localizes to age-induced protein aggregates as well as to aggregates caused by reduced autophagic or proteasomal activity. A similar localization to protein aggregates is also observed in D. melanogaster models of human neurodegenerative diseases. Although atg8a autophagy mutant flies show accumulation of ubiquitin- and Ref(2)P-positive protein aggregates, this is abrogated in atg8a/ref(2)P double mutants. Both the multimerization and ubiquitin binding domains of Ref(2)P are required for aggregate formation in vivo. Our findings reveal a major role for Ref(2)P in the formation of ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates both under physiological conditions and when normal protein turnover is inhibited.

  10. Multidisciplinary and Active/Collaborative Approaches in Teaching Requirements Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosca, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The requirements engineering course is a core component of the curriculum for the Master's in Software Engineering programme, at Monmouth University (MU). It covers the process, methods and tools specific to this area, together with the corresponding software quality issues. The need to produce software engineers with strong teamwork and…

  11. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following activities with respect to any foreign country. (1) Designing production reactors... (enrichment), chemical processing of irradiated SNM (reprocessing), fabrication of nuclear fuel containing... reactors, accelerator-driven subcritical assembly systems, or facilities; (3) Designing,...

  12. Polarity establishment requires localized activation of Cdc42

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Benjamin; Kuo, Chun-Chen; Wu, Chi-Fang; Zyla, Trevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of cell polarity in animal and fungal cells involves localization of the conserved Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase, Cdc42, to the cortical region destined to become the “front” of the cell. The high local concentration of active Cdc42 promotes cytoskeletal polarization through various effectors. Cdc42 accumulation at the front is thought to involve positive feedback, and studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have suggested distinct positive feedback mechanisms. One class of mechanisms involves localized activation of Cdc42 at the front, whereas another class involves localized delivery of Cdc42 to the front. Here we show that Cdc42 activation must be localized for successful polarity establishment, supporting local activation rather than local delivery as the dominant mechanism in this system. PMID:26459595

  13. Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-27

    The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

  14. Opposite-sex attraction in male mice requires testosterone-dependent regulation of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schellino, Roberta; Trova, Sara; Cimino, Irene; Farinetti, Alice; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Panzica, Giancarlo; Giacobini, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia; Peretto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Opposite-sex attraction in most mammals depends on the fine-tuned integration of pheromonal stimuli with gonadal hormones in the brain circuits underlying sexual behaviour. Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. Recent evidence indicates adult neurogenesis in the AOB is involved in sex behaviour; however, the mechanisms underlying this function are unknown. By using Semaphorin 7A knockout (Sema7A ko) mice, which show a reduced number of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neurons, small testicles and subfertility, and wild-type males castrated during adulthood, we demonstrate that the level of circulating testosterone regulates the sex-specific control of AOB neurogenesis and the vomeronasal system activation, which influences opposite-sex cue preference/attraction in mice. Overall, these data highlight adult neurogenesis as a hub for the integration of pheromonal and hormonal cues that control sex-specific responses in brain circuits. PMID:27782186

  15. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  16. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: Do the relationships differ by driving status?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian; Kerr, Jaqueline; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne Frank; Hofstetter, C. Richard; King, Abby C.

    2015-01-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N=880, mean age=75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver’s license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p<0.05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults’ leisure walking. PMID:24084049

  17. The Relationship Between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Godbole, Suneeta; Neukam, Suvi; Crist, Katie; Wasilenko, Kari; Golshan, Shahrokh; Buchner, David

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity. PMID:23330225

  18. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  19. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009-2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  20. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  1. Pharmacological activation of locomotor patterns in larval and adult frog spinal cords.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; Farel, P B

    1985-04-15

    The effects of amino acids, catecholamines, and their agonists shown to elicit locomotor activity in several vertebrate species were examined in spinal animals and isolated nervous systems of developing tadpoles (Rana catesbiana) and adult frogs (R. catesbiana and pipiens). Elicited activity was correlated in spinal animals by video and electromyographic analysis, and in in vitro spinal cords by recordings of tail and hindlimb motor activity. Of the agents tested, only N-methyl-DL-aspartate (NMA), an amino acid agonist, was effective in eliciting motor activity in spinal animals. In isolated nervous systems, both NMA and D-glutamate added to the bath activated locomotor activity. NMA injected i.p. into tadpoles with high spinal cord transections elicited coordinated swimming motor activity in axial and hindlimb muscles that was roughly typical for the stage of development of the animal. In late stage tadpoles (st. XX), NMA also elicited wiping and alternating or synchronous (i.e. kicking or jumping) hindlimb movements. Addition of NMA or glutamate to a bath containing an in vitro tadpole spinal cord preparation elicited ventral root motor activity characteristic of swimming, but without a rostrocaudal phase lag. Rhythmic activity thought to underlie stepping and kicking was seen in lateral ventral rootlets innervating the hindlimbs. In adult frogs with high spinal cord transections, injection of NMA elicited a general sequence of spontaneous hindlimb motor functions: reflex wiping, stepping, and kicking or jumping. Isolated frog spinal cords were not responsive to bath applied NMA, under the present conditions. The activation by amino acids or their agonists of different motor functions in both larval and adult frogs, as well as in higher and lower vertebrates, suggests a general significance of amino acid-activated receptors in the neural networks controlling locomotor function. PMID:3888346

  2. Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Leisure-Time Physical Activity among African American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Olivia; Cox, Tiffany L.; Durant, Nefertiti H.; Allison, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective More than 60% of African American adults do not meet recommendations for moderate physical activity. We sought to discover the extent to which health attitudes and beliefs are associated with leisure-time physical activity in this population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting African American adults were asked about their health attitudes and beliefs during a national survey. Participants Participants were 807 African American men and women aged 18 years and older. Random-digit dialing was employed, sampling telephone numbers by geographical region, area code, and population size. Main Outcome Measures Participants were asked six health belief questions on the importance of exercise and body weight in health. Logistic regression was used to determine which of these factors were associated with physical activity participation. Results The percent of respondents participating in some form of physical activity during the past month was 87.1% in men and 82.9% in women. Factors associated with previous month physical activity in men were perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001) and necessity of exercise for health (p=0.018). In women, perceived personal importance of exercise (p<0.001), necessity of exercise for health (p= 0.006), and having enough activity space (p=0.017) were associated with physical activity participation. Conclusion Though the direction of causation is unknown, having the attitude that it is important to exercise or be physically active for health predicts physical activity participation in both African American men and women. Creating a sense of importance of physical activity to relieve stress and foster good health may stimulate physical activity participation in African American adults. PMID:21462732

  3. Definition of three somatic adult cell nuclear transplant methods in zebrafish (Danio rerio): before, during and after egg activation by sperm fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Camps, M; Cardona-Costa, J; Francisco-Simao, M; García-Ximénez, F

    2010-02-01

    Zebrafish somatic nuclear transplant has only been attempted using preactivated eggs. In this work, three methods to carry out the nuclear transplant using adult cells before, during and after the egg activation/fertilization were developed in zebrafish with the aim to be used in reprogramming studies. The donor nucleus from somatic adult cells was inserted: (method A) in the central region of the egg and subsequently fertilized; (method B) in the incipient animal pole at the same time that the egg was fertilized; and (method C) in the completely defined animal pole after fertilization. Larval and adult specimens were obtained using the three methods. Technical aspects related to temperature conditions, media required, egg activation/fertilization, post-ovulatory time of the transplant, egg aging, place of the donor nucleus injection in each methodology are presented. In conclusion, the technical approach developed in this work can be used in reprogramming studies.

  4. A Study of Activities of Daily Living and Employment in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Yu, Shu-Ning; Yu, Ya-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    Research on daily living activities and employment levels of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Taiwan is limited. The aims of the study were to investigate outcomes related to functional independence and employment among people with ASD in Taiwan. We investigated the daily living activities and the employment status of 81 adults (age…

  5. Employment and Post-Secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 young adults with autism spectrum disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community, with the majority of young adults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers.…

  6. "We're Not Just Sitting on the Periphery": A Staff Perspective of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Targeted physical activity interventions to improve the poor physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but currently not available. Given disordered thought processes and institutionalization, it is likely that older adults with schizophrenia have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. It is necessary to…

  7. Perspectives of Constraining and Enabling Factors for Health-Promoting Physical Activity by Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Walkley, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity influences health in individuals and within populations. This study explored factors perceived as enabling or inhibiting participation in physical activity by adults with intellectual disability from a health promotion perspective. Method: Six focus group interviews were conducted: adults with intellectual disability…

  8. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  9. Application and Reliability of the Retrospective Interview Procedure to Trace Physical Activity Patterns in Master Athletes and Nonactive Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Horton, Sean; Kraemer, Krista; Weir, Patricia; Deakin, Janice M.; Cote, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies. The purpose of the first study was to determine if lifestyle variables and past involvement in physical activity was related to current activity levels in master athletes and sedentary older adults. Retrospective interviews were conducted with 12 master athletes and 12 sedentary older adults. Results…

  10. Self-Regulation, Metacognition and Child- and Adult-Initiated Activity: Does It Matter Who Initiates the Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Debate about the balance between child- and adult-initiated activities in early childhood settings is long standing. This article reports a study of 29 children aged 4-5 years in a London state school, on the influences of child- and adult-initiated activities on children's self-regulation and metacognition. Whilst both contexts were supportive,…

  11. Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings.

  12. An expanded framework to determine physical activity and falls risks among diverse older adults.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Falling is a major health-related risk among older adults due to injuries, disability, and even death. Although physical activity (PA) can prevent falls, most older adults are inactive due to limited motivation. The purpose was to examine a motivational framework whereby the stages of change (SOC) and PA mediated the relations between the theory of planned behavior constructs and falls risks among 172 diverse older adults (M age = 72.36). The participants were assessed using standardized scales. Based on the path analysis, the hypothesized framework fit the sample data. The SOC and perceived control had significant path coefficients for PA (.48 and .43, respectively), and PA was linked to falls risks (-.54). Subjective norm was mostly associated with the SOC followed by attitude and perceived control. The variance explained in the SOC, PA, and falls risks were 28%, 59%, and 29%, respectively. Health promoters can use the proposed framework to promote PA and decrease falls risk. PMID:25651602

  13. Predicting black light trap catch and flight activity of Acrosternum hilare (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Kamminga, Katherine L; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas P; Brewster, Carlyle C

    2009-12-01

    A regression model was developed to predict the flight activity of Acrosternum hilare (Say) using data on the number of adults collected in a single black light trap located in Painter, VA, in the 18-yr period from 1990 to 2007. Eighteen initial weather variables, including cumulative precipitation over different time periods, mean monthly precipitation (PJA) and days below freezing (DFJA) from January to April, and mean monthly temperatures from December to April were tested in developing the regression model. Mixed (backward and forward) stepwise regression analysis showed that a two-variable model using PJA and DFJA was adequate for predicting the seasonal mean weekly number of A. hilare adults in the trap. Validation of the model using five independent black light trap data sets resulted in a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between observed and predicted mean weekly number of A. hilare adults caught in traps. Three peaks in flights of A. hilare adults were observed when mean trap catch was plotted over time for the 18-yr period. Peaks occurred at 319, 892, and 1,331 degree days (DD) from 1 January. Based on known developmental rates, the first peak was attributed to overwintered adults, the second to first-generation adults, and the third to a second generation of adults. This research suggests that A. hilare undergoes two complete generations in Virginia. Cumulative trap catch estimated from the 18-yr mean trap catch showed that 10, 50, and 90% of the total seasonal catch should occur by 153, 501, and 1,066 DD.

  14. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Ted K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders. PMID:27799910

  15. Impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Yoon, Kang Joon; Kee, Namkoong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2016-05-25

    Internet gaming disorder is defined as excessive and compulsive use of the internet to engage in games that leads to clinically significant psychosocial impairment. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with internet gaming disorder would be less sensitive to high-risk situations and show aberrant brain activation related to risk prediction processing. Young adults with internet gaming disorder underwent functional MRI while performing a risky decision-making task. The healthy control group showed stronger activations within the dorsal attention network and the anterior insular cortex, which were not found in the internet gaming disorder group. Our findings imply that young adults with internet gaming disorder show impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making, which might make them vulnerable when they need to adapt new behavioral strategies in high-risk situations. PMID:27092470

  16. The experience of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Morphy, Lorraine Y; Goodwin, Donna

    2012-04-01

    This exploratory study described the experiences of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments. The experiences of 3 female and 2 males with mobility impairments between 18 and 23 years of age were described using the interpretive phenomenological methods of individual interviews, written stories, and field notes. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: (a) interpreting the setting described participants' interpretation of the environment, person, and task when making movement choices; (b) alternative selection described how participants actively engaged in analyzing alternatives and choosing among them; and (c) implications of choices made described participants' evaluations of good and bad choices and what was learned. Evidence of effective choice making among adults with physical impairments suggests the potential efficacy of ecological task analysis as a pedagogical tool in physical activity contexts.

  17. Perceptions of physical activity engagement among adults with rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Maura D; Scanlon, Lauren; Frits, Michelle; Shadick, Nancy A; Sharby, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Aim Physical activity (PA) among adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suboptimal. This study assessed PA motivations and perceptions in adults with RA and rheumatologists. Methods Patients and rheumatologists participated in structured interviews led by a behavioral scientist. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded. Results Twenty-three patients (mean age = 63 [standard deviation = 10], 96% female) and seven rheumatologists (57% male, 29% fellows) participated. Nine themes emerged: communication with the rheumatologist, environment/access, symptom management, social support, mental health, breaking inactivity cycles, integrating PA into routines, staying in control and challenge/intimidation. Highly active patients viewed PA differently than low active patients. The need to compete with RA-free individuals may impede PA. Conclusion Understanding how patients conceptualize PA will enable clinicians to formulate PA strategies to motivate patients. PMID:26075028

  18. Objectively measured physical activity and balance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Brosky, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and balance in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults 40 years of age and older. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period using accelerometry, and balance was assessed using the Romberg test. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their subjective views on difficulty with falling in the past 12 months. For every 60-minute increase in light-intensity PA, participants were 10% (p = 0.04) more likely to have functional balance. Similarly, for every 1-minute increase in log-transformed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, participants were 23% (p = 0.04) more likely to have functional balance. Regular PA, regardless of intensity, may have health benefits for older adults and is associated with functional balance.

  19. Characteristic muscle activity patterns during gait initiation in the healthy younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Roya; Talebian, Saeed; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that gait initiation (GI) might be an optimal task for identifying postural control deficiencies. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify the strategies adopted by older subjects during this task. 16 healthy younger and 15 healthy older adults participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to begin forward stepping with their dominant limb in response to an auditory stimulus. The mean muscle activity, co-contraction index, and intra-subject coefficients of variation (intra-subject CVs) of dominant limb muscles in different phases of GI were measured. The level of association between the co-contraction index and intra-subject CV of muscles was also explored. This study showed that in the anticipatory phase, the younger group had larger amplitudes and more intra-subject CVs than older the group, particularly for the tibialis anterior muscle. However, the co-contraction index was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. During the weight transition phase, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and vastus lateralis muscles of older adults had a lower amplitude as compared to younger adults. However, during the locomotor phase, the activity of tibialis anterior was greater in comparison to younger adults. Also, during this phase, similar to the anticipatory phase, the co-contraction index between tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. Additionally, the larger co-contraction index of some muscles was associated with smaller intra-subject CV. These findings suggest that muscle behaviors are altered with aging and older adults employ different strategies in the different phases of GI as compared to younger adults.

  20. Delta Activity at Sleep Onset and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Gould, Christine E.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Jordan, Josh T.; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) has long been considered to be an abnormal variant in the electroencephalogram (EEG) among older adults. Prior work also indicates a predominance of slow wave EEG activity among patients with dementia. However, instability of state control occurring with aging generally and among many neurodegenerative diseases raises the possibility that FIRDA might represent the intrusion of sleep related elements of the EEG into the waking state. We examined delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in community-dwelling, older adults without dementia, and examined whether this activity is related to poorer cognitive performance. Methods: 153 community-dwelling, older adults without dementia underwent overnight polysomnography and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, and visuospatial ability. Delta activity during sleep/wake transitions (scored either as Waking or N1) was analyzed visually. Results: Participants were 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 y. DASO was present in 30 participants (19.6%). Age, years of education, sex, and body mass index did not differ between DASO (+) and (−) groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated faster reading of the Stroop color words in DASO (+) subjects (P = 0.007). None of the other cognitive domains differed between the two groups. Conclusions: DASO was relatively common in our sample of community-dwelling, older adults without dementia. DASO was not associated with poorer performance on any cognitive domain. Instead, individuals with DASO demonstrated better performance on a simple reading task. Although these findings suggest that an abnormal EEG activity may represent normal variation, our work underscores the importance of distinguishing DASO from FIRDA when examining sleep in older adults. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 725. Citation

  1. Using function-focused care to increase physical activity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of physical activity for older adults, adherence to regular physical activity recommendations is poor. Less than half of adults in this country meet physical activity recommendations with reasons for lack of adherence including such things as access, motivation, pain, fear, comorbidities, among others. To overcome these challenges, function-focused care was developed. Function-focused care is a philosophy of care that focuses on evaluating the older adult's underlying capability with regard to function and physical activity and helping him or her optimize and maintain physical function and ability and continually increase time spent in physical activity. Examples of function-focused care include such things as using verbal cues during bathing, so the older individual performs the tasks rather than the caregiver bathing the individual; walking a resident or patient to the bathroom rather than using a urinal, or taking a resident to an exercise class. There are now over 20 studies supporting the benefits of function-focused care approaches across all settings and different types of patient groups (i.e, those with mild versus moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment). The approaches for implementation of function-focused care have also been well supported and have moved beyond establishing effectiveness to considering dissemination and implementation of this approach into real world clinical settings. The process of dissemination and implementation has likewise been articulated and supported, and ongoing work needs to continue in this venue across all care settings. PMID:24894140

  2. The antiapoptotic activity of insect IAPs requires activation by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tenev, T; Ditzel, M; Zachariou, A; Meier, P

    2007-06-01

    Apoptosis represents a fundamental biological process that relies on the activation of caspases. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins represent a group of negative regulators of both caspases and cell death. The current model dictates that IAPs suppress apoptosis by blocking the catalytic pocket of effector caspases thereby preventing substrate entry. Here, we provide evolutionary evidence for the functional interplay between insect IAPs and the N-end rule-associated ubiquitylation machinery in neutralising effector caspases and cell death. We find that IAPs require 'priming' in order to function as antiapoptotic molecules. Consistently, we demonstrate that the antiapoptotic activity of diverse insect IAPs is activated by effector caspases, providing the cell with a sensitive strategy to monitor and neutralise active caspases. Almost 300 million years of evolutionary selection pressure has preserved a caspase cleavage site in insect IAPs that, following processing by a caspase, exposes a binding motif for the N-end-rule-associated degradation machinery. Recruitment of this ubiquitylation machinery into the 'cleaved-IAP:caspase' complex provides a mechanism to negatively regulate effector caspases and block apoptosis. Furthermore, comparisons between cellular and several viral IAPs suggest differences in their modes of action, as OpIAP3, CpGV-IAP3 and HcNPV-IAP3 fail to associate with several effector caspases. Evolutionary conservation of the N-end-rule degradation pathway in IAP-mediated regulation of apoptosis further corroborates the physiological relevance of this ubiquitylation-associated process.

  3. Intra-Individual Variability of Physical Activity in Older Adults With and Without Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Watts, Amber; Walters, Ryan W; Hoffman, Lesa; Templin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity shows promise for protection against cognitive decline in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand barriers to adoption of physical activity in this population, a clear understanding of daily and weekly activity patterns is needed. Most accelerometry studies report average physical activity over an entire wear period without considering the potential importance of the variability of physical activity. This study evaluated individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity and determined whether these differences could be predicted by AD status, day of wear, age, gender, education, and cardiorespiratory capacity. Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+) over one week in 86 older adults with and without AD (n = 33 and n = 53, respectively). Mixed-effects location-scale models were estimated to evaluate and predict individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with AD averaged 21% less activity, but averaged non-significantly greater intra-individual variability. Women and men averaged similar amounts of physical activity, but women were significantly less variable. The amount of physical activity differed significantly across days of wear. Increased cardiorespiratory capacity was associated with greater average amounts of physical activity. Investigation of individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity provided insight into differences by AD status, days of monitor wear, gender, and cardiovascular capacity. All individuals regardless of AD status were equally consistent in their physical activity, which may have been due to a highly sedentary sample and/or the early disease stage of those participants with AD. These results highlight the value of considering individual differences in both the amount and

  4. Intra-Individual Variability of Physical Activity in Older Adults With and Without Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Watts, Amber; Walters, Ryan W; Hoffman, Lesa; Templin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity shows promise for protection against cognitive decline in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand barriers to adoption of physical activity in this population, a clear understanding of daily and weekly activity patterns is needed. Most accelerometry studies report average physical activity over an entire wear period without considering the potential importance of the variability of physical activity. This study evaluated individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity and determined whether these differences could be predicted by AD status, day of wear, age, gender, education, and cardiorespiratory capacity. Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+) over one week in 86 older adults with and without AD (n = 33 and n = 53, respectively). Mixed-effects location-scale models were estimated to evaluate and predict individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with AD averaged 21% less activity, but averaged non-significantly greater intra-individual variability. Women and men averaged similar amounts of physical activity, but women were significantly less variable. The amount of physical activity differed significantly across days of wear. Increased cardiorespiratory capacity was associated with greater average amounts of physical activity. Investigation of individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity provided insight into differences by AD status, days of monitor wear, gender, and cardiovascular capacity. All individuals regardless of AD status were equally consistent in their physical activity, which may have been due to a highly sedentary sample and/or the early disease stage of those participants with AD. These results highlight the value of considering individual differences in both the amount and

  5. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Section 324.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j... in connection with activities involving the transport of dredged material for dumping into...

  6. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... condition of the waterbody in such a manner as to impact on its navigable capacity. For purposes of...

  7. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... condition of the waterbody in such a manner as to impact on its navigable capacity. For purposes of...

  8. Assembly of a Notch transcriptional activation complex requires multimerization.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Kaplan, Fred M; Weaver, Kelly L; VanWye, Jeffrey D; Alves-Guerra, Marie-Clotilde; Robbins, David J; Capobianco, Anthony J

    2011-04-01

    Notch transmembrane receptors direct essential cellular processes, such as proliferation and differentiation, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. Inappropriate release of the intracellular domain of Notch (N(ICD)) from the plasma membrane results in the accumulation of deregulated nuclear N(ICD) that has been linked to human cancers, notably T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Nuclear N(ICD) forms a transcriptional activation complex by interacting with the coactivator protein Mastermind-like 1 and the DNA binding protein CSL (for CBF-1/Suppressor of Hairless/Lag-1) to regulate target gene expression. Although it is well understood that N(ICD) forms a transcriptional activation complex, little is known about how the complex is assembled. In this study, we demonstrate that N(ICD) multimerizes and that these multimers function as precursors for the stepwise assembly of the Notch activation complex. Importantly, we demonstrate that the assembly is mediated by N(ICD) multimers interacting with Skip and Mastermind. These interactions form a preactivation complex that is then resolved by CSL to form the Notch transcriptional activation complex on DNA.

  9. Adult feeding moths (Sphingidae) differ from non-adult feeding ones (Saturniidae) in activity-timing overlap and temporal niche width.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Nícholas F; de Camargo, Willian R F; Corrêa, Danilo do C V; de Camargo, Amabílio J A; Vieira, Emerson M

    2016-02-01

    According to classic ecology, resource partitioning by segregation along at least one of the three main niche axes (time, food, and space) must take place for the coexistence of species with similar ecological requirements. We used nocturnal light traps to investigate the assemblage structuration of two moth families: Sphingidae (23 species) and Saturniidae (13 species). Because competition for food among adults potentially occurs only among sphingids, only for this family did we expect less overlap of diel activity patterns than expected by chance and also a greater temporal niche width compared to saturniids. Moreover, we expected a greater number of sphingid species pairs to differ in activity timing compared to saturniid pairs. We also hypothesized that in the case of a lack of temporal structuration, sphingids would be morphologically structured in relation to proboscis length. Contrary to what we expected, both families overlapped their activity patterns more than expected by chance alone and sphingid moths were not morphologically structured. Nevertheless, there were 173 significant pairwise differences in temporal activity between sphingids, contrasting with no interspecific differences between saturniids. Sphingid species also showed a wider temporal niche width than saturniids, as expected. Predation risk and abiotic factors may have caused the overall similarities in activity patterns for both families. The temporal niche seemed not to be determinant for the assemblage structuration of moths as a whole for either of the studied families, but segregation along the temporal niche axis of some potentially competing species pairs can be a relevant factor for the coexistence of nectar-feeding species.

  10. Antigen conformation determines processing requirements for T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, H Z; Berkower, I J; Busch, M; Gurd, F R; Berzofsky, J A

    1984-01-01

    We studied the difference in requirements for processing and presentation to a single T-cell clone of four different forms of the same epitope of sperm whale myoglobin--namely, on the native protein, on two conformationally altered forms of the protein, or as a 22-residue antigenic peptide fragment. The T-cell clone was I-Ed-restricted and specific for an epitope on the CNBr fragment 132-153 involving Lys-140. As inhibitors of macrophage processing of antigen, we used several agents that inhibit lysosomal function: the weak bases chloroquine and NH4Cl, the cationic ionophore monensin, and the competitive protease inhibitor leupeptin. When these agents were used to inhibit processing of antigen by presenting cells and then washed out before T cells were added to culture, they inhibited the presentation of native antigen but not of fragment 132-153. To our surprise, the intact but denatured form, S-methylmyoglobin, behaved like the fragment not like the native protein. Apomyoglobin was intermediate in susceptibility to inhibition. Thus, native myoglobin requires a processing step that appears to involve lysosomal proteolysis, which is not required by fragment 132-153 or the denatured unfolded forms. For an antigen the size of myoglobin (Mr 17,800), it appears that unfolding of the native conformation, rather than further reduction in size, is the critical parameter determining the need for processing. Since a major difference between native myoglobin and the other forms is the greater accessibility in the latter of sites, such as hydrophobic residues, buried in the native protein, we propose that processing may be necessary to expose these sites, perhaps for interaction with the cell membrane or the Ia of the antigen-presenting cell. PMID:6333686

  11. Alteration of PON1 activity in adult and childhood obesity and its relation to adipokine levels.

    PubMed

    Seres, Ildikó; Bajnok, László; Harangi, Mariann; Sztanek, Ferenc; Koncsos, Peter; Paragh, György

    2010-01-01

    Obesity as a pathogenic disorder is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and shows an increasing incidence in the industrialized countries. Adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin have a great impact on the development of atherosclerosis in obesity. Elevated levels of leptin have been found to be atherogenic whereas decreased levels of adiponectin have been proved to be anti-atherogenic in recent studies. The exact role of resistin in the process of atherosclerosis has so far remained uncertain and controversial. In our recent work, we studied the alteration in human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and adipokine levels; furthermore, we also aimed at identifying the potential correlation between these parameters in this metabolic disorder. We investigated the above-mentioned parameters both in adults and in children, with regard to the emerging role of childhood obesity and to get a clearer view of these factors during a whole lifetime. Investigating the adult population with a broad range of body mass index (BMI) we found significantly increased leptin and significantly decreased adiponectin and resistin levels and PON1 activity in the obese group compared to the lean controls. Adiponectin and resistin levels showed significantly positive correlation, while leptin and BMI showed significantly negative correlation with PON1 activity. Our findings were similar in childhood obesity: leptin showed significantly negative correlation, while adiponectin showed significantly positive correlation with PON1 activity. We found gender differences in the univariate correlations of leptin and adiponectin levels with PON1 activity in the adult population. In multiple regression analysis, adiponectin proved to be an independent factor of PON1 activity both in childhood and adult obesity, furthermore thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) also proved to be an independent predictor of the enzyme in adults, reflecting the important role of oxidative

  12. Effect of dietary lysine on growth, intestinal enzymes activities and antioxidant status of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Tang, Ling; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Chen, Gang-Fu; Li, Shu-Hong; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The dietary lysine requirement of sub-adult grass carp (460 ± 1.5 g) was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with grade levels of lysine (6.6, 8.5, 10.8, 12.9, 15.0 and 16.7 g kg(-1) diet) for 56 days. The test diets (28% CP) contained fish meal, casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Weight gain (WG), feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved with increasing levels of lysine up to 12.9 g kg(-1) diet and thereafter declined (P < 0.05). Quadratic regression analysis of WG at 95% maximum response indicated lysine requirement was 10.9 g kg(-1) diet. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in intestine, creatine kinase activity in proximal and mid-intestine responded similar to WG (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and protein oxidation decreased with increasing levels of lysine up to certain values and increased thereafter (P < 0.05); the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity, dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione content were increased with increasing dietary lysine levels up to certain values in the detected tissues, except for hepatopancreatic GST. Requirement estimated on the basis of malondialdehyde content in intestine and hepatopancreas was 10.6 and 9.53 g lysine kg(-1) diet, respectively. PMID:24174167

  13. Moderate Physical Activity in Healthy Adults Is Associated With Cardiac Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Timothy J.W.; Corden, Ben; Cotter, Sorcha; de Marvao, Antonio; Walsh, Roddy; Ware, James S.; Cook, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Cardiac mass and volumes are often elevated in athletes, but it is not known whether moderate physical activity is also associated with cardiac dilatation and hypertrophy in a healthy adult population. Methods and Results— In total, 1096 adults (54% female, median age 39 years) without cardiovascular disease or cardiomyopathy-associated genetic variants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine biventricular volumes and function. Physical activity was assessed using a validated activity questionnaire. The relationship between cardiac parameters and activity was assessed using multiple linear regression adjusting for age, sex, race, and systolic blood pressure. Logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of activity on the likelihood of subjects having cardiac dilatation or hypertrophy according to standard cardiac magnetic resonance normal ranges. Increasing physical activity was associated with greater left ventricular (LV) mass (β=0.23; P<0.0001) and elevated LV and right ventricular volumes (LV: β=0.26, P<0.0001; right ventricular: β=0.26, P<0.0001). Physical activity had a larger effect on cardiac parameters than systolic blood pressure (0.06≤β≤0.21) and a similar effect to age (−0.20≤β≤−0.31). Increasing physical activity was a risk factor for meeting imaging criteria for LV hypertrophy (adjusted odds ratio 2.1; P<0.0001), LV dilatation (adjusted odds ratio 2.2; P<0.0001), and right ventricular dilatation (adjusted odds ratio 2.2; P<0.0001). Conclusions— Exercise-related cardiac remodeling is not confined to athletes, and there is a risk of overdiagnosing cardiac dilatation or hypertrophy in a proportion of active, healthy adults. PMID:27502059

  14. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    PubMed Central

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2+ and Sox9+ adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors. PMID:27109116

  15. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  16. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults.

  17. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  18. Phytochrome activation of two nuclear genes requires cytoplasmic protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, E; Green, P J; Wong, M; Chua, N H

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on light-induced expression of two plant nuclear genes, Cab and rbcS, in wheat, pea and transgenic tobacco. Light activation of these two genes is very sensitive to cycloheximide, an inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis but not to chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of organellar protein synthesis. Studies with chimeric gene constructs in transgenic tobacco seedlings show that cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional level. As a control, we show that the expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter is enhanced by cycloheximide treatment, irrespective of the coding sequence used. Escape-time analyses with green wheat seedlings show that the cycloheximide block for Cab gene expression is after the primary signal transduction step linked to phytochrome photoconversion. Our results suggest that phytochrome activation of Cab and rbcS is mediated by a labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Images PMID:2583082

  19. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

  20. Assessing Physical Activity and Related Correlates Among Adults in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuliang; Zhang, Miaoxuan

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, some mental illnesses and some cancer. Despite the well-known benefits of physical activity, about half of the adults in the United States and Hawai‘i do not get enough. Rates of physical activity differ greatly among ethnic groups and interventions to increase physical activity may need to be tailored for specific ethnicities. In this study, 3,588 adults living in Hawai‘i completed a random digit dial survey on their physical activity level. Native Hawaiians and Whites were more likely to be active than Chinese, Filipino and Japanese respondents. Multivariate logistic regressions analyses eliminated differences between Whites, Filipinos and Chinese respondents; however, Native Hawaiians were still more likely to report meeting physical activity guidelines and Japanese were less likely. Other significant predictors included being younger, male, having a job involving heavy labor, being in the normal weight range, being in good or excellent health, having high self-efficacy, spending less time sitting, and walking a dog more frequently. Differences in meeting physical activity guidelines can be used in planning future public health campaigns. PMID:23155489

  1. Factors associated with physical activity among young adults with a disability.

    PubMed

    Saebu, M; Sørensen, M

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine: (1) total physical activity and (2) the relative importance of functioning and disability, environmental and personal factors for total physical activity among young adults with a disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health developed by the World Health Organization was used as a structural framework for a cross-sectional survey, based on a questionnaire. The population studied was 327 young adults (age 18-30) with a disability who were members of interest organizations for persons with disabilities. Using an adapted version of the self-administered short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the sample reported some differences in physical activity related to the type and the onset of disability. Linear regression analyses revealed that personal factors demonstrated more power in explaining the variance in physical activity than both the environmental factors and factors related to functioning and disability. As for the able-bodied, intrinsic motivation and identity as an active person were the factors most strongly associated with physical activity behavior. This should have important consequences for how professionals try to motivate people with disabilities for physical activity, and how they plan and implement rehabilitation.

  2. Socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Sarmento, Hugo; Ramos, Madalena; Diniz, José; Costa, Francisco Carreiro da

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (1,076 males, 1,383 females) were categorized into two groups according to recommended physical activities ranging from ≥ 10 or < 10 MET.hours.week-1. Leisure time physical activity data was self-reported, including activities, duration of each session and frequency. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Among men, having a high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.30-2.76; p = 0.001) was associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. For women, middle education levels were associated with physical activity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.85). Moreover, middle socioeconomic status (OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.80-1.91; p = 0.009) was also positively associated with meeting physical activities recommendations in the unadjusted analysis. Men and women had different patterns of socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of physical activity among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account.

  3. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  4. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  5. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  6. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  7. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  8. Reliability and validity of the valued activity inventory for adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults With Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument that measures activity limitations. Participants included 50 older adults undergoing chemotherapy who completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood 3 days before and the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. The 72-hour test-retest reliability ICC was 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p < .001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p < .001), lower symptom intensity (r = -0.57, p < .001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = -0.68, p < .001). The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.

  9. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. PMID:26944019

  10. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids.

  11. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  12. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  13. Fungal cellulase is an elicitor but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanan; Han, Chao; Chen, Jinyin; Li, Haiyun; He, Kun; Liu, Aixin; Li, Duochuan

    2015-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic fungi produce cellulases. However, little information is available on cellulase as an elicitor in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, an endocellulase (EG1) was isolated from Rhizoctonia solani. It contains a putative protein of 227 amino acids with a signal peptide and a family-45 glycosyl hydrolase domain. Its aspartic acid (Asp) residue at position 32 was changed to alanine (Ala), resulting in full loss of its catalytic activity. Wild-type and mutated forms of the endoglucanase were expressed in yeast and purified to homogeneity. The purified wild-type and mutant forms induced cell death in maize, tobacco and Arabidopsis leaves, and the transcription of three defence marker genes in maize and tobacco and 10 genes related to defence responses in maize. Moreover, they also induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), medium alkalinization, Ca(2+) accumulation and ethylene biosynthesis of suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Similarly, production of the EG1 wild-type and mutated forms in tobacco induced cell death using the Potato virus X (PVX) expression system. In vivo, expression of EG1 was also related to cell death during infection of maize by R. solani. These results provide direct evidence that the endoglucanase is an elicitor, but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity.

  14. United States data collection activities and requirements, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrin, S.; Mcgregor, D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential market for a data collection system was investigated to determine whether the user needs would be sufficient to support a satellite relay data collection system design. The activities of 107,407 data collections stations were studied to determine user needs in agriculture, climatology, environmental monitoring, forestry, geology, hydrology, meteorology, and oceanography. Descriptions of 50 distinct data collections networks are described and used to form the user data base. The computer program used to analyze the station data base is discussed, and results of the analysis are presented in maps and graphs. Information format and coding is described in the appendix.

  15. Genetic activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis and extends hippocampus-dependent long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Li, Tan; Abel, Glen M; Palmiter, Richard D; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that inhibition of adult neurogenesis impairs the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it is not known whether increasing adult neurogenesis affects the persistence of hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. Furthermore, signaling mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis are not fully defined. We recently reported that the conditional and targeted knock-out of ERK5 MAP kinase in adult neurogenic regions of the mouse brain attenuates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and disrupts several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory. Here, we developed a gain-of-function knock-in mouse model to specifically activate endogenous ERK5 in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain. We report that the selective and targeted activation of ERK5 increases adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by enhancing cell survival, neuronal differentiation, and dendritic complexity. Conditional ERK5 activation also improves the performance of challenging forms of spatial learning and memory and extends hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. We conclude that enhancing signal transduction of a single signaling pathway within adult neural stem/progenitor cells is sufficient to increase adult neurogenesis and improve the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, activation of ERK5 may provide a novel therapeutic target to improve long-term memory.

  16. Darkness during early postnatal development is required for normal circadian patterns in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Cambras, T; Canal, M M; Cernuda-Cernuda, R; García-Fernández, J M; Díez-Noguera, A

    2015-03-01

    Early light experience influences the brain during development. Perinatal light exposure has an important effect on the development of the circadian system, although the role of quantity versus quality of light in this process is still unclear. We tested the development of the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity under constant bright light from the day of weaning, of six groups of rats raised under different light conditions during suckling. Results indicated that when rats received daily darkness during suckling (rats reared under constant darkness or light-dark cycles with dim or bright light) became arrhythmic when exposed to continuous bright light after weaning. However, those rats reared in the absence of darkness (constant dim or bright light, or alternating dim and bright light) developed a circadian rhythm, which was stronger and had a shorter period depending on the quantity of light received during suckling. Vasointestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was higher in those rats with weaker rhythms. However, no apparent differences among these groups were found in the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells, which provide the SCN with light input in the photoentrainment process. When bright light was shifted to dim light in three of the groups on day 57 after weaning, all of them generated a circadian rhythm with a longer period in those rats previously arrhythmic. Our results indicate the importance of the amount of light received at the early stages of life in the development of the circadian system and suggest that darkness is needed for the normal development of circadian behaviour.

  17. Slicing-independent RISC activation requires the argonaute PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; Jin, Lan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A

    2012-08-21

    Small RNAs regulate genetic networks through a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which, in mammals, contains at its center one of four Argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4). A key regulatory event in the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways is Ago loading, wherein double-stranded small-RNA duplexes are incorporated into RISC (pre-RISC) and then become single-stranded (mature RISC), a process that is not well understood. The Agos contain an evolutionarily conserved PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain whose primary function is to bind the 3' end of small RNAs. We created multiple PAZ-domain-disrupted mutant Ago proteins and studied their biochemical properties and biological functionality in cells. We found that the PAZ domain is dispensable for Ago loading of slicing-competent RISC. In contrast, in the absence of slicer activity or slicer-substrate duplex RNAs, PAZ-disrupted Agos bound duplex small interfering RNAs, but were unable to unwind or eject the passenger strand and form functional RISC complexes. We have discovered that the highly conserved PAZ domain plays an important role in RISC activation, providing new mechanistic insights into how miRNAs regulate genes, as well as new insights for future design of miRNA- and RNAi-based therapeutics.

  18. PGC-1 Coactivator Activity Is Required for Murine Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuaiying; Tanabe, Osamu; Lim, Kim-Chew; Xu, H. Eric; Zhou, X. Edward; Lin, Jiandie D.; Shi, Lihong; Schmidt, Lindsay; Campbell, Andrew; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and PGC-1β have been shown to be intimately involved in the transcriptional regulation of cellular energy metabolism as well as other biological processes, but both coactivator proteins are expressed in many other tissues and organs in which their function is, in essence, unexplored. Here, we found that both PGC-1 proteins are abundantly expressed in maturing erythroid cells. PGC-1α and PGC-1β compound null mutant (Pgc-1c) animals express less β-like globin mRNAs throughout development; consequently, neonatal Pgc-1c mice exhibit growth retardation and profound anemia. Flow cytometry shows that the number of mature erythrocytes is markedly reduced in neonatal Pgc-1c pups, indicating that erythropoiesis is severely compromised. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed necrotic cell death and cell loss in Pgc-1c livers and spleen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that both PGC-1α and -1β, as well as two nuclear receptors, TR2 and TR4, coordinately bind to the various globin gene promoters. In addition, PGC-1α and -1β can interact with TR4 to potentiate transcriptional activation. These data provide new insights into our understanding of globin gene regulation and raise the interesting possibility that the PGC-1 coactivators can interact with TR4 to elicit differential stage-specific effects on globin gene transcription. PMID:24662048

  19. 20 CFR 665.200 - What are required Statewide workforce investment activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investment activities? 665.200 Section 665.200 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... eligible providers of training services (including those providing non-traditional training services), for adults and dislocated workers; (2) Information identifying eligible providers of on-the-job training...

  20. 20 CFR 665.200 - What are required Statewide workforce investment activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investment activities? 665.200 Section 665.200 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... eligible providers of training services (including those providing non-traditional training services), for adults and dislocated workers; (2) Information identifying eligible providers of on-the-job training...