Science.gov

Sample records for activity requires knowledge

  1. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  2. 49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All commercial motor vehicle operators must have knowledge of the following general areas: (a) Safe...

  3. Activating Event Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension. PMID:19298961

  4. 14 CFR 65.55 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.55 Section 65.55... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.55 Knowledge requirements. (a) A person who applies for an aircraft dispatcher certificate must pass a knowledge test on the...

  5. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements...

  6. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements...

  7. 14 CFR 63.53 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 63.53 Section 63.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.53 Knowledge requirements. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 63.53 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 63.53 Section 63.53... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.53 Knowledge requirements. (a) An..., including flight planning and cruise control; (3) Practical meteorology, including analysis of weather...

  9. 14 CFR 63.53 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 63.53 Section 63.53... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.53 Knowledge requirements. (a) An..., including flight planning and cruise control; (3) Practical meteorology, including analysis of weather...

  10. 14 CFR 63.53 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 63.53 Section 63.53... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.53 Knowledge requirements. (a) An..., including flight planning and cruise control; (3) Practical meteorology, including analysis of weather...

  11. 14 CFR 63.53 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 63.53 Section 63.53... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.53 Knowledge requirements. (a) An..., including flight planning and cruise control; (3) Practical meteorology, including analysis of weather...

  12. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.75 Section 65.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each...

  13. 14 CFR 65.35 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.35 Section 65.35... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.35 Knowledge... assistance service; (f) Air navigation, and aids to air navigation; and (g) Aviation weather....

  14. 14 CFR 65.35 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.35 Section 65.35... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.35 Knowledge... assistance service; (f) Air navigation, and aids to air navigation; and (g) Aviation weather....

  15. 14 CFR 65.35 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.35 Section 65.35... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.35 Knowledge... assistance service; (f) Air navigation, and aids to air navigation; and (g) Aviation weather....

  16. 14 CFR 65.35 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.35 Section 65.35... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.35 Knowledge... assistance service; (f) Air navigation, and aids to air navigation; and (g) Aviation weather....

  17. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant... this chapter. The basic principles covering the installation and maintenance of propellers are...

  18. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant... this chapter. The basic principles covering the installation and maintenance of propellers are...

  19. 14 CFR 65.35 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.35 Section 65.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.35...

  20. 14 CFR 63.35 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 63.35 Section 63.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN... written test, is employed as a flight crewmember or mechanic by a U.S. air carrier or commercial...

  1. Requirements analysis, domain knowledge, and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, Colin

    1988-01-01

    Two improvements to current requirements analysis practices are suggested: domain modeling, and the systematic application of analysis heuristics. Domain modeling is the representation of relevant application knowledge prior to requirements specification. Artificial intelligence techniques may eventually be applicable for domain modeling. In the short term, however, restricted domain modeling techniques, such as that in JSD, will still be of practical benefit. Analysis heuristics are standard patterns of reasoning about the requirements. They usually generate questions of clarification or issues relating to completeness. Analysis heuristics can be represented and therefore systematically applied in an issue-based framework. This is illustrated by an issue-based analysis of JSD's domain modeling and functional specification heuristics. They are discussed in the context of the preliminary design of simple embedded systems.

  2. The Impact of a Required Undergraduate Health and Wellness Course on Students' Awareness and Knowledge of Physical Activity and Chronic Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruganti, Usha

    2014-01-01

    As part of the undergraduate curriculum, the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) requires all students to take an undergraduate course in physical activity, health and wellness in their third year of study. This capstone course allows students to integrate concepts from their program regarding physical activity,…

  3. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  4. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The first clues to the process of gamete activation date back to nearly 60 years ago. The mutual activation of gametes is a crucial event during fertilization. In the testis and ovaries, spermatozoa and oocytes are in a state of meiotic and metabolic quiescence and require reciprocal signals in order to undergo functional changes that lead to competence for fertilization. First, the oocyte activates sperm by triggering motility, chemoattraction, binding and the acrosome reaction, culminating with the fusion of the two plasma membranes. At the end of this cascade of events, collectively known as sperm capacitation, sperm-induced oocyte activation occurs, generating electrical, morphological and metabolic modifications in the oocyte. Objective and rationale The aim of this review is to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the entire process of gamete activation in selected specific animal models that have contributed to our understanding of fertilization in mammals, including humans. Here we describe in detail the reciprocal induction of the two activation processes, the molecules involved and the mechanisms of cell interaction and signal transduction that ultimately result in successful embryo development and creation of a new individual. Search methods We carried out a literature survey with no restrictions on publication date (from the early 1950s to March 2016) using PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge by utilizing common keywords applied in the field of fertilization and embryo development. We also screened the complete list of references published in the most recent research articles and relevant reviews published in English (both animal and human studies) on the topics investigated. Outcomes Literature on the principal animal models demonstrates that gamete activation is a pre-requisite for successful fertilization, and is a process common to all species studied to date. We provide a detailed description of the dramatic

  5. 14 CFR 63.35 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1655(c)); and 14 CFR 11.49) ... written test, is employed as a flight crewmember or mechanic by a U.S. air carrier or commercial operator... training; and (iii) Meets the recurrent training requirements of the applicable part or, for...

  6. Knowledge Activation and Schema Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Marino C.

    This study examined how instruction that encourages critical thinking about what has been read can lead to incorporated knowledge that can be retrieved and applied to other related settings. Case-based learning (an instructional method long used with graduate business, law, and medical students) is one method that can be used to foster critical…

  7. Suppressing Irrelevant Information: Knowledge Activation or Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Danielle S.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined the role of knowledge activation in the suppression of contextually irrelevant meanings for ambiguous homographs. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants with greater baseball knowledge, regardless of reading skill, more quickly suppressed the irrelevant meaning of ambiguous words in baseball-related, but not…

  8. Suppressing irrelevant information: knowledge activation or inhibition?

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S; McDaniel, Mark A

    2004-03-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined the role of knowledge activation in the suppression of contextually irrelevant meanings for ambiguous homographs. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants with greater baseball knowledge, regardless of reading skill, more quickly suppressed the irrelevant meaning of ambiguous words in baseball-related, but not general-topic, sentences. Experiment 3 demonstrated that participants with greater general knowledge, regardless of reading skill, more quickly suppressed the irrelevant meaning of the ambiguous words in general-topic sentences. As predicted by D. S. McNamara's (1997) knowledge-based account of suppression, ambiguity effects are influenced by greater activation of knowledge related to the intended meaning of the homograph. These results challenge inhibition (e.g. M. A. Gernsbacher, K. R. Varner. & M. Faust, 1990) as the sole mechanism responsible for the suppression of irrelevant information.

  9. Active Tools for Better Knowledge Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Peter; Mikulecka, Jaroslava

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a solution to the inadequacy and passivity problems with push and pull technologies could be in a combination of both, with an active component, adding more intelligence to the whole process of information and knowledge dissemination and supply. Describes basic principles of activity components in intelligent systems, and some…

  10. Engineering knowledge requirements for sand and dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. I.

    1991-01-01

    The successful landing of human beings on Mars and the establishment of a permanent outpost there will require an understanding of the Martian environment by the engineers. A key feature of the Martian environment is the nearly ubiquitous presence of sand and dust. The process which the engineering community will undertake to determine the sensitivities of their designs to the current level of knowledge about Mars sand and dust is emphasized. The interaction of the engineering community with the space exploration initiative (SEI) mission planners and management is described.

  11. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an "invisible brain"? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an "invisible brain" or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  12. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an “invisible brain”? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an “invisible brain” or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  13. Knowledge and experience required for experts in atkins cases.

    PubMed

    Olley, J Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court's Atkins v. Virginia (2002) decision has created a need for experts who are knowledgeable and experienced in both mental retardation and forensic psychology. This article summarizes the issues that are critical to the diagnosis in the "close calls" that typify Atkins cases. A resolution of such close calls hinges upon the expert's ability to testify with regard to the characteristics of mild mental retardation and the way that diagnostic standards may be applied differently in clinical versus forensic settings. The critical impairments are not in the form of physical stigmata. They are characterized by difficulties in judgment when engaged in typical community functioning. The keys to these close calls are the individual's problems in functioning in the community with the degree of independence required for adults.

  14. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  15. Generalized Event Knowledge Activation during Online Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world events plays an important role in guiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local…

  16. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  17. Management of Knowledge Representation Standards Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patil, Ramesh S.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the mid-seventies, researchers have recognized that capturing knowledge is the key to building large and powerful AI systems. In the years since, we have also found that representing knowledge is difficult and time consuming. In spite of the tools developed to help with knowledge acquisition, knowledge base construction remains one of the major costs in building an Al system: For almost every system we build, a new knowledge base must be constructed from scratch. As a result, most systems remain small to medium in size. Even if we build several systems within a general area, such as medicine or electronics diagnosis, significant portions of the domain must be represented for every system we create. The cost of this duplication of effort has been high and will become prohibitive as we attempt to build larger and larger systems. To overcome this barrier we must find ways of preserving existing knowledge bases and of sharing, re-using, and building on them. This report describes the efforts undertaken over the last two years to identify the issues underlying the current difficulties in sharing and reuse, and a community wide initiative to overcome them. First, we discuss four bottlenecks to sharing and reuse, present a vision of a future in which these bottlenecks have been ameliorated, and describe the efforts of the initiative's four working groups to address these bottlenecks. We then address the supporting technology and infrastructure that is critical to enabling the vision of the future. Finally, we consider topics of longer-range interest by reviewing some of the research issues raised by our vision.

  18. Supporting Students' Knowledge Transfer in Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piksööt, Jaanika; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates ways to enhance secondary school students' knowledge transfer in complex science domains by implementing question prompts. Two samples of students applied two web-based models to study molecular genetics--the model of genetic code (n = 258) and translation (n = 245). For each model, the samples were randomly divided into…

  19. Course Ontology-Based User's Knowledge Requirement Acquisition from Behaviors within E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Qingtian; Zhao, Zhongying; Liang, Yongquan

    2009-01-01

    User's knowledge requirement acquisition and analysis are very important for a personalized or user-adaptive learning system. Two approaches to capture user's knowledge requirement about course content within an e-learning system are proposed and implemented in this paper. The first approach is based on the historical data accumulated by an…

  20. Health and Physical Activity Content Knowledge of Pima Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Cothran, Donetta J.

    2011-01-01

    This study grounded in constructivist theory and the public health literature investigated Native American children's knowledge related to physical activity and healthy behavior concepts. Learning tends to be more meaningful and relevant when teachers take into consideration the students' knowledge and experiences. Therefore it is important to…

  1. Organizational Learning from the Perspective of Knowledge Maturing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschig, A.; Maier, R.; Sandow, A.; Lazoi, M.; Schmidt, A.; Barnes, S.-A.; Bimrose, J.; Brown, A.; Bradley, C.; Kunzmann, C.; Mazarakis, A.

    2013-01-01

    The level of similarity of knowledge work across occupations and industries allows for the design of supportive information and communication technology (ICT) that can be widely used. In a previous ethnographically informed study, we identified activities that can be supported to increase knowledge maturing, conceptualized as goal-oriented…

  2. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  3. Management knowledge and skills required in the health care system of the Federation bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading.

  4. A Case Study of Interscholastic Coaches and Counselors: Understanding Knowledge of NCAA Freshmen Eligibility Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalla, Howard L.

    2013-01-01

    Limited knowledge or misinformation about NCAA eligibility rules or requirements can have a negative impact on student-athletes' exposure to Division I athletics. This exploratory holistic multiple case study was designed to delve deeply into the understanding of high school coaches and counselor's knowledge of NCAA rules concerning…

  5. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.115 Section 65.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill... appropriate military rating; (b) Pass a written test, with respect to parachutes in common use, on— (1)...

  6. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.119 Section 65.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill... parachute rigger and has satisfactorily packed at least 100 parachutes of each of two types in common...

  7. Finnish Mentor Mathematics Teachers' Views of the Teacher Knowledge Required for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…

  8. Knowledge-Building Activity Structures in Japanese Elementary Science Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Murayama, Isao; Inagaki, Shigenori; Takenaka, Makiko; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Etsuji; Nakayama, Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to refine Japanese elementary science activity structures by using a CSCL approach to transform the classroom into a knowledge-building community. We report design studies on two science lessons in two consecutive years and describe the progressive refinement of the activity structures. Through comparisons of student…

  9. The study on knowledge transferring incentive for information system requirement development

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang

    2015-03-10

    Information system requirement development is a process of users’ knowledge sharing and transferring. However the tacit requirements developing is a main problem during requirement development process, for the reason of difficult to encoding, express, and communicate. Knowledge fusion and corporate effort is needed to finding tacit requirements. Under this background, our paper try to find out the rule of effort dynamic evolutionary of software developer and user by building an evolutionary game model on the condition of incentive system. And in addition this paper provides an in depth discussion at the end of this paper.

  10. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  11. Generalized event knowledge activation during online sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world eventsplays an important role inguiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local linguistic context.The present study addresses this issue by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded as participants read brief scenariosdescribing typical real-world events. Experiment 1 demonstratesthat a contextually anomalous word elicits a reduced N400 if it is generally related to the described event, even when controlling for the degree of association of this word with individual words in the preceding context and with the expected continuation. Experiment 2 shows that this effect disappears when the discourse context is removed.These findings demonstrate that during the course of incremental comprehension, comprehenders activate general knowledge about the described event, even at points at which this knowledge would constitute an anomalous continuation of the linguistic stream. Generalized event knowledge activationcontributes to mental representations of described events, is immediately available to influence language processing, and likely drives linguistic expectancy generation. PMID:22711976

  12. Knowledge of pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gordia, Alex Pinheiro; de Quadros, Teresa Maria Bianchini; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; dos Santos, Gilton Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and guidance given by pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of pediatricians (n=210) who participated in a national pediatrics congress in 2013. Sociodemographic and professional data and data regarding habitual physical activity and pediatricians’ knowledge and instructions for young people regarding physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. Absolute and relative frequencies and means and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Most pediatricians were females, had graduated from medical school more than 15 years ago, and had residency in pediatrics. More than 70% of the participants reported to include physical activity guidance in their prescriptions. On the other hand, approximately two-thirds of the pediatricians incorrectly reported that children should not work out and less than 15% answered the question about physical activity barriers correctly. With respect to the two questions about physical activity to tackle obesity, incorrect answers were marked by more than 50% of the pediatricians. Most participants incorrectly reported that 30 min should be the minimum daily time of physical activity in young people. Less than 40% of the pediatricians correctly indicated the maximum time young people should spend in front of a screen. Conclusions: In general, the pediatricians reported that they recommend physical activity to their young patients, but specific knowledge of this topic was limited. Programs providing adequate information are needed. PMID:26298654

  13. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  14. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  15. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  16. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  17. Infrastructure requirement of knowledge management system model of statistical learning tool (SLT) for education community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Rusli; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Bolong, Jusang; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Shaffril, Hayrol Azril Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Today, teaching and learning (T&L) using technology as tool is becoming more important especially in the field of statistics as a part of the subject matter in higher education system environment. Eventhough, there are many types of technology of statistical learnig tool (SLT) which can be used to support and enhance T&L environment, however, there is lack of a common standard knowledge management as a knowledge portal for guidance especially in relation to infrastructure requirement of SLT in servicing the community of user (CoU) such as educators, students and other parties who are interested in performing this technology as a tool for their T&L. Therefore, there is a need of a common standard infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal in helping CoU for managing of statistical knowledge in acquiring, storing, desseminating and applying of the statistical knowedge for their specific purposes. Futhermore, by having this infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal model of SLT as a guidance in promoting knowledge of best practise among the CoU, it can also enhance the quality and productivity of their work towards excellence of statistical knowledge application in education system environment.

  18. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  19. Knowledge Activation, Integration, and Validation during Narrative Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Anne E.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous text comprehension studies using the contradiction paradigm primarily tested assumptions of the activation mechanism involved in reading. However, the nature of the contradiction in such studies relied on validation of information in readers' general world knowledge. We directly tested this validation process by varying the strength…

  20. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  1. Instructional Design for Teaching Physical Activities: A Knowledge Structures Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Joan N.

    This text uses the unique Knowledge Structures (KS) Model developed specifically for those who teach and coach complex physical skills. The KS Model provides the framework for constructing a sport-specific curriculum based on all of the pertinent information needed to perform a sport or activity. The model is cross-disciplinary, integrating…

  2. Enhancing Academic Engagement in Knowledge Transfer Activity in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis-Smythe, Jan

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing call in the UK over the last decade for universities to become more entrepreneurial with a strengthening of university and industry/community links to contribute more significantly to the knowledge economy., and for UK higher education institutions (HEIs) to consider ways in which they can more actively engage in…

  3. Knowledge management: evaluating the organizational requirements and culture for an emerging technology.

    PubMed Central

    Parton, Chris; Wang, Samuel J.; Middleton, Blackford

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of knowledge management concepts to an information systems (IS) knowledge base, as opposed to a clinical one. The field of Medical Informatics is committed to helping others manage medical information and knowledge through the application of information technology. At Partners HealthCare, a wide variety of clinical information management systems have been built and implemented in complex environments, creating an extensive applied informatics knowledge base. How should healthcare IS departments manage this intellectual capital? That's the question that Partners HealthCare is asking its senior and middle IS managers. This paper reports on an internal survey addressing Knowledge Management (KM) requirements, the potential application of this technology in our organization, and discusses where we are today and where to go from here. PMID:12463893

  4. A Knowledge-Based and Model-Driven Requirements Engineering Approach to Conceptual Satellite Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, Walter A.; Leonor, Bruno B. F.; Stephany, Stephan

    Satellite systems are becoming even more complex, making technical issues a significant cost driver. The increasing complexity of these systems makes requirements engineering activities both more important and difficult. Additionally, today's competitive pressures and other market forces drive manufacturing companies to improve the efficiency with which they design and manufacture space products and systems. This imposes a heavy burden on systems-of-systems engineering skills and particularly on requirements engineering which is an important phase in a system's life cycle. When this is poorly performed, various problems may occur, such as failures, cost overruns and delays. One solution is to underpin the preliminary conceptual satellite design with computer-based information reuse and integration to deal with the interdisciplinary nature of this problem domain. This can be attained by taking a model-driven engineering approach (MDE), in which models are the main artifacts during system development. MDE is an emergent approach that tries to address system complexity by the intense use of models. This work outlines the use of SysML (Systems Modeling Language) and a novel knowledge-based software tool, named SatBudgets, to deal with these and other challenges confronted during the conceptual phase of a university satellite system, called ITASAT, currently being developed by INPE and some Brazilian universities.

  5. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  6. Knowledge and Skill Requirements for Marketing Jobs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the skills and conceptual knowledge that employers require for marketing positions at different levels ranging from entry- or lower-level jobs to middle- and senior-level positions. The data for this research are based on a content analysis of 500 marketing jobs posted on Monster.com for Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York…

  7. Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

  8. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  9. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  10. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  11. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  12. Knowledge Integration While Interacting with an Online Troubleshooting Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Puterkovsky, Menashe; Bagno, Esther

    2013-08-01

    A troubleshooting activity was carried out by an e-tutor in two steps. First, students diagnosed a mistaken statement and then compared their diagnosis to a teacher's diagnosis provided by the e-tutor. The mistaken statement involved a widespread tendency to over-generalize Ohm's law. We studied the discourse between pairs of students working with the e-tutor to examine whether and how the activity attained its objective of engaging students in knowledge integration processes; namely to elicit students' ideas, add scientifically acceptable or non-acceptable ideas and support them in developing criteria to sort out their ideas. We focus here on two case studies involving a pair of students with high prior knowledge and a pair with poor prior knowledge. The micro-analysis of these two pairs shows how the activity triggered students to explicate multiple alternative interpretations of the principles and concepts involved and attempts to align conflicting conceptions. We discuss how successive emendations gradually culminated in the elaboration of the students' understanding of these concepts.

  13. Manned spaceflight activity planning with knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogilensky, J.; Dalton, R. E.; Scarl, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    An on-board expert system, capable of assisting with crew-activity planning and platform-status monitoring, could provide unprecedented autonomy to the crew of a permanently manned space station. To demonstrate this concept's feasibility, an existing knowledge-based system is adapted to support Space Shuttle crew-activity timeline planning. Proposed timeline changes are to be checked for compliance with crew capabilities and mission operating guidelines, so that a nonexpert can be guided through a successful plan modification. Early lessons that have been learned about the scope of the adaptation needed to achieve this objective are presented.

  14. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option. PMID:25789413

  15. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option.

  16. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  17. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  18. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  19. Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity promotion campaigns do better?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C L; Esliger, Dale W; Biddle, Stuart J H; Sherar, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of knowledge of the current UK physical activity guidelines which were introduced in 2011 and prior physical activity guidelines (30 min on 5 days each week) within two large samples of UK adult's. To investigate whether knowledge of physical activity guidelines differs according to demographics such as ethnicity, age, education and employment status. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study comparing two distinctive adult samples. Setting National survey and online-administered survey conducted in England. Participants The 2007 Health Survey for England provides data on knowledge of physical activity guidelines from 2860 UK adults (56% women, 89% white, 63% under 45 years old). In 2013, an online survey was disseminated and data were collected from 1797 UK adults on knowledge of the most recent physical activity guidelines. The 2013 sample was 70% women, 92% white and 57% under 45 years old. All adults in both samples were >18 years old and without illnesses/disorders likely to restrict physical activity. Main outcomes Knowledge of physical activity guidelines in 2007 and 2013. Demographic correlates of knowledge of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity guidelines. Results 18% of the 2013 sample accurately recalled the current physical activity guidelines compared with 11% of the 2007 sample who accurately recalled the previous guidelines. The differences in knowledge of physical activity guidelines existed for marital status, gender, age, education and employment status within both 2007 and 2013 samples (p<0.05). Men with lower education and employment status (unemployed including student and retired) and older adults were less likely to know physical activity guidelines (p<0.05). Knowledge of physical activity guidelines remained higher in the 2013 sample after controlling for demographic differences (p<0.05). Conclusions Disadvantaged population groups are less knowledgeable about physical activity guidelines

  20. Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-Level Airport Operations and Management Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies important topical knowledge areas required of individuals employed in airport operations and management positions. A total of 116 airport managers and airfield operations personnel responded to a survey that sought to identify the importance of various subject matter for entry level airport operations personnel. The results from this study add to the body of research on aviation management curriculum development and can be used to better develop university curriculum and supplemental training focused on airport management and operations. Recommendations are made for specialized airport courses within aviation management programs. Further, this study identifies for job seekers or individuals employed in entry level positions those knowledge requirements deemed important by airport managers and operations personnel at different sized airports.

  1. Effect of knowledge integration activities on students' perception of the earth's crust as a cyclic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-08-01

    Systems thinking is regarded as a high-order thinking skill required in scientific, technological, and everyday domains. However, little is known about systems thinking in the context of science education. In the current research, students' understanding of the rock cycle system after a learning program was characterized, and the effect of a concluding knowledge integration activity on their systems thinking was studied. Answers to an open-ended test were interpreted using a systems thinking continuum, ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. A meaningful improvement in students' views of the rock cycle toward the higher side of the systems thinking continuum was found after the knowledge integration activity. Students became more aware of the dynamic and cyclic nature of the rock cycle, and their ability to construct sequences of processes representing material transformation in relatively large chunks significantly improved. Success of the knowledge integration activity stresses the importance of postknowledge acquisition activities, which engage students in a dual process of differentiation of their knowledge and reintegration in a systems context. We suggest including such activities in curricula involving systems-based contents, particularly in earth science, in which systems thinking can bring about environmental literacy.

  2. The Body of Knowledge & Content Framework. Identifying the Important Knowledge Required for Productive Performance of a Plastics Machine Operator. Blow Molding, Extrusion, Injection Molding, Thermoforming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Designed to guide training and curriculum development to prepare machine operators for the national certification exam, this publication identifies the important knowledge required for productive performance by a plastics machine operator. Introductory material discusses the rationale for a national standard, uses of the Body of Knowledge,…

  3. Knowledge Work, Working Time, and Use of Time among Finnish Dual-Earner Families: Does Knowledge Work Require the Marginalization of Private Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Tammelin, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The industrial working-time regime is dissolving--not dramatically, but rather as a trend. A new trend is that those in dynamic sectors and in a good labor market position work long hours: Demanding knowledge work appears to require the marginalization of private life. This study investigates the family situation of knowledge workers, the…

  4. Knowledge Management Activity within the Satellite Domain in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateshita, Hiroaki; Soga, Midori; Fukuda, Takao; Miyoshi, Hiroshi

    Previously, each satellite project in JAXA had individually its own way of managing technical information (e.g. technical documents for planning, requirements, specifications, design, test, and operation). Although there was an information sharing environment in JAXA, no project actively submitted its own information due to a lack of functions for access control and for rapid acquisition of information, which are required by satellite projects. These situations made it very difficult for users to gather information on other projects. Additionally, there was the risk of losing significant knowledge of satellite projects upon their termination. In order to resolve these issues, minimum standard rules, including user-friendly classification rules, were established from the point of view of leveraging knowledge through long discussions with each project. An information system with appropriate access control was developed to implement the standard rules. Since April 2007, the rules and the system have been applied to each project. The risk of losing knowledge has been reduced by enabling the terminated projects to smoothly transfer their technical information to the system. This paper presents an overview of our current knowledge-management activity within the satellite domain including the remaining issues and the proposed solutions to these issues.

  5. The Extension-Reduction Strategy: Activating Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloyer, Cliff W.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical problem is solved using the extension-reduction or build it up-tear it down tactic. This technique is implemented in reviving students' earlier knowledge to enable them to apply this knowledge to solving new problems.

  6. Impact of a Required Pharmaceutical Calculations Course on Mathematics Ability and Knowledge Retention

    PubMed Central

    Buring, Shauna M.; Papas, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ mathematics ability by content area before and after completing a required pharmaceutical calculations course and to analyze changes in scores. Methods. A mathematics skills assessment was administered to 2 cohorts of pharmacy students (class of 2013 and 2014) before and after completing a pharmaceutical calculations course. The posttest was administered to the second cohort 6 months after completing the course to assess knowledge retention. Results. Both cohorts performed significantly better on the posttest (cohort 1, 13% higher scores; cohort 2, 15.9% higher scores). Significant improvement on posttest scores was observed in 6 of the 10 content areas for cohorts 1 and 2. Both cohorts scored lower in percentage calculations on the posttest than on the pretest. Conclusions. A required, 1-credit-hour pharmaceutical calculations course improved PharmD students’ overall ability to perform fundamental and application-based calculations. PMID:23966727

  7. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  8. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at the... dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then immunization treatment must...

  9. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  10. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... youth. (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at... of dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then...

  11. 42 CFR 441.56 - Required activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (See paragraph (c)(3) of this section for requirements relating to provision of immunization at the... dental health; and (3) Appropriate immunizations. (If it is determined at the time of screening that immunization is needed and appropriate to provide at the time of screening, then immunization treatment must...

  12. Frequency requirements for active earth observation sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The foundation and rationale for the selection of microwave frequencies for active remote sensing usage and for subsequent use in determination of sharing criteria and allocation strategies for the WARC-79 are presented.

  13. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  14. Sparse Representation of Electrodermal Activity With Knowledge-Driven Dictionaries

    PubMed Central

    Tsiartas, Andreas; Stein, Leah I.; Cermak, Sharon A.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2015-01-01

    Biometric sensors and portable devices are being increasingly embedded into our everyday life, creating the need for robust physiological models that efficiently represent, analyze, and interpret the acquired signals. We propose a knowledge-driven method to represent electrodermal activity (EDA), a psychophysiological signal linked to stress, affect, and cognitive processing. We build EDA-specific dictionaries that accurately model both the slow varying tonic part and the signal fluctuations, called skin conductance responses (SCR), and use greedy sparse representation techniques to decompose the signal into a small number of atoms from the dictionary. Quantitative evaluation of our method considers signal reconstruction, compression rate, and information retrieval measures, that capture the ability of the model to incorporate the main signal characteristics, such as SCR occurrences. Compared to previous studies fitting a predetermined structure to the signal, results indicate that our approach provides benefits across all aforementioned criteria. This paper demonstrates the ability of appropriate dictionaries along with sparse decomposition methods to reliably represent EDA signals and provides a foundation for automatic measurement of SCR characteristics and the extraction of meaningful EDA features. PMID:25494494

  15. "What-Where-Which" Episodic Retrieval Requires Conscious Recollection and Is Promoted by Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia, Samuel; Thévenet, Marc; Plailly, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the conscious retrieval of specific past events. Whether accurate episodic retrieval requires a recollective experience or if a feeling of knowing is sufficient remains unresolved. We recently devised an ecological approach to investigate the controlled cued-retrieval of episodes composed of unnamable odors (What) located spatially (Where) within a visual context (Which context). By combining the Remember/Know procedure with our laboratory-ecological approach in an original way, the present study demonstrated that the accurate odor-evoked retrieval of complex and multimodal episodes overwhelmingly required conscious recollection. A feeling of knowing, even when associated with a high level of confidence, was not sufficient to generate accurate episodic retrieval. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the recollection of accurate episodic memories was promoted by odor retrieval-cue familiarity and describability. In conclusion, our study suggested that semantic knowledge about retrieval-cues increased the recollection which is the state of awareness required for the accurate retrieval of complex episodic memories. PMID:26630170

  16. Antifreeze glycoprotein agents: structural requirements for activity.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Rondanelli, Patricio A; Marshall, Sergio H; Guzman, Fanny

    2011-11-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are considered to be the most efficient means to reduce ice damage to cell tissues since they are able to inhibit growth and crystallization of ice. The key element of antifreeze proteins is to act in a non-colligative manner which allows them to function at concentrations 300-500 times lowers than other dissolved solutes. During the past decade, AFGPs have demonstrated tremendous potential for many pharmaceutical and food applications. Presently, the only route to obtain AFGPs involves the time consuming and expensive process of isolation and purification from deep-sea polar fishes. Unfortunately, it is not amenable to mass production and commercial applications. The lack of understanding of the mechanism through which the AFGPs inhibit ice growth has also hampered the realization of industrial and biotechnological applications. Here we report the structural motifs that are essential for antifreeze activity of AFGPs, and propose a unified mechanism based on both recent studies of short alanine peptides and structure activity relationship of synthesized AFGPs.

  17. Effects of a Web-Based Health Program on Fifth Grade Children's Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen; Graham, George; Elliott, Eloise

    2005-01-01

    American children continue to be less physically active than they were a decade ago. Web-based programs (e-Learning), requiring minimal teacher training and expertise, could contribute to improvements in children's health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the e-Learning module…

  18. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  19. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  20. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  1. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  2. 10 CFR 490.507 - Credit activity reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit activity reporting requirements. 490.507 Section 490.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.507 Credit activity reporting requirements. (a) A...

  3. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  4. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  5. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  6. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  7. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  8. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  9. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  10. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  11. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  12. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  13. 18 CFR 390.2 - Activities requiring registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Activities requiring registration. 390.2 Section 390.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES ELECTRONIC REGISTRATION § 390.2 Activities requiring registration. (a) Electronic registration is...

  14. Previewing Pictures: A Means of Activating Prior Knowledge in Content Area Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance prior knowledge plays in learning in the content areas. Discusses previewing pictures as a prereading activity and presents a picture analysis activity which can be used to activate prior knowledge to use as a foundation for good bridge building. (MG)

  15. Activation of Background Knowledge for Inference Making: Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbro, Carsten; Buch-Iversen, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Failure to "activate" relevant, existing background knowledge may be a cause of poor reading comprehension. This failure may cause particular problems with inferences that depend heavily on prior knowledge. Conversely, teaching how to use background knowledge in the context of gap-filling inferences could improve reading comprehension in…

  16. Activity Theory as a Framework for Analysing Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalst, Jan; Hill, Cher M.

    2006-01-01

    Content analyses of computer databases parsed into notes or ideas do not shed adequate light on the role of collaboration and the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning environment in knowledge building; analysis of what is happening in the classroom and how students interpret that is also needed. This study used ethnographic methods to explore…

  17. 12 CFR 980.3 - New business activity notice requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... undertaking a new business activity, except as provided in § 980.4(b), a Bank shall submit to the Finance... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New business activity notice requirement. 980.3 Section 980.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES...

  18. A self-care educational intervention to improve knowledge of dietary phosphorus control in patients requiring hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, Rhonda M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to improve knowledge of dietary phosphorus control in patients requiring hemodialysis. The evidence-based literature suggests that nonadherence to phosphorous control in diets is a major health concern for patients who require hemodialysis because they have limited kidney function. Phosphorus tends to accumulate rather than be excreted. A self-care educational intervention was used in a pilot study (N = 10) to increase patients' knowledge about low phosphorous diets to promote dietary adherence. The outcome of this study was evaluated by a pre-test/post-test of patients' knowledge about phosphorus in the diet. A positive gain in knowledge was realized related to the intervention.

  19. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  20. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value. PMID:26244719

  1. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value.

  2. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  3. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  4. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  5. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material...

  6. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair.

  7. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  8. Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ellis, Peter C.

    2010-11-09

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.

  9. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  10. Knowledge Representations Underlying Covert Metalinguistic Activity: A Working Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Covert metalinguistic activity has received little attention in the field of second language (L2) education, even though the few studies that have examined this type of attention to language note that it plays a role in L2 learning and use. However, little is known about this phenomenon. The study reported in this article focuses on the knowledge…

  11. Knowledge Integration While Interacting with an Online Troubleshooting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Puterkovsky, Menashe; Bagno, Esther

    2013-01-01

    A troubleshooting activity was carried out by an e-tutor in two steps. First, students diagnosed a mistaken statement and then compared their diagnosis to a teacher's diagnosis provided by the e-tutor. The mistaken statement involved a widespread tendency to over-generalize Ohm's law. We studied the discourse between pairs of students…

  12. Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: acquisition of graph knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2015-07-01

    It is known that active exploration of a new environment leads to better spatial learning than does passive visual exposure. We ask whether specific components of active learning differentially contribute to particular forms of spatial knowledge-the exploration-specific learning hypothesis. Previously, we found that idiothetic information during walking is the primary active contributor to metric survey knowledge (Chrastil & Warren, 2013). In this study, we test the contributions of 3 components to topological graph and route knowledge: visual information, idiothetic information, and cognitive decision making. Four groups of participants learned the locations of 8 objects in a virtual hedge maze by (a) walking or (b) watching a video, crossed with (1) either making decisions about their path or (2) being guided through the maze. Route and graph knowledge were assessed by walking in the maze corridors from a starting object to the remembered location of a test object, with frequent detours. Decision making during exploration significantly contributed to subsequent route finding in the walking condition, whereas idiothetic information did not. Participants took novel routes and the metrically shortest routes on the majority of both direct and barrier trials, indicating that labeled graph knowledge-not merely route knowledge-was acquired. We conclude that, consistent with the exploration-specific learning hypothesis, decision making is the primary component of active learning for the acquisition of topological graph knowledge, whereas idiothetic information is the primary component for metric survey knowledge.

  13. Achieving Professional Competency in Developmental Physical Activity: The Need for a Consensual Body of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Earle F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical education must change its image of being "jack of all trades, master of none" and create an appropriate name and consensual taxonomy of knowledge for its work. There is an urgent need for proven professional competency in developmental physical activity based on a consensual body of knowledge. (SM)

  14. Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: acquisition of graph knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2015-07-01

    It is known that active exploration of a new environment leads to better spatial learning than does passive visual exposure. We ask whether specific components of active learning differentially contribute to particular forms of spatial knowledge-the exploration-specific learning hypothesis. Previously, we found that idiothetic information during walking is the primary active contributor to metric survey knowledge (Chrastil & Warren, 2013). In this study, we test the contributions of 3 components to topological graph and route knowledge: visual information, idiothetic information, and cognitive decision making. Four groups of participants learned the locations of 8 objects in a virtual hedge maze by (a) walking or (b) watching a video, crossed with (1) either making decisions about their path or (2) being guided through the maze. Route and graph knowledge were assessed by walking in the maze corridors from a starting object to the remembered location of a test object, with frequent detours. Decision making during exploration significantly contributed to subsequent route finding in the walking condition, whereas idiothetic information did not. Participants took novel routes and the metrically shortest routes on the majority of both direct and barrier trials, indicating that labeled graph knowledge-not merely route knowledge-was acquired. We conclude that, consistent with the exploration-specific learning hypothesis, decision making is the primary component of active learning for the acquisition of topological graph knowledge, whereas idiothetic information is the primary component for metric survey knowledge. PMID:25419818

  15. Activation of Inaccurate Prior Knowledge Affects Primary-School Students' Metacognitive Judgments and Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loon, Mariette H.; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether activation of inaccurate prior knowledge before study contributes to primary-school children's commission errors and overconfidence in these errors when learning new concepts. Findings indicate that inaccurate prior knowledge affects children's learning and calibration. The level of children's judgments of learning…

  16. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  17. Effects of Activation of Prior Knowledge on the Recall of a Clinical Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    A study investigated the known phenomenon of "intermediate effect" in which medical students with an intermediate amount of knowledge and experience demonstrate higher amounts of recall of the text of a medical case than either experienced clinicians or novices. In this study the amount of activation of prior knowledge was controlled by having…

  18. Social studies of volcanology: knowledge generation and expert advice on active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive; Bravo, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the philosophy and evolution of volcanological science in recent years, particularly in relation to the growth of volcanic hazard and risk science. It uses the lens of Science and Technology Studies to examine the ways in which knowledge generation is controlled and directed by social forces, particularly during eruptions, which constitute landmarks in the development of new technologies and models. It also presents data from a survey of volcanologists carried out during late 2008 and early 2009. These data concern the felt purpose of the science according to the volcanologists who participated and their impressions of the most important eruptions in historical time. It demonstrates that volcanologists are motivated both by the academic science environment and by a social concern for managing the impact of volcanic hazards on populations. Also discussed are the eruptions that have most influenced the discipline and the role of scientists in policymaking on active volcanoes. Expertise in volcanology can become the primary driver of public policy very suddenly when a volcano erupts, placing immense pressure on volcanologists. In response, the epistemological foundations of volcanology are on the move, with an increasing volume of research into risk assessment and management. This requires new, integrated methodologies for knowledge collection that transcend scientific disciplinary boundaries.

  19. Exploring the Behavioral Patterns of an Online Knowledge-Sharing Discussion Activity among Teachers with Problem-Solving Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2009-01-01

    The sharing of teaching-related knowledge may help teachers solve a variety of problems that they face, and the appropriate use of online knowledge-sharing activities is expected to assist teachers' knowledge-sharing. This study proposed an online knowledge-sharing discussion activity, integrated with a problem-solving strategy for teachers.…

  20. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  1. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  2. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  3. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  4. 10 CFR 63.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 63.46 Section 63.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Issuance and Amendment §...

  5. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  6. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  7. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  8. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR STRUCTURES OR WORK IN OR AFFECTING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...; however, if those activities involve the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant......

  9. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  10. MafG Sumoylation Is Required for Active Transcriptional Repression

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hozumi; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Miyoshi, Chika; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Hisato; Francastel, Claire; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    A straightforward mechanism for eliciting transcriptional repression would be to simply block the DNA binding site for activators. Such passive repression is often mediated by transcription factors that lack an intrinsic repressor activity. MafG is a bidirectional regulator of transcription, a repressor in its homodimeric state but an activator when heterodimerized with p45. Here, we report that MafG is conjugated to SUMO-2/3 in vivo. To clarify the possible physiological role(s) for sumoylation in regulating MafG activity, we evaluated mutant and wild-type MafG in transgenic mice and cultured cells. Whereas sumoylation-deficient MafG activated p45-dependent transcription normally and did not affect heterodimer activity, repression by the sumoylation-deficient MafG mutant was severely compromised in vivo. Furthermore, the SUMO-dependent repression activity of MafG was sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibition. Thus, repression by MafG is not achieved through simple passive repression by competing for the activator binding site but requires sumoylation, which then mediates transcriptional repression through recruitment of a repressor complex containing histone deacetylase activity. PMID:16738329

  11. Origins of weak lensing systematics, and requirements on future instrumentation (or knowledge of instrumentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, Richard; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas; Rhodes, Jason; Cropper, Mark; Amiaux, Jerome; Harvey, David; Mellier, Yannick; Meneghetti, Massimo; Miller, Lance; Paulin-Henriksson, Stephane; Pires, Sandrine; Scaramella, Roberto; Schrabback, Tim

    2012-12-13

    The first half of this paper explores the origin of systematic biases in the measurement of weak gravitational lensing. Compared to previous work, we expand the investigation of point spread function instability and fold in for the first time the effects of non-idealities in electronic imaging detectors and imperfect galaxy shape measurement algorithms. In addition, these now explain the additive A(ℓ) and multiplicative M(ℓ) systematics typically reported in current lensing measurements. We find that overall performance is driven by a product of a telescope/camera's absolute performance, and our knowledge about its performance.

  12. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. PMID:15739850

  13. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  14. Structural Requirements for the Procoagulant Activity of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gansler, Julia; Jaax, Miriam; Leiting, Silke; Appel, Bettina; Greinacher, Andreas; Fischer, Silvia; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids, especially extracellular RNA, are exposed following tissue- or vessel damage and have previously been shown to activate the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway in vitro and in vivo. Yet, no information on structural requirements for the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids is available. A comparison of linear and hairpin-forming RNA- and DNA-oligomers revealed that all tested oligomers forming a stable hairpin structure were protected from degradation in human plasma. In contrast to linear nucleic acids, hairpin forming compounds demonstrated highest procoagulant activities based on the analysis of clotting time in human plasma and in a prekallikrein activation assay. Moreover, the procoagulant activities of the DNA-oligomers correlated well with their binding affinity to high molecular weight kininogen, whereas the binding affinity of all tested oligomers to prekallikrein was low. Furthermore, four DNA-aptamers directed against thrombin, activated protein C, vascular endothelial growth factor and nucleolin as well as the naturally occurring small nucleolar RNA U6snRNA were identified as effective cofactors for prekallikrein auto-activation. Together, we conclude that hairpin-forming nucleic acids are most effective in promoting procoagulant activities, largely mediated by their specific binding to kininogen. Thus, in vivo application of therapeutic nucleic acids like aptamers might have undesired prothrombotic or proinflammatory side effects. PMID:23226277

  15. Current Situation and Analysis of Geography Teachers' Active Learning Knowledge and Usage in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuna, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    In parallel to the developments in the approach to education, the secondary education geography curriculum in Turkey was renewed in 2005. This new programme encourages the use of active learning methods and techniques in the classroom by adopting the idea that students should construct and interpret knowledge by actively participating in the…

  16. Active and Passive Spatial Learning in Human Navigation: Acquisition of Graph Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R.; Warren, William H.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that active exploration of a new environment leads to better spatial learning than does passive visual exposure. We ask whether specific components of active learning differentially contribute to particular forms of spatial knowledge--the "exploration-specific learning hypothesis". Previously, we found that idiothetic…

  17. Active and Passive Spatial Learning in Human Navigation: Acquisition of Survey Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R.; Warren, William H.

    2013-01-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment would lead to better spatial learning than would passive visual exposure. It is unclear, however, which components of active learning contribute to spatial knowledge, and previous literature is decidedly mixed. This experiment tests the contributions of 4 components to…

  18. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  19. Youth knowledge of physical activity health benefits: a Brazilian case study.

    PubMed

    Zieff, Susan Gail; Guedes, Claudia Maria; Wiley, James

    2006-12-28

    This study presents the findings of a questionnaire-based investigation of knowledge about the relationship of physical activity to health among adolescent participants of a community-based physical activity intervention program in São Paulo, Brazil. Qualitative (inductive content analysis) and quantitative methods were applied to examine the participants' responses to two open-ended questions concerning the health benefits of physical activity and the educational goals of the intervention. More than 75% of all participants stated that health benefits (of some type) are attained through participation in physical activity. More than 50% of participants reported that the goal of the intervention was to educate people about the importance of a healthy, active lifestyle. Adolescents understand the relationship of physical activity to health as reflected in their knowledge assessments; their lifestyle choices support these beliefs. These findings offer encouragement for the development and implementation of educationally oriented interventions aimed at providing physical activity information and programming.

  20. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  1. The Effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile Learning Activities Guided by Activity Theory on Students' Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barhoumi, Chokri

    2015-01-01

    This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a blended learning course titled Scientific Research Methods in Information Science. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge Management (KM). During the 2014 academic year,…

  2. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and activity of men conscripted into the military

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education PMID:20875121

  3. Building knowledge requires bricks, not sand: The critical role of familiar constituents in learning.

    PubMed

    Reder, Lynne M; Liu, Xiaonan L; Keinath, Alexander; Popov, Vencislav

    2016-02-01

    Despite vast efforts to better understand human learning, some principles have been overlooked; specifically, that less familiar stimuli are more difficult to combine to create new knowledge and that this is because less familiar stimuli consume more working memory resources. Participants previously unfamiliar with Chinese characters were trained to discriminate visually similar characters during a visual search task over the course of a month, during which half of the characters appeared much more frequently. Ability to form associations involving these characters was tested via cued recall for novel associations consisting of two Chinese characters and an English word. Each week performance improved on the cued-recall task. Crucially, however, even though all Chinese character pairs were novel each week, those pairs consisting of more familiar characters were more easily learned. Performance on a working-memory task was better for more familiar stimuli, consistent with the claim that familiar stimuli consume fewer working memory resources. These findings have implications for optimal instruction, including second language learning.

  4. Building knowledge requires bricks, not sand: The critical role of familiar constituents in learning.

    PubMed

    Reder, Lynne M; Liu, Xiaonan L; Keinath, Alexander; Popov, Vencislav

    2016-02-01

    Despite vast efforts to better understand human learning, some principles have been overlooked; specifically, that less familiar stimuli are more difficult to combine to create new knowledge and that this is because less familiar stimuli consume more working memory resources. Participants previously unfamiliar with Chinese characters were trained to discriminate visually similar characters during a visual search task over the course of a month, during which half of the characters appeared much more frequently. Ability to form associations involving these characters was tested via cued recall for novel associations consisting of two Chinese characters and an English word. Each week performance improved on the cued-recall task. Crucially, however, even though all Chinese character pairs were novel each week, those pairs consisting of more familiar characters were more easily learned. Performance on a working-memory task was better for more familiar stimuli, consistent with the claim that familiar stimuli consume fewer working memory resources. These findings have implications for optimal instruction, including second language learning. PMID:26139355

  5. Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  6. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed.

  7. Parental Knowledge of Adolescent Activities: Links with Parental Attachment Style and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  8. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  9. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  10. Decision-making in amnesia: do advantageous decisions require conscious knowledge of previous behavioural choices?

    PubMed

    Gutbrod, Klemens; Krouzel, Claudine; Hofer, Helene; Müri, René; Perrig, Walter; Ptak, Radek

    2006-01-01

    Previous work has reported that in the Iowa gambling task (IGT) advantageous decisions may be taken before the advantageous strategy is known [Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1997). Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science, 275, 1293-1295]. In order to test whether explicit memory is essential for the acquisition of a behavioural preference for advantageous choices, we measured behavioural performance and skin conductance responses (SCRs) in five patients with dense amnesia following damage to the basal forebrain and orbitofrontal cortex, six amnesic patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe or the diencephalon, and eight control subjects performing the IGT. Across 100 trials healthy participants acquired a preference for advantageous choices and generated large SCRs to high levels of punishment. In addition, their anticipatory SCRs to disadvantageous choices were larger than to advantageous choices. However, this dissociation occurred much later than the behavioural preference for advantageous alternatives. In contrast, though exhibiting discriminatory autonomic SCRs to different levels of punishment, 9 of 11 amnesic patients performed at chance and did not show differential anticipatory SCRs to advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Further, the magnitude of anticipatory SCRs did not correlate with behavioural performance. These results suggest that the acquisition of a behavioural preference--be it for advantageous or disadvantageous choices--depends on the memory of previous reinforcements encountered in the task, a capacity requiring intact explicit memory.

  11. Thiamin pyrophosphokinase is required for thiamin cofactor activation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ajjawi, Imad; Rodriguez Milla, Miguel A; Cushman, John; Shintani, David K

    2007-09-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is an essential enzyme cofactor required for the viability of all organisms. Whether derived from exogenous sources or through de novo synthesis, thiamin must be pyrophosphorylated for cofactor activation. The enzyme thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPK) catalyzes the conversion of free thiamin to TPP in plants and other eukaryotic organisms and is central to thiamin cofactor activation. While TPK activity has been observed in a number of plant species, the corresponding gene/protein has until now not been identified or characterized for its role in thiamin metabolism. Here we report the functional identification of two Arabidopsis TPK genes, AtTPK1 and AtTPK2 and the enzymatic characterization of the corresponding proteins. AtTPK1 and AtTPK2 are biochemically redundant cytosolic proteins that are similarly expressed throughout different plant tissues. The essential nature of TPKs in plant metabolism is reflected in the observation that while single gene knockouts of either AtTPK1 or AtTPK2 were viable, the double mutant possessed a seedling lethal phenotype. HPLC analysis revealed the double mutant is nearly devoid of TPP and instead accumulates the precursor of the TPK reaction, free thiamin. These results suggest that TPK activity provides the sole mechanism by which exogenous and de novo derived thiamin is converted to the enzyme cofactor TPP.

  12. Active Prospective Control Is Required for Effective Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Casserly, Elizabeth; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Passive modeling of movements is often used in movement therapy to overcome disabilities caused by stroke or other disorders (e.g. Developmental Coordination Disorder or Cerebral Palsy). Either a therapist or, recently, a specially designed robot moves or guides the limb passively through the movement to be trained. In contrast, action theory has long suggested that effective skill acquisition requires movements to be actively generated. Is this true? In view of the former, we explicitly tested the latter. Previously, a method was developed that allows children with Developmental Coordination Disorder to produce effective movements actively, so as to improve manual performance to match that of typically developing children. In the current study, we tested practice using such active movements as compared to practice using passive movement. The passive movement employed, namely haptic tracking, provided a strong test of the comparison, one that showed that the mere inaction of the muscles is not the problem. Instead, lack of prospective control was. The result was no effective learning with passive movement while active practice with prospective control yielded significant improvements in performance. PMID:24194891

  13. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  14. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  15. Physical Activity and Fitness Knowledge Learning in Physical Education: Seeking a Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang; Sun, Haichun; Zhu, Xihe

    2013-01-01

    Motivation to learn is a disposition developed through exposure to learning opportunities. Guided by the expectancy-value theory of Eccles and Wigfield (1995), this study examined the extent to which expectancy belief and task value influenced elementary school students' physical activity and knowledge learning in physical education (PE).…

  16. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  17. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  18. Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

    Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

  19. Effect of Knowledge Integration Activities on Students' Perception of the Earth's Crust as a Cyclic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes students' understanding of the rock cycle system. Examines effects of a knowledge integration activity on their system thinking. Interprets answers to an open-ended test using a systems thinking continuum ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. Reports meaningful…

  20. The Role of Specificity, Targeted Learning Activities, and Prior Knowledge for the Effects of Relevance Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelle, Julian; Lehmkuhl, Nina; Beyer, Martin-Uwe; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the role of (a) specificity, (b) the type of targeted learning activities, and (c) learners' prior knowledge for the effects of relevance instructions on learning from instructional explanations. In Experiment 1, we recruited novices regarding the topic of atomic structure (N = 80) and found that "specific"…

  1. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  2. Post-Knowledge of Results Delay: Effects of Interpolated Activity on Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Carol; McCullagh, Penny

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence strongly supports the assumption that knowledge of results (KR) is necessary for learning to occur. This study compares the effects of KR or no-KR with the effects of an interpolated verbal activity on learning and performance of a timed motor task. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Clinicians in Promoting Physical Activity to Prostate Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…

  4. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  5. Activation of oligodendroglial Stat3 is required for efficient remyelination.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Andrew J; Zhou, Yun; Koito, Hisami; Kim, SunJa; Payne, H Ross; Lu, Q Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most prevalent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is histologically characterized by perivascular demyelination as well as neurodegeneration. While the degree of axonal damage is correlated with clinical disability, it is believed that remyelination can protect axons from degeneration and slow disease progression. Therefore, understanding the intricacies associated with myelination and remyelination may lead to therapeutics that can enhance the remyelination process and slow axon degeneration and loss of function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) family cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin 11 (IL-11) are known to promote oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination in experimental models of demyelination. Because CNTF family member binding to the gp130 receptor results in activation of the JAK2/Stat3 pathway we investigated the necessity of oligodendroglial Stat3 in transducing the signal required for myelination and remyelination. We found that Stat3 activation in the CNS coincides with myelination during development. Stimulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with CNTF or LIF promoted OPC survival and final differentiation, which was completely abolished by pharmacologic blockade of Stat3 activation with JAK2 inhibitor. Similarly, genetic ablation of Stat3 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells prevented CNTF-induced OPC differentiation in culture. In vivo, while oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling appears to be dispensable for developmental CNS myelination, it is required for oligodendrocyte regeneration and efficient remyelination after toxin-induced focal demyelination in the adult brain. Our data suggest a critical function for oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling in myelin repair. PMID:27060559

  6. Activation of oligodendroglial Stat3 is required for efficient remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Steelman, Andrew J.; Zhou, Yun; Koit, Hisami; Kim, SunJa; Payne, H. Ross; Lu, Q. Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most prevalent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is histologically characterized by perivascular demyelination as well as neurodegeneration. While the degree of axonal damage is correlated with clinical disability, it is believed that remyelination can protect axons from degeneration and slow disease progression. Therefore, understanding the intricacies associated with myelination and remyelination may lead to therapeutics that can enhance the remyelination process and slow axon degeneration and loss of function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) family cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin11(IL-11) are known to promote oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination in experimental models of demyelination. Because CNTF family member binding to the gp 130 receptor results in activation of the JAK2/Stat3 pathway we investigated the necessity of oligodendroglial Stat3 in transducing the signal required for myelination and remyelination. We found that Stat3 activation in the CNS coincides with myelination during development. Stimulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with CNTF or LIF promoted OPC survival and final differentiation, which was completely abolished by pharmacologic blockade of Stat3 activation with JAK2 inhibitor. Similarly, genetic ablation of Stat3 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells prevented CNTF-induced OPC differentiation in culture. In vivo, while oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling appears to be dispensable for developmental CNS myelination, it is required for oligodendrocyte regeneration and efficient remyelination after toxin-induced focal demyelination in the adult brain. Our data suggest a critical function for oligodendroglial Stat3 signaling in myelin repair. PMID:27060559

  7. Close, but no garlic: Perceptuomotor and event knowledge activation during language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that language comprehension is guided by knowledge about the organization of objects and events in long-term memory. We use event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine the extent to which perceptuomotor object knowledge and event knowledge are immediately activated during incremental language processing. Event-related but anomalous sentence continuations preceded by single-sentence event descriptions elicited reduced N400s, despite their poor fit within local sentence contexts. Anomalous words sharing particular sensory or motor attributes with contextually expected words also elicited reduced N400s, despite being inconsistent with global context (i.e., event information). We rule out plausibility as an explanation for both relatedness effects. We show that perceptuomotor-related facilitation is not due to lexical priming between words in the local context and the target or to associative or categorical relationships between expected and unexpected targets. Overall our results are consistent with the immediate and incremental activation of perceptual and motor object knowledge and generalized event knowledge during sentence processing. PMID:25897182

  8. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18–30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  9. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  10. Photosensitization is required for antiretroviral activity of hypericin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Susan; Tossberg, John; Kraus, George A.

    1991-06-01

    In a seminal series of papers, Meruelo and co-workers have described the potent antiretroviral effect of hypericin. Interestingly, hypericin was found to inhibit not only the production of infectious virus from chronically infected cells, but was also shown to directly inhibit reverse transcriptase activity of mature virions. The effect of hypericin on cells chronically infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus genetically related to HIV, is demonstrated. At concentrations of 10 (mu) g/ml, hypericin reduced production of infectious EIAV by 99.99 without causing obvious cytopathic effects. Interestingly, the results indicated that the antiretroviral activity of hypericin was wholly dependent on the presence of light. No decrease in viral infectivity was observed when hypericin and virus were incubated in the dark. Moreover, it appeared that light was an absolute requirement for the antiviral activity, as even high concentrations of hypericin (10 (mu) g/ml) were unable to reduce infectivity of as few as 100 infectious virions.

  11. The Roles of Structured Input Activities in Processing Instruction and the Kinds of Knowledge They Promote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Emma; Chen, Hsin-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate the effects of the two input activities in Processing Instruction: referential activities, which force learners to focus on a form and its meaning, and affective activities, which contain exemplars of the target form and require learners to process sentence meaning. One hundred and twenty 12-year-old Taiwanese learners…

  12. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that child-centred, 5E learning cycle-based climate change activities would have over more traditional teacher-centred activities on Malaysian Year 5 primary students (11 years). A quasi-experimental design involving a treatment (n = 55) and a group representing typical teaching method (n = 60) was used to measure the effectiveness of these activities on (a) increasing children's knowledge about global warming; (b) changing their attitudes to be more favourable towards the environment and (c) identify the relationship between knowledge and attitude that exist in this study. Statistically significant differences in favour of the treatment group were detected for both knowledge and environmental attitudes. Non-significant relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude in this study. Interviews with randomly selected students from treatment and comparison groups further underscore these findings. Implications are discussed.

  13. Challenges of Knowledge Management and Creation in Communities of Practice Organisations of Deaf and Non-Deaf Members: Requirements for a Web Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego Roberto; Garcia, Laura Sanchez; Lopes da Silva, Rafaella Aline; Fernandes, Sueli

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a…

  14. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  15. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  16. 21 CFR 1301.11 - Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Persons required to register; requirement of modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. 1301.11 Section 1301.11 Food and Drugs... modification of registration authorizing activity as an online pharmacy. (a) Every person who...

  17. Formation of Tankyrase Inhibitor-Induced Degradasomes Requires Proteasome Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nina Marie; Thorvaldsen, Tor Espen; Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang; Wenzel, Eva Maria; Stenmark, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In canonical Wnt signaling, the protein levels of the key signaling mediator β-catenin are under tight regulation by the multimeric destruction complex that mediates proteasomal degradation of β-catenin. In colorectal cancer, destruction complex activity is often compromised due to mutations in the multifunctional scaffolding protein Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC), leading to a stabilization of β-catenin. Recently, tankyrase inhibitors (TNKSi), a novel class of small molecule inhibitors, were shown to re-establish a functional destruction complex in APC-mutant cancer cell lines by stabilizing AXIN1/2, whose protein levels are usually kept low via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by the tankyrase enzymes (TNKS1/2). Surprisingly, we found that for the formation of the morphological correlates of destruction complexes, called degradasomes, functional proteasomes are required. In addition we found that AXIN2 is strongly upregulated after 6 h of TNKS inhibition. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 counteracted TNKSi-induced degradasome formation and AXIN2 stabilization, and this was accompanied by reduced transcription of AXIN2. Mechanistically we could implicate the transcription factor FoxM1 in this process, which was recently shown to be a transcriptional activator of AXIN2. We observed a substantial reduction in TNKSi-induced stabilization of AXIN2 after siRNA-mediated depletion of FoxM1 and found that proteasome inhibition reduced the active (phosphorylated) fraction of FoxM1. This can explain the decreased protein levels of AXIN2 after MG132 treatment. Our findings have implications for the design of in vitro studies on the destruction complex and for clinical applications of TNKSi. PMID:27482906

  18. Temporal Dynamics of Activation of Thematic and Functional Knowledge During Conceptual Processing of Manipulable Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Kalénine, Solène; Mirman, Daniel; Middleton, Erica L.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research aimed at specifying the activation time course of different types of semantic information during object conceptual processing and the effect of context on this time course. We distinguished between thematic and functional knowledge and the specificity of functional similarity. Two experiments were conducted with healthy older adults using eye tracking in a word-to-picture matching task. The time course of gaze fixations was used to assess activation of distractor objects during the identification of manipulable artifact targets (e.g., broom). Distractors were (a) thematically related (e.g., dustpan), (b) related by a specific function (e.g., vacuum cleaner), or (c) related by a general function (e.g., sponge). Growth curve analyses were used to assess competition effects when target words were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and embedded in contextual sentences of different generality levels (Experiment 2). In the absence of context, there was earlier and shorter lasting activation of thematically related as compared to functionally related objects. The time course difference was more pronounced for general functions than specific functions. When contexts were provided, functional similarities that were congruent with context generality level increased in salience with earlier activation of those objects. Context had little impact on thematic activation time course. These data demonstrate that processing a single manipulable artifact concept implicitly activates thematic and functional knowledge with different time courses and that context speeds activation of context-congruent functional similarity. PMID:22449134

  19. Temporal dynamics of activation of thematic and functional knowledge during conceptual processing of manipulable artifacts.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Mirman, Daniel; Middleton, Erica L; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2012-09-01

    The current research aimed at specifying the activation time course of different types of semantic information during object conceptual processing and the effect of context on this time course. We distinguished between thematic and functional knowledge and the specificity of functional similarity. Two experiments were conducted with healthy older adults using eye tracking in a word-to-picture matching task. The time course of gaze fixations was used to assess activation of distractor objects during the identification of manipulable artifact targets (e.g., broom). Distractors were (a) thematically related (e.g., dustpan), (b) related by a specific function (e.g., vacuum cleaner), or (c) related by a general function (e.g., sponge). Growth curve analyses were used to assess competition effects when target words were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and embedded in contextual sentences of different generality levels (Experiment 2). In the absence of context, there was earlier and shorter lasting activation of thematically related as compared to functionally related objects. The time course difference was more pronounced for general functions than specific functions. When contexts were provided, functional similarities that were congruent with context generality level increased in salience with earlier activation of those objects. Context had little impact on thematic activation time course. These data demonstrate that processing a single manipulable artifact concept implicitly activates thematic and functional knowledge with different time courses and that context speeds activation of context-congruent functional similarity.

  20. Changes in Primary School Children's Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environments Related to Nutrition and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Magarey, Anthea Margaret; Pettman, Tahna Lee; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Rigorous evaluation of large-scale community-based obesity interventions can provide important guidance to policy and decision makers. The eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs, a five-year multilevel, multistrategy community-based obesity intervention targeting children in a range of settings, was delivered in two communities. A comprehensive mixed-methods evaluation using a quasiexperimental design with nonmatched comparison communities was undertaken. This paper describes the changes in primary school children's attitudes, behaviours, knowledge, and environments associated with healthy eating and physical activity, based on data from six questionnaires completed pre- and postintervention by students, parents, and school representatives. As self-reported by students in years from five to seven there were few significant improvements over time in healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, attitudes, knowledge, and perceived environments, and there were few changes in the home environment (parent report). Overall there were considerably more improvements in intervention compared with comparison schools affecting all environmental areas, namely, policy, physical, financial, and sociocultural, in addition to improvements in teacher skill and knowledge. These improvements in children's learning environments are important and likely to be sustainable as they reflect a change of school culture. More sensitive evaluation tools may detect behaviour changes. PMID:24555153

  1. Lipoprotein lipase activity is required for cardiac lipid droplet production.

    PubMed

    Trent, Chad M; Yu, Shuiqing; Hu, Yunying; Skoller, Nathan; Huggins, Lesley A; Homma, Shunichi; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-04-01

    The rodent heart accumulates TGs and lipid droplets during fasting. The sources of heart lipids could be either FFAs liberated from adipose tissue or FAs from lipoprotein-associated TGs via the action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Because circulating levels of FFAs increase during fasting, it has been assumed that albumin transported FFAs are the source of lipids within heart lipid droplets. We studied mice with three genetic mutations: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α deficiency, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) deficiency, and heart-specific LpL deletion. All three genetically altered groups of mice had defective accumulation of lipid droplet TGs. Moreover, hearts from mice treated with poloxamer 407, an inhibitor of lipoprotein TG lipolysis, also failed to accumulate TGs, despite increased uptake of FFAs. TG storage did not impair maximal cardiac function as measured by stress echocardiography. Thus, LpL hydrolysis of circulating lipoproteins is required for the accumulation of lipids in the heart of fasting mice.

  2. Lipoprotein lipase activity is required for cardiac lipid droplet production.

    PubMed

    Trent, Chad M; Yu, Shuiqing; Hu, Yunying; Skoller, Nathan; Huggins, Lesley A; Homma, Shunichi; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-04-01

    The rodent heart accumulates TGs and lipid droplets during fasting. The sources of heart lipids could be either FFAs liberated from adipose tissue or FAs from lipoprotein-associated TGs via the action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Because circulating levels of FFAs increase during fasting, it has been assumed that albumin transported FFAs are the source of lipids within heart lipid droplets. We studied mice with three genetic mutations: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α deficiency, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) deficiency, and heart-specific LpL deletion. All three genetically altered groups of mice had defective accumulation of lipid droplet TGs. Moreover, hearts from mice treated with poloxamer 407, an inhibitor of lipoprotein TG lipolysis, also failed to accumulate TGs, despite increased uptake of FFAs. TG storage did not impair maximal cardiac function as measured by stress echocardiography. Thus, LpL hydrolysis of circulating lipoproteins is required for the accumulation of lipids in the heart of fasting mice. PMID:24493834

  3. Network effect of knowledge spillover: Scale-free networks stimulate R&D activities and accelerate economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Tomohiko

    2016-09-01

    We study how knowledge spillover networks affect research and development (R&D) activities and economic growth. For this purpose, we extend a Schumpeterian growth model to the one on networks that depict the knowledge spillover relationships of R&D. We show that scale-free networks stimulate R&D activities and accelerate economic growth.

  4. The Relation between the Nature of Prior Knowledge Activated and Information Processing: To Elaborate or To Infer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; Schmidt, Henk G.

    Effects of mobilizing prior knowledge on information processing were studied with 3 groups of 12 adult subjects each. The assumption that activating different kinds of prior knowledge would induce different information processing activities during subsequent text processing (inferencing or elaborating) was tested using passages about fishing…

  5. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to make themselves available for work in that State, as well as which newspapers in each traditional... employment in which the employer's work is to be performed as required in paragraph (i)(2) of this section... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth...

  6. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  7. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  8. 20 CFR 655.1302 - Required pre-filing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for agricultural clearance orders in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.104. (3) The SWA will review the contents of the job order as provided in 20 CFR part 653 Subpart... prior to completion of the housing inspection required by 20 CFR 653.501(d)(6) where necessary to...

  9. 12 CFR 1272.3 - New business activity notice requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... targeted by the activity; (iii) The delivery system for the activity; and (iv) The effect of the activity... chapter; and (4) A demonstration of the Bank's capacity, personnel, technology, experience and...

  10. Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Feracci, Helene; Raptis, Leda

    2010-03-10

    Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

  11. Research and development for Onboard Navigation (ONAV) ground based expert/trainer system: ONAV entry knowledge requirements specification update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1988-01-01

    A revised version of expert knowledge for the onboard navigation (ONAV) entry system is given. Included is some brief background information together with information describing the knowledge that the system does contain.

  12. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.

  13. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity. PMID:25905767

  14. Activation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by phenylalanine does not require binding in the active site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth M; Khan, Crystal A; Hinck, Cynthia S; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-12-16

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), a liver enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine, is activated by phenylalanine. The lack of activity at low levels of phenylalanine has been attributed to the N-terminus of the protein's regulatory domain acting as an inhibitory peptide by blocking substrate access to the active site. The location of the site at which phenylalanine binds to activate the enzyme is unknown, and both the active site in the catalytic domain and a separate site in the N-terminal regulatory domain have been proposed. Binding of catecholamines to the active-site iron was used to probe the accessibility of the active site. Removal of the regulatory domain increases the rate constants for association of several catecholamines with the wild-type enzyme by ∼2-fold. Binding of phenylalanine in the active site is effectively abolished by mutating the active-site residue Arg270 to lysine. The k(cat)/K(phe) value is down 10⁴ for the mutant enzyme, and the K(m) value for phenylalanine for the mutant enzyme is >0.5 M. Incubation of the R270K enzyme with phenylalanine also results in a 2-fold increase in the rate constants for catecholamine binding. The change in the tryptophan fluorescence emission spectrum seen in the wild-type enzyme upon activation by phenylalanine is also seen with the R270K mutant enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine. Both results establish that activation of PheH by phenylalanine does not require binding of the amino acid in the active site. This is consistent with a separate allosteric site, likely in the regulatory domain.

  15. Temperature Knowledge and Model Correlation for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Reflector Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Dawson, Douglas; Kwack, Eug

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth observing Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 km near-polar, sun synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its 3 year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within 3 days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, a temperature knowledge of 60 deg C for the mesh reflector is required. In order to show compliance, a thermal vacuum test was conducted using a portable solar simulator to illuminate a non flight, but flight-like test article through the quartz window of the vacuum chamber. The molybdenum wire of the antenna mesh is too fine to accommodate thermal sensors for direct temperature measurements. Instead, the mesh temperature was inferred from resistance measurements made during the test. The test article was rotated to five separate angles between 10 deg and 90 deg via chamber breaks to simulate the maximum expected on-orbit solar loading during the mission. The resistance measurements were converted to temperature via a resistance versus temperature calibration plot that was constructed from data collected in a separate calibration test. A simple thermal model of two different representations of the mesh (plate and torus) was created to correlate the mesh temperature predictions to within 60 deg C. The on-orbit mesh

  16. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  17. 33 CFR 322.4 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 322.4 Section 322.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... established Federal harbor lines before May 27, 1970 (see 33 CFR 320.4(o)) do not require section 10 permits... States after October 18, 1972, a section 404 permit is required. (See 33 CFR part 323.) (b) Pursuant...

  18. Frequent Surfing on Social Health Networks is Associated With Increased Knowledge and Patient Health Activation

    PubMed Central

    Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Results Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (P<.05) were found between frequency and duration of site visits and patient activation, social relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, P<.05). Experienced users with diabetes surfed more than those with other illnesses and had significantly higher PAM scores (mean, M=69.3, standard deviation, SD=19.1, PAM level 4; Z=−4.197, P<.001) than new users (M=62.8, SD=18.7, PAM level 3). Disease knowledge directly predicted PAM for all users (β=.26 and .21, respectively). Frequency and duration of social health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM

  19. Sleep spindle activity is associated with the integration of new memories and existing knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Tamminen, Jakke; Payne, Jessica D.; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Sleep spindle activity has been associated with improvements in procedural and declarative memory. Here, for the first time, we looked at the role of spindles in the integration of newly learned information with existing knowledge, contrasting this with explicit recall of the new information. Two groups of participants learned novel spoken words (e.g., cathedruke) that overlapped phonologically with familiar words (e.g., cathedral). The sleep group was exposed to the novel words in the evening, followed by an initial test, a polysomnographically (PSG) monitored night of sleep, and second test in the morning. The wake group was exposed and initially tested in the morning, and spent a retention interval of similar duration awake. Finally, both groups were tested a week later at the same circadian time to control for possible circadian effects. In the sleep group, participants recalled more words and recognized them faster after sleep, while in the wake group such changes were not observed until the final test one week later. Following acquisition of the novel words, recognition of the familiar words was slowed in both groups, but only after the retention interval, indicating that the novel words had been integrated into the mental lexicon following consolidation. Importantly, spindle activity was associated with overnight lexical integration in the sleep group, but not with gains in recall rate or recognition speed of the novel words themselves. Spindle activity appears to be particularly important for overnight integration of new memories with existing neocortical knowledge. PMID:20980591

  20. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

    PubMed

    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context. PMID:19461232

  1. Virk: an active learning-based system for bootstrapping knowledge base development in the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Ambert, Kyle H; Cohen, Aaron M; Burns, Gully A P C; Boudreau, Eilis; Sonmez, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    The frequency and volume of newly-published scientific literature is quickly making manual maintenance of publicly-available databases of primary data unrealistic and costly. Although machine learning (ML) can be useful for developing automated approaches to identifying scientific publications containing relevant information for a database, developing such tools necessitates manually annotating an unrealistic number of documents. One approach to this problem, active learning (AL), builds classification models by iteratively identifying documents that provide the most information to a classifier. Although this approach has been shown to be effective for related problems, in the context of scientific databases curation, it falls short. We present Virk, an AL system that, while being trained, simultaneously learns a classification model and identifies documents having information of interest for a knowledge base. Our approach uses a support vector machine (SVM) classifier with input features derived from neuroscience-related publications from the primary literature. Using our approach, we were able to increase the size of the Neuron Registry, a knowledge base of neuron-related information, by a factor of 90%, a knowledge base of neuron-related information, in 3 months. Using standard biocuration methods, it would have taken between 1 and 2 years to make the same number of contributions to the Neuron Registry. Here, we describe the system pipeline in detail, and evaluate its performance against other approaches to sampling in AL.

  2. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  3. Left prefrontal cortex activation during sentence comprehension covaries with grammatical knowledge in children.

    PubMed

    Knoll, L J; Obleser, J; Schipke, C S; Friederici, A D; Brauer, J

    2012-08-01

    Children's language skills develop rapidly with increasing age, and several studies indicate that they use language- and age-specific strategies to understand complex sentences. In the present experiment, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral measures were used to investigate the acquisition of case-marking cues for sentence interpretation in the developing brain of German preschool children with a mean age of 6 years. Short sentences were presented auditorily, consisting of a transitive verb and two case-marked arguments with canonical subject-initial or non canonical object-initial word order. Overall group results revealed mainly left hemispheric activation in the perisylvian cortex with increased activation in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for object-initial compared to subject-initial sentences. However, single-subject analysis suggested two distinct activation patterns within the group which allowed a classification into two subgroups. One subgroup showed the predicted activation increase in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the more difficult object-initial compared to subject-initial sentences, while the other group showed the reverse effect. This activation in the left IFG can be taken to reflect the degree to which adult-like sentence processing strategies, necessary to integrate case-marking information, are applied. Additional behavioral data on language development tests show that these two subgroups differ in their grammatical knowledge. Together with these behavioral findings, the results indicate that the use of a particular processing strategy is not dependent on age as such, but rather on the child's individual grammatical knowledge and the ability to use specific language cues for successful sentence comprehension.

  4. Required Preliminary Administrative Service Credential Program Culminating Activities in California NCATE Accredited Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to share information about the variety of culminating activities used in the acquisition of the California Preliminary Administrative Services Credential. Knowledge of these varying culminating activities and related practices has not previously been readily available. The culminating activities among…

  5. Activation of wingless targets requires bipartite recognition of DNA by TCF.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mikyung V; Chang, Jinhee L; Gangopadhyay, Anu; Shearer, Andrew; Cadigan, Ken M

    2008-12-01

    Specific recognition of DNA by transcription factors is essential for precise gene regulation. In Wingless (Wg) signaling in Drosophila, target gene regulation is controlled by T cell factor (TCF), which binds to specific DNA sequences through a high mobility group (HMG) domain. However, there is considerable variability in TCF binding sites, raising the possibility that they are not sufficient for target location. Some isoforms of human TCF contain a domain, termed the C-clamp, that mediates binding to an extended sequence in vitro. However, the significance of this extended sequence for the function of Wnt response elements (WREs) is unclear. In this report, we identify a cis-regulatory element that, to our knowledge, was previously unpublished. The element, named the TCF Helper site (Helper site), is essential for the activation of several WREs. This motif greatly augments the ability of TCF binding sites to respond to Wg signaling. Drosophila TCF contains a C-clamp that enhances in vitro binding to TCF-Helper site pairs and is required for transcriptional activation of WREs containing Helper sites. A genome-wide search for clusters of TCF and Helper sites identified two new WREs. Our data suggest that DNA recognition by fly TCF occurs through a bipartite mechanism, involving both the HMG domain and the C-clamp, which enables TCF to locate and activate WREs in the nucleus. PMID:19062282

  6. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  7. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  8. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended. (See 33 CFR 320.2(b).) (c) Activities of...

  9. From Assumption of Knowledge to Knowledgeable Considerations: a Class Activity on 'Ionizing Radiation' and Its Biological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Miky; Ganiel, Uri

    1988-01-01

    Describes a class activity, a game called "Beware--Radiation," developed as a framework for the introduction of the topic of radiation. Reports that both students and teachers had similar and mostly wrong preconceptions. (Author/YP)

  10. A Dyadic Approach to Understanding the Relationship of Maternal Knowledge of Youths' Activities to Youths' Problem Behavior among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…

  11. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  12. The Active Role of Instruments in Articulating Knowing and Knowledge: The Case of Animal Qualification Practices in Breeding Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labatut, Julie; Aggeri, Franck; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Bibe, Bernard; Girard, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of instruments defined as artefacts, rules, models or norms, in the articulation between knowing-in-practice and knowledge, in learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on a distributed, knowledge-intensive and instrumented activity at the core of any collective…

  13. 30 CFR 580.25 - When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BOEM require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 580.25 When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  14. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  15. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  16. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  17. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct Active Investment Operations § 107.590 Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. (a) Activity test....

  18. Multidisciplinary and Active/Collaborative Approaches in Teaching Requirements Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosca, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The requirements engineering course is a core component of the curriculum for the Master's in Software Engineering programme, at Monmouth University (MU). It covers the process, methods and tools specific to this area, together with the corresponding software quality issues. The need to produce software engineers with strong teamwork and…

  19. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following activities with respect to any foreign country. (1) Designing production reactors... (enrichment), chemical processing of irradiated SNM (reprocessing), fabrication of nuclear fuel containing... reactors, accelerator-driven subcritical assembly systems, or facilities; (3) Designing,...

  20. Polarity establishment requires localized activation of Cdc42

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Benjamin; Kuo, Chun-Chen; Wu, Chi-Fang; Zyla, Trevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of cell polarity in animal and fungal cells involves localization of the conserved Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase, Cdc42, to the cortical region destined to become the “front” of the cell. The high local concentration of active Cdc42 promotes cytoskeletal polarization through various effectors. Cdc42 accumulation at the front is thought to involve positive feedback, and studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have suggested distinct positive feedback mechanisms. One class of mechanisms involves localized activation of Cdc42 at the front, whereas another class involves localized delivery of Cdc42 to the front. Here we show that Cdc42 activation must be localized for successful polarity establishment, supporting local activation rather than local delivery as the dominant mechanism in this system. PMID:26459595

  1. Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-27

    The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

  2. Designing a Knowledge Management System for Distributed Activities: A Human Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables researchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment. PMID:14728235

  3. Designing a knowledge management system for distributed activities: a human centered approach.

    PubMed

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables re-searchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment.

  4. The antiapoptotic activity of insect IAPs requires activation by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tenev, T; Ditzel, M; Zachariou, A; Meier, P

    2007-06-01

    Apoptosis represents a fundamental biological process that relies on the activation of caspases. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins represent a group of negative regulators of both caspases and cell death. The current model dictates that IAPs suppress apoptosis by blocking the catalytic pocket of effector caspases thereby preventing substrate entry. Here, we provide evolutionary evidence for the functional interplay between insect IAPs and the N-end rule-associated ubiquitylation machinery in neutralising effector caspases and cell death. We find that IAPs require 'priming' in order to function as antiapoptotic molecules. Consistently, we demonstrate that the antiapoptotic activity of diverse insect IAPs is activated by effector caspases, providing the cell with a sensitive strategy to monitor and neutralise active caspases. Almost 300 million years of evolutionary selection pressure has preserved a caspase cleavage site in insect IAPs that, following processing by a caspase, exposes a binding motif for the N-end-rule-associated degradation machinery. Recruitment of this ubiquitylation machinery into the 'cleaved-IAP:caspase' complex provides a mechanism to negatively regulate effector caspases and block apoptosis. Furthermore, comparisons between cellular and several viral IAPs suggest differences in their modes of action, as OpIAP3, CpGV-IAP3 and HcNPV-IAP3 fail to associate with several effector caspases. Evolutionary conservation of the N-end-rule degradation pathway in IAP-mediated regulation of apoptosis further corroborates the physiological relevance of this ubiquitylation-associated process.

  5. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Section 324.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... ocean waters are regulated by 33 CFR 209.145. (2) The policy provisions set out in 33 CFR 320.4(j... in connection with activities involving the transport of dredged material for dumping into...

  6. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... condition of the waterbody in such a manner as to impact on its navigable capacity. For purposes of...

  7. 33 CFR 322.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 322.4 below. Certain activities specified in 33 CFR part 330 are permitted by that regulation... in 33 CFR part 329. Structures or work outside these limits are subject to the provisions of law... condition of the waterbody in such a manner as to impact on its navigable capacity. For purposes of...

  8. Assembly of a Notch transcriptional activation complex requires multimerization.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Kaplan, Fred M; Weaver, Kelly L; VanWye, Jeffrey D; Alves-Guerra, Marie-Clotilde; Robbins, David J; Capobianco, Anthony J

    2011-04-01

    Notch transmembrane receptors direct essential cellular processes, such as proliferation and differentiation, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. Inappropriate release of the intracellular domain of Notch (N(ICD)) from the plasma membrane results in the accumulation of deregulated nuclear N(ICD) that has been linked to human cancers, notably T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Nuclear N(ICD) forms a transcriptional activation complex by interacting with the coactivator protein Mastermind-like 1 and the DNA binding protein CSL (for CBF-1/Suppressor of Hairless/Lag-1) to regulate target gene expression. Although it is well understood that N(ICD) forms a transcriptional activation complex, little is known about how the complex is assembled. In this study, we demonstrate that N(ICD) multimerizes and that these multimers function as precursors for the stepwise assembly of the Notch activation complex. Importantly, we demonstrate that the assembly is mediated by N(ICD) multimers interacting with Skip and Mastermind. These interactions form a preactivation complex that is then resolved by CSL to form the Notch transcriptional activation complex on DNA.

  9. Antigen conformation determines processing requirements for T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, H Z; Berkower, I J; Busch, M; Gurd, F R; Berzofsky, J A

    1984-01-01

    We studied the difference in requirements for processing and presentation to a single T-cell clone of four different forms of the same epitope of sperm whale myoglobin--namely, on the native protein, on two conformationally altered forms of the protein, or as a 22-residue antigenic peptide fragment. The T-cell clone was I-Ed-restricted and specific for an epitope on the CNBr fragment 132-153 involving Lys-140. As inhibitors of macrophage processing of antigen, we used several agents that inhibit lysosomal function: the weak bases chloroquine and NH4Cl, the cationic ionophore monensin, and the competitive protease inhibitor leupeptin. When these agents were used to inhibit processing of antigen by presenting cells and then washed out before T cells were added to culture, they inhibited the presentation of native antigen but not of fragment 132-153. To our surprise, the intact but denatured form, S-methylmyoglobin, behaved like the fragment not like the native protein. Apomyoglobin was intermediate in susceptibility to inhibition. Thus, native myoglobin requires a processing step that appears to involve lysosomal proteolysis, which is not required by fragment 132-153 or the denatured unfolded forms. For an antigen the size of myoglobin (Mr 17,800), it appears that unfolding of the native conformation, rather than further reduction in size, is the critical parameter determining the need for processing. Since a major difference between native myoglobin and the other forms is the greater accessibility in the latter of sites, such as hydrophobic residues, buried in the native protein, we propose that processing may be necessary to expose these sites, perhaps for interaction with the cell membrane or the Ia of the antigen-presenting cell. PMID:6333686

  10. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  11. Phytochrome activation of two nuclear genes requires cytoplasmic protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, E; Green, P J; Wong, M; Chua, N H

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on light-induced expression of two plant nuclear genes, Cab and rbcS, in wheat, pea and transgenic tobacco. Light activation of these two genes is very sensitive to cycloheximide, an inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis but not to chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of organellar protein synthesis. Studies with chimeric gene constructs in transgenic tobacco seedlings show that cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional level. As a control, we show that the expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter is enhanced by cycloheximide treatment, irrespective of the coding sequence used. Escape-time analyses with green wheat seedlings show that the cycloheximide block for Cab gene expression is after the primary signal transduction step linked to phytochrome photoconversion. Our results suggest that phytochrome activation of Cab and rbcS is mediated by a labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Images PMID:2583082

  12. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

  13. New strategies to strengthen the soil science knowledge of student during field activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Marta; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá; Masaguer, Alberto; Diéguez, Carmen; Almorox, Javier; Pérez, Juana; Santano, Jesús; Mariscal, Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Jesús; Moliner, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Soil Science can be considered a discipline that serves as a fundamental base for other disciplines such as ecology, agronomy, plant production, etc. In order to demonstrate the relevance and connection to real world it is important to develop field and practical activities. Field activities help student to comprehend soil as part of the landscape and the natural ecosystems. These activities also help them to realize the importance of historical soil use on the quality of todaýs soil and landscapes. It is well known that fieldwork practices are essential to strengthen the soil science knowledge of students and their learning process. These fieldwork practices involve doing a physical activity rather than passively attending lectures or watching demonstrations. The simple visual and tactile observations in the field could be used to predict soil behavior and these direct observations are best made in the field. Students who learned in the field using an active work are more motivated, have more positive attitudes, and place more value in their work than those that learn passively. Therefore, when scheduling the coursework an important time is assigned to field work, which sometimes is not sufficiently profited from the standpoint of student learning taking into consideration the economic effort involved. We are aware that part of the students are simple spectators in the field so we encourage their participation by making them responsible for obtaining part of the information about the place and the types of soils that will be visited. On the other hand, we will invite the students to do some game based exercises, which are fun and force them to work in groups and to pay attention to explanations. Our objective is to present the information in a more attractive way, making the learning of soil profile description and easier task. The exercises that we propose are both field and problem-based learning to make sure that the knowledge is more memorable (non

  14. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  15. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  16. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  17. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  18. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  19. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  20. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. PMID:26944019

  1. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids.

  2. Fungal cellulase is an elicitor but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanan; Han, Chao; Chen, Jinyin; Li, Haiyun; He, Kun; Liu, Aixin; Li, Duochuan

    2015-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic fungi produce cellulases. However, little information is available on cellulase as an elicitor in plant-pathogen interactions. Here, an endocellulase (EG1) was isolated from Rhizoctonia solani. It contains a putative protein of 227 amino acids with a signal peptide and a family-45 glycosyl hydrolase domain. Its aspartic acid (Asp) residue at position 32 was changed to alanine (Ala), resulting in full loss of its catalytic activity. Wild-type and mutated forms of the endoglucanase were expressed in yeast and purified to homogeneity. The purified wild-type and mutant forms induced cell death in maize, tobacco and Arabidopsis leaves, and the transcription of three defence marker genes in maize and tobacco and 10 genes related to defence responses in maize. Moreover, they also induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), medium alkalinization, Ca(2+) accumulation and ethylene biosynthesis of suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Similarly, production of the EG1 wild-type and mutated forms in tobacco induced cell death using the Potato virus X (PVX) expression system. In vivo, expression of EG1 was also related to cell death during infection of maize by R. solani. These results provide direct evidence that the endoglucanase is an elicitor, but its enzymatic activity is not required for its elicitor activity.

  3. United States data collection activities and requirements, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrin, S.; Mcgregor, D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential market for a data collection system was investigated to determine whether the user needs would be sufficient to support a satellite relay data collection system design. The activities of 107,407 data collections stations were studied to determine user needs in agriculture, climatology, environmental monitoring, forestry, geology, hydrology, meteorology, and oceanography. Descriptions of 50 distinct data collections networks are described and used to form the user data base. The computer program used to analyze the station data base is discussed, and results of the analysis are presented in maps and graphs. Information format and coding is described in the appendix.

  4. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  5. Slicing-independent RISC activation requires the argonaute PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; Jin, Lan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A

    2012-08-21

    Small RNAs regulate genetic networks through a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which, in mammals, contains at its center one of four Argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4). A key regulatory event in the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways is Ago loading, wherein double-stranded small-RNA duplexes are incorporated into RISC (pre-RISC) and then become single-stranded (mature RISC), a process that is not well understood. The Agos contain an evolutionarily conserved PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain whose primary function is to bind the 3' end of small RNAs. We created multiple PAZ-domain-disrupted mutant Ago proteins and studied their biochemical properties and biological functionality in cells. We found that the PAZ domain is dispensable for Ago loading of slicing-competent RISC. In contrast, in the absence of slicer activity or slicer-substrate duplex RNAs, PAZ-disrupted Agos bound duplex small interfering RNAs, but were unable to unwind or eject the passenger strand and form functional RISC complexes. We have discovered that the highly conserved PAZ domain plays an important role in RISC activation, providing new mechanistic insights into how miRNAs regulate genes, as well as new insights for future design of miRNA- and RNAi-based therapeutics.

  6. PGC-1 Coactivator Activity Is Required for Murine Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuaiying; Tanabe, Osamu; Lim, Kim-Chew; Xu, H. Eric; Zhou, X. Edward; Lin, Jiandie D.; Shi, Lihong; Schmidt, Lindsay; Campbell, Andrew; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and PGC-1β have been shown to be intimately involved in the transcriptional regulation of cellular energy metabolism as well as other biological processes, but both coactivator proteins are expressed in many other tissues and organs in which their function is, in essence, unexplored. Here, we found that both PGC-1 proteins are abundantly expressed in maturing erythroid cells. PGC-1α and PGC-1β compound null mutant (Pgc-1c) animals express less β-like globin mRNAs throughout development; consequently, neonatal Pgc-1c mice exhibit growth retardation and profound anemia. Flow cytometry shows that the number of mature erythrocytes is markedly reduced in neonatal Pgc-1c pups, indicating that erythropoiesis is severely compromised. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed necrotic cell death and cell loss in Pgc-1c livers and spleen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that both PGC-1α and -1β, as well as two nuclear receptors, TR2 and TR4, coordinately bind to the various globin gene promoters. In addition, PGC-1α and -1β can interact with TR4 to potentiate transcriptional activation. These data provide new insights into our understanding of globin gene regulation and raise the interesting possibility that the PGC-1 coactivators can interact with TR4 to elicit differential stage-specific effects on globin gene transcription. PMID:24662048

  7. Gearbox design for uncertain load requirements using active robust optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Shaul; Avigad, Gideon; Purshouse, Robin C.; Fleming, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    Design and optimization of gear transmissions have been intensively studied, but surprisingly the robustness of the resulting optimal design to uncertain loads has never been considered. Active Robust (AR) optimization is a methodology to design products that attain robustness to uncertain or changing environmental conditions through adaptation. In this study the AR methodology is utilized to optimize the number of transmissions, as well as their gearing ratios, for an uncertain load demand. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective optimization problem where the objectives are to satisfy the load demand in the most energy efficient manner and to minimize production cost. The results show that this approach can find a set of robust designs, revealing a trade-off between energy efficiency and production cost. This can serve as a useful decision-making tool for the gearbox design process, as well as for other applications.

  8. PARP-1 Activation Requires Local Unfolding of an Autoinhibitory Domain.

    PubMed

    Dawicki-McKenna, Jennine M; Langelier, Marie-France; DeNizio, Jamie E; Riccio, Amanda A; Cao, Connie D; Karch, Kelly R; McCauley, Michael; Steffen, Jamin D; Black, Ben E; Pascal, John M

    2015-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) creates the posttranslational modification PAR from substrate NAD(+) to regulate multiple cellular processes. DNA breaks sharply elevate PARP-1 catalytic activity to mount a cell survival repair response, whereas persistent PARP-1 hyperactivation during severe genotoxic stress is associated with cell death. The mechanism for tight control of the robust catalytic potential of PARP-1 remains unclear. By monitoring PARP-1 dynamics using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HXMS), we unexpectedly find that a specific portion of the helical subdomain (HD) of the catalytic domain rapidly unfolds when PARP-1 encounters a DNA break. Together with biochemical and crystallographic analysis of HD deletion mutants, we show that the HD is an autoinhibitory domain that blocks productive NAD(+) binding. Our molecular model explains how PARP-1 DNA damage detection leads to local unfolding of the HD that relieves autoinhibition, and has important implications for the design of PARP inhibitors.

  9. The Importance of Establishing and Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge during 21st Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Chris A; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Wishard, Bernard; Bean, Robert; Blair, Dianna; Lawson, Ray; Weeks, George; Tolk, Keith

    2012-01-01

    During this century, the entire nuclear fuel cycle will expand and become increasingly more global, taxing both the resources and capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to maintain an effective Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) and its ability to provide timely detection of diversion. Uranium that currently is mined and milled in one country will be converted, enriched, and fabricated into fuel for reactors in an expanding set of new countries. This expansion will make it harder to guarantee that regional activities stay regional and that diversion detection is timely unless new and sustainable tools are developed to improve inspector effectiveness. To deal with this emerging reality, the IAEA must increase its use of unattended monitoring and employ new tools and methods that enhance CoK during all phases of the fuel cycle. This approach will help provide useful information to aid in detecting undeclared activities and create opportunities for timely and appropriate responses to events well before they enter phases of greater concern (e.g., enrichment). The systems that maintain CoK of safeguarded assets rely on containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies. The 21st century fuel cycle will require increased use of these technologies and systems, plus greater implementation of unattended systems that can securely collect data when inspectors are not present.

  10. Social construction of physical knowledge of shadows: A study of five preoperational children's perceptions, collaborative experiences, and activities across knowledge domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Amy M.

    The first purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the process of social construction of physical knowledge of shadows among preoperational thinkers by examining collaborative behaviors that may lead to new knowledge. The second purpose was to understand children's perspectives concerning the connection between social interaction and learning. The study focused on group collaboration and physical knowledge building as they relate to preoperational thought, a phase of cognitive development in early childhood. The case study consisted of five kindergarten children enrolled in a private, laboratory school at a southern, urban university. Across the eight-week data collection period, the children explored shadows through planned activities on 10 occasions and were interviewed three times in a focus group context. Primary methods for collecting data included videotaping the interviews and participant observations. Data were transcribed and coded inductively to discover emerging patterns while relating these patterns to existing constructivist theories. In addition, field notes, artifacts, and interviews with the children's teacher served to verify the findings. The findings revealed four major themes. Firstly, in terms of collaborative learning, children, while exhibiting a focus on the self, were attracted to learning with each other. Secondly, interactions seldom involved dialogic complexity, revealing minimal rationale, even during conflict. Thirdly, negative behaviors, such as tattling and exclusion, and prosocial behaviors, such as helping, were perceived as integral to the success of social construction of knowledge. The children considered each of these moral behaviors from the personal standpoint of how it affected them emotionally and in accomplishing a learning-related task. Fourthly, in terms of knowledge building, the findings indicated children's knowledge of shadows evolved over time as they participated in a developing scientific community

  11. Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Cognitive Activation in the Classroom, and Student Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Kunter, Mareike; Blum, Werner; Brunner, Martin; Voss, Thamar; Jordan, Alexander; Klusmann, Uta; Krauss, Stefan; Neubrand, Michael; Tsai, Yi-Miau

    2010-01-01

    In both the United States and Europe, concerns have been raised about whether preservice and in-service training succeeds in equipping teachers with the professional knowledge they need to deliver consistently high-quality instruction. This article investigates the significance of teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge for…

  12. Building and Activating Students' Background Knowledge: It's What They Already Know That Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Students enter the middle grades with varying amounts of background knowledge. Teachers must assess student background knowledge for gaps or misconceptions and then provide instruction to build on that base. This article discusses effective strategies for assessing and developing students' background knowledge so they can become independent…

  13. 43 CFR 5.4 - When is a permit required for news-gathering activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION.... News-gathering activities involving filming, videography, or still photography do not require a...

  14. 43 CFR 5.4 - When is a permit required for news-gathering activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION.... News-gathering activities involving filming, videography, or still photography do not require a...

  15. Determining Training Requirements for Electronic System Maintenance: Development and Test of a New Method of Skill and Knowledge Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.

    This is the report of a study designed to develop and test methods of deriving, directly from an analysis of the system or its surrogate, an effective and economical set of skills and knowledge for operating and maintaining a weapon system. Two methods for analyzing electronic weapon systems were developed, one method for the operator task and one…

  16. Four Spheres of Knowledge Required: An International Study of the Professional Development of Literacy/English Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosnik, Clare; Menna, Lydia; Dharamshi, Pooja; Miyata, Cathy; Cleovoulou, Yiola; Beck, Clive

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study of 28 literacy teacher educators (LTE) in four countries: Canada, the USA, England and Australia. It identifies three main forms of professional development: informal, formal and communities of practice and four spheres of knowledge: research; pedagogy of higher education; literacy and literacy teaching; and…

  17. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  18. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  19. Activation of AMP-kinase by Policosanol Requires Peroxisomal Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Ghoshal, Sarbani

    2011-01-01

    Policosanol, a well-defined mixture of very long chain primary alcohols that is available as a nutraceutical product, has been reported to lower blood cholesterol levels. The present studies demonstrate that policosanol promotes the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase in hepatoma cells and in mouse liver after intragastric administration, providing a possible means by which policosanol might lower blood cholesterol levels. Treatment of hepatoma cells with policosanol produced a 2.5-fold or greater increase in the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase, and increased the phosphorylation of Ca++/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK), an upstream AMP-kinase kinase. Intra-gastric administration of policosanol to mice similarly increased the phosphorylation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and AMP-kinase by greater than 2-fold. siRNA-mediated suppression of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4, and acyl-CoA acetyltransferase expression in hepatoma cells prevented the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase by policosanol, indicating that metabolism of these very long chain alcohols to activated fatty acids is necessary for the suppression of cholesterol synthesis, presumably by increasing cellular AMP levels. Subsequent peroxisomal β-oxidation probably augments this effect. PMID:21359855

  20. Activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kojiro; Konno, Hiroyasu; Akiba, Tatsuya; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barber, Glen N.; Arai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response against DNA pathogens. In response to the presence of DNA and/or cyclic dinucleotides, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear compartments. However, the role of this subcellular translocation remains poorly defined. Here we show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is essential for activation of STING. Treatment with palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) suppresses palmitoylation of STING and abolishes the type I interferon response. Mutation of two membrane-proximal Cys residues (Cys88/91) suppresses palmitoylation, and this STING mutant cannot induce STING-dependent host defense genes. STING variants that constitutively induce the type I interferon response were found in patients with autoimmune diseases. The response elicited by these STING variants is effectively inhibited by 2-BP or an introduction of Cys88/91Ser mutation. Our results may lead to new treatments for cytosolic DNA-triggered autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27324217

  1. Activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kojiro; Konno, Hiroyasu; Akiba, Tatsuya; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barber, Glen N; Arai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response against DNA pathogens. In response to the presence of DNA and/or cyclic dinucleotides, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear compartments. However, the role of this subcellular translocation remains poorly defined. Here we show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is essential for activation of STING. Treatment with palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) suppresses palmitoylation of STING and abolishes the type I interferon response. Mutation of two membrane-proximal Cys residues (Cys88/91) suppresses palmitoylation, and this STING mutant cannot induce STING-dependent host defense genes. STING variants that constitutively induce the type I interferon response were found in patients with autoimmune diseases. The response elicited by these STING variants is effectively inhibited by 2-BP or an introduction of Cys88/91Ser mutation. Our results may lead to new treatments for cytosolic DNA-triggered autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27324217

  2. Action semantic knowledge about objects is supported by functional motor activation.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein T; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-08-01

    The present study assessed the functional organization of action semantics by asking subjects to categorize pictures of an actor holding objects with a correct or incorrect grip at either a correct or incorrect goal location. Overall, reaction times were slower if the object was presented with an inappropriate posture, and this effect was stronger for goal violations compared with grip violations (Experiment 1). In addition, the retrieval of action semantics was found accompanied by the implicit activation of motor representations. Body-related objects (e.g., cup) were classified faster when a movement toward the subject's body was required, whereas world-related objects (e.g., pincers) were responded to faster with a movement in the opposite direction (Experiments 2 and 3). In contrast, when subjects were required to retrieve only visual semantics (Experiment 4), no interference effects of postural information were observed, and motor representations were only partially activated. These findings suggest that action semantics can be accessed independently from visual semantics and that the retrieval of action semantics is supported by functional motor activation reflecting the prototypical use of an object.

  3. Behaviors and Knowledge of Healthcorps New York City High School Students: Nutrition, Mental Health, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E.; Lounsbury, David W.; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Methods: Pre- and postsurvey data were…

  4. Integrating Social Activity Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multilayered Methodological Model for Examining Knowledge Mediation in Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Ayelet; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests an integrative qualitative methodological framework for capturing complexity in mentoring activity. Specifically, the model examines how historical developments of a discipline direct mentors' mediation of professional knowledge through the language that they use. The model integrates social activity theory and a framework of…

  5. Engaging in Problem Posing Activities in a Dynamic Geometry Setting and the Development of Prospective Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Ilana; Shriki, Atara

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we explore changes in perceptions of our class of prospective mathematics teachers (PTs) regarding their mathematical knowledge. The PTs engaged in problem posing activities in geometry, using the "What If Not?" (WIN) strategy, as part of their work on computerized inquiry-based activities. Data received from the PTs'…

  6. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  7. Active Learning Applications in the History of Chemistry: Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendur, Gülten; Polat, Merve; Toku, Abdullah; Kazanci, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a History and Philosophy of Chemistry-I course based on active learning applications on the level of knowledge of pre-service chemistry teachers about the history of chemistry. The views of pre-service chemistry teachers about these activities were also investigated. The study was carried out with 38…

  8. SWI/SNF complexes are required for full activation of the DNA-damage response.

    PubMed

    Smith-Roe, Stephanie L; Nakamura, Jun; Holley, Darcy; Chastain, Paul D; Rosson, Gary B; Simpson, Dennis A; Ridpath, John R; Kaufman, David G; Kaufmann, William K; Bultman, Scott J

    2015-01-20

    SWI/SNF complexes utilize BRG1 (also known as SMARCA4) or BRM (also known as SMARCA2) as alternative catalytic subunits with ATPase activity to remodel chromatin. These chromatin-remodeling complexes are required for mammalian development and are mutated in ~20% of all human primary tumors. Yet our knowledge of their tumor-suppressor mechanism is limited. To investigate the role of SWI/SNF complexes in the DNA-damage response (DDR), we used shRNAs to deplete BRG1 and BRM and then exposed these cells to a panel of 6 genotoxic agents. Compared to controls, the shRNA knockdown cells were hypersensitive to certain genotoxic agents that cause double-strand breaks (DSBs) associated with stalled/collapsed replication forks but not to ionizing radiation-induced DSBs that arise independently of DNA replication. These findings were supported by our analysis of DDR kinases, which demonstrated a more prominent role for SWI/SNF in the activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway than the ATM-Chk2 pathway. Surprisingly, γH2AX induction was attenuated in shRNA knockdown cells exposed to a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide) but not to other genotoxic agents including IR. However, this finding is compatible with recent studies linking SWI/SNF with TOP2A and TOP2BP1. Depletion of BRG1 and BRM did not result in genomic instability in a tumor-derived cell line but did result in nucleoplasmic bridges in normal human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that SWI/SNF tumor-suppressor activity involves a role in the DDR to attenuate replicative stress and genomic instability. These results may also help to inform the selection of chemotherapeutics for tumors deficient for SWI/SNF function.

  9. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  10. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  11. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  12. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  13. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  14. Diet-Related Knowledge and Physical Activity in a Large Cohort of Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Patients: PROGENS ARENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Możdżan, Michał; Kokoszka-Paszkot, Janina; Kubik, Magdalena; Masierek, Małgorzata; Czerwińska, Margerita; Małecki, Maciej T.

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that behavioral intervention is crucial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention and management. We aimed to estimate dietary habits and diet-oriented knowledge as well as the level of physical activity in 2500 insulin-treated Polish type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (55.4% women). The mean age of the study participants was 64.9 ± 9.3 years, mean BMI was 31.4 kg/m2 ± 4.5, mean diabetes duration was 12.4 ± 6.9 years, and mean baseline HbA1c was 8.5%  ± 1.2. At the study onset, all the patients completed a questionnaire concerning health-oriented behavior. Results showed a significant lack of diet-related knowledge. For example, only 37.5% recognized that buckwheat contains carbohydrates; the percentage of correct answers in questions about fruit drinks and pasta was 56.4% and 61.2%, respectively. As for the physical activity, only 57.4% of examined T2DM patients declared any form of deliberate physical activity. To conclude, the cohort of poorly controlled insulin-treated T2DM patients studied by us is characterized by insufficient diet-related knowledge and by a very low level of physical activity. Further studies on other populations of insulin-treated T2DM patients are required to confirm these findings. PMID:27703476

  15. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  16. 30 CFR 280.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  17. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  18. 30 CFR 580.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 580.30 What activities will not require environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental... environmental impact and will normally be categorically excluded from additional environmental analysis....

  19. 13 CFR 106.202 - What are the minimum requirements applicable to Cosponsored Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the minimum requirements applicable to Cosponsored Activities? 106.202 Section 106.202 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... a Cosponsored Activity to additional requirements through internal policy, procedure and...

  20. 40 CFR 711.10 - Activities for which reporting is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities for which reporting is not required. 711.10 Section 711.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL DATA REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 711.10 Activities for which reporting...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  6. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  7. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  8. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  9. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  10. Students' Perceptions of an Experiential Learning Activity Designed to Develop Knowledge of Food and Food Preparation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveritt, Michael; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe student learning after completing an experiential learning task that was designed to develop students' knowledge of food and food preparation methods. The task required students to follow a special diet and then complete a daily online journal entry about the experience for other students to read and…

  11. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response... requirements in the regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located... 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward of the Coast Line. OMB...

  12. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  13. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  14. Requirements for PKC-augmented JNK activation by MKK4/7

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2008-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated in response to stress, DNA damage, and cytokines by MKK4 and MKK7. We recently demonstrated that PKC can augment the degree of JNK activation by phosphorylating JNK, which requires the adaptor protein RACK1. Here we report on the conditions required for PKC-dependent JNK activation. In vitro kinase assays reveal that PKC phosphorylation of JNK is not sufficient for its activation but rather augments JNK activation by canonical JNK upstream kinases MKK4 or MKK7 alone or in combination. Further, to enhance JNK activity, PKC phosphorylation of JNK should precede its phosphorylation by MKK4/7. Inhibition of PKC phosphorylation of JNK affects both early and late phases of JNK activation following UV-irradiation and reduces the apoptotic response mediated by JNK. These data provide important insight into the requirements for PKC activation of JNK signaling. PMID:18182317

  15. MWSA's physical habitat approach - combining knowledge of habitat requirements with mechanisms of geomorphic and anthropogenic influence on stream channel form

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective environmental policy decisions benefit from stream habitat information that is accurate, precise, and relevant. The recent National Wadeable Streams Assessment (NWSA) carried out by the U.S. EPA required physical habitat information sufficiently comprehensive to facilit...

  16. Object knowledge during entry-level categorization is activated and modified by implicit memory after 200 ms.

    PubMed

    Schendan, Haline E; Maher, Stephen M

    2009-02-15

    The timing of activating memory about visual objects is important for theories of human cognition but largely unknown, especially for tasks like entry level categorization that activate semantic memory. We tested an implicit memory-categorization "equivalence" hypothesis of multiple memory systems theory that a cortical system that stores structural knowledge to support entry level categorization also stores long-term, perceptual implicit memory, resulting in priming of this knowledge. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to impoverished pictures of new and repeated objects that were similar in perceptual properties but differed in categorization success. The cortical dynamics of object knowledge were defined using categorization ratings and naming. As predicted, rating, naming, and repetition effects on a frontocentral N350 show that implicit memory modifies the object knowledge network supporting categorization. This ERP is a complex of components between 200 and 500 ms indexing temporally overlapping substates from more perceptual to more conceptual knowledge. A frontopolar N350 subcomponent defines the first substate of a process of object model selection from occipitotemporal cortex based on shape similarity, and indicates that implicit memory in this system is greater with better categorization success. Afterwards, parietal positivity and a slow wave index secondary, post-model selection processes, like evaluating the success of a decision or memory match, and working memory for overt report, respectively. Altogether, ERP findings support the equivalence hypothesis and a two-state interactive account of visual object knowledge, and delineate the timing of multiple memory systems.

  17. Tracking real-time neural activation of conceptual knowledge using single-trial event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Amsel, Ben D

    2011-04-01

    Empirically derived semantic feature norms categorized into different types of knowledge (e.g., visual, functional, auditory) can be summed to create number-of-feature counts per knowledge type. Initial evidence suggests several such knowledge types may be recruited during language comprehension. The present study provides a more detailed understanding of the timecourse and intensity of influence of several such knowledge types on real-time neural activity. A linear mixed-effects model was applied to single trial event-related potentials for 207 visually presented concrete words measured on total number of features (semantic richness), imageability, and number of visual motion, color, visual form, smell, taste, sound, and function features. Significant influences of multiple feature types occurred before 200ms, suggesting parallel neural computation of word form and conceptual knowledge during language comprehension. Function and visual motion features most prominently influenced neural activity, underscoring the importance of action-related knowledge in computing word meaning. The dynamic time courses and topographies of these effects are most consistent with a flexible conceptual system wherein temporally dynamic recruitment of representations in modal and supramodal cortex are a crucial element of the constellation of processes constituting word meaning computation in the brain.

  18. Prior knowledge and memory: the episodic encoding of implicitly activated associates and rhymes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D L; Bajo, M T; Canas, J

    1987-01-01

    The presentation of a familiar word activates related concepts, and, once encoded, related concepts interfere with memory for the work actually presented. Presented words that activate larger numbers of related concepts are generally more difficult to recall than those that activate smaller numbers. The purpose of the present experiments was to explore the effects of study-trial orientation and test delay on the encoding of both rhyme- and meaning-related concepts. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate that meaning-related concepts are encoded and interfere with memory for the presented target regardless of study-trial orientation. Interference is obtained even when the study-trial context emphasizes phonemic information and subjects are incidentally oriented to rating rhyme properties. However, this interference effect disappears when the test trial is delayed. In contrast, the results of Experiments 1-4 indicate that rhyme-related concepts are encoded and interfere with memory for the presented target only when subjects explicitly attend to the rhyme dimension. Once oriented, this interference effect is found after a relatively long delay. These differences are attributed to differences in attentional processing. The encoding of meaning-related concepts results from relatively automatic processes and the encoding of rhyme-related concepts requires subjects to attend to rhyme.

  19. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  20. Conditional Reasoning in Autism: Activation and Integration of Knowledge and Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Rebecca; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Handley, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday conditional reasoning is typically influenced by prior knowledge and belief in the form of specific exceptions known as counterexamples. This study explored whether adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 26) were less influenced by background knowledge than typically developing adolescents (N = 38) when engaged in conditional…

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections on Awareness and Knowledge Following Active Learning in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the pre-service teachers' reflection on an environmental knowledge questionnaire administered in an introductory environmental education course. Reflection sheets that addressed pre-/post-course knowledge questionnaires were collected from 75 students who took the course in three consecutive years. The students represented…

  2. 30 CFR 251.8 - Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities under a permit. 251.8 Section 251.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT...) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.8 Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under... exploration or scientific research activities under a permit. They will determine whether operations...

  3. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  4. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  5. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  6. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  7. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  8. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  9. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  10. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  11. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  12. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead-based paint activities...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based...

  13. Toward the Development of an Interdisciplinary Information Assurance Curriculum: Knowledge Domains and Skill Sets Required of Information Assurance Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cegielski, Casey G.

    2008-01-01

    Since the ratification of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, both publicly traded companies and their respective financial statement auditors have struggled to comply with the requirements of the legislation. Utilizing three individual Delphi studies, separately, I surveyed partners, managers, and staff associates in the United States from each of…

  14. Developing Software Requirements for a Knowledge Management System That Coordinates Training Programs with Business Processes and Policies in Large Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiper, J. Richard

    2013-01-01

    For large organizations, updating instructional programs presents a challenge to keep abreast of constantly changing business processes and policies. Each time a process or policy changes, significant resources are required to locate and modify the training materials that convey the new content. Moreover, without the ability to track learning…

  15. CardioKnowledge: A Knowledge Management Environment

    PubMed Central

    Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, Álvaro; Rabelo, Lisia

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the communication and exchange of knowledge among the cardiologists, medical students and other employees. PMID:14728445

  16. The New Science of Learning: Active Learning, Metacognition, and Transfer of Knowledge in E-Learning Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffaker, David A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the key concepts of active learning, metacognition, and transfer of knowledge, as put forth by the National Research Council's approach to the new science of learning, in relation to ways that E-Learning applications might improve learning both inside and outside the classroom. Several initiatives are highlighted to…

  17. Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Knowledge, Perceptions and Experiences of Promoting Healthy, Active Lifestyles in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) offers a context for students to learn about the promotion of active lifestyles in secondary schools through their interactions and experiences during the teacher education process. However, previous studies have found low levels of health-related fitness knowledge amongst PETE students,…

  18. Gender Differences in Osteoporosis Health Beliefs and Knowledge and Their Relation to Vigorous Physical Activity in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…

  19. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  20. The Effects of an Infant-Feeding Classroom Activity on the Breast-Feeding Knowledge and Intentions of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention…

  1. Effects of Promoting Health Among Teens on Dietary, Physical Activity and Substance Use Knowledge and Behaviors for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jelani C.; Valois, Robert F.; Farber, Naomi B.; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura; Brown, Larry K.; Carey, Michael P.; Romer, Daniel; Stanton, Bonita; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Spencer, A Melinda; Annang, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and cancer. Health promotion interventions hold promise for reducing health disparities. Purpose Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT) is a brief, culturally tailored health education intervention to decrease cardiovascular disease and cancer risk for African Americans. This study evaluated the effects of PHAT for African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 in four eastern cities in the USA. Methods A randomized controlled design (N = 1,654) was used to determine differences in health knowledge, diet, physical activity, and substance use behaviors between PHAT participants and a sexual health promotion control group. Data were collected at baseline, three, six, and twelve months post intervention. Growth curve modeling was used to detect differences in health knowledge, dietary behaviors, physical activity, and substance use between PHAT and control group participants. Results PHAT participants had significantly greater knowledge gains but modest behavior changes compared to control group participants. Discussion PHAT is a promising intervention to increase knowledge and address selected health behaviors in African American youth. Translation to Health Education Practice Future attempts to execute PHAT should continue its emphasis on knowledge building while increasing intervention dosage and modifying length of time for intervention sessions. PMID:23957017

  2. Knowledge of and preferred sources of assistance for physical activity in a sample of urban Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alison L; Hunt, Julian; Jenkins, David

    2008-01-01

    Background To examine urban Indigenous Australians' knowledge of the current Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) and identify their preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Method Self-completed questionnaire data were collected from 194 participants; the questionnaires sought information on standard demographics including an assessment of their perceived physical activity level relative to peers. Outcome measures were agreement with five statements from the current PAG and indicators of preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Results Most participants demonstrated excellent knowledge of the current PAG, with 92% to 88% of participants agreeing with the statements. Significantly more older participants (> 44 years) identified that 'blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK' compared to younger participants (aged 18–44 years: 60%; X2 = 6.23; p = .04). Significantly more higher educated participants agreed (96%) that 'brisk walking for half an hour most days was good for health' compared to the less educated participants (85%; X2 = 8.08; p = .02). The most preferred source of physical activity advice identified by men was the GP/health professional (62% vs. 53%; men and women respectively, NS), while for women it was a group to be active with (60% vs. 42%; women and men respectively; X2 = 6.09; p = .01). Conclusion Urban Indigenous Australians have similar levels of knowledge regarding the PAG to non-Indigenous Australians. However, the option of accumulating 10-minute activity bouts needs to be better communicated to younger Indigenous people. Most participants expressed a preference for advice about physical activity to be delivered via health professionals, and groups to be active with. Indigenous and age-specific resources that promote the unique aspects of the current PAG (e.g., that vigorous exercise is not essential for health and blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK) should be developed and

  3. Aluminum: a requirement for activation of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase by fluoride.

    PubMed Central

    Sternweis, P C; Gilman, A G

    1982-01-01

    Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-. PMID:6289322

  4. 75 FR 16895 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.... Mary Versailles, Office of Rulemaking, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New...

  5. 77 FR 47162 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT...- 5378. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Title:...

  6. 76 FR 41331 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... and fax number is (202) 366-7002. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: National Highway Traffic...

  7. 77 FR 26824 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on February 29, 2012 (77 FR... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) AGENCY: Research &...

  8. 76 FR 13699 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., companies chartering ships from MARAD, and companies having Title XI guarantee obligations. Form(s): MA-172... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  9. 77 FR 13617 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... concerning the Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements. This request for comment is being...

  10. 13 CFR 107.590 - Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Licensee's requirement to maintain active operations. 107.590 Section 107.590 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Requirement to Conduct...

  11. 42 CFR 495.314 - Activities required to receive an incentive payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.314 Activities required to... during the payment year, it has adopted, implemented, or upgraded certified EHR technology, as defined...

  12. 21 CFR 1309.24 - Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities. 1309.24 Section 1309.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... must comply with the security requirements set forth in §§ 1309.71 through 1309.73 and...

  13. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  14. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  15. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  16. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  17. 10 CFR 60.7 - License not required for certain preliminary activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License not required for certain preliminary activities. 60.7 Section 60.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.7 License not required for certain...

  18. Drought Predictability and Prediction in a Changing Climate: Assessing Current Predictive Knowledge and Capabilities, User Requirements and Research Priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Drought is fundamentally the result of an extended period of reduced precipitation lasting anywhere from a few weeks to decades and even longer. As such, addressing drought predictability and prediction in a changing climate requires foremost that we make progress on the ability to predict precipitation anomalies on subseasonal and longer time scales. From the perspective of the users of drought forecasts and information, drought is however most directly viewed through its impacts (e.g., on soil moisture, streamflow, crop yields). As such, the question of the predictability of drought must extend to those quantities as well. In order to make progress on these issues, the WCRP drought information group (DIG), with the support of WCRP, the Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences, the La Caixa Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Science Foundation, has organized a workshop to focus on: 1. User requirements for drought prediction information on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 2. Current understanding of the mechanisms and predictability of drought on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 3. Current drought prediction/projection capabilities on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 4. Advancing regional drought prediction capabilities for variables and scales most relevant to user needs on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales. This introductory talk provides an overview of these goals, and outlines the occurrence and mechanisms of drought world-wide.

  19. TIMP-2 Is Required for Efficient Activation of proMMP-2 in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Juttermann, Ruth; Soloway, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are synthesized as latent proenzymes. A proteolytic cleavage event involving processing of the cysteine-rich N-terminal propeptide is required for their full activation. Previous in vitro studies indicated that activation of proMMP-2 can occur through formation of a trimolecular complex between MMP-14, TIMP-2, and proMMP-2 at the cell surface. Using TIMP-2-deficient mice and cells derived from them, TIMP-2 was shown to be required for efficient proMMP-2 activation both in vivo and in vitro. The requirement for TIMP-2 was not cell-autonomous as exogenously added TIMP-2 could restore activation of proMMP-2 to TIMP-2-deficient cells. Mutant mice were overtly normal, viable, and fertile on the C57BL/6 background, indicating that both TIMP-2 and activated proMMP-2 are dispensable for normal development. PMID:10827175

  20. Development of an expert system prototype for determining software functional requirements for command management activities at NASA Goddard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of an expert system prototype for software functional requirement determination for NASA Goddard's Command Management System, as part of its process of transforming general requests into specific near-earth satellite commands, is described. The present knowledge base was formulated through interactions with domain experts, and was then linked to the existing Knowledge Engineering Systems (KES) expert system application generator. Steps in the knowledge-base development include problem-oriented attribute hierarchy development, knowledge management approach determination, and knowledge base encoding. The KES Parser and Inspector, in addition to backcasting and analogical mapping, were used to validate the expert system-derived requirements for one of the major functions of a spacecraft, the solar Maximum Mission. Knowledge refinement, evaluation, and implementation procedures of the expert system were then accomplished.

  1. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  2. Knowledge representation requirements for model sharing between model-based reasoning and simulation in process flow domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throop, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the requirements for the reuse of computational models employed in model-based reasoning (MBR) to support automated inference about mechanisms. Areas in which the theory of MBR is not yet completely adequate for using the information that simulations can yield are identified, and recent work in these areas is reviewed. It is argued that using MBR along with simulations forces the use of specific fault models. Fault models are used so that a particular fault can be instantiated into the model and run. This in turn implies that the component specification language needs to be capable of encoding any fault that might need to be sensed or diagnosed. It also means that the simulation code must anticipate all these faults at the component level.

  3. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  4. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... enrolling and maintaining active enrollment status in the Medicare program. 424.516 Section 424.516 Public... active enrollment status in the Medicare program. (a) Certifying compliance. CMS enrolls and maintains...

  5. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... enrolling and maintaining active enrollment status in the Medicare program. 424.516 Section 424.516 Public... active enrollment status in the Medicare program. (a) Certifying compliance. CMS enrolls and maintains...

  6. 30 CFR 251.8 - Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection and reporting requirements for activities under a permit. 251.8 Section 251.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... activities. You must allow MMS representatives to inspect your exploration or scientific research...

  7. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-05-19

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project.

  8. High School Teachers' Problem Solving Activities to Review and Extend Their Mathematical and Didactical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…

  9. VVER Knowledge Preservation and Transfer within the Frame of CORONA Project Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitev, Mladen; Corniani, Enrico; Manolova, Maria; Pironkov, Lybomir; Tsvetkov, Iskren

    2016-02-01

    The CORONA project is funded by the European Commission under the FP7 programme with overall objective to establish a Regional Centre of Competence for VVER Technology and Nuclear Applications. The Centre will provide support and services for preservation and transfer of VVER-related nuclear knowledge as well as know-how and capacity building. Specific training schemes aimed at nuclear professionals and researchers, non-nuclear professionals and students are developed and implemented in cooperation with local, national and international training and educational institutions. Pilot trainings are executed for each specific target group to assess the applicability of the training materials. The training scheme implemented for nuclear professionals and researchers is focussed on the NPP Lifetime Management. The available knowledge on enhancing safety and performance of nuclear installations with VVER technology is used in the preparation of the training materials. The Online Multimedia Training Course on VVER Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, developed by the joint effort of JRC-IET and IAEA is used in the training. The outcome collected from the trainees showed that the tool meets its primary goal of consolidating the existing knowledge on the VVER RPV Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, provides adequate ground for transfer of this knowledge.

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Preschoolers' Mathematical Knowledge: The Contribution of Home Activities and Parent Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…

  11. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  12. Making Connections in Math: Activating a Prior Knowledge Analogue Matters for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated analogical transfer of conceptual structure from a prior-knowledge domain to support learning in a new domain of mathematics: division by fractions. Before a procedural lesson on division by fractions, fifth and sixth graders practiced with a surface analogue (other operations on fractions) or a structural analogue (whole…

  13. Cultural Activity, Mathematics, and Classroom Instruction: Taping Local Knowledge Resources to Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtetwa, D. K. J.

    2006-01-01

    Current renewed interest in the epistemological, socio-cultural, and educational aspects of indigenous knowledge systems (IKSs) has also had some impact on research and practice in the area of mathematics education. Located in the intersection of culture, mathematics, and classroom learning, this position article proposes that the socio-cultural…

  14. Doctoral Student Learning Patterns: Learning about Active Knowledge Creation or Passive Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Doctoral studies are about learning to create new knowledge and to become a researcher. Yet surprisingly little is known about the individual learning patterns of doctoral students. The study aims to explore learning patterns among natural science doctoral students. The participants included 19 doctoral students from a top-level natural science…

  15. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    A guide for teachers of second language reading offers ideas for using authentic texts as instructional materials. The guide focuses on how to teach students to become strategic readers and use their background knowledge to enhance comprehension. Schema theory is proposed as a framework for approaching reading tasks, by providing relevant pre- and…

  16. Calcium signaling and the MAPK cascade are required for sperm activation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Bin; He, Ruijun; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long

    2014-02-01

    In nematode, sperm activation (or spermiogenesis), a process in which the symmetric and non-motile spermatids transform into polarized and crawling spermatozoa, is critical for sperm cells to acquire fertilizing competence. SPE-8 dependent and SPE-8 independent pathways function redundantly during sperm activation in both males and hermaphrodites of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the downstream signaling for both pathways remains unclear. Here we show that calcium signaling and the MAPK cascade are required for both SPE-8 dependent and SPE-8 independent sperm activation, implying that both pathways share common downstream signaling components during sperm activation. We demonstrate that activation of the MAPK cascade is sufficient to activate spermatids derived from either wild-type or spe-8 group mutant males and that activation of the MAPK cascade bypasses the requirement of calcium signal to induce sperm activation, indicating that the MAPK cascade functions downstream of or parallel with the calcium signaling during sperm activation. Interestingly, the persistent activation of MAPK in activated spermatozoa inhibits Major Sperm Protein (MSP)-based cytoskeleton dynamics. We demonstrate that MAPK plays dual roles in promoting pseudopod extension during sperm activation but also blocking the MSP-based, amoeboid motility of the spermatozoa. Thus, though nematode sperm are crawling cells, morphologically distinct from flagellated sperm, and the molecular machinery for motility of amoeboid and flagellated sperm is different, both types of sperm might utilize conserved signaling pathways to modulate sperm maturation.

  17. Activity Systems, Information Sharing and the Development of Organizational Knowledge in Two Finnish Firms: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widén-Wulff, Gunilla; Davenport, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations; a company that handles insurance claims and a small, entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a…

  18. Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) Code Verification and Validation Data Standards and Requirements: Fluid Dynamics Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Weirs; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    V&V and UQ are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of M&S and, hence, to establish confidence in M&S. Though other industries are establishing standards and requirements for the performance of V&V and UQ, at present, the nuclear industry has not established such standards or requirements. However, the nuclear industry is beginning to recognize that such standards are needed and that the resources needed to support V&V and UQ will be very significant. In fact, no single organization has sufficient resources or expertise required to organize, conduct and maintain a comprehensive V&V and UQ program. What is needed is a systematic and standardized approach to establish and provide V&V and UQ resources at a national or even international level, with a consortium of partners from government, academia and industry. Specifically, what is needed is a structured and cost-effective knowledge base that collects, evaluates and stores verification and validation data, and shows how it can be used to perform V&V and UQ, leveraging collaboration and sharing of resources to support existing engineering and licensing procedures as well as science-based V&V and UQ processes. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Utah State University and others with the objective of establishing a comprehensive and web-accessible knowledge base to provide V&V and UQ resources for M&S for nuclear reactor design, analysis and licensing. The knowledge base will serve as an important resource for technical exchange and collaboration that will enable credible and reliable computational models and simulations for application to nuclear power. NE-KAMS will serve as a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, academia, the national laboratories, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta requires its target plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 for cytostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kortlever, Roderik M; Nijwening, Jeroen H; Bernards, René

    2008-09-01

    The cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) has strong antiproliferative activity in most normal cells but contributes to tumor progression in the later stages of oncogenesis. It is not fully understood which TGFbeta target genes are causally involved in mediating its cytostatic activity. We report here that suppression of the TGFbeta target gene encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by RNA interference leads to escape from the cytostatic activity of TGFbeta both in human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and primary mouse embryo fibroblasts. Consistent with this, PAI-1 knock-out mouse embryo fibroblasts are also resistant to TGFbeta growth arrest. Conversely, we show that ectopic expression of PAI-1 in proliferating HaCaT cells induces a growth arrest. PAI-1 knockdown does not interfere with canonical TGFbeta signaling as judged by SMAD phosphorylation and induction of bona fide TGFbeta target genes. Instead, knockdown of PAI-1 results in sustained activation of protein kinase B. Significantly, we find that constitutive protein kinase B activity leads to evasion of the growth-inhibitory action of TGFbeta. Our data are consistent with a model in which induction of PAI-1 by TGFbeta is critical for the induction of proliferation arrest.

  20. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification.

    PubMed

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of "big data" has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on "adherence to prescription and medical plans" identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases. PMID:27358570

  1. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of “big data” has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on “adherence to prescription and medical plans” identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases. PMID:27358570

  2. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification.

    PubMed

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of "big data" has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on "adherence to prescription and medical plans" identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases.

  3. Requirements for activation and RAFT localization of the T-lymphocyte kinase Rlk/Txk

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Mario; Czar, Michael J; Debnath, Jayanta; Cheng, Genhong; Lenardo, Michael J; Varmus, Harold E; Schwartzberg, Pamela L

    2001-01-01

    Background The Tec family kinases are implicated in signaling from lymphocyte antigen receptors and are activated following phosphorylation by Src kinases. For most Tec kinases, this activation requires an interaction between their pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and the products of phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, which localizes Tec kinases to membrane RAFTs. Rlk/Txk is a Tec related kinase expressed in T cells that lacks a pleckstrin homology domain, having instead a palmitoylated cysteine-string motif. To evaluate Rlk's function in T cell receptor signaling cascades, we examined the requirements for Rlk localization and activation by Src family kinases. Results We demonstrate that Rlk is also associated with RAFTs, despite its lack of a pleckstrin homology domain. Rlk RAFT association requires the cysteine-string motif and is independent of PI3 Kinase activity. We further demonstrate that Rlk can be phosphorylated and activated by Src kinases, leading to a decrease in its half-life. A specific tyrosine in the activation loop of Rlk, Y420, is required for phosphorylation and activation, as well as for decreased stability, but is not required for lipid RAFT association. Mutation of this tyrosine also prevents increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Rlk after stimulation of the T cell receptor, suggesting that Rlk is phosphorylated by Src family kinases in response to T cell receptor engagement. Conclusions Like the other related Tec kinases, Rlk is associated with lipid RAFTs and can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases, supporting a role for Rlk in signaling downstream of Src kinases in T cell activation. PMID:11353545

  4. Physicians', nurses' and community health workers' knowledge about physical activity in Brazil: A cross-sectional study☆

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Laura; Mielke, Gregore I.; Parra, Diana C.; Gomes, Grace; Florindo, Alex; Bracco, Mario; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz R.; Moura, Lenildo; Brownson, Ross C.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure knowledge of current recommendations of physical activity and consequences of physical inactivity among healthcare providers throughout Brazil. Methods A phone survey of 1600 randomly selected primary healthcare units in Brazil was conducted between January and July 2011. At each unit, a physician, nurse or community healthcare worker (n = 798) responded to a 40-minute survey, eliciting information about demographics, knowledge, and health behaviors pertaining to physical activity. Results Among nurses and community healthcare workers, > 95% reported needing more information on physical activity guidelines. Among physicians this proportion was 80%. Nearly 40% of the professionals incorrectly believed 90-min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week is the recommended amount for health benefits; nearly 30% believed that 90-min of vigorous-intensity activity per week is needed for the same purpose. More than 75% of all groups reported that type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and coronary heart disease might result from physical inactivity, but on average only 60% from each group are aware of osteoporosis as a possible consequence of physical inactivity. Conclusions Training health professionals in how to convey all relevant information about physical activity to their patients is critical for health promotion within the primary care system in Brazil. PMID:26844104

  5. Structural requirement of isoflavonones for the inhibitory activity of interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Hun; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Dang, The Hung; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Ju, Jung-Hun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Kim, Youngsoo

    2003-05-01

    Sophoricoside isolated from Sophora japonica is a glycoside of isoflavonone as an inhibitor of interleukin (IL)-5. To identify structural requirements of this isoflavonone for its inhibitory activity against IL-5, isoflavonones, isoflavanones, and their glycosides were prepared and their inhibitory activity was tested against IL-5. Among them, 5-benzyloxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chromen-4-one (4b, 87.9% inhibition at 50 microM, IC(50)=15.3 microM) shows the most potent activity, comparable with that of sophoricoside. The important structural requirements of these isoflavonone analogs exhibiting the inhibitory activity against IL-5 were recognized as (1) planarity of chromen-4-one ring, (2) existence of phenolic hydroxyl at 4-position of B ring, and (3) introduction of benzyloxy at 5-position, which may act as a bulky group for occupying hydrophobic pocket in putative binding site. However the glucopyranosyl moiety of sophoricoside is not an essential motif for the activity. PMID:12767605

  6. Analysis of DNA structure and sequence requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Correa, Elisa M E; De Tullio, Luisina; Vélez, Pablo S; Martina, Mariana A; Argaraña, Carlos E; Barra, José L

    2013-12-01

    The hallmark of the mismatch repair system in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms devoid of MutH is the presence of a MutL homologue with endonuclease activity. The aim of this study was to analyse whether different DNA structures affect Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL (PaMutL) endonuclease activity and to determine if a specific nucleotide sequence is required for this activity. Our results showed that PaMutL was able to nick covalently closed circular plasmids but not linear DNA at high ionic strengths, while the activity on linear DNA was only found below 60 mM salt. In addition, single strand DNA, ss/ds DNA boundaries and negatively supercoiling degree were not required for PaMutL nicking activity. Finally, the analysis of the incision sites revealed that PaMutL, as well as Bacillus thuringiensis MutL homologue, did not show DNA sequence specificity.

  7. Differential Requirement for Pten Lipid and Protein Phosphatase Activity during Zebrafish Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Miriam; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and many mutations found in tumor samples directly affect PTEN phosphatase activity. In order to understand the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo, the aim of our study was to dissect the role of Pten phosphatase activities during zebrafish embryonic development. As in other model organisms, zebrafish mutants lacking functional Pten are embryonically lethal. Zebrafish have two pten genes and pten double homozygous zebrafish embryos develop a severe pleiotropic phenotype around 4 days post fertilization, which can be largely rescued by re-introduction of pten mRNA at the one-cell stage. We used this assay to characterize the rescue-capacity of Pten and variants with mutations that disrupt lipid, protein or both phosphatase activities. The pleiotropic phenotype at 4dpf could only be rescued by wild type Pten, indicating that both phosphatase activities are required for normal zebrafish embryonic development. An earlier aspect of the phenotype, hyperbranching of intersegmental vessels, however, was rescued by Pten that retained lipid phosphatase activity, independent of protein phosphatase activity. Lipid phosphatase activity was also required for moderating pAkt levels at 4 dpf. We propose that the role of Pten during angiogenesis mainly consists of suppressing PI3K signaling via its lipid phosphatase activity, whereas the complex process of embryonic development requires lipid and protein phosphatase of Pten. PMID:26848951

  8. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and work-based responsibilities.…

  9. The lipid moiety of brincidofovir is required for in vitro antiviral activity against Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Laura K; Flint, Mike; Dyall, Julie; Albariño, César; Olinger, Gene G; Foster, Scott; Sethna, Phiroze; Hensley, Lisa E; Nichol, Stuart T; Lanier, E Randall; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-01-01

    Brincidofovir (BCV) is the 3-hexadecyloxy-1-propanol (HDP) lipid conjugate of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV). BCV has established broad-spectrum activity against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses; however, its activity against RNA viruses has been less thoroughly evaluated. Here, we report that BCV inhibited infection of Ebola virus in multiple human cell lines. Unlike the mechanism of action for BCV against cytomegalovirus and other dsDNA viruses, phosphorylation of CDV to the diphosphate form appeared unnecessary. Instead, antiviral activity required the lipid moiety and in vitro activity against EBOV was observed for several HDP-nucleotide conjugates.

  10. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F; Kushner, J; Hill, C

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connected by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.

  11. Wispy, the Drosophila homolog of GLD-2, is required during oogenesis and egg activation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Sackton, Katharine L; Horner, Vanessa L; Kumar, Kritika E; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2008-04-01

    Egg activation is the process that modifies mature, arrested oocytes so that embryo development can proceed. One key aspect of egg activation is the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of certain maternal mRNAs to permit or enhance their translation. wispy (wisp) maternal-effect mutations in Drosophila block development during the egg-to-embryo transition. We show here that the wisp gene encodes a member of the GLD-2 family of cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases (PAPs). The WISP protein is required for poly(A) tail elongation of bicoid, Toll, and torso mRNAs upon egg activation. In Drosophila, WISP and Smaug (SMG) have previously been reported to be required to trigger the destabilization of maternal mRNAs during egg activation. SMG is the major regulator of this activity. We report here that SMG is still translated in activated eggs from wisp mutant mothers, indicating that WISP does not regulate mRNA stability by controlling the translation of smg mRNA. We have also analyzed in detail the very early developmental arrest associated with wisp mutations. Pronuclear migration does not occur in activated eggs laid by wisp mutant females. Finally, we find that WISP function is also needed during oogenesis to regulate the poly(A) tail length of dmos during oocyte maturation and to maintain a high level of active (phospho-) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).

  12. Determination of the required surface area of a final clarifier for an activated-sludge system.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Weng Ah

    2004-01-01

    A generic methodology for determining the required surface area of a final clarifier is presented. Clarification and thickening requirements are integrated to form a unified procedure for final clarifier design. The new method is based on results obtained by Yuen (2002) on the solids flux theory for a secondary clarifier; it does not require the specification of recycle rate, which is computed as an output of the method. The author shows that there is a minimum required surface area (A(m)) for a final clarifier under the thickening requirement when the designed recycle rate is set at the maximum allowable value (FR)m (at the critical state). The designed surface area and the return activated sludge pumping capacity can be determined by applying a safety factor to A(m) and (FR)m, respectively. The method is shown to conform to conventional design criteria under typical design conditions.

  13. Threshold occupancy and specific cation binding modes in the hammerhead ribozyme active site are required for active conformation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Giambaşu, George M.; Sosa, Carlos P.; Martick, Monika; Scott, William G.; York, Darrin M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between formation of active in-line attack conformations and monovalent (Na+) and divalent (Mg2+) metal ion binding in the hammerhead ribozyme has been explored with molecular dynamics simulations. To stabilize repulsions between negatively charged groups, different requirements of threshold occupancy of metal ions were observed in the reactant and activated precursor states both in the presence or absence of a Mg2+ in the active site. Specific bridging coordination patterns of the ions are correlated with the formation of active in-line attack conformations and can be accommodated in both cases. Furthermore, simulation results suggest that the hammerhead ribozyme folds to form an electronegative recruiting pocket that attracts high local concentrations of positive charge. The present simulations help to reconcile experiments that probe the metal ion sensitivity of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis and support the supposition that Mg2+, in addition to stabilizing active conformations, plays a specific chemical role in catalysis. PMID:19265710

  14. 30 CFR 585.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 585.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  16. 30 CFR 585.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision? (a) You...

  18. 30 CFR 585.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 585.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 285.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 285.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS approve the revision? (a) You...

  20. 30 CFR 585.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 585.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 585.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Cop § 585.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will BOEM approve the revision? (a)...

  2. Recombination hotspot activity of hypervariable minisatellite DNA requires minisatellite DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P; Moore, P D

    1998-01-01

    Hypervariable minisatellite DNA repeats are found at tens of thousands of loci in the mammalian genome. These sequences stimulate homologous recombination in mammalian cells [Cell 60:95-103]. To test the hypothesis that protein-DNA interaction is required for hotspot function in vivo, we determined whether a second protein binding nearby could abolish hotspot activity. Intermolecular recombination between pairs of plasmid substrates was measured in the presence or absence of the cis-acting recombination hotspot and in the presence or absence of the second trans-acting DNA binding protein. Minisatellite DNA had hotspot activity in two cell lines, but lacked hotspot activity in two closely related cell lines expressing a site-specific helicase that bound to DNA adjacent to the hotspot. Suppression of hotspot function occurred for both replicating and non-replicating recombination substrates. These results indicate that hotspot activity in vivo requires site occupancy by minisatellite DNA binding proteins. PMID:9776980

  3. Activation of transcription by PU.1 requires both acidic and glutamine domains.

    PubMed Central

    Klemsz, M J; Maki, R A

    1996-01-01

    The B-lymphocyte- and macrophage-specific transcription factor PU.1 is a member of the ets family of proteins. To understand how PU.1 functions as a transcription factor, we initiated a series of experiments to define its activation domain. Using deletion analysis, we showed that the activation domain of PU.1 is located in the amino-terminal half of the protein. Within this region, we identified three acidic subdomains and one glutamine-rich subdomain. The deletion of any of these subdomains resulted in a significant loss in the ability of PU.1 to transactivate in cotransfection studies. Amino acid substitution analysis showed that the activation of transcription by PU.1 requires acidic residues between amino acids 7 and 74 and a group of glutamine residues between amino acids 75 and 84. These data show that PU.1 contains two types of known activation domains and that both are required for maximal transactivation. PMID:8524320

  4. Dissociation of two signals required for activation of resting B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Julius, M H; von Boehmer, H; Sidman, C L

    1982-01-01

    Cellular interactions involved in the T cell-dependent activation of B cells were analyzed by using lines and clones of helper T cells specific for determinants expressed on the B cell surface. Activation of male antigen-, M locus-, and H-2-specific T cells was shown to support polyclonal Ig production by a population of B cells that did not require T-cell-B-cell interaction for induction/amplification. However, these T cells alone did not activate gradient-purified small (resting) B cells. The activation of small B cells was shown to require not only a signal derived through an antigen-specific T-helper cell-B cell interaction but in addition a second signal that could be provided by anti-Ig antibodies. PMID:6979046

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Border Crossers during Temporary Enforcement of a Formal Entry Requirement for Mexican-Style Soft Cheeses, 2009†

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, AN V.; COHEN, NICOLE J.; GAO, HONGJIANG; FISHBEIN, DANIEL B.; KEIR, JANE; OCANA, J. MIGUEL; SENINI, LORI; FLORES, ALETA; WATERMAN, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-style soft cheese known as queso fresco (QF), which is often unpasteurized, has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercises discretion in enforcement of noncommercial importation of cheese. To test control measures aimed at decreasing unlawful QF importation, in 2009 the FDA temporarily enforced a requirement for formal commercial entry for all cheeses over 5 lb (2.3 kg) at the San Diego–Tijuana border. Enforcement was combined with educational outreach. Border crossers importing cheese and those not importing cheese were surveyed at the beginning and end of the temporary enforcement period. Data collected included participant demographic information, knowledge of QF-associated health risks, and attitudes and practices regarding QF consumption and importation. We surveyed 306 importers and 381 nonimporters. Compared with nonimporters, importers had a lower level of knowledge regarding QF-associated health risks (P < 0.0001). Border crossers carrying cheese were more likely to have less education, be U.S. or dual residents, consume QF more frequently, and cross the border less often. Importation and consumption of unpasteurized QF remained prevalent among border crossers during the temporary enforcement period, and the level of knowledge regarding QF-associated risks remained low among these crossers. More vigorous, sustained messaging targeted at high-risk groups is needed to change behaviors. Definition and consistent enforcement of limits will likely be needed to reduce QF importation and the risk of QF-associated diseases along the U.S.–Mexico border; however, public health benefits will need to be balanced against the cost of enforcement. PMID:25198849

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among border crossers during temporary enforcement of a formal entry requirement for Mexican-style soft cheeses, 2009.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An V; Cohen, Nicole J; Gao, Hongjiang; Fishbein, Daniel B; Keir, Jane; Ocana, J Miguel; Senini, Lori; Flores, Aleta; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-09-01

    Mexican-style soft cheese known as queso fresco (QF), which is often unpasteurized, has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercises discretion in enforcement of noncommercial importation of cheese. To test control measures aimed at decreasing unlawful QF importation, in 2009 the FDA temporarily enforced a requirement for formal commercial entry for all cheeses over 5 lb (2.3 kg) at the San Diego-Tijuana border. Enforcement was combined with educational outreach. Border crossers importing cheese and those not importing cheese were surveyed at the beginning and end of the temporary enforcement period. Data collected included participant demographic information, knowledge of QF-associated health risks, and attitudes and practices regarding QF consumption and importation. We surveyed 306 importers and 381 nonimporters. Compared with nonimporters, importers had a lower level of knowledge regarding QF-associated health risks (P < 0.0001). Border crossers carrying cheese were more likely to have less education, be U.S. or dual residents, consume QF more frequently, and cross the border less often. Importation and consumption of unpasteurized QF remained prevalent among border crossers during the temporary enforcement period, and the level of knowledge regarding QF-associated risks remained low among these crossers. More vigorous, sustained messaging targeted at high-risk groups is needed to change behaviors. Definition and consistent enforcement of limits will likely be needed to reduce QF importation and the risk of QF-associated diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border; however, public health benefits will need to be balanced against the cost of enforcement.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among border crossers during temporary enforcement of a formal entry requirement for Mexican-style soft cheeses, 2009.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An V; Cohen, Nicole J; Gao, Hongjiang; Fishbein, Daniel B; Keir, Jane; Ocana, J Miguel; Senini, Lori; Flores, Aleta; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-09-01

    Mexican-style soft cheese known as queso fresco (QF), which is often unpasteurized, has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercises discretion in enforcement of noncommercial importation of cheese. To test control measures aimed at decreasing unlawful QF importation, in 2009 the FDA temporarily enforced a requirement for formal commercial entry for all cheeses over 5 lb (2.3 kg) at the San Diego-Tijuana border. Enforcement was combined with educational outreach. Border crossers importing cheese and those not importing cheese were surveyed at the beginning and end of the temporary enforcement period. Data collected included participant demographic information, knowledge of QF-associated health risks, and attitudes and practices regarding QF consumption and importation. We surveyed 306 importers and 381 nonimporters. Compared with nonimporters, importers had a lower level of knowledge regarding QF-associated health risks (P < 0.0001). Border crossers carrying cheese were more likely to have less education, be U.S. or dual residents, consume QF more frequently, and cross the border less often. Importation and consumption of unpasteurized QF remained prevalent among border crossers during the temporary enforcement period, and the level of knowledge regarding QF-associated risks remained low among these crossers. More vigorous, sustained messaging targeted at high-risk groups is needed to change behaviors. Definition and consistent enforcement of limits will likely be needed to reduce QF importation and the risk of QF-associated diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border; however, public health benefits will need to be balanced against the cost of enforcement. PMID:25198849

  8. Dental patient's knowledge and perceptions about the effects of smoking and role of dentists in smoking cessation activities

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Poonam; Narang, Ridhi; Swathi, V.; Mittal, Litik; Jha, Kunal; Gupta, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the following study is to assess the knowledge of patients about the consequences of smoking on the general and oral health, to analyze the patient's perceptions about the role of dentists in smoking prevention, counseling and cessation and to analyze the willingness of smokers to quit smoking following dentist's advice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in a sample of 486 dental patients visiting Vokkaligara Sangha Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluruin the month of August 2011 using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was performed to analyze data. Results: The patients had good knowledge about the effects of smoking on general and oral health. Statistically significant difference was observed in the knowledge of smokers and non-smokers about the effects of smoking on ageing (P = 0.008) and oral cancer (P = 0.0012). Patients had a positive perception about the role of dentists in smoking cessation activities. Smokers exhibited a willingness to quit if suggested by the dentist. Conclusion: Patients perceive that dentists can play an important part in smoking cessation activities. Hence, dentists should not hesitate to give smoking cessation advice to their patients and grasp this opportunity to improve the general and oral health of the community. PMID:24966773

  9. Active Learning in Research Methods Classes Is Associated with Higher Knowledge and Confidence, Though not Evaluations or Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter J; Baughman, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26973575

  10. Active Learning in Research Methods Classes Is Associated with Higher Knowledge and Confidence, Though not Evaluations or Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter J.; Baughman, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26973575

  11. The glutaminase activity of l-asparaginase is not required for anticancer activity against ASNS-negative cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Kin; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Anishkin, Andriy; Purwaha, Preeti; Rogers, David M.; Sukharev, Sergei; Rempe, Susan B.; Weinstein, John N.

    2014-01-01

    l-Asparaginase (l-ASP) is a key component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Its mechanism of action, however, is still poorly understood, in part because of its dual asparaginase and glutaminase activities. Here, we show that l-ASP’s glutaminase activity is not always required for the enzyme’s anticancer effect. We first used molecular dynamics simulations of the clinically standard Escherichia coli l-ASP to predict what mutated forms could be engineered to retain activity against asparagine but not glutamine. Dynamic mapping of enzyme substrate contacts identified Q59 as a promising mutagenesis target for that purpose. Saturation mutagenesis followed by enzymatic screening identified Q59L as a variant that retains asparaginase activity but shows undetectable glutaminase activity. Unlike wild-type l-ASP, Q59L is inactive against cancer cells that express measurable asparagine synthetase (ASNS). Q59L is potently active, however, against ASNS-negative cells. Those observations indicate that the glutaminase activity of l-ASP is necessary for anticancer activity against ASNS-positive cell types but not ASNS-negative cell types. Because the clinical toxicity of l-ASP is thought to stem from its glutaminase activity, these findings suggest the hypothesis that glutaminase-negative variants of l-ASP would provide larger therapeutic indices than wild-type l-ASP for ASNS-negative cancers. PMID:24659632

  12. Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1-Dependent Activation of AMPK Promotes Brucella abortus Intracellular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Li, Yingying; Dong, Chunyan; Xu, Xiaohan; Wei, Pan; Sun, Wanchun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is well conserved during evolution. AMPK activation inhibits production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase. However, the role of AMPK during the process of Brucella infection remains unknown. Our data demonstrate that B. abortus infection induces AMPK activation in HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. The known AMPK kinases LKB1, CAMKKβ, and TAK1 are not required for the activation of AMPK by B. abortus infection. Instead, this activation is dependent on the RNase activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Moreover, we also found that B. abortus infection-induced IRE1-dependent activation of AMPK promotes B. abortus intracellular growth with peritoneal macrophages via suppression of NADPH-derived ROS production. IMPORTANCE Previous studies showed that B. abortus infection does not promote any oxidative burst regulated by NADPH oxidase. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We report for the first time that AMPK activation caused by B. abortus infection plays important role in NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production. PMID:26755628

  13. Offering Community Engagement Activities to Increase Chemistry Knowledge and Confidence for Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewry, Joyce D.; Glover, Sarah R.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Ngcoza, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the emphasis on community engagement in higher education, academic departments need to become more involved in the community. This paper discusses a number of outreach activities undertaken by the chemistry department at Rhodes University, South Africa. The activities range from service learning to community engagement with teachers and…

  14. Knowledge About Sounds-Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields, and Layers in House Mice.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Diana B; Schmidt, H Sabine; Ehret, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields and layers of seven groups of mothers and naïve females who have different knowledge about and are differently motivated to respond to acoustic models of pup ultrasounds of different behavioral significance. Profiles of FOS-positive cells in the AC primary fields (AI, AAF), the ultrasonic field (UF), the secondary field (AII), and the dorsoposterior field (DP) suggest that activation reflects in AI, AAF, and UF the integration of sound properties with animal state-dependent factors, in the higher-order field AII the news value of a given sound in the behavioral context, and in the higher-order field DP the level of maternal motivation and, by left-hemisphere activation advantage, the recognition of the meaning of sounds in the given context. Anesthesia reduced activation in all fields, especially in cortical layers 2/3. Thus, plasticity in the AC is field-specific preparing different output of AC fields in the process of perception, recognition and responding to communication sounds. Further, the activation profiles of the auditory cortical fields suggest the differentiation between brains hormonally primed to know (mothers) and brains which acquired knowledge via implicit learning (naïve females). In this way, auditory cortical activation discriminates between instinctive (mothers) and learned (naïve females) cognition.

  15. Knowledge About Sounds—Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields, and Layers in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Diana B.; Schmidt, H. Sabine; Ehret, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields and layers of seven groups of mothers and naïve females who have different knowledge about and are differently motivated to respond to acoustic models of pup ultrasounds of different behavioral significance. Profiles of FOS-positive cells in the AC primary fields (AI, AAF), the ultrasonic field (UF), the secondary field (AII), and the dorsoposterior field (DP) suggest that activation reflects in AI, AAF, and UF the integration of sound properties with animal state-dependent factors, in the higher-order field AII the news value of a given sound in the behavioral context, and in the higher-order field DP the level of maternal motivation and, by left-hemisphere activation advantage, the recognition of the meaning of sounds in the given context. Anesthesia reduced activation in all fields, especially in cortical layers 2/3. Thus, plasticity in the AC is field-specific preparing different output of AC fields in the process of perception, recognition and responding to communication sounds. Further, the activation profiles of the auditory cortical fields suggest the differentiation between brains hormonally primed to know (mothers) and brains which acquired knowledge via implicit learning (naïve females). In this way, auditory cortical activation discriminates between instinctive (mothers) and learned (naïve females) cognition. PMID:27013959

  16. 75 FR 48553 - Supplement to Commission Procedures During Periods of Emergency Operations Requiring Activation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 376 Supplement to Commission Procedures During Periods of Emergency Operations Requiring Activation of Continuity of Operations Plan Issued August 5, 2010....

  17. 25 CFR 262.4 - Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; (iii) The tribe ensures that the provisions for permit issuance in this part and at 43 CFR part 7 have... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit. 262.4 Section 262.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  18. 25 CFR 262.4 - Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; (iii) The tribe ensures that the provisions for permit issuance in this part and at 43 CFR part 7 have... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit. 262.4 Section 262.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  19. 30 CFR 551.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Notices. 551.4 Section 551.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You must have a...

  20. 30 CFR 551.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Notices. 551.4 Section 551.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSCIAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You must have a...

  1. 30 CFR 551.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Notices. 551.4 Section 551.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You must have a...

  2. 30 CFR 251.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Notices. 251.4 Section 251.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.4 Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. (a) Exploration. You...

  3. 77 FR 27787 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13617) on March 7, 2012, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Modernization Act Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  4. 21 CFR 1309.24 - Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities with respect to List I chemicals are limited to the distribution of red phosphorus, white phosphorus, or hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) to another location operated by the same firm solely for... disposal. (f) The requirement of registration is waived for any person whose distribution of red...

  5. 21 CFR 1309.24 - Waiver of registration requirement for certain activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities with respect to List I chemicals are limited to the distribution of red phosphorus, white phosphorus, or hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) to another location operated by the same firm solely for... disposal. (f) The requirement of registration is waived for any person whose distribution of red...

  6. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  7. 30 CFR 280.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental analysis? 280.30 Section 280.30 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR...

  8. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? 2516.820 Section 2516.820 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS...

  9. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part? 280.25 Section 280.25 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS,...

  10. 30 CFR 251.4 - Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of G&G activities that require permits or Notices. 251.4 Section 251.4 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...) Scientific research. You may only conduct G&G scientific research related to oil, gas, and sulphur in the...

  11. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part? 280.25 Section 280.25 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  12. 78 FR 77484 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3507). DATES: Written comments...

  13. 10 CFR 420.15 - Minimum criteria for required program activities for plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., State, and Federal energy efficiency, renewable energy and alternative transportation fuel programs... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum criteria for required program activities for plans. 420.15 Section 420.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  14. Selenate reductase activity in Escherichia coli requires Isc iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nathan; Choi, Jessica; Porter, Abigail W; Carey, Sean; Rauschenbach, Ines; Harel, Arye

    2014-12-01

    The selenate reductase in Escherichia coli is a multi-subunit enzyme predicted to bind Fe-S clusters. In this study, we examined the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis genes that are required for selenate reductase activity. Mutants devoid of either the iscU or hscB gene in the Isc iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis pathway lost the ability to reduce selenate. Genetic complementation by the wild-type sequences restored selenate reductase activity. The results indicate the Isc biosynthetic system plays a key role in selenate reductase Fe-S cofactor assembly and is essential for enzyme activity.

  15. Knowledge and Its Enemies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

  16. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS... your approved SAP, describing in detail the type of activities you propose to conduct. We...

  17. 30 CFR 285.634 - What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my COP... Activities Under An Approved Cop § 285.634 What activities require a revision to my COP, and when will MMS... your approved COP, describing in detail the type of activities you propose to conduct. We...

  18. Insulin-induced Drosophila S6 kinase activation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Jose M; Alrubaie, Saif; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Deak, Maria; Leevers, Sally J; Alessi, Dario R

    2003-01-01

    An important mechanism by which insulin regulates cell growth and protein synthesis is through activation of the p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K). In mammalian cells, insulin-induced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activation, generates the lipid second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3), which is thought to play a key role in triggering the activation of S6K. Although the major components of the insulin-signalling pathway are conserved in Drosophila, recent studies suggested that S6K activation does not require PI3K in this system. To investigate further the role of dPI3K (Drosophila PI3K) in dS6K (Drosophila S6K) activation, we examined the effect of two structurally distinct PI3K inhibitors on insulin-induced dS6K activation in Kc167 and S2 Drosophila cell lines. We found that both inhibitors prevented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and activation of dS6K. To investigate further the role of the dPI3K pathway in regulating dS6K activation, we also used dsRNAi (double-stranded RNA-mediated interference) to decrease expression of dPI3K and the PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) phosphatase dPTEN ( Drosophila phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) in Kc167 and S2 cells. Knock-down of dPI3K prevented dS6K activation, whereas knock-down of dPTEN, which would be expected to increase PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) levels, stimulated dS6K activity. Moreover, when the expression of the dPI3K target, dPKB (Drosophila protein kinase B), was decreased to undetectable levels, we found that insulin could no longer trigger dS6K activation. This observation provides the first direct demonstration that dPKB is required for insulin-stimulated dS6K activation. We also present evidence that the amino-acid-induced activation of dS6K in the absence of insulin, thought to be mediated by dTOR (Drosophila target of rapamycin), which is unaffected by the inhibition of dPI3K by wortmannin. The results of the present study support the view that, in Drosophila cells, dPI3K and dPKB, as well d

  19. Meeting Resident Scholarly Activity Requirements Through a Longitudinal Quality Improvement Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Simasek, Madeline; Ballard, Stephanie L.; Phelps, Phillip; Pingul-Ravano, Rowena; Kolb, N. Randall; Finkelstein, Alan; Weaver-Agostoni, Jacqueline; Takedai, Teiichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Quality improvement (QI) skills are learned during residency, yet there are few reports of the scholarly activity outcomes of a QI curriculum in a primary care program. Intervention We examined whether scholarly activity can result from a longitudinal, experiential QI curriculum that involves residents, clinic staff, and faculty. Methods The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Shadyside Family Medicine Residency implemented a required longitudinal outpatient practice improvement rotation (LOPIR) curriculum in 2005. The rotation format includes weekly multidisciplinary work group meetings alternating with resident presentations delivered to the entire program. Residents present the results of a literature review and provide 2 interim project updates to the residency. A completed individual project is required for residency graduation, with project results presented at Residency Research Day. Scholarly activity outcomes of the curriculum were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results As of 2014, 60 residents completed 3 years of the LOPIR curriculum. All residents satisfied the 2014 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) scholarly activity and QI requirements with a literature review presentation in postgraduate year 2, and the presentation of a completed QI project at Residency Research Day. Residents have delivered 83 local presentations, 13 state/regional presentations, and 2 national presentations. Residents received 7 awards for QI posters, as well as 3 grants totaling $21,639. The educational program required no additional curriculum time, few resources, and was acceptable to residents, faculty, and staff. Conclusions LOPIR is an effective way to meet and exceed the 2014 ACGME scholarly activity requirements for family medicine residents. PMID:26217429

  20. Endogenous patterns of activity are required for the maturation of a motor network

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Sarah J.; Evers, Jan Felix; Bate, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many parts of the nervous system become active before development is complete, including the embryonic spinal cord. Remarkably, although the subject has been debated for over a century (Harrison, 1904), it is still unclear whether such activity is required for normal development of motor circuitry. In Drosophila, embryonic motor output is initially poorly organised, and coordinated crawling-like behaviour gradually emerges over the subsequent phase of development. We show that reversibly blocking synaptic transmission during this phase severely delays the first appearance of coordinated movements. When we interfere with the pattern of neuronal firing during this period, coordination is also delayed or blocked. We conclude that there is a period during which endogenous patterns of neuronal activity are required for the normal development of motor circuits in Drosophila. PMID:21775590

  1. A Requirement for Metamorphic Interconversion in the Antimicrobial Activity of Chemokine XCL1.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Amanda M; Subramanian, Akshay; Tapia, Jazma L; Delgado, David P; Tyler, Robert C; Jensen, Davin R; Ouellette, André J; Volkman, Brian F

    2016-07-12

    Chemokines make up a superfamily of ∼50 small secreted proteins (8-12 kDa) involved in a host of physiological processes and disease states, with several previously shown to have direct antimicrobial activity comparable to that of defensins in efficacy. XCL1 is a unique metamorphic protein that interconverts between the canonical chemokine fold and a novel all-β-sheet dimer. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that, within the chemokine family, XCL1 is most closely related to CCL20, which exhibits antibacterial activity. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of WT-XCL1 and structural variants was quantified using a radial diffusion assay (RDA) and in solution bactericidal assays against Gram-positive and Gram-negative species of bacteria. Comparisons of WT-XCL1 with variants that limit metamorphic interconversion showed a loss of antimicrobial activity when restricted to the conserved chemokine fold. These results suggest that metamorphic folding of XCL1 is required for potent antimicrobial activity.

  2. K(+) channel activity and redox status are differentially required for JNK activation by UV and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Wu, Dan; Guo, Taylor B; Ruan, Qin; Li, Tie; Lu, Zhenyu; Xu, Ming; Dai, Wei; Lu, Luo

    2004-07-15

    Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, osmotic changes or the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are rapidly activated. Extensive studies have elucidated molecular components that mediate the activation of JNKs. However, it remains unclear whether activation of JNKs by various stress signals involves different pathways. Here we show that K(+) channel activity is involved in mediating apoptosis induced by UV but not by H(2)O(2) in myelocytic leukemic ML-1 cells. Specifically, JNKs were rapidly phosphorylated upon treatment of ML-1 cells with UV and H(2)O(2). UV-induced, but not H(2)O(2)-induced, JNK-1 phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a K(+) channel blocker. 4-AP also blocked UV-induced increase in JNK activity as well as p38 phosphorylation. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that phosphorylated JNKs were concentrated at centrosomes in ML-1 cells and that these proteins underwent rapid subcellular translocation upon UV treatment. Consistently, the subcellular translocation of JNKs induced by UV was largely blocked by 4-AP. Furthermore, UV-induced JNK activation was blocked by NEM, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent also affecting K(+) current. Both UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced JNK activities were inhibited by glutathione, suggesting that the redox status does play an important role in the activation of JNKs. Taken together, our findings suggest that JNK activation by UV and H(2)O(2) is mediated by distinct yet overlapping pathways and that K(+) channel activity and redox status are differentially required for UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced activation of JNKs.

  3. UTX demethylase activity is required for satellite cell–mediated muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaochen; Nakka, Kiran; Benyoucef, Aissa; Sebastian, Soji; Zhuang, Lenan; Chu, Alphonse; Palii, Carmen G.; Camellato, Brendan; Brand, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The X chromosome–encoded histone demethylase UTX (also known as KDM6A) mediates removal of repressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) to establish transcriptionally permissive chromatin. Loss of UTX in female mice is embryonic lethal. Unexpectedly, male UTX-null mice escape embryonic lethality due to expression of UTY, a paralog that lacks H3K27 demethylase activity, suggesting an enzyme-independent role for UTX in development and thereby challenging the need for active H3K27 demethylation in vivo. However, the requirement for active H3K27 demethylation in stem cell–mediated tissue regeneration remains untested. Here, we employed an inducible mouse KO that specifically ablates Utx in satellite cells (SCs) and demonstrated that active H3K27 demethylation is necessary for muscle regeneration. Loss of UTX in SCs blocked myofiber regeneration in both male and female mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that UTX mediates muscle regeneration through its H3K27 demethylase activity, as loss of demethylase activity either by chemical inhibition or knock-in of demethylase-dead UTX resulted in defective muscle repair. Mechanistically, dissection of the muscle regenerative process revealed that the demethylase activity of UTX is required for expression of the transcription factor myogenin, which in turn drives differentiation of muscle progenitors. Thus, we have identified a critical role for the enzymatic activity of UTX in activating muscle-specific gene expression during myofiber regeneration and have revealed a physiological role for active H3K27 demethylation in vivo. PMID:26999603

  4. Metamemory judgments and the benefits of repeated study: improving recall predictions through the activation of appropriate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Heather L; Leboe, Jason P

    2009-05-01

    Correspondence between judgments of learning (JOLs) and actual recall tends to be poor when the same items are studied and recalled multiple times (e.g., A. Koriat, L. Sheffer, & H. Ma'ayan, 2002). The authors investigated whether making relevant metamemory knowledge more salient would improve the association between actual and predicted recall as a function of repeated exposure to the same study list. In 2 experiments, participants completed 4 study-recall phases involving the same list of items. In addition to having participants make item-by-item JOLs during each study phase, after the 1st study-recall phase participants also generated change-in-recall estimates as to how many more or fewer words they would recall given another exposure to the same study list. This estimation procedure was designed to highlight repeated study as a factor that can contribute to recall performance. Activating metamemory knowledge about the benefits of repeated study for recall in this way allowed participants to accurately express this knowledge in a free-recall context (Experiment 2), but less so when the memory test was cued recall (Experiment 1). PMID:19379052

  5. On-orbit Metrology and Calibration Requirements for Space Station Activities Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotty, G. M.; Ranganathan, B. N.; Sorrell, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station is the focal point for the commercial development of space. The long term routine operation of the Space Station and the conduct of future commercial activities suggests the need for in-space metrology capabilities analogous when possible to those on-Earth. The ability to perform periodic calibrations and measurements with proper traceability is imperative for the routine operation of the Space Station. An initial review, however, indicated a paucity of data related to metrology and calibration requirements for in-space operations. This condition probably exists because of the highly developmental aspect of space activities to date, their short duration, and nonroutine nature. The on-orbit metrology and calibration needs of the Space Station were examined and assessed. In order to achieve this goal, the following tasks were performed: an up-to-date literature review; identification of on-orbit calibration techniques; identification of sensor calibration requirements; identification of calibration equipment requirements; definition of traceability requirements; preparation of technology development plans; and preparation of the final report. Significant information and major highlights pertaining to each task is presented. In addition, some general (generic) conclusions/observations and recommendations that are pertinent to the overall in-space metrology and calibration activities are presented.

  6. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Induced Aversion Requires p38 MAPK Activation in VTA Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Jonathan M.; Messinger, Daniel I.; Knakal, Cerise R.; Kuhar, Jamie R.; Schattauer, Selena S.; Bruchas, Michael R.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Phillips, Paul E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous dynorphin-κ opioid receptor (KOR) system encodes the dysphoric component of the stress response and controls the risk of depression-like and addiction behaviors; however, the molecular and neural circuit mechanisms are not understood. In this study, we report that KOR activation of p38α MAPK in ventral tegmental (VTA) dopaminergic neurons was required for conditioned place aversion (CPA) in mice. Conditional genetic deletion of floxed KOR or floxed p38α MAPK by Cre recombinase expression in dopaminergic neurons blocked place aversion to the KOR agonist U50,488. Selective viral rescue by wild-type KOR expression in dopaminergic neurons of KOR−/− mice restored U50,488-CPA, whereas expression of a mutated form of KOR that could not initiate p38α MAPK activation did not. Surprisingly, while p38α MAPK inactivation blocked U50,488-CPA, p38α MAPK was not required for KOR inhibition of evoked dopamine release measured by fast scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, KOR activation acutely inhibited VTA dopaminergic neuron firing, and repeated exposure attenuated the opioid response. This adaptation to repeated exposure was blocked by conditional deletion of p38α MAPK, which also blocked KOR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK) subunit Kir3.1 in VTA dopaminergic neurons. Consistent with the reduced response, GIRK phosphorylation at this amino terminal tyrosine residue (Y12) enhances channel deactivation. Thus, contrary to prevailing expectations, these results suggest that κ opioid-induced aversion requires regulation of VTA dopaminergic neuron somatic excitability through a p38α MAPK effect on GIRK deactivation kinetics rather than by presynaptically inhibiting dopamine release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists have the potential to be effective, nonaddictive analgesics, but their therapeutic utility is greatly limited by adverse effects on mood

  7. SHP-2 phosphatase activity is required for PECAM-1-dependent cell motility.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Xu; Cao, Gaoyuan; Williams, James T; Delisser, Horace M

    2010-10-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) has been implicated in endothelial cell motility during angiogenesis. Although there is evidence that SHP-2 plays a role in PECAM-1-dependent cell motility, the molecular basis of the activity of SHP-2 in this process has not been defined. To investigate the requirement of SHP-2 in PECAM-1-dependent cell motility, studies were done in which various constructs of SHP-2 were expressed in cell transfectants expressing PECAM-1. We observed that the levels of PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and SHP-2 association with PECAM-1 were significantly increased in cells expressing a phosphatase-inactive SHP-2 mutant, suggesting that the level of PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and thus SHP-2 binding are regulated in part by bound, catalytically active SHP-2. We subsequently found that expression of PECAM-1 stimulated wound-induced migration and the formation of filopodia (a morphological feature of motile cells). These activities were associated with increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and the dephosphorylation of paxillin (an event implicated in the activation of MAPK). The phosphatase-inactive SHP-2 mutant, however, suppressed these PECAM-1-dependent phenomena, whereas the activity of PECAM-1 expressing cells was not altered by expression of wild-type SHP-2 or SHP-2 in which the scaffold/adaptor function had been disabled. Pharmacological inhibition of SHP-2 phosphatase activity also suppressed PECAM-1-dependent motility. Furthermore, PECAM-1 expression also stimulates tube formation, but none of the SHP-2 constructs affected this process. These findings therefore suggest a model for the involvement of SHP-2 in PECAM-1-dependent motility in which SHP-2, recruited by its interaction with PECAM-1, targets paxillin to ultimately activate the MAPK pathway and downstream events required for cell motility. PMID:20631249

  8. Does Active Learning Improve Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Research Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campisi, Jay; Finn, Kevin E.

    2011-01-01

    We incorporated an active, collaborative-based research project in our undergraduate Research Methods course for first-year sports medicine majors. Working in small groups, students identified a research question, generated a hypothesis to be tested, designed an experiment, implemented the experiment, analyzed the data, and presented their…

  9. In Silico Mining for Antimalarial Structure-Activity Knowledge and Discovery of Novel Antimalarial Curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Viira, Birgit; Gendron, Thibault; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Cojean, Sandrine; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Maes, Louis; Maran, Uko; Loiseau, Philippe M; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease that kills around 600,000 patients every year. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) represents a significant public health threat, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to reverse ACT resistance and cure the disease. For this, extensive curation and homogenization of experimental anti-Plasmodium screening data from both in-house and ChEMBL sources were conducted. As a result, a coherent strategy was established that allowed compiling coherent training sets that associate compound structures to the respective antimalarial activity measurements. Seventeen of these training sets led to the successful generation of classification models discriminating whether a compound has a significant probability to be active under the specific conditions of the antimalarial test associated with each set. These models were used in consensus prediction of the most likely active from a series of curcuminoids available in-house. Positive predictions together with a few predicted as inactive were then submitted to experimental in vitro antimalarial testing. A large majority from predicted compounds showed antimalarial activity, but not those predicted as inactive, thus experimentally validating the in silico screening approach. The herein proposed consensus machine learning approach showed its potential to reduce the cost and duration of antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:27367660

  10. Do Hands-On, Technology-Based Activities Enhance Learning by Reinforcing Cognitive Knowledge and Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korwin, Anthony R.; Jones, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    The geodesic dome concept was presented to 25 eighth graders through reading and a hands-on group assignment and to 25 via reading and lecture. Pre/posttest results showed that organized hands-on activities increased learning and retention of technological concepts. (SK)

  11. Constructing Knowledge: An Experience of Active and Collaborative Learning in ICT Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Margarida M.; Simoes, Dora

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of the implementation of active and collaborative practices in ICT (information and communication technologies) classrooms. Both of these approaches convey a lot of responsibility from the teacher to the students and the hoping, as backed up by the literature, is to promote deeper learning and reasoning skills at a…

  12. In Silico Mining for Antimalarial Structure-Activity Knowledge and Discovery of Novel Antimalarial Curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Viira, Birgit; Gendron, Thibault; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Cojean, Sandrine; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Maes, Louis; Maran, Uko; Loiseau, Philippe M; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2016-06-29

    Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease that kills around 600,000 patients every year. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) represents a significant public health threat, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to reverse ACT resistance and cure the disease. For this, extensive curation and homogenization of experimental anti-Plasmodium screening data from both in-house and ChEMBL sources were conducted. As a result, a coherent strategy was established that allowed compiling coherent training sets that associate compound structures to the respective antimalarial activity measurements. Seventeen of these training sets led to the successful generation of classification models discriminating whether a compound has a significant probability to be active under the specific conditions of the antimalarial test associated with each set. These models were used in consensus prediction of the most likely active from a series of curcuminoids available in-house. Positive predictions together with a few predicted as inactive were then submitted to experimental in vitro antimalarial testing. A large majority from predicted compounds showed antimalarial activity, but not those predicted as inactive, thus experimentally validating the in silico screening approach. The herein proposed consensus machine learning approach showed its potential to reduce the cost and duration of antimalarial drug discovery.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions, and Beliefs regarding Physical Activity on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullally, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many proven benefits of exercise, obesity rates on college campuses continue to rise. At the same time, physical activity (PA) courses are being reduced or cut at various educational institutions. The loss of PA courses creates a problem because college students do not receive the necessary education they need in relation to the…

  14. Learning by Doing: The Objectification of Knowledge across Semiotic Modalities in Middle School Chemistry Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis follows students' action and interaction with a single scientific phenomenon (bubbling/gas) over the course of a curriculum unit in a middle school science classroom to examine how and what they learn when doing laboratory activities. Taking a situated approach to interaction, I place the process of objectification in its multimodal…

  15. Nobody Says No: Student Self-Censorship in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alan; Nason, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores student self-censorship within an online learning environment. Self-censorship in group activity can be seen as a two-edged sword. While it can be advantageous that a student censor personal frustration and angst when working with others, if the self-censorship impacts on the cognitive contribution a student makes then this may…

  16. Developing Situated Knowledge about Teaching with Technology via Web-Enhanced Case-Based Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Situated, case-based approaches, featuring virtual teachers' activity and reasoning in university classrooms, may provide a viable alternative to immersive field-based apprenticeships. Despite widespread advocacy on situated teacher education, research on preservice teachers' situated learning remains rare. This study examined how preservice…

  17. ENaC activity requires CFTR channel function independently of phosphorylation in sweat duct.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M M; Quinton, P M

    2005-09-01

    We previously showed that activation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- conductance (gCFTR) supports parallel activation of amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the native human sweat duct. However, it is not clear whether phosphorylated CFTR, phosphorylated ENaC, or only Cl(-) -channel function is required for activation. We used basilaterally alpha-toxin-permeabilized human sweat ducts to test the hypothesis that ENaC activation depends only on Cl(-) -channel function and not on phosphorylation of either CFTR or ENaC. CFTR is classically activated by PKA plus millimolar ATP, but cytosolic glutamate activation of gCFTR is independent of ATP and phosphorylation. We show here that both phosphorylation-dependent (PKA) and phosphorylation-independent (glutamate) activation of CFTR Cl- channel function support gENaC activation. We tested whether cytosolic application of 5 mM ATP alone, phosphorylation by cAMP, cGMP, G-protein dependent kinases (all in the presence of 100 microM ATP), or glutamate could support ENaC activation in the absence of gCFTR. We found that none of these agonists activated gENaC by themselves when Cl- current (I(Cl-)) through CFTR was blocked by: 1) Cl- removal, 2) DIDS inhibition, 3) lowering the ATP concentration to 100 microM (instead of 5 mM required to support CFTR channel function), or 4) mutant CFTR (homozygous DeltaF508 CF ducts). However, Cl- gradients in the direction of absorption supported, while Cl- gradients in the direction of secretion prevented ENaC activation. We conclude that the interaction between CFTR and ENaC is dependent on activated I(Cl-) through CFTR in the direction of absorption (Cl- gradient from lumen to cell). But such activation of ENaC is independent of phosphorylation and ATP. However, reversing I(Cl-) through CFTR in the direction of secretion (Cl- gradient from cell to lumen) prevents ENaC activation even in the presence of I(Cl-) through CFTR. PMID

  18. The Knowledge Explosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1970-01-01

    Although human knowledge has expanded rapidly, especially during the scientific era, man is far from the limits of knowledge about the human learning process itself. Greatly increased effort in this area of inquiry is required for survival. (JH)

  19. STAT1 Signaling within Macrophages Is Required for Antifungal Activity against Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Leopold Wager, Chrissy M.; Hole, Camaron R.; Wozniak, Karen L.; Olszewski, Michal A.; Mueller, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans, the predominant etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that primarily affects AIDS patients and patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. In immunocompromised individuals, C. neoformans can lead to life-threatening meningoencephalitis. Studies using a virulent strain of C. neoformans engineered to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ), denoted H99γ, demonstrated that protection against pulmonary C. neoformans infection is associated with the generation of a T helper 1 (Th1)-type immune response and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-mediated classical (M1) macrophage activation. However, the critical mechanism by which M1 macrophages mediate their anti-C. neoformans activity remains unknown. The current studies demonstrate that infection with C. neoformans strain H99γ in mice with macrophage-specific STAT1 ablation resulted in severely increased inflammation of the pulmonary tissue, a dysregulated Th1/Th2-type immune response, increased fungal burden, deficient M1 macrophage activation, and loss of protection. STAT1-deficient macrophages produced significantly less nitric oxide (NO) than STAT1-sufficient macrophages, correlating with an inability to control intracellular cryptococcal proliferation, even in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, macrophages from inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, which had intact ROS production, were deficient in anticryptococcal activity. These data indicate that STAT1 activation within macrophages is required for M1 macrophage activation and anti-C. neoformans activity via the production of NO. PMID:26351277

  20. Is Dimerization Required for the Catalytic Activity of Bacterial Biotin Carboxylase?

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,Y.; Chou, C.; Chang, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism. The biotin carboxylase (BC) subunit of Escherichia coli ACC is believed to be active only as a dimer, although the crystal structure shows that the active site of each monomer is 25 Angstroms from the dimer interface. We report here biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterizations of BC carrying single-site mutations in the dimer interface. Our studies demonstrate that two of the mutants, R19E and E23R, are monomeric in solution but have only a 3-fold loss in catalytic activity. The crystal structures of the E23R and F363A mutants show that they can still form the correct dimer at high concentrations. Our data suggest that dimerization is not an absolute requirement for the catalytic activity of the E. coli BC subunit, and we propose a new model for the molecular mechanism of action for BC in multisubunit and multidomain ACCs.

  1. Conditions Required for the Rapid Activation In Vitro of the Chloroplast Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Rosa, L; Whatley, F R

    1984-05-01

    Conditions required for the reductive activation of purified, spinach chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) have been determined in vitro. Full reductive activation was observed only when fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and Mg(2+) were present at the same time as the reducing agent (dithiothreitol). Reduction in the absence either of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate or of Mg(2+) slowly and irreversibly inactivated the enzyme. The concentration of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate that must be present during reduction for maximum activation depends upon the divalent cation present: it is highest with Mg(2+), lower with Ca(2+), and lowest when both Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are present. A scheme for the reductive activation and inactivation of the enzyme is presented.

  2. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  3. Project-focused activity and knowledge tracker: a unified data analysis, collaboration, and workflow tool for medicinal chemistry project teams.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Marian D; Brosius, Arthur D; Gregory, Tracy; Heck, Steven D; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Poss, Christopher S

    2009-12-01

    Advances in the field of drug discovery have brought an explosion in the quantity of data available to medicinal chemists and other project team members. New strategies and systems are needed to help these scientists to efficiently gather, organize, analyze, annotate, and share data about potential new drug molecules of interest to their project teams. Herein we describe a suite of integrated services and end-user applications that facilitate these activities throughout the medicinal chemistry design cycle. The Automated Data Presentation (ADP) and Virtual Compound Profiler (VCP) processes automate the gathering, organization, and storage of real and virtual molecules, respectively, and associated data. The Project-Focused Activity and Knowledge Tracker (PFAKT) provides a unified data analysis and collaboration environment, enhancing decision-making, improving team communication, and increasing efficiency.

  4. Class I HDAC activity is required for renal protection and regeneration after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Yanli; Zhao, Ting C; Gong, Rujun; Bayliss, George; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2014-08-01

    Activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is required for renal epithelial cell proliferation and kidney development. However, their role in renal tubular cell survival and regeneration after acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that all class I HDAC isoforms (1, 2, 3, and 8) were expressed in the renal epithelial cells of the mouse kidney. Inhibition of class I HDACs with MS-275, a highly selective inhibitor, resulted in more severe tubular injury in the mouse model of AKI induced by folic acid or rhabdomyolysis, as indicated by worsening renal dysfunction, increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, and enhanced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. Blocking class I HDAC activity also impaired renal regeneration as evidenced by decreased expression of renal Pax-2, vimentin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Injury to the kidney is accompanied by increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Akt. Inhibition of class I HDACs suppressed EGFR phosphorylation as well as reduced its expression. MS-275 was also effective in inhibiting STAT3 and Akt phosphorylation, but this treatment did not affect their expression levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the class I HDAC activity contributes to renal protection and functional recovery and is required for renal regeneration after AKI. Furthermore, renal EGFR signaling is subject to regulation by this class of HDACs.

  5. Class I histone deacetylase activity is required for proliferation of renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Yanli; Zhao, Ting C; Bayliss, George; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2013-08-01

    The process of renal regeneration after acute kidney injury is thought to recapitulate renal development, and proliferation of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) is a critical step in the regenerative response. Recent studies indicate that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are required for embryonic kidney gene expression, growth, and differentiation. The role and underlying mechanisms of class I HDAC activation in RPTC proliferation, however, remain unclear. In this study, we used cultured RPTCs to examine this issue since four class I HDAC isoforms (1, 2, 3, and 8) are abundantly expressed in this cell type. Blocking class I HDAC activity with a highly selective inhibitor, MS-275, induced global histone H3 hyperacetylation, reduced RPTC proliferation, and diminished expression of cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Silencing HDAC1, 3, or 8 with small interfering RNA resulted in similar biological effects. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) was required for RPTC proliferation, and STAT3 functioned downstream of EGFR. Treatment with MS-275 or knockdown of HDAC1, 3, or 8 suppressed EGFR expression and phosphorylation, and silencing HDAC1 and 3 also reduced STAT3 phosphorylation. However, HDAC2 downregulation did not affect RPTC proliferation and phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role of class I HDACs in mediating proliferation of renal epithelial cells through activation of the EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  6. Skinny hedgehog, an acyltransferase required for palmitoylation and activity of the hedgehog signal.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Z; Mann, R K; Nellen, D; von Kessler, D P; Bellotto, M; Beachy, P A; Basler, K

    2001-09-14

    One of the most dominant influences in the patterning of multicellular embryos is exerted by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted signaling proteins. Here, we identify a segment polarity gene in Drosophila melanogaster, skinny hedgehog (ski), and show that its product is required in Hh-expressing cells for production of appropriate signaling activity in embryos and in the imaginal precursors of adult tissues. The ski gene encodes an apparent acyltransferase, and we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that Hh proteins from ski mutant cells retain carboxyl-terminal cholesterol modification but lack amino-terminal palmitate modification. Our results suggest that ski encodes an enzyme that acts within the secretory pathway to catalyze amino-terminal palmitoylation of Hh, and further demonstrate that this lipid modification is required for the embryonic and larval patterning activities of the Hh signal.

  7. Fast Adaptation in Vestibular Hair Cells Requires Myosin-1c Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Eric A.; Scarborough, John D.; Hirono, Moritoshi; Miller, Emilie D.; Shah, Kavita; Mercer, John A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Gillespie, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In sensory hair cells of the inner ear, mechanical amplification of small stimuli requires fast adaptation, the rapid closing of mechanically activated transduction channels. In frog and mouse vestibular hair cells, we found that the rate of fast adaptation depends on both channel opening and stimulus size and that it is modeled well as a release of a mechanical element in series with the transduction apparatus. To determine whether myosin-1c molecules of the adaptation motor are responsible for the release, we introduced the Y61G mutation into the Myo1c locus and generated mice homozygous for this sensitized allele. Measuring transduction and adaptation in the presence of NMB-ADP, an allele-specific inhibitor, we found that the inhibitor not only blocked slow adaptation, as demonstrated previously in transgenic mice, but also inhibited fast adaptation. These results suggest that mechanical activity of myosin-1c is required for fast adaptation in vestibular hair cells. PMID:16102537

  8. Knowledge at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    Activity theory posits that culturally organized actions guide the acquisition and organization of knowledge. This theory was applied to the organization of knowledge within a large milk processing plant. The dairy was found to be organized by social knowledge, yet individuals creatively synthesized several domains of knowledge to organize their…

  9. Essential activities and knowledge domains of case management: new insights from the CCMC role and functions study.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein

    2006-01-01

    The Commission for Case Manager Certification (CCMC) defines case management (CM) as "a collaborative process that assesses, plans, implements, coordinates, monitors, and evaluates the options and services required to meet an individual's health needs. [Case management] uses communication and available resources to promote quality, cost-effective outcomes." The practice of CM spans the entire health-care spectrum, including pre-acute, acute, and post-acute settings, and the involvement of varied care providers, such as nurses, social workers, rehabilitation counselors, physicians, and other allied health professionals. So what does it mean to practice as a case manager? What roles and job functions are performed and what knowledge is required of a professional in the field for effective practice? These highly relevant questions reflect the thinking of the CCMC commissioners when the latest Case Manager Role and Functions study was undertaken. The primary purpose of this research, which is conducted every 5 years by the CCMC, is to capture the current state of CM practice. This type of in-depth research is required to support an evidence-based certification examination such as the one offered by CCMC-the certified case manager (CCM) credential. Moreover, as the first and largest nationally accredited organization to certify US case managers, the CCMC recognizes its responsibility to undertake and promote scientifically conducted research in the field of CM.

  10. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  11. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  12. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  13. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  14. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  15. Effects of Requiring Physical Fitness in a Lecture-Based College Course: Students' Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…

  16. The Costs of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prusak, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology

  17. 24 CFR 1000.242 - When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.242 When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? The requirement for exemption from taxation applies only to...

  18. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. 707.6 Section 707.6..., State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. (a) Section 1501.2(d) of the... approval or action to which NEPA applies. Such activities for which early involvement is...

  19. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. 707.6 Section 707.6..., State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. (a) Section 1501.2(d) of the... approval or action to which NEPA applies. Such activities for which early involvement is...

  20. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. 707.6 Section 707.6..., State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. (a) Section 1501.2(d) of the... approval or action to which NEPA applies. Such activities for which early involvement is...

  1. Heparan sulfate mimetic PG545-mediated antilymphoma effects require TLR9-dependent NK cell activation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Todd V; Lin, Liwen; Brandstadter, Joshua D; Rendell, Victoria R; Dredge, Keith; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a barrier to tumor invasion and metastasis. Heparanase promotes tumor growth by cleaving HS chains of proteoglycan and releasing HS-bound angiogenic growth factors and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the ECM. HS mimetics, such as PG545, have been developed as antitumor agents and are designed to suppress angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting heparanase and competing for the HS-binding domain of angiogenic growth factors. However, how PG545 exerts its antitumor effect remains incompletely defined. Here, using murine models of lymphoma, we determined that the antitumor effects of PG545 are critically dependent on NK cell activation and that NK cell activation by PG545 requires TLR9. We demonstrate that PG545 does not activate TLR9 directly but instead enhances TLR9 activation through the elevation of the TLR9 ligand CpG in DCs. Specifically, PG545 treatment resulted in CpG accumulation in the lysosomal compartment of DCs, leading to enhanced production of IL-12, which is essential for PG545-mediated NK cell activation. Overall, these results reveal that PG545 activates NK cells and that this activation is critical for the antitumor effect of PG545. Moreover, our findings may have important implications for improving NK cell-based antitumor therapies. PMID:26649979

  2. Effects of participation in inquiry science workshops and follow-up activities on middle school science teachers' content knowledge, teacher-held misconceptions, and classroom practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Linda F.

    An important aspect of developing science literacy for all students is developing science-literate teachers. With the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, many middle school teachers found themselves in a position where they were no longer qualified to teach middle school science. This study was designed to help science teachers increase their science content knowledge, identify and resolve misconceptions/errors they may have, and assist them in their teaching by providing strategies for inquiry-based teaching, science laboratory exercises, and science equipment. Teachers enrolled in biology courses offered by the Rocky Mountain Middle School Math and Science Partnership participated in this study. They were required to take pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments over course concepts, complete a survey over their background and teaching pedagogy, and be observed teaching in their classrooms for three class periods followed by an interview after each observation. The results included key findings: (1) These assessments indicated that science teachers can increase their science content knowledge by attending high-quality professional development courses designed to help increase basic science content knowledge on science content. (2) Teachers held numerous misconceptions as shown by the assessments and classroom observations. Some were resolved, some that appeared to be resolved at the time of the post test reappeared again on the follow-up test, and some were not resolved. (3) Teacher observations showed that they did use science equipment provided by the course instructors and they taught the content from the Biology course where appropriate. Teachers teaching classes other than biology demonstrated their ability to teach inquiry science by employing inquiry activities and teaching with a "scientific method" approach.

  3. Understanding the structural requirements for activators of the Kef bacterial potassium efflux system.

    PubMed

    Healy, Jessica; Ekkerman, Silvia; Pliotas, Christos; Richard, Morgiane; Bartlett, Wendy; Grayer, Samuel C; Morris, Garrett M; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R; Conway, Stuart J; Rasmussen, Tim

    2014-04-01

    The potassium efflux system, Kef, protects bacteria against the detrimental effects of electrophilic compounds via acidification of the cytoplasm. Kef is inhibited by glutathione (GSH) but activated by glutathione-S-conjugates (GS-X) formed in the presence of electrophiles. GSH and GS-X bind to overlapping sites on Kef, which are located in a cytosolic regulatory domain. The central paradox of this activation mechanism is that GSH is abundant in cells (at concentrations of ∼10-20 mM), and thus, activating ligands must possess a high differential over GSH in their affinity for Kef. To investigate the structural requirements for binding of a ligand to Kef, a novel fluorescent reporter ligand, S-{[5-(dimethylamino)naphthalen-1-yl]sulfonylaminopropyl} glutathione (DNGSH), was synthesized. By competition assays using DNGSH, complemented by direct binding assays and thermal shift measurements, we show that the well-characterized Kef activator, N-ethylsuccinimido-S-glutathione, has a 10-20-fold higher affinity for Kef than GSH. In contrast, another native ligand that is a poor activator, S-lactoylglutathione, exhibits a similar Kef affinity to GSH. Synthetic ligands were synthesized to contain either rigid or flexible structures and investigated as ligands for Kef. Compounds with rigid structures and high affinity activated Kef. In contrast, flexible ligands with similar binding affinities did not activate Kef. These data provide insight into the structural requirements for Kef gating, paving the way for the development of a screen for potential therapeutic lead compounds targeting the Kef system. PMID:24601535

  4. V-ATPase Proton Pumping Activity Is Required for Adult Zebrafish Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D.; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C.; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration. PMID:24671205

  5. V-ATPase proton pumping activity is required for adult zebrafish appendage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration.

  6. ATP binding by NLRP7 is required for inflammasome activation in response to bacterial lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Radian, Alexander D; Khare, Sonal; Chu, Lan H; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in innate immune responses. NLRs encode a central nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) consisting of the NAIP, CIITA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain and the NACHT associated domain (NAD), which facilitates receptor oligomerization and downstream inflammasome signaling. The NBD contains highly conserved regions, known as Walker motifs, that are required for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. The NLR containing a PYRIN domain (PYD) 7 (NLRP7) has been recently shown to assemble an ASC and caspase-1-containing high molecular weight inflammasome complex in response to microbial acylated lipopeptides and Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NLRP7 inflammasome activation is still elusive. Here we demonstrate that the NBD of NLRP7 is an ATP binding domain and has ATPase activity. We further show that an intact nucleotide-binding Walker A motif is required for NBD-mediated nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, oligomerization, and NLRP7 inflammasome formation and activity. Accordingly, THP-1 cells expressing a mutated Walker A motif display defective NLRP7 inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL)-1β release and pyroptosis in response to acylated lipopeptides and S. aureus infection. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of NLRP7 inflammasome assembly. PMID:26143398

  7. DGKθ Catalytic Activity is Required for Efficient Recycling of Presynaptic Vesicles at Excitatory Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Hana L.; Tu-Sekine, Becky; Volk, Lenora; Anggono, Victor; Huganir, Richard L.; Raben, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Synaptic transmission relies on coordinated coupling of synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis and endocytosis. While much attention has focused on characterizing proteins involved in SV recycling, the roles of membrane lipids and their metabolism remain poorly understood. Diacylglycerol, a major signaling lipid produced at synapses during synaptic transmission, is regulated by diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Here we report a role for DGKθ in the mammalian central nervous system in facilitating recycling of presynaptic vesicles at excitatory synapses. Using synaptophysin- and vGlut1-pHluorin optical reporters, we found that acute and chronic deletion of DGKθ attenuated the recovery of SVs following neuronal stimulation. Rescue of recycling kinetics required DGKθ kinase activity. Our data establish a role for DGK catalytic activity and its byproduct, phosphatidic acid, at the presynaptic nerve terminal in SV recycling. Together these data suggest DGKθ supports synaptic transmission during periods of elevated neuronal activity. PMID:26748701

  8. Photorhabdus luminescens LN2 requires rpoS for nematicidal activity and nematode development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuehong; Wu, Chunyan; Cao, Li; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo; Han, Richou

    2016-03-01

    Photorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria are pathogenic to insects and mutualistic with entomopathogenic Heterorhabditis nematodes. Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii LN2, associated with Heterorhabditis indica LN2, shows nematicidal activity against H. bacteriophora H06 infective juveniles (IJs). In the present study, an rpoS mutant of P. luminescens LN2 was generated through allelic exchange to examine the effects of rpoS deletion on the nematicidal activity and nematode development. The results showed that P. luminescens LN2 required rpoS for nematicidal activity against H06 nematodes, normal IJ recovery and development of H. indica LN2, however, not for the bacterial colonization in LN2 and H06 IJs. This provides cues for further understanding the role of rpoS in the mutualistic association between entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbionts. PMID:26884480

  9. GlnB is specifically required for Azospirillum brasilense NifA activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Luiza M; Monteiro, Rose A; Souza, Emanuel M; Steffens, M Berenice R; Rigo, Liu U; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2004-01-01

    The Azospirillum brasilense transcription regulator NifA and the nitrogen-status signaling proteins GlnB, GlnZ and GlnK were expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed for their ability to activate nif gene expression. When expressed separately, none of the proteins were able to activate nifH promoter expression in any tested conditions; in contrast, nifH expression was observed in cells grown in the absence of ammonium and oxygen and when expressing simultaneously NifA and GlnB proteins, but not when expressing NifA and GlnZ or GlnK. Our results show that the GlnB protein is required for transcription activation by Azospirillum brasilense NifA and it cannot be replaced by GlnZ or GlnK.

  10. Skp2 is required for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Huang, Yu-Fan; Zhou, Xin-Ke; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Yi-Fan; Lv, Xiao-Bin; Gao, Xiu-Rong; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Huang, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora B kinase plays a critical role in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint. Here, we showed that the ubiquitin E3-ligase protein Skp2, also as a cell-cycle regulatory protein, was required for the activation of Aurora B and its downstream protein. When we restored Skp2 knockdown Hela cells with Skp2 and Skp2-LRR E3 ligase dead mutant we found that Skp2 could rescue the defect in the activation of Aurora B, but the mutant failed to do so. Furthermore, we discovered that Skp2 could interact with Aurora B and trigger Aurora B Lysine (K) 63-linked ubiquitination. Finally, we demonstrated the essential role of Skp2 in cell mitosis progression and spindle checkpoint, which was Aurora B dependent. Our results identified a novel ubiquitinated substrate of Skp2, and also indicated that Aurora B ubiquitination might serve as an important event for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

  11. Protein Kinase A Activity and Anchoring Are Required for Ovarian Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Andrew J.; Campbell, Shirley L.; Howe, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest of the gynecological malignancies, due in part to its clinically occult metastasis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms governing EOC dissemination and invasion may provide new targets for antimetastatic therapies or new methods for detection of metastatic disease. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is often dysregulated in EOC. Furthermore, PKA activity and subcellular localization by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. Thus, we sought to study the role of PKA and AKAP function in both EOC cell migration and invasion. Using the plasma membrane-directed PKA biosensor, pmAKAR3, and an improved migration/invasion assay, we show that PKA is activated at the leading edge of migrating SKOV-3 EOC cells, and that inhibition of PKA activity blocks SKOV-3 cell migration. Furthermore, we show that while the PKA activity within the leading edge of these cells is mediated by anchoring of type-II regulatory PKA subunits (RII), inhibition of anchoring of either RI or RII PKA subunits blocks cell migration. Importantly, we also show – for the first time – that PKA activity is up-regulated at the leading edge of SKOV-3 cells during invasion of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix and, as seen for migration, inhibition of either PKA activity or AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring blocks matrix invasion. These data are the first to demonstrate that the invasion of extracellular matrix by cancer cells elicits activation of PKA within the invasive leading edge and that both PKA activity and anchoring are required for matrix invasion. These observations suggest a role for PKA and AKAP activity in EOC metastasis. PMID:22028904

  12. Identification of three urease accessory proteins that are required for urease activation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Witte, Claus-Peter; Rosso, Mario G; Romeis, Tina

    2005-11-01

    Urease is a nickel-containing urea hydrolase involved in nitrogen recycling from ureide, purine, and arginine catabolism in plants. The process of urease activation by incorporation of nickel into the active site is a prime example of chaperone-mediated metal transfer to an enzyme. Four urease accessory proteins are required for activation in Klebsiella aerogenes. In plants urease accessory proteins have so far been only partially defined. Using reverse genetic tools we identified four genes that are necessary for urease activity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; ecotypes Columbia and Nössen). Plants bearing T-DNA or Ds element insertions in either the structural gene for urease or in any of the three putative urease accessory genes AtureD, AtureF, and AtureG lacked the corresponding mRNAs and were defective in urease activity. In contrast to wild-type plants, the mutant lines were not able to support growth with urea as the sole nitrogen source. To investigate whether the identified accessory proteins would be sufficient to support eukaryotic urease activation, the corresponding cDNAs were introduced into urease-negative Escherichia coli. In these bacteria, urease activity was observed only when all three plant accessory genes were coexpressed together with the plant urease gene. Remarkably, plant urease activation occurred as well in cell-free E. coli extracts, but only in extracts from cells that had expressed all three accessory proteins. The future molecular dissection of the plant urease activation process may therefore be performed in vitro, providing a powerful tool to further our understanding of the biochemistry of chaperone-mediated metal transfer processes in plants. PMID:16244137

  13. Primary Care Residents' Knowledge, Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Professional Norms Regarding Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samantha; Seeholzer, Eileen L.; Gullett, Heidi; Jackson, Brigid; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Krejci, Susan A.; Flocke, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and being overweight are both significant risk factors for multiple chronic conditions. Primary care physicians are in a position to provide health behavior counseling to the majority of US adults, yet most report insufficient training to deliver effective counseling for obesity. Objective To assess the degree to which residents training in adult primary care programs are prepared to provide obesity, nutrition, and physical activity (ONPA) counseling. Methods Senior residents (postgraduate year [PGY]-3 and PGY-4) from 25 Ohio family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology programs were surveyed regarding their knowledge about obesity risks and effective counseling, as well as their attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived professional norms toward ONPA counseling. We examined summary scores, and used regression analyses to assess associations with resident demographics and training program characteristics. Results A total of 219 residents participated (62% response rate). Mean ONPA counseling knowledge score was 50.8 (± 15.6) on a 0 to 100 scale. Specialty was associated with counseling self-efficacy (P < .001) and perceived norms (P = .002). Residents who reported having engaged in an elective rotation emphasizing ONPA counseling had significantly higher self-efficacy and more positive attitudes and professional norms scores. Conclusions Our findings suggest that primary care residents' knowledge of ONPA assessment and management strategies has room for improvement. Attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived norms also are low and vary by training program characteristics. A deeper understanding of curricula associated with improved performance in these domains could inform interventions to enhance residents' ONPA counseling skills and prevent chronic disease. PMID:26457144

  14. Mechanism of porphobilinogen synthase. Requirement of Zn2+ for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Bevan, D R; Bodlaender, P; Shemin, D

    1980-03-10

    The role of metal ions in the mechanism of action of bovine liver porphobilinogen synthase was investigated. Studies with chelating agents were consistent with a requirement of metal ions for enzyme activity, and the use of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid suggested that Zn2+ was present in the enzyme. The low activity detected in metal-free apoporphobilinogen synthase was attributed to adventitious metal ions. Addition of Zn2+ to the apoenzyme completely restored enzyme activity if the essential sulfhydryl groups on the enzyme were first reduced with sulfhydryl reagents. It does not follow necessarily from this observation that Zn2+ forms a bond with a sulfhydryl group in the enzyme. However, we also observed that Zn2+ did not bind to the enzyme unless the essential cysteinyl residues were reduced. We have concluded that the octameric enzyme contains 4 g atoms of Zn2+/mol from our enzyme activity measurements and binding studies. Alkylation of the enzyme resulted in a marked reduction in the binding of Zn2+ to the enzyme. These observations are consistent with the suggestion that the interaction of the Zn2+ ions with the enzyme occurs with sulfhydryl groups at the active site. It appears that Zn2+ does not participate in substrate binding nor in the maintenance of the quaternary structure of the enzyme. Possible mechanistic roles for Zn2+ in porphobilinogen synthase are discussed. It should be noted that Cd2+ was the only other element found which restored activity to the apoenzyme.

  15. Oncogenic transformation by vrel requires an amino-terminal activation domain

    SciTech Connect

    Kamens, J.; Brent, R. . Dept. of Molecular Biology); Richardson, P.; Gilmore, T. . Dept. of Biology); Mosialos, G. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-06-01

    The mechanism by which the products of the v-{ital rel} oncogene, the corresponding c-{ital rel} proto-oncogene, and the related {ital dorsal} gene of {ital Drosophila melanogaster} exert their effects is not clear. The authors show that the v-{ital rel}, chicken c-{ital rel}, and {ital dorsal} proteins activated gene expression when fused to LexA sequences and bound to DNA upstream of target genes in {ital Saccharomyces cerevisiae}. They have defined two distinct activation regions in the c-{ital rel} protein. Region I, located in the amino-terminal half of {ital rel} and {ital dorsal} proteins, contains no stretches of glutamines, prolines, or acidic amino acids and therefore may be a novel activation domain. Lesions in the v-{ital rel} protein that diminished or abolished oncogenic transformation of avian spleen cells correspondingly affected transcription activation by region I. Region II, located in the carboxy terminus of the c-{ital rel} protein, is highly acidic. Region II is not present in the v-{ital rel} protein or in a transforming mutant derivative of the c-{ital rel} protein. The authors' results show that the oncogenicity of Rel proteins requires activation region I and suggest that the biological function of {ital rel} and {ital dorsal} proteins depends on transcription activation by this region.

  16. c-Fos activated phospholipid synthesis is required for neurite elongation in differentiating PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Gil, Germán A; Bussolino, Daniela F; Portal, Maximiliano M; Alfonso Pecchio, Adolfo; Renner, Marianne L; Borioli, Graciela A; Guido, Mario E; Caputto, Beatriz L

    2004-04-01

    We have previously shown that c-Fos activates phospholipid synthesis through a mechanism independent of its genomic AP-1 activity. Herein, using PC12 cells induced to differentiate by nerve growth factor, the genomic effect of c-Fos in initiating neurite outgrowth is shown as distinct from its nongenomic effect of activating phospholipid synthesis and sustaining neurite elongation. Blocking c-Fos expression inhibited differentiation, phospholipid synthesis activation, and neuritogenesis. In cells primed to grow, blocking c-Fos expression determined neurite retraction. However, transfected cells expressing c-Fos or c-Fos deletion mutants with capacity to activate phospholipid synthesis sustain neurite outgrowth and elongation in the absence of nerve growth factor. Results disclose a dual function of c-Fos: it first releases the genomic program for differentiation and then associates to the endoplasmic reticulum and activates phospholipid synthesis. Because phospholipids are key membrane components, we hypothesize this latter phenomenon as crucial to support membrane genesis demands required for cell growth and neurite elongation. PMID:14767061

  17. 75 FR 53734 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... knowledge about the specific CRS in the vehicle, and the driver's general knowledge and experience with.... The Federal Register Notice with a 60-day comment period was published on June 9, 2010 [FR Doc....

  18. Frames and knowledge in mixed media: how activation changes information intake.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Aaron S; Sayre, Ben; Shah, Dhavan V; McLeod, Douglas M

    2008-08-01

    Many people consider strategic framing, the journalistic tendency to reduce politics to a game or competition focused on the tactical maneuvers of political actors, to be harmful to democracy because it erodes citizen interest in the democratic process. Our results demonstrate that this is not always the case. Testing the effects of textual strategic frames and video processing in a digital environment, we show that strategic frames may also provide a context that is more conducive to learning in mixed media news environments than that provided by value frames, those focused on the value conflict between principled policy opponents. Further analysis reveals that this effect is most clearly seen among people who read political blogs (i.e., those who are already active and interested in politics). Our data suggest that for individuals with cognitive networks built around ideological concerns, such as blog readers, value-framed messages provide cues to stop encoding new information, while strategically framed messages lead people to continue absorbing and learning in mixed media environments. PMID:18721093

  19. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Activity Is Required for Coxiella burnetii Growth in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Colonne, Punsiri M.; Winchell, Caylin G.; Graham, Joseph G.; Onyilagha, Frances I.; MacDonald, Laura J.; Doeppler, Heike R.; Storz, Peter; Kurten, Richard C.; Beare, Paul A.; Voth, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication. In this study, we identified the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a PKA substrate that is increasingly phosphorylated at S157 and S239 during C. burnetii infection. Avirulent and virulent C. burnetii triggered increased levels of phosphorylated VASP in macrophage-like THP-1 cells and primary human alveolar macrophages, and this event required the Cα subunit of PKA. VASP phosphorylation also required bacterial protein synthesis and secretion of effector proteins via a type IV secretion system, indicating the pathogen actively triggers prolonged VASP phosphorylation. Optimal PV formation and intracellular bacterial replication required VASP activity, as siRNA-mediated depletion of VASP reduced PV size and bacterial growth. Interestingly, ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic VASP (S239E) mutant protein prevented optimal PV formation, whereas VASP (S157E) mutant expression had no effect. VASP (S239E) expression also prevented trafficking of bead-containing phagosomes to the PV, indicating proper VASP activity is critical for heterotypic fusion events that control PV expansion in macrophages. Finally, expression of dominant negative VASP (S157A) in C. burnetii-infected cells impaired PV formation, confirming importance of the protein for proper infection. This study provides the first evidence of VASP manipulation by an intravacuolar bacterial pathogen via activation of PKA in human

  20. Social reward requires coordinated activity of nucleus accumbens oxytocin and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Dölen, Gül; Darvishzadeh, Ayeh; Huang, Kee Wui; Malenka, Robert C

    2013-09-12

    Social behaviours in species as diverse as honey bees and humans promote group survival but often come at some cost to the individual. Although reinforcement of adaptive social interactions is ostensibly required for the evolutionary persistence of these behaviours, the neural mechanisms by which social reward is encoded by the brain are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in mice oxytocin acts as a social reinforcement signal within the nucleus accumbens core, where it elicits a presynaptically expressed long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in medium spiny neurons. Although the nucleus accumbens receives oxytocin-receptor-containing inputs from several brain regions, genetic deletion of these receptors specifically from dorsal raphe nucleus, which provides serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) innervation to the nucleus accumbens, abolishes the reinforcing properties of social interaction. Furthermore, oxytocin-induced synaptic plasticity requires activation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1B receptors, the blockade of which prevents social reward. These results demonstrate that the rewarding properties of social interaction in mice require the coordinated activity of oxytocin and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens, a mechanistic insight with implications for understanding the pathogenesis of social dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism. PMID:24025838