Science.gov

Sample records for activity research telescope

  1. Research of active panel technology for large aperture millimeter-wave/sub-millimeter-wave telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuhao; Cui, Xiangqun

    2010-05-01

    As Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) project was completed successfully, indicating the key technology of active optics has been mastered by the Chinese astronomical community, experts of Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT), builders of this project, started to consider how to use the technology developed in large optical telescope such as LAMOST to improve the performance of millimeterwave / sub-millimeter-wave telescope. In order to do more research work about active optics of millimeter submillimeter band and improve the performance of Delingha 13.7m millimeter-wave telescope, researchers of NIAOT intend to upgrade the reflect panel accuracy of this telescope. This paper will introduce the preliminary work of the accuracy-upgrading task, numerical simulation of the 13.7m telescope. In this presentation, the primary reflector finite element model (FEM) construction, gravity and thermal deformation, and modal analyze are described. The result shows that the gravity and thermal distortion of the reflector are contributed mostly by the back-structure and the active support for the panels is very necessary to restrain this kind of distortion.

  2. NIRo Telescope: Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengstorf, Adam W.; Slavin, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a 20-inch telescope and wide-field CCD imager to be used for remote, unattended observing. To be located in southern Lake County, IN, the NIRo Telescope will enjoy darker skies than those around the Purdue University Calumet (PUC) campus. While this project will enable high-quality research for the astronomy faculty and undergraduate students at PUC, its uniqueness lies in the planned education and outreach components. Using synoptic data from the telescope, we will, in conjunction with faculty from the PUC School of Education, develop curricula and assessment tools in line with Indiana earth and space science standards for grades 6 8. While small, robotic telescopes have been successfully used to implement similar programs for undergraduate and secondary education, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first project to specifically target primary school education. This program will affect a wide range in ethnic and socioeconomic communities immediately surrounding the PUC campus in northwest Indiana. Data from the telescope will be reduced by PUC faculty and undergraduate researchers and disseminated to the participating schools for analysis and discovery and also archived for future use via a dedicated website. The website and its contents will then be accessible to the broader community, allowing schools outside the immediate region to view data and results and potentially participate in the educational component of our proposal.

  3. The Necessity of a High-grade Telescope for Education and Future Research Activities in the Phillipines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebre, C. P.

    Astronomy has been practiced in the Philippines for the past century. However, the study of celestial objects in the country is confined to its observation and publication of data. There is no course on astronomy in the tertiary level while it is briefly covered in the general science curriculum of the elementary and high schools in the country. No serious research activity has been conducted primarily due to the lack of necessary research instruments such as a high-grade telescope and the required formal education or training of staff in astronomy to perform such an activity. The possible donation of a 45-cm high-grade telescope with its accessories by the Government of Japan, through its Cultural Grant-aid Program, to the Philippines will upgrade the capability of the Astronomical Observatory of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) to observe and study astronomical objects and phenomena. Likewise, it will improve services in the promotion of the science of astronomy in the country, especially in the education and training of science teachers.

  4. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  5. Active mirror alignment control system for the MACE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulgod, S. V.; Pious, Lizy; Chadda, V. K.; Kaul, S. R.; Yadav, K. K.; Koul, R.

    2002-03-01

    The conceptual design of an active mirror contol system for the MACE telescope, being set up by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Mt. Abu, is described. Preliminary results obtained from recent laboratory trials are also described.

  6. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Calibration of Data from the Green Bank Telescope and Classroom Activities in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. H.; Maddalena, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will present the results of research conducted with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as well as classroom activities that will use GBT data. In order to determine the accuracy of the calibration of receivers on cm-wave radio telescopes, engineers must periodically determine the equivalent temperature of a receiver's calibration noise diode. The traditional methods utilize hot-cold loads and usually achieve an accuracy of no better than 5%, have a very coarse frequency resolution, and require days of labor. Using observations with the GBT of standard astronomical flux calibrators, we measured the noise diode temperatures for four receivers that cover 1 to 10 GHz. By comparing the detected power from the calibrators to that generated by the noise diodes we were able to determine the temperature of the noise diodes to an accuracy of 1% with very good frequency resolution (1 MHz). The astronomically determined values agree, with few exceptions, to the less accurate values generated by the receiver engineer. In contrast to the methods employed by engineers, the astronomical determinations took only a few hours. Using data collected from the GBT and the NRAO 140-foot telescope, high-school students at Breck School in Golden Valley, MN will use the Hands-On Universe (HOU) software to analyze fits files containing data from a 100 square-degree region of the Orion Nebula. Instead of always relying on optical images from personal observations or the HOU groups at Lawrence Hall of Science or Yerkes, students can now use radio images. Comparing radio images with those derived at optical wavelengths should prove enlightening for students, many of whom have misconceptions concerning radio astronomy.

  7. Seismic telescope for astrophysical research from space (STARS) triply reflecting telescope: a space instrument for astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Badiali, M; Amoretti, M

    1997-12-01

    We describe the characteristics of the wide-field, triply reflecting telescope adopted for the European Space Agency project STARS (seismic telescope for astrophysical research from space), operating in the visible and UV range. PMID:18264439

  8. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  9. Teaching and Research in Astronomy using Small Aperture Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Small aperture (<1m, typically 20-50cm) optical telescopes with adequate back-end instrumentation (photometer, CCD camera and CCD spectrograph etc) can be used for spreading the joy and excitement of observational astronomy among postgraduate and research students in Colleges/. On the basis of over a decade's experience in observing with small optical telescopes it has been amply demonstrated that such a facility, which any University department can hope to procure and maintain, can be effectively used for teaching as well quality research. The Physics Department of Pt Ravishankar Shukla University at Raipur, India offers Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) as one of the specialization as a part of M Sc program in Physics. A set of observational exercises has been incorporated with a view to provide training in observations, analysis and interpretation of the astronomical data to the students. Observing facilities available in the department include 8"-14" aperture telescopes (CGE series from Celestron) equipped with the new-state-of-the-art backend instrumentation like Photometer, CCD Camera and also a CCD spectrograph. Observing facility of this kind is ideally suited for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, and thus can provide valuable data for understanding the physics of stellar variability. This is especially true for a class of variable stars known as chromospherically active stars. The stars belonging to this class have variable light curves, and the most puzzling feature is that their light curves change year after year in a rather queerer way. A large fraction of these active stars are bright ones and, hence, the importance of small aperture telescope for collecting the much needed photometric data. For over a decade the research activity using 14" optical telescope is focused on photometric monitoring of well known as well suspected active stars. This together with spectroscopic data using observing facility at Indian Observatories has led

  10. Green Bank Telescope active surface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, Richard J.

    1998-05-01

    During the design phase of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), various means of providing an accurate surface on a large aperture paraboloid, were considered. Automated jacks supporting the primary reflector were selected as the appropriate technology since they promised greater performance and potentially lower costs than a homologous or carbon fiber design, and had certain advantages over an active secondary. The design of the active surface has presented many challenges. Since the actuators are mounted on a tipping structure, it was required that they support a significant side-load. Such devices were not readily available commercially so they had to be developed. Additional actuator requirements include low backlash, repeatable positioning, and an operational life of at least 230 years. Similarly, no control system capable of controlling the 2209 actuators was commercially available. Again a prime requirement was reliability. Maintaining was also a very important consideration. The system architecture is tree-like. An active surface 'master-computer' controls interaction with the telescope control system, and controls ancillary equipment such as power supplies and temperature monitors. Two slave computers interface with the master- computer, and each closes approximately 1100 position loops. For simplicity, the servo is an 'on/off' type, yet achieves a positioning resolution of 25 microns. Each slave computer interfaces with 4 VME I/O cards, which in turn communicate with 140 control modules. The control modules read out the positions of the actuators every 0.1 sec and control the actuators' DC motors. Initial control of the active surface will be based on an elevation dependant structural model. Later, the model will be improved by holographic observations.Surface accuracy will be improved further by using laser ranging system which will actively measure the surface figure. Several tests have been conducted to assure that the system will perform as desired when

  11. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  12. Active Optics Modernization of the AEOS Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, D.

    2012-09-01

    Since first light in 1997, the Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) telescope at the Maui Space Surveillance Site has used an active system for figure control that applies forces on the primary mirror and positions the secondary mirror to minimize wavefront aberrations. Periodically a wavefront optimization loop is closed with a Shack-Hartmann WaveFront Sensor (WFS), 84 primary mirror force actuators and three secondary mirror translation actuators. This optimization loop is used with a series of stellar targets to find coefficients for each force or position in a sine and cosine of elevation model. During normal telescope operation when the WFS is not in use, this elevation angle dependant model is used to control the primary mirror forces and secondary mirror positions. Recently the system was upgraded with new computers, electronics and algorithms. The primary goal of the upgrade was to replace obsolete and no longer maintainable hardware with secondary goals of reducing the effort required to update the wavefront model, and improving the final operational wavefront performance. This paper discusses the algorithms implemented to achieve the secondary goals and initial performance results. In order to eliminate erroneous data from the WFS, the processing algorithms were modified to dynamically assign pixels on the WFS camera to lenslets, and closed loop tracking of the gimbal was implemented using a camera that shares the focal plane with the WFS. These changes permit the elimination of human operator review from the wavefront optimization loop. The original system collected data for either a single star or a series of stars and then replaced either the constant or the complete model at the end of a data collection session. In the revised system, each wavefront measurement is used for a Kalman update to the model. Operationally, the Kalman updates allow data to be collected intermittently as time is available between other telescope tasks. By combining the

  13. Active optics control of VST telescope secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In telescopes based on active optics, defocus and coma are usually compensated for by secondary mirror movements. They are performed at the Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) with a hexapod--a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom positioning capability. We describe the application of the two-mirror telescope theory to the VST case and the solutions adopted for the hexapod control. We present the results of performance and reliability tests performed both in the laboratory and at the telescope. PMID:20517391

  14. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Planning for Cometary Observations with the Green Bank Telescope and Its Application to Chemistry Classroom Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Christopher; Lockman, F. J.; Lovell, A.

    2010-01-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will describe the development of a Python program as a further expansion of a previous mathematical model3 designed to simulate cometary data collected by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The program allows for user interaction to change parameters such as the comet's distance from the sun, the rate of production of gaseous outflows, lifetime of these gaseous particles and maximum limit for how many gas particles are generated. Furthermore this paper will present results of how students can write their own Python programming code to manipulate these parameters to generate velocity profiles of the out gassed chemical species. Students should be enlightened that Science can be cross disciplinary. Several concepts in Chemistry: sublimation, electromagnetic spectrum, quantum mechanics, gas behavior and chemical kinetics play an important role in the formation of a comet cloud and how that cloud could be observed using radio astronomy. Chemical species such as HCN, CS and HCO+1 have been observed in cometary clouds. The chemical composition of the cloud and its size are a function of its distance from the sun and the radial location from the center of the comet cloud. High-school students at the Louisiana School for Math, Science and the Arts, LA will learn Python programming language to create a mathematical model of a cometary cloud. The students will have formulated models for rate of sublimation, rate of photo-dissociation, and velocity of gas particles as the fundamental framework to determine frequencies and intensities of the molecular spectra. The students will be able to manipulate their code to create various comet cloud scenarios as it might be observed by the GBT.

  15. Engaging Undergraduate Students in Transiting Exoplanet Research with Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Denise C.; Stoker, E.; Gaillard, C.; Ranquist, E.; Lara, P.; Wright, K.

    2013-10-01

    Brigham Young University has a relatively large undergraduate physics program with 300 to 360 physics majors. Each of these students is required to be engaged in a research group and to produce a senior thesis before graduating. For the astronomy professors, this means that each of us is mentoring at least 4-6 undergraduate students at any given time. For the past few years I have been searching for meaningful research projects that make use of our telescope resources and are exciting for both myself and my students. We first started following up Kepler Objects of Interest with our 0.9 meter telescope, but quickly realized that most of the transits we could observe were better analyzed with Kepler data and were false positive objects. So now we have joined a team that is searching for transiting planets, and my students are using our 16" telescope to do ground based follow-up on the hundreds of possible transiting planet candidates produced by this survey. In this presentation I will describe our current telescopes, the observational setup, and how we use our telescopes to search for transiting planets. I'll describe some of the software the students have written. I'll also explain how to use the NASA Exoplanet Archive to gather data on known transiting planets and Kepler Objects of Interests. These databases are useful for determining the observational limits of your small telescopes and teaching your students how to reduce and report data on transiting planets. Once that is in place, you are potentially ready to join existing transiting planet missions by doing ground-based follow-up. I will explain how easy it can be to implement this type of research at any high school, college, or university with a small telescope and CCD camera.

  16. Active control of the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yichun; Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong; Qin, Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation solar telescope of China with diameter of 8 meter. The unique feature of CGST is that its primary is a ring, which facilitates the polarization detection and thermal control. In its present design and development phase, two primary mirror patterns are considered. For one thing, the primary mirror is expected to construct with mosaic mirror with 24 trapezoidal (or petal) segments, for another thing, a monolithic mirror is also a candidate for its primary mirror. Both of them depend on active control technique to maintain the optical quality of the ring mirror. As a solar telescope, the working conditions of the CGST are quite different from those of the stellar telescopes. To avoid the image deterioration due to the mirror seeing and dome seeing, especially in the case of the concentration of flux in a solar telescope, large aperture solar projects prefer to adopt open telescopes and open domes. In this circumstance, higher wind loads act on the primary mirror directly, which will cause position errors and figure errors of the primary with matters worse than those of the current 10-meter stellar telescopes with dome protect. Therefore, it gives new challenges to the active control capability, telescope structure design, and wind shielding design. In this paper, the study progress of active control of CGST for its mosaic and monolithic mirror are presented, and the wind effects on such two primary mirrors are also investigated.

  17. Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The participating teachers attended a fall, 2004 workshop to become familiar with the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) archives, and to receive training in infrared astronomy and observational techniques. The teachers also attended a workshop offered by the SSC to learn about the observation planning process, and telescope and instrument capabilities. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with the Spitzer Space Telescope and work on their data with SSC and NOAO scientists. This program allows a team of 12 teachers and their students to utilize up to 3.5 hours of Director's discretionary observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations. Leveraging on a well-established teacher professional development, the SSC is offering this program to teachers in the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRRBSE), an ongoing program at the NOAO. This NSF-sponsored program touches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle and high school teachers.

  18. Driving with Bioptic Telescopes: Organizing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Being a licensed driver in the U. S. and many other countries facilitates health and well-being. Based on the vision standards in most states, individuals with worse than 20/40 visual acuity who desire licensure are denied through the usual licensure application process. However, over 40 states have bioptic telescope licensing programs where applicants can gain licensure contingent on meeting specific requirements. In spite of the existence of the bioptic telescope and these licensing programs since the 1970s, there has been little rigorous scientific study of this topic. Here I offer an organizing perspective for a research agenda on driving with bioptic telescopes, with the long term practical goal being to provide an evidence basis for licensure policies and training programs. PMID:22863791

  19. Active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Magrin, Demetrio; Kuijken, Konrad; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Capaccioli, Massimo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Fierro, Davide; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Savarese, Salvatore; Rakich, Andrew; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope, the 2.6-m survey telescope designed for visible wavelengths of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal, in the Atacama desert. The telescope is characterized by a wide field of view (1.42 deg diameter), leading to tighter active optics than in conventional telescopes, in particular for the alignment requirements. We discuss the effects of typical error sources on the image quality and present the specific solutions adopted for wavefront sensing and correction of the aberrations, which are based on the shaping of a monolithic primary mirror and the positioning of the secondary in five degrees of freedom. PMID:26974616

  20. Introduction to Small Telescope Research Communities of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2016-06-01

    Communities of practice are natural, usually informal groups of people who work together. Experienced members teach new members the “ropes.” Social learning theorist Etienne Wenger’s book, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, defined the field. There are, in astronomy, many communities of practice. One set of communities uses relatively small telescopes to observe brighter objects such as eclipsing binaries, intrinsically variable stars, transiting exoplanets, tumbling asteroids, and the occultation of background stars by asteroids and the Moon. Advances in low cost but increasingly powerful instrumentation and automation have greatly increased the research capabilities of smaller telescopes. These often professional-amateur (pro-am) communities engage in research projects that require a large number of observers as exemplified by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. For high school and community college students with an interest in science, joining a student-centered, small telescope community of practice can be both educational and inspirational. An example is the now decade-long Astronomy Research Seminar offered by Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California. Each student team is required to plan a project, obtain observations (either locally or via a remote robotic telescope), analyze their data, write a paper, and submit it for external review and publication. Well over 100 students, composed primarily of high school juniors and seniors, have been coauthors of several dozen published papers. Being published researchers has boosted these students’ educational careers with admissions to choice schools, often with scholarships. This seminar was recently expanded to serve multiple high schools with a volunteer assistant instructor at each school. The students meet regularly with their assistant instructor and also meet online with other teams and the seminar’s overall community college instructor. The seminar

  1. Scientific Research with the Space Telescope: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 54. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longair, M. S.; Warner, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope for extragalactic astronomy, planetary research, and stellar, interstellar, and galactic structural problems is discussed. Topics include investigations of small solar system objects, the physical characteristics of ionized gaseous nebulae, the central regions of active galaxies and quasars, problems of cosmology, and the distribution and composition of interstellar matter.

  2. Using WorldWide Telescope in Observing, Research and Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Douglas A.; Fay, J.

    2014-01-01

    WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is free software that enables researchers to interactively explore observational data using a user-friendly interface. Reference, all-sky datasets and pointed observations are available as layers along with the ability to easily overlay additional FITS images and catalog data. Connections to the Astrophysics Data System (ADS) are included which enable visual investigation using WWT to drive document searches in ADS. WWT can be used to capture and share visual exploration with colleagues during observational planning and analysis. Finally, researchers can use WorldWide Telescope to create videos for professional, education and outreach presentations. I will conclude with an example of how I have used WWT in a research project. Specifically, I will discuss how WorldWide Telescope helped our group to prepare for radio observations and following them, in the analysis of multi-wavelength data taken in the inner parsec of the Galaxy. A concluding video will show how WWT brought together disparate datasets in a unified interactive visualization environment.

  3. Upgrading telescopes by active pupil wavefront correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, J. E.; Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Exit pupil correction of the Large Deployable Reflector's (a proposed IR to sub-mm space telescope) segmented primary can be done by reimaging it onto a like segmented surface at the exit pupil. This allows the primary to be more flexible, the adaptive element to be smaller, and the supporting structure to be cheaper than if all correction were performed at a stiffly supported primary. Piston, tilt, and decenter errors of an annulus of the primary and the equations for the required corrections are considered. To verify these, the perturbations with spline functions in the lens design program are simulated. Strehl ratios used to measure image quality show that a piston error of 1 mm is fully corrected over a 5 arcmin field for an f/10 system with a 0.7 n.a. primary at 30 micrometers. Limits of correction are also shown for tilt and decenter errors of segments. Tolerances are given for tilt and decenter errors of the remaining optics also.

  4. Beginning Research with the 1.8-meter Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom; Lane, Lynn A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to bring the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope to operational status for research on asteroids and comets. This objective was achieved; first light with the telescope was in May 2000 and since then several tests and demonstrations of the facility's capability to observe Earth-approaching Asteroids (EAs) have been made, including the first observations to be incorporated into a peer-reviewed publication. The Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope will be the largest in the world dedicated full time to finding and doing astrometry of asteroids and comets. It will be used to search for asteroids and comets anywhere from the space near Earth to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune, and to do astrometry and lightcurves on the fainter of such objects that are already known. Its comparatively large aperture will permit faster discovery of the very small asteroids in Earthlike orbits, such as 1998 KY(sub 26), that are coveted for their accessibility as material resources in space, as well as recovery of EAs on their return apparitions when they tend to be more distant and fainter than they were at the times of their discoveries. It will also tend to find EAs when they do not happen to be close to Earth. Discoveries made under those circumstances allow the objects to be followed for longer intervals, providing better determinations of their orbits during their discovery apparitions. In addition to its size, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope will have the unique capability of long strip scanning in any direction, for example along the ecliptic (the plane of the solar system), and along the line of variation of EAs with uncertain orbits that are being targeted for recovery.

  5. Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  6. Design and Construction of a Radio Telescope for Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathis, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Radio telescopes provide a practical and economical alternative to optical observatories for astrophysics research and education at primarily undergraduate physics and astronomy institutions. Ithaca College is in the testing phase of development for a low cost, flexible frequency band radio telescope which I have developed as the research component of my undergraduate thesis. I have constructed a three-stage low noise superheterodyne radiometer on custom printed circuit boards for signal detection, which is mounted on a 3 meter parabolic antenna. Data collection and signal processing is achieved using custom software written in MATLAB. We are currently performing preliminary drift continuum observations of the Sun and Milky Way at Ku band frequencies. We expect that the receiver can also be easily adapted to measure spectral emission of neutral hydrogen and OH masers at L band. I present my design methods for the radiometer and printed circuit boards, including measured noise characteristics and SPICE simulations, as well as an overview of applied signal processing methods and a discussion of observable celestial sources.

  7. SOFIA Telescope Functional Integration and Performance Test Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, P.; Haas, M. R.; Dunham, E. W.; Bremers, E.; Harms, F.; Keas, P. J.; Lattner, K.; Lillienthal, D.; Meyer, A. W.; Wolf, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.7-m telescope installed in a Boeing 747SP. Collaborators developing the SOFIA telescope and observatory completed an intense period of activation between mid-June and mid-August, 2004. The integration activities included a preliminary modal survey; alignment of the Wide Field, Fine Field, and Focal Plane Imagers; installation of the secondary and tertiary mirrors; and their alignment relative to the primary mirror. Once these preliminaries were completed, SOFIA was rolled out of its hangar for a series of ground-based, on-sky tests using HIPO, the first science instrument to be installed on the telescope. First light was achieved observing Polaris on August 18, 2004. The on-sky test period encompassed 12 nights in late August and early September and included telescope step function response and first-order pointing control, image quality and optical tracking stability measurements, evaluation of the tracking imagers, gravity deformation studies, gyro alignment and bias rate measurement and correction, and performance tests of the secondary mirror Focus Centering Mechanism and Tilt Chopping Mechanism. It also included tests of the complete telescope command set, including Image Quality Compensation (IQC), quasi-static Flexible Body Compensation (FBC), reference frame transformations and trajectory estimation algorithms. This poster summarizes the results and describes the expected performance of SOFIA at the start of science observations. SOFIA is jointly funded by NASA and DLR and is managed by USRA and DSI. The successful, on-schedule completion of these tests involved close coordination by these three parties, CSA Engineering, CSEM, Kayser-Threde, L-3 Communications, Lowell Observatory, MAN-Technologies, Orbital Sciences, and others.

  8. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A.; Fay, J.; Muench, A.; Pepe, A.; Udompraseret, P.; Wong, C.

    2012-09-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional research data. In its desktop format, WWT works in concert (thanks to SAMP and other IVOA standards) with more traditional research applications such as ds9, Aladin and TOPCAT. The WWT Ambassadors Program (founded in 2009) recruits and trains astrophysically-literate volunteers (including retirees) who use WWT as a teaching tool in online, classroom, and informal educational settings. Early quantitative studies of WWTA indicate that student experiences with WWT enhance science learning dramatically. Thanks to the wealth of data it can access, and the growing number of services to which it connects, WWT is now a key linking technology in the Seamless Astronomy environment we seek to offer researchers, teachers, and students alike.

  9. Active Correction of Aberrations of Low-Quality Telescope Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijian

    2007-01-01

    A system of active optics that includes a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror has been demonstrated to be an effective means of partly correcting wavefront aberrations introduced by fixed optics (lenses and mirrors) in telescopes. It is envisioned that after further development, active optics would be used to reduce wavefront aberrations of about one wave or less in telescopes having aperture diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters. Although this remaining amount of aberration would be considered excessive in scientific applications in which diffraction-limited performance is required, it would be acceptable for free-space optical- communication applications at wavelengths of the order of 1 m. To prevent misunderstanding, it is important to state the following: The technological discipline of active optics, in which the primary or secondary mirror of a telescope is directly and dynamically tilted, distorted, and/or otherwise varied to reduce wavefront aberrations, has existed for decades. The term active optics does not necessarily mean the same thing as does adaptive optics, even though active optics and adaptive optics are related. The term "adaptive optics" is often used to refer to wavefront correction at speeds characterized by frequencies ranging up to between hundreds of hertz and several kilohertz high enough to enable mitigation of adverse effects of fluctuations in atmospheric refraction upon propagation of light beams. The term active optics usually appears in reference to wavefront correction at significantly lower speeds, characterized by times ranging from about 1 second to as long as minutes. Hence, the novelty of the present development lies, not in the basic concept of active or adaptive optics, but in the envisioned application of active optics in conjunction with a deformable mirror to achieve acceptably small wavefront errors in free-space optical communication systems that include multi-meter-diameter telescope mirrors that are

  10. PIRATE: A Remotely Operable Telescope Facility for Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, S.; Kolb, U.; Haswell, C. A.; Burwitz, V.; Lucas, R. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Rolfe, S. M.; Rostron, J.; Barker, J.

    2011-10-01

    We introduce PIRATE, a new remotely operable telescope facility for use in research and education, constructed from off-the-shelf hardware, operated by The Open University. We focus on the PIRATE Mark 1 operational phase, in which PIRATE was equipped with a widely used 0.35 m Schmidt-Cassegrain system (now replaced with a 0.425 m corrected Dall-Kirkham astrograph). Situated at the Observatori Astronòmic de Mallorca, PIRATE is currently used to follow up potential transiting extrasolar planet candidates produced by the SuperWASP North experiment, as well as to hunt for novae in M31 and other nearby galaxies. It is operated by a mixture of commercially available software and proprietary software developed at the Open University. We discuss problems associated with performing precision time-series photometry when using a German Equatorial Mount, investigating the overall performance of such off-the-shelf solutions in both research and teaching applications. We conclude that PIRATE is a cost-effective research facility, and it also provides exciting prospects for undergraduate astronomy. PIRATE has broken new ground in offering practical astronomy education to distance-learning students in their own homes.

  11. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  12. Active remote observing system for the 1-m telescope at Tonantzintla Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Abel; Martínez, Luis A.; Hernández, Héctor; Garfias, Fernando; Ángeles, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    We have designed and installed a new active remote observing system for the 1-m, f/15 telescope at the Tonantzintla Observatory. This remote system is operated in real-time through the Internet, allowing an observer to control the building, the telescope (pointing, guiding and focusing) and the CCD image acquisition at the main and finder telescopes from the Instituto de Astronomia headquarters in Mexico City (150 KM away). The whole system was modeled within the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the design has proved to be versatile enough for a variety of astronomical instruments. We describe the system architecture and how different subsystems (telescope control, main telescope and finder image acquisition, weather station, videoconference, etc.) that are based on different operative system platforms (Linux, Windows, uIP) have been integrated. We present the first results of an IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel. Recent remote direct imaging and spectroscopic observations have been used to test the astronomical site. We conclude that this remote system is an excellent tool for supporting research and graduated observational astronomy programs.

  13. The application and research of the multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Zhongping; Deng, Huarong; Li, Pu; Meng, Wendong; Cheng, Zhien; Shen, Lurun; Tang, Zhenhong

    2014-11-01

    Laser ranging technology can directly measure the distance between space targets and ground stations with the highest measurement precision and will play an irreplaceable role in orbit check and calibrating microwave measurement system. The precise orbit determination and accurate catalogue of space targets can also be realized by laser ranging with multi-stations. Among space targets, most of ones are inactive targets and space debris, which should be paid the great attentions for the safety of active spacecrafts. Because of laser diffuse reflection from the surface of targets, laser ranging to space debris has the characteristics of wide coverage and weak strength of laser echoes, even though the powerful laser system is applied. In order to increase the receiving ability of laser echoes, the large aperture telescope should be adopted. As well known, some disadvantages for one set of large aperture telescope, technical development difficulty and system running and maintenance complexity, will limit its flexible applications. The multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets is put forward to realize the equivalent receiving ability produced by one larger aperture telescope by way of using multi-receiving telescopes, with the advantages of flexibility and maintenance. The theoretical analysis of the feasibility and key technologies of multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets are presented in this paper. The experimental measurement system based on the 60cm SLR system and 1.56m astronomical telescopes with a distance of about 50m is established to provide the platform for researching on the multi-receiving telescopes technology. The laser ranging experiments to satellites equipped with retro-reflectors are successfully performed by using the above experimental system and verify the technical feasibility to increase the ability of echo detection. And the multi-receiving telescopes technology will become a

  14. Design of a Teacher-Student Research Program Using the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Daou, D.; Thaller, M.

    2004-12-01

    of students through an informal education program based at the University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, directed by Dr. Don McCarthy, who has been active in both the RBSE and TLRBSE programs. The TLRBSE Project is funded by the National Science Foundation under ESI 0101982, funded through the AURA/NSF Cooperative Agreement AST-9613615. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. JPL manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. JPL is a division of Caltech.

  15. Contextual Student Learning through Authentic Asteroid Research Projects using a Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoette, Vivian L.; Puckett, Andrew W.; Linder, Tyler R.; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Rector, Travis A.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Meredith, Kate; Caughey, Austin L.; Brown, Johnny E.; McCarty, Cameron B.; Whitmore, Kevin T.

    2015-11-01

    Skynet is a worldwide robotic telescope network operated by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with active observing sites on 3 continents. The queue-based observation request system is simple enough to be used by middle school students, but powerful enough to supply data for research scientists. The Skynet Junior Scholars program, funded by the NSF, has teamed up with professional astronomers to engage students from middle school to undergraduates in authentic research projects, from target selection through image analysis and publication of results. Asteroid research is a particularly fruitful area for youth collaboration that reinforces STEM education standards and can allow students to make real contributions to scientific knowledge, e.g., orbit refinement through astrometric submissions to the Minor Planet Center. We have created a set of projects for youth to: 1. Image an asteroid, make a movie, and post it to a gallery; 2. Measure the asteroid’s apparent motion using the Afterglow online image processor; and 3. Image asteroids from two or more telescopes simultaneously to demonstrate parallax. The apparent motion and parallax projects allow students to estimate the distance to their asteroid, as if they were the discoverer of a brand new object in the solar system. Older students may take on advanced projects, such as analyzing uncertainties in asteroid orbital parameters; studying impact probabilities of known objects; observing time-sensitive targets such as Near Earth Asteroids; and even discovering brand new objects in the solar system.Images are acquired from among seven Skynet telescopes in North Carolina, California, Wisconsin, Canada, Australia, and Chile, as well as collaborating observatories such as WestRock in Columbus, Georgia; Stone Edge in El Verano, California; and Astronomical Research Institute in Westfield, Illinois.

  16. Developmental Cryogenic Active Telescope Testbed, a Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Claudia M.; Davila, Pamela S.; Redding, David C.; Morell, Armando; Lowman, Andrew E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Young, Eric W.; Pacini, Linda K.; Coulter, Dan R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the technology validation strategy of the next generation space telescope (NGST), a system testbed is being developed at GSFC, in partnership with JPL and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which will include all of the component functions envisioned in an NGST active optical system. The system will include an actively controlled, segmented primary mirror, actively controlled secondary, deformable, and fast steering mirrors, wavefront sensing optics, wavefront control algorithms, a telescope simulator module, and an interferometric wavefront sensor for use in comparing final obtained wavefronts from different tests. The developmental. cryogenic active telescope testbed (DCATT) will be implemented in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on operating the testbed at ambient temperature. During Phase 2, a cryocapable segmented telescope will be developed and cooled to cryogenic temperature to investigate the impact on the ability to correct the wavefront and stabilize the image. In Phase 3, it is planned to incorporate industry developed flight-like components, such as figure controlled mirror segments, cryogenic, low hold power actuators, or different wavefront sensing and control hardware or software. A very important element of the program is the development and subsequent validation of the integrated multidisciplinary models. The Phase 1 testbed objectives, plans, configuration, and design will be discussed.

  17. Lessons learned with the Active Phasing Experiment: comparison of four optical phasing sensors on a segmented Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, F.; Surdej, I.

    The adaptive optics capabilities are strongly limited by the quality of the phasing of the primary mirror of the extremely large telescope. Up to date, the Keck telescopes are the only segmented telescope phased with a quality enabling the application of adaptive optics. The Active Phasing Experiment has been installed at the Namyth focus of the Very Large Telescope Melipal during the last 6 months. Its purpose is to understand and compare different technological concepts for an optical phasing sensor dedicated to the European Extremely Large Telescope. The pupil of the telescope is segmented in 61 hexagonal segments by projecting it on an Active Segmented Mirror. The ASM is controlled by a dual wavenlength interferometer made by Fogale Nanotech with a nanometric precision. The segmented pupil is distributed in parallel to four optical phasing sensors. They are a pyramid sensor, a curvature sensor, a phase filtering sensor and a ShackHartmann sensor. They have been developed respectively by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Florenze, Instituto Astrofisica Canarias in Tenerife, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and ESO. The global behaviour of the optical phasing sensors will be described and preliminary results of the Active Phasing Experiments obtained on sky will be explained. The extrapolation of the results to the EELT and the potential consequences for the adaptive optics will be given. The Active Phasing Experiment has been financed by the European Union and the European Southern Observatory via the Sixth European Union Framework Program for Research and Technological Development under the contract number 011863.

  18. ASCOM based research on the universal control protocol of telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Luo, Chuanxin

    2014-08-01

    Remote control for the telescope can greatly reduce personnel requirements for observation and improve the quality of observation. It is important for astronomical observations. ASCOM provide a driver-client layer to separate astronomy device-specifics from the application software that uses those devices in the same time make sure that the drivers are usable from all programming languages. By building the server, client and drivers based on the ASCOM standard protocol to remote control the telescope. The software use Microsoft COM component programming model. Its API consists of a set of standard properties and methods , as defined in the relevant ASCOM interface specification and permit compatibility with all Windows languages. Applications control the operation of the equipment via ASCOM to invoke device driver. Using ASCOM common protocols will greatly improve the scalability and compatibility of system.

  19. Active control of a 30 m ring interferometric telescope primary mirror.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yichun; Liu, Zhong; Jin, Zhenyu; Xu, Jun; Lin, Jing

    2009-02-01

    The active control of a primary mirror for a ring aperture segmented telescope is different from that of a full aperture segmented telescope. Two active maintenance proposals for the ring telescope designed from the segmented patterns are outlined. We present a preliminary calculation of noise propagation and analysis of primary mirror mode characteristics for each proposal. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of the primary mirror corresponding to each maintenance method at several typical working wavelengths are also simulated. PMID:19183591

  20. Minimizing actuator-induced errors in active space telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.

    2010-07-01

    The trend in future space telescopes points toward increased primary mirror diameter, which improves resolution and sensitivity. However, given the constraints on mass and volume deliverable to orbit by current launch vehicles, creative design solutions are needed to enable increased mirror size while keeping mass and volume within acceptable limits. Lightweight, segmented, rib-stiffened, actively controlled primary mirrors have emerged as a potential solution. Embedded surface-parallel actuators can be used to change the mirror prescription onorbit, lowering mirror mass overall by enabling lighter substrate materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) and relaxing manufacturing constraints. However, the discrete nature of the actuators causes high spatial frequency residual errors when commanding low-order prescription changes. A parameterized finite element model is used to simulate actuator-induced residual error and investigate design solutions that mitigate this error source. Judicious specification of mirror substrate geometry and actuator length is shown to reduce actuator-induced residual while keeping areal density constant. Specifically, a sinusoidally-varying rib shaping function is found to increase actuator influence functions and decrease residual. Likewise, longer actuators are found to offer reduced residual. Other options for geometric shaping are discussed, such as rib-to-facesheet blending and the use of two dimensional patch actuators.

  1. The Morehead Radio Telescope: Design and Fabrication of a Research Instrument for Undergraduate Faculty and Student Research in Radio Frequency Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.

    1996-12-01

    Faculty and students of the Departments of Physical Sciences and Industrial Education and Technology at Morehead State University have designed and assembled the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT) to provide a research instrument for undergraduate astronomy and physics students and an active laboratory for physics, engineering, and computer science undergraduates and faculty. The instrument will function as a research and educational instrument for undergraduate students, faculty, and science teachers throughout Kentucky. The goals of the MRT program are to enhance the curricula in physics, physical science, electronics, and science education programs by serving to provide: 1.) a research instrument for investigations in astronomy and astrophysics; 2.) an active laboratory in astronomy, physics, electrical engineering, and computer science; and 3.) a research instrument and laboratory for science teacher education and inservice programs. The MRT utilizes a 40-foot parabolic reflector, a low-noise hydrogen line receiver and a fully- automated alt-azimuth positioning system. The telescope incorporates a modular design in which components may be easily removed for use in laboratory investigations and for student research and design projects. The performance characteristics of the telescope allow a varied and in-depth scientific program. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate the investigation of a wide variety of astrophysically interesting phenomena.

  2. Solar activities observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuhong

    2015-08-01

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope is the most important facility of the Fuxian Solar Observatory in China. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST observations, we investigate the solar activities in the chromosphere and obtain some new results. (1) Observations of a flux rope tracked by filament activation (Yang et al. 2014a). The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope. Then the filament is activated and the material flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The flux rope can be detected in both low temperature and high temperature lines, and there exists a striking anti-correlation between the Hα and EUV lines, which could imply some mild heating of cool filament material to coronal temperatures during the filament activation. (2) Fine structures and overlying loops of homologous confined solar flares (Yang et al. 2014b). At the pre-flare stage, there exists a reconnection between small loops. During the flare processes, the overlying loops, some of which are tracked by activated dark materials, do not break out. These direct observations may illustrate the physical mechanism of confined flares, i.e., magnetic reconnection between the emerging loops and the pre-existing loops triggers flares and the overlying loops prevent the flares from being eruptive. (3) Magnetic reconnection between small-scale loops (Yang et al. 2015). We report the solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale loops. The observed signatures are consistent with the predictions by reconnection models. The thickness and length of the current sheet are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. The reconnection process contains a slow step and a rapid step. We suggest that the successive slow reconnection changes the conditions around the reconnection site and disrupts the instability, thus leading to the rapid approach of the anti

  3. The feasibility of large refracting telescopes for solar coronal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Elmore, David F.; Kolinski, Donald J.

    2008-07-01

    Measuring magnetic fields in the solar corona requires a large aperture telescope with exceptionally low levels of scattered light. For internally-occulted coronagraphs the main source is scattering from dust or microroughness on the primary lens or mirror. We show refracting primaries offer significantly lower levels for both sources. To observe magnetic fields in the solar corona with scientifically interesting spatial and temporal resolutions, a 1 meter aperture or larger is required. For a long time such large-scale refractors have been deemed impractical or impossible to construct due to gravitational deformation of the lens. We present the results of finite-element and optical analyses of the gravitational deformation, stress-induced birefringence, and absorptive heating of a (see manuscript)1.5 meter f/5 fused silica lens. These studies demonstrate the traditional objections to large refractors are unfounded and large refracting primaries have unique capabilities.

  4. Removing static aberrations from the active optics system of a wide-field telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Magrin, Demetrio; Marty, Laurent; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    The wavefront sensor in active and adaptive telescopes is usually not in the optical path toward the scientific detector. It may generate additional wavefront aberrations, which have to be separated from the errors due to the telescope optics. The aberrations that are not rotationally symmetric can be disentangled from the telescope aberrations by a series of measurements taken in the center of the field, with the wavefront sensor at different orientation angles with respect to the focal plane. This method has been applied at the VLT Survey Telescope on the ESO Paranal observatory. PMID:22751401

  5. Life Extension Activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce A. K.; Prior, Michael

    2004-01-01

    With the cancellation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the Telescope operating during the remainder of the decade. As part of the SM4, the HST Project had planned to install various upgrades to the Telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analysis indicates that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team will be severely challenged to maximize the Telescope's remaining operational lifetime, while still trying to maximize - its science output and quality. Two of the biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they offer the largest potential extension in Telescope lifetime and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six Ni-H batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have collectively lasted longer than any other comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of the HST, thus enabling it to remain a world-class observatory for as long as possible.

  6. Telescopes for solar research; from Scheiner's Helioscopium to De la Rue's Photoheliograph.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, P.

    2002-12-01

    Early telescopes used for solar observation were usually standard instruments, equipped with a filter or used in projection mode. The occasional exceptions were telescopes designed or modified for viewing, drawing, or photographing the sun. Christoph Scheiner observed sunspots regularly & systematically for 15 years, beginning early in 1611. A simple projection telescope was replaced with his Helioscopium, which was probably the first equatorially mounted telescope. Robert Hooke published a booklet in 1676 titled `Helioscopes', filled with an array of highly ingenious telescope designs, some of which were designed for solar observation and some of which were constructed and used. Warren De la Rue designed a photographic solar telescope, built by Andrew Ross in 1857 for the use of the Royal Society to establish a continuous record of solar activity. This photoheliograph was responsible for several important discoveries. Improvements in solar instruments led to advances in knowledge of the sun, and the contributions of some early solar telescopes and their makers will be recognized in this paper.

  7. Jovian thundercloud research with ground-based telescope and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Ko-Ichiro; Sato, Mitsuteru; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Sato, Soga; Yair, Yoav; Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2010-05-01

    The latest observational and theoretical studies suggest that thunderstorms, i.e., strong moist convective clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere are very important not only as an essential ingredient of meteorology of Jupiter, which determines the large scale structures such as belt/zone and big ovals, but also as a potentially very useful tool for probing the water abundance of the deep atmosphere, which is crucial to constrain the behavior of volatiles in early solar system. Here we suggest a very simple high-speed imaging unit onboard Jovian orbiter, Optical Lightning Detector, OLD, optimized for detecting optical emissions from lightning discharge in Jupiter. OLD consists of radiation-tolerant CMOS sensors and two H Balmer Alpha line (656.3nm) filters. In normal sampling mode the frame intervals is 29ms with a full frame format of 512x512 pixels and in high-speed sampling mode the interval could be reduced down to 0.1ms by concentrating a limited area of 30x30 pixels. Weight, size and power consumption are about 1kg, 16x7x5.5 cm (sensor) and 16x12x4 cm (circuit), and 4W, respectively, though they can be reduced according to the spacecraft resources. Also we plan to investigate the optical flashes using a ground-based middle-sized telescope, which will be built by Hokkaido University, with narrow-band high speed imaging unit. Observational strategy with such optical lightning detectors and spectral imagers, which enable us to estimate the horizontal motion and altitude of clouds, will be introduced.

  8. Research relative to the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    The Heavy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope (HIST) was launched during August 1978 on ISEE-3 (ICE). HIST was designed to measure the isotopic composition of solar, galactic, and interplanetary cosmic ray nuclei for the elements from H to Ni (1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) in the energy range from approximately 5 to approximately 200 MeV/nucleon. The results of these measurements have been used in studies of the composition of solar matter and galactic cosmic ray sources, the study of nucleosynthesis processes, studies of particle acceleration and propagation, and studies of the life-history of cosmic rays in the heliosphere and in the galaxy. On December 1, 1978, after 110 days in orbit, HIST suffered an electronic failure in its readout system. After that point, only one-half of the telemetry bits associated with the pulse heights measured by HIST were transmitted to Earth. As a result, the resolution of HIST was significantly degraded, and it served as an element rather than an isotope spectrometer. Fortunately, HIST was able to measure the isotopic composition of heavy nuclei in the 9/23/78 solar event (the largest solar energetic particle event since 1972) during the brief period that it operated at full resolution. This grant funded the analysis of data from the HIST instrument over the period from 12/1/85 to 11/30/92. In section 2 of this final report, we summarize the scientific accomplishments that have resulted from HIST measurements during this time period. A bibliography of tasks and papers that resulted is attached.

  9. Life extension activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce; Prior, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Without an additional Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the telescope operating for as long as possible. As part of SM4, the HST Project planned to install various upgrades to the telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analyses and trend projections indicate that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team is being challenged to maximize the telescope's remaining operational lifetime, and also maximize its science output and quality. The two biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they comprise the largest risk to telescope productivity and safety and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have -lasted longer than those on any comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. In addition to the batteries, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) scheduled all six gyros to be replaced on SM4. Two of the six gyros have already failed, leaving four available for operational use. To be able to conduct science operations, the telescope currently needs three gyros. Efforts are underway to enable a guiding mode that will require only two gyros. In this mode, however, science target scheduling will be strongly driven by new factors (such as star tracker availability), which may ultimately reduce science gathering efficiency. The status on this effort and its potential impact on science operations will be discussed. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of

  10. Large segmented UV-optical space telescope using a Hybrid Sensor Active Control (HSAC) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Dean, Bruce; Hyde, Tupper; Oegerle, Bill; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Smith, J. Scott

    2009-08-01

    Future large UV-optical space telescopes offer new and exciting windows of scientific parameter space. These telescopes can be placed at L2 and borrow heavily from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) heritage. For example, they can have similar deployment schemes, hexagonal mirrors, and use Wavefront Sensing and Control (WFSC) technologies developed for JWST. However, a UV-optical telescope requires a 4x improvement in wavefront quality over JWST to be diffraction-limited at 500 nm. Achieving this tolerance would be difficult using a passive thermal architecture such as the one employed on JWST. To solve this problem, our team has developed a novel Hybrid Sensor Active Control (HSAC) architecture that provides a cost effective approach to building a segmented UV-optical space telescope. In this paper, we show the application of this architecture to the ST-2020 mission concept and summarize the technology development requirements.

  11. UNC SKYNET adds NRAO 20m Radio Telescope: Dynamic Research and Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, Glen; Hosmer, L.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Reichart, D.; Haipslip, J.

    2013-01-01

    The University of North Carolina (UNC) and NRAO have teamed up to deliver dynamic, realtime optical and Radio observations of the universe, using the web-based SKYNET queuing system developed at UNC. A 20m telescope is outfitted with cryogenically cooled receivers and a reprogrammable spectrometer. To get started see: http://www.gb.nrao.edu/20m/fantastic/ for connections to the observing system, educational activities and opportunities to purchase observing time. The SKYNET goal is to provide the finest research tools to high schools, colleges and independent researchers. This is accomplished through the capabilities to use existing observing modes and through reprogram the University of California, Berkeley's Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) systems for custom digital hardware development. This provides a door for engineering and computer science students to create real-time, high capability data acquisition and processing tools. We will demo the 20m observing system and its capabilities. The NSF funded this construction project with the goal of making the network self funding. We are looking for collaborators with targeted research projects wanting to take advantage of the powerful observing tools.

  12. The x-ray/EUV telescope for the Solar-C mission: science and development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Narukage, Noriyuki; Imada, Shinsuke; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimojo, Masumi; Tsuneta, Saku; DeLuca, Edward E.; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke

    2012-09-01

    We report science and development activities of the X-ray/EUV telescope for the Japanese Solar-C mission whose projected launch around 2019. The telescope consists of a package of (a) a normal-incidence (NI) EUV telescope and (b) a grazing-incidence (GI) soft X-ray telescope. The NI telescope chiefly provides images of low corona (whose temperature 1 MK or even lower) with ultra-high angular resolution (0.2-0.3"/pixel) in 3 wavelength bands (304, 171, and 94 angstroms). On the other hand, the GI telescope provides images of the corona with a wide temperature coverage (1 MK to beyond 10 MK) with the highest-ever angular resolution (~0.5"/pixel) as a soft X-ray coronal imager. The set of NI and GI telescopes should provide crucial information for establishing magnetic and gas-dynamic connection between the corona and the lower atmosphere of the Sun which is essential for understanding heating of, and plasma activities in, the corona. Moreover, we attempt to implement photon-counting capability for the GI telescope with which imaging-spectroscopy of the X-ray corona will be performed for the first time, in the energy range from ~0.5 keV up to 10 keV. The imaging-spectroscopic observations will provide totally-new information on mechanism(s) for the generation of hot coronal plasmas (heated beyond a few MK), those for magnetic reconnection, and even generation of supra-thermal electrons associated with flares. An overview of instrument outline and science for the X-ray photoncounting telescope are presented, together with ongoing development activities in Japan towards soft X-ray photoncounting observations, focusing on high-speed X-ray CMOS detector and sub-arcsecond-resolution GI mirror.

  13. Research of remote control for Chinese Antarctica Telescope based on iridium satellite communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingzhe; Yang, Shihai

    2010-07-01

    Astronomers are ever dreaming of sites with best seeing on the Earth surface for celestial observation, and the Antarctica is one of a few such sites only left owing to the global air pollution. However, Antarctica region is largely unaccessible for human being due to lacking of fundamental living conditions, travel facilities and effective ways of communication. Worst of all, the popular internet source as a general way of communication scarcely exists there. Facing such a dilemma and as a solution remote control and data transmission for telescopes through iridium satellite communication has been put forward for the Chinese network Antarctic Schmidt Telescopes 3 (AST3), which is currently under all round research and development. This paper presents iridium satellite-based remote control application adapted to telescope control. The pioneer work in China involves hardware and software configuration utilizing techniques for reliable and secure communication, which is outlined in the paper too.

  14. The new 2meter RCC Telescope in the Northern CAucasus (3100m) for Modern Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarady, V.; Yatskiv, Ya.

    A new 2 meter Ritchey-Chretien-Coude telescope in the Northern Caucasus is expected to be ready for astronomical research in late 1995. The telescope is located on the Terskol peak (near Elbrus) with the altitude of 3100 meter. The low atmospheric water vapour content and the high air transparency in the ultraviolet region allow us to infer that the Terskol peak is one of the best sites in Europe for astronomical ground observation. The mean seeing is about 1 arcsec at the Terskol peak. The main parameters of the optical system are as follows: * equivalent focal length is 16000 mm for the Ritchey-Chretien system and 72000 mm for the Coude system; * diameter of the field free from vignetting is 108' for the Ritchey-Chretien system and 5' for another one; *spot concentration is 80% inside the 0.5" circle. The new telescope will be used in investigating the fundamental problems of the star brightness variability, physics of stars and galaxies, studying the planet and satellite atmosphere dynamics. The precise astrometrical problems can also be solved with this telescope. The telescope will be equiped with the following detectors: -CCD Echelle spectrograph in the Coude focus; - astronomical infrared Fourie spectrometre; -digital panoramic polarimeter; -panoramic spectrophotometer with Fabry-Perot interferometer. This project is realized by the joint efforts of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Kiev (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences) and the International Centre for Astronomical and Medical-Ecological Investigations. Proposals for Scientific observation at the Terskol Observatory are encouraged.

  15. Research on the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingxu

    2007-12-01

    Large-aperture telescope can be used in surveying battlefield, researching landform, searching object, real-time monitoring, imaging, detecting and identifying spatial targets and so on. A large-aperture telescope for achieving high resolution power is designed to monitor spatial target and image in real time. Real-time monitoring plays an important role in military conflicts. The orbit parameter of object, quantity, geometrical shape parameter and so on can be obtained by detect spatial target. With the development of optical technology, people require larger aperture in optics-electronic (O-E) system. By increasing optical aperture, the ability of collecting light and resolution power in the system can be enhanced. But the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope will be a very difficult problem. With the increase of primary mirror aperture, the weight of the primary mirror will become larger than before. The root mean square (rms) of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as deadweight, deformation of heat, environment and so on. Due to the primary mirror of telescope is an important component of telescope system. By reducing the weight of primary mirror, precision of the system is ensured. During the designing phase, one can consider the supporting project of the primary mirror synthetically and analyze it roundly according to technical requirement of optical system and the effect factors. The final structural design can be reasonable. In an astronomical telescope, the surface of reflector is an important part for collecting dark radiation of celestial bodies. Its surface shape will have an effect on collecting efficiency of telescope radiant energy directly. So the rms must be very high. Optical system of large aperture, small wavelength and small focus can receive maximal light intensity. For ground-based optical astronomical telescope, the design proposed in the paper can satisfy the requirement of the possible

  16. Active optics system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiol, Daniele; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fantinel, Daniela; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Loreggia, Davide; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Russo, Federico; Volpicelli, Antonio C.

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype of Small Size class of Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. It will apply a dual mirror configuration to Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The 18 segments composing the primary mirror (diameter 4.3 m) are equipped with an active optics system enabling optical re-alignment during telescope slew. The secondary mirror (diameter 1.8 m) can be moved along three degrees of freedom to perform focus and tilt corrections. We describe the kinematic model used to predict the system performance as well as the hardware and software design solution that will be implemented for optics control.

  17. Development of the NASA MCAT Auxiliary Telescope for Orbital Debris Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Hickson, Paul; Anz-Meador, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautical Space Administration has deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island with plans for it to become fully operational by summer 2016. This telescope will be providing data in support of research being conducted by the Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center. In addition to the main observatory, a smaller, auxiliary telescope is being deployed to the same location to augment and support observations generated by MCAT. It will provide near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry of debris objects, independent measurements of the seeing conditions, and offload low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. Its hardware and software designs are presented here The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) has recently deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island. MCAT will provide NASA with a dedicated optical sensor for observations of orbital debris with the goal of statistically sampling the orbital and photometric characteristics of the population from low Earth to Geosynchronous orbits. Additionally, a small auxiliary telescope, co-located with MCAT, is being deployed to augment its observations by providing near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry, as well as offloading low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. It will also serve to provide an independent measurement of the seeing conditions to help monitor the quality of the data being produced by the larger telescope. Comprised of off-the-shelf-components, the MCAT Auxiliary Telescope will have a 16-inch optical tube assembly, Sloan g'r'i'z' and Johnson/Cousins BVRI filters, and a fast tracking mount to help facilitate the tracking of objects in low Earth orbit. Tracking modes and tasking will be similar to MCAT except an emphasis will be placed on observations that provide more accurate initial orbit determination for the objects detected by MCAT. The near-simultaneous observations will

  18. Observations and analysis activities of the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael

    1996-01-01

    The funds from this grant were used to support observations and analysis with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite telescope. The main area of scientific research concerned the variability analyses of ultraviolet spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei, primarily quasars, Seyfert galaxies, and BL Lacertae objects. The Colorado group included, at various times, the P.I. (J.M. Shull), Research Associate Dr. Rick Edelson, and graduate students Jon Saken, Elise Sachs, and Steve Penton. A portion of the work was also performed by CU undergraduate student Cheong-ming Fu. A major product of the effort was a database of all IUE spectra of active galactic nuclei. This database is being analyzed to obtain spectral indices, line fluxes, and continuum fluxes for over 500 AGN. As a by-product of this project, we implemented a new, improved technique of spectral extraction of IUE spectra, which has been used in several AGN-WATCH campaigns (on the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 and on the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304).

  19. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  20. Curvature wavefront sensing performance simulations for active correction of the Javalambre wide-field telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueca, Sergio; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cenarro, Andrés. Javier; Varela, Jesús; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cristóbal-Hornillos, David; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Gruel, Nicolás.; Moles, Mariano; Yanes, Axel; Rueda, Fernando; Rueda, Sergio; Luis-Simoes, Roberto; Hernández-Fuertes, Javier; López-Sainz, Angel; Maícas-Sacristán, Natalio; Lamadrid, José Luis; Díaz-Martín, Miguel Chioare; Taylor, Keith

    2012-09-01

    In order to maintain image quality during Javalambre wide field telescope operations, deformations and rigid body motions must be actively controlled to minimize optical disturbances. For JST/T250 the aberrations of the telescope will be measured with four curvature sensors at the focal plane. To correct the measured distortions, the secondary mirror position (with a hexapod support) and the camera position can be modified in a control closed loop. Multiple software tools have been developed to accomplish this goal, constituting the "Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre" (OAJ) Active Optics Pipeline. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wave-front sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, pupil registration, wavefront estimators and the iteration matrix evaluation techniques. Some preliminary simulations have been made using a telescope model with a Optical Ray Tracing Software.

  1. Creating a Teacher-Student Research Program Using the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.; Pompea, S.; Thaller, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have created a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The participating teachers attended a fall, 2004 workshop to become familiar with the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) archives, and to receive training in infrared astronomy and observational techniques. The teachers will also attend a workshop offered by the SSC to learn about the observation planning process, and telescope and instrument capabilities. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with the SST and work with the SST archival data. This program allows a team of 12 teachers and their students to utilize up to 3 hours of Director's discretionary observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations. Leveraging on a well-established teacher professional development, the SSC is offering this program to teachers in the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRRBSE), an ongoing program at the NOAO. This NSF-sponsored program touches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle and high school teachers. The Spitzer educational research program also reaches an additional national audience of students through an informal education program based at the University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, directed by Dr. Don McCarthy. During this camp, the teachers and their students will learn about the SST through the vast amount of data available in the Spitzer archives.

  2. A Research on the Primary Mirror Manipulator of Large Segmented-mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, H.

    2012-09-01

    Lagrange formulation is introduced, and the dynamic equations of the manipulator have been obtained by using the Lagrange method. Since the manipulator is a serious coupling system, the dynamic curve of the key joints is plotted by using the ADAMS software. According to the theoretical analysis, the manipulator for the primary mirror of LAMOST is designed and fabricated. The whole manipulator consists of three parts. The first part is the mechanical arm which is used to realize the high speed and the long distance location, and it is rebuilt from a small truck crane; The second part is a serial mechanical hand which is used to realize the low speed and the short distance location. It has six DOFs including the pitch, the rotate about the vertical axis, the elevation along the vertical axis, and two horizontal translations. Subsequently the structure is analyzed in the ANSYS software to confirm that the strength is enough and the displacement is in the tolerance; The third part is a mechanical wrist, in which part a hydraulic rod is used to keep the bottom of the mechanical hand horizontal. In chapter 6, the control characteristics of the whole manipulator are analyzed. Furthermore, the control method and flowchart are proposed. Based on this method the control device was selected. In the end of this paper, the main work and the results of this project are summarized. Further research is prospected and it provides a reference for the future large telescope projects.

  3. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  4. Innovative research in the design and operation of large telescopes for space: Aspects of giant telescopes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The capability and understanding of how to finish the reflector surfaces needed for large space telescopes is discussed. The technology for making very light glass substrates for mirrors is described. Other areas of development are in wide field imaging design for very fast primaries, in data analysis and retrieval methods for astronomical images, and in methods for making large area closely packed mosaics of solid state array detectors.

  5. Implementation of an active vibration damping system for the SOFIA telescope assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Paul C.; Keas, Paul J.

    2014-07-01

    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) employs a 2.5-meter reflector telescope in a Boeing 747SP. The image stability goal for SOFIA is 0.2 arc-seconds. An active damping control system is being developed for SOFIA to reduce image jitter and degradation due to resonance of the telescope assembly. We describe the vibration control system design and implementation in hardware and software. The system's unique features enabling system testing, control system design, and online health monitoring will also be presented.

  6. Preparation research on novel dampers used in large optical telescope's noise and vibrations attenuating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiu-ping; Yang, Jian-chun; Zhang, Li

    2010-10-01

    General rubber damping materials used in noise and vibrations attenuating system can not adapt large optical telescope's working temperatures and environments. While Metal Rubber material which has loose, reticulate structures can endure high or low temperatures, rigorous space environments, erosions, aging, volatilization and radiations due to its metallic properties because it is made of stainless steel wires of φ 0.1~0.3 mm. When the MR damping component is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since Metal Rubber components are prepared by compression moulding, various complex shapes of dampers can be produced conveniently to fulfill large optical telescope's noise and vibrations attenuating tasks. Based on the Metal Rubber component's four preparation approaches, helix-making, planar roughcast-weaving, planar roughcast-rolling and 3D roughcast punching, a ring-shaped 3D parametrical numerical model is founded by CAD technology. Definitely, this modeling research work may support the optimization of the current trial and try preparation of MR component and it will provide necessary foundations for its further application in noise and vibrations attenuating system in large optical telescopes.

  7. Entoto Twining Telescopes: first robotic facilities in East Africa for astronomy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    The robotic 1-m alt-azimuthal (Astelco Systems 1000-5950 (ESSS)) twining telescopes, based on the Entoto mount of Addis Ababa, which of each has primary mirror supported by Active-Optics actuators and two Nasmyth focuses. These telescopes has a diverse instrument with four CCDs: SBIG STL 11000M (4000 x 2672, 9 μm), SBIG STL 1001E (1024 x 1024, 24 μm), ANDOR iXon3-888 (1024 x 1024, 13 μm) and FLI PL 4301E-1 (2048 x 2048, 24 μm), as well as with Fibre Linked Echelle Astronomical Spectrograph (FLECHAS) with spectral range from 389nm to 762nm on CCD detectors of 2048x2048 pixels, 15 μm square pixel size, and Spectral peak resolution R (λ/Δλ) > 37000. These telescopes are used for observations of the main distance indicators - Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars - to study the structure, variable stars, time photometry and spectra of supernovae, X-ray binaries, Light Curves, exo-planets, kinematics of the disk and halo of our Galaxy and etc. We outline here our scientific goals and present the results of our preliminary optical design studies.

  8. Reflector adjustment for a large radio telescope based on active optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tongying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Aihua; Wang, You

    2012-09-01

    The reflector deformation caused by gravity, temperature, humidity, wind loading and so on can reduce the global performance of a large radio telescope. In this paper, considering the characteristics of the primary reflector of a 13.7 m millimeter-wave telescope a novel reflector adjustment method based on active optics has therefore been proposed to control the active surface of the reflector through the communication between the active surface computer and embedded intelligent controller with a large quantity of displacement actuators, in which the active surface computer estimates and controls the real time active surface figure at any elevation angle, reduces or eliminates the adverse effects of the reflector deformation to increase the resolution and sensitivity of the radio telescope due to the more radio signals collected. A Controller Area Network /Ethernet protocol converter is designed for the communication between the active surface control computer as a host computer in Ethernet and the displacement actuator controller in Controller Area Network. The displacement actuator is driven by a stepper motor and controlled by an intelligent controller with the data from the active surface computer. The closed-loop control of the stepper motor improves the control accuracy greatly through the feedback link based on the optical encoder.

  9. The W. M. Keck Telescope segmented primary mirror active control system

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Arthur, A.A.; Andreae, S.; Biocca, A.; Cohen, R.W.; Fuertes, J.M.; Franck, J.; Gabor, G.; Llacer, J.; Mast, T.; Meng, J.; Merrick, T.; Minor, R.; Nelson, J.; Orayani, M.; Salz, P.; Schaefer, B.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    The ten meter diameter primary mirror of the W. M. Keck Telescope is a mosaic of thirty-six hexagonal mirrors. An active control system stabilizes the primary mirror. The active control system uses 168 measurements of the relative positions of adjacent mirror segments and 3 measurements of the primary mirror position in the telescope structure to control the 108 degrees of freedom needed to stabilize the figure and position of the primary mirror. The components of the active control system are relative position sensors, electronics, computers, actuators that position the mirrors, and software. The software algorithms control the primary mirror, perform star image stacking, emulate the segments, store and fit calibration data, and locate hardware defects. We give an overview of the active control system, its functional requirements and test measurements. 12 refs.

  10. Impact Summary: The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Timothy; Pompea, S.; Rebull, L.; Gorjian, V.; Howell, S.; Johnson, C.; Kennedy, S.; Thomas, B.; Walentosky, M.; Wheeler, S.; Spitzer Teacher Program Team

    2010-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students was a four-year joint project between the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) that concluded in 2009. Through the program, teams of teachers and students were provided with unique opportunities to observe with the Spitzer Space Telescope and work with Spitzer and NOAO scientists. This study finds evidence of significant success. From the eleven major research projects sponsored by the program, 31 scientific posters have been presented, and a number of scientific papers have been published. Records indicate there have been nearly 100 newspaper, radio, and TV reports, and numerous Internet articles reporting on various aspects of teacher and student involvement in the project, and over 100 students feel the program has influenced them to pursue careers in science. This highly successful program has now become the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP), with funding from the NASA ADP program and the archives at IPAC.

  11. Prospects for solar and space weather research with polish part of the LOFAR telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, Bartosz P.; Krankowski, Andrzej; Błaszkiewicz, Leszek; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-06-01

    The LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new radio interferometer that consists of an array of stations. Each of them is a phase array of dipole antennas. LOFAR stations are distributed mostly in the Netherlands, but also throughout Europe. In the article we discuss the possibility of using this instrument for solar and space weather studies, as well as ionosphere investigations. We are expecting that in the near future the LOFAR telescope will bring some interesting observations and discoveries in these fields. It will also help to observe solar active events that have a direct influence on the near-Earth space weather.

  12. Research on the Calculation Method of Optical Path Difference of the Shanghai Tian Ma Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Fu, L.; Jiang, Y. B.; Liu, Q. H.; Gou, W.; Yan, F.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Shanghai Tian Ma Telescope (TM), an optical path difference calculation method of the shaped Cassegrain antenna is presented in the paper. Firstly, the mathematical model of the TM optics is established based on the antenna reciprocity theorem. Secondly, the TM sub-reflector and main reflector are fitted by the Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). Finally, the method of optical path difference calculation is implemented, and the expanding application of the Ruze optical path difference formulas in the TM is researched. The method can be used to calculate the optical path difference distributions across the aperture field of the TM due to misalignment like the axial and lateral displacements of the feed and sub-reflector, or the tilt of the sub-reflector. When the misalignment quantity is small, the expanding Ruze optical path difference formulas can be used to calculate the optical path difference quickly. The paper supports the real-time measurement and adjustment of the TM structure. The research has universality, and can provide reference for the optical path difference calculation of other radio telescopes with shaped surfaces.

  13. The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Gorjian, V.; Hermans, L.; Howell, S.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S.; Rudnick, G.; Thaller, M.; Spitzer Teacher Program Team

    2007-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with Spitzer and work with Spitzer archival data. This program allows a team of teachers and their students to use Director's Discretionary Time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations, thereby getting scientific research into the classroom. More than fifteen conference posters or journal articles have resulted from this project, with more being presented at this AAS meeting. We have won a NASA group achievement award in 2007. We believe that this project provides a potential model for outreach efforts on other NASA missions, including particularly WISE, where plans are already underway to follow this model. For more information, please see our companion poster (Spuck et al.) or visit the wiki on which we are sharing materials developed by our teacher-scientist teams: https://coolwiki.ipac.caltech.edu/

  14. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a gradient approach and an additional deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2015-09-01

    High development cost is a challenge for space telescopes and imaging satellites. One of the primary reasons for this high cost is the development of the primary mirror, which must meet diffraction limit surface figure requirements. Recent efforts to develop lower cost, lightweight, replicable primary mirrors include development of silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors and carbon fiber mirrors. The silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors at the Naval Postgraduate School do not meet the surface quality required for an optical telescope due to high spatial frequency residual surface errors. A technique under investigation at the Naval Postgraduate School is to correct the residual surface figure error using a deformable mirror in the optical path. We present a closed loop feedback gradient controller to actively control a SMT active segment and an additional deformable mirror to reduce residual wavefront error. The simulations and experimental results show that the gradient controller reduces the residual wavefront error more than an integral controller.

  15. Heritage Adoption Lessons Learned, Active Mirror Telescope Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincentsen, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The Active Mirror Telescope (AMT) task adopted the Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism (CDLM) design as used on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) project. The three separate mechanisms that comprise the CDLM will be discussed in this paper in addition to a focus on heritage adoption lessons learned and specific examples. These lessons learned will be valuable to any project considering the use of heritage designs.

  16. The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students: The Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Timothy; Rebull, L.; Roelofsen Moody, T.; Sepulveda, B.; Weehler, C.; Kelley, N.; Sibble, Y.; Walentosky, M.; Weiser, S.; Yeager, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. (For more information on this program, please see our companion poster, Rebull et al.) As part of this program, we are developing a wiki, where the scientists, teachers, and students can share the materials they have developed and interact with each other. The wiki currently has background information, some general lessons and discussion pages; it also provides a place for the teams to continue working on their specific research projects. This poster will describe some of the wiki contents, and our plans for future development.

  17. Parallel robots in a ground-based telescope active optics system: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Ferragina, L.; Marty, L.; Grado, A.; Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; La Rana, A.; Busatta, A.

    2007-10-01

    This work deals with the application of parallel robots for the correction of defocus and coma optical aberrations in the case study of the VST (VLT Survey Telescope) telescope, to be installed at the ESO observatory of Cerro Paranal (Chile). The parallel robots are used to change position and orientation of the secondary mirror. The secondary mirror positioning capability is a fundamental part in an active optics system, i.e. a closed loop control system for the minimization of the telescope optical aberrations, where the outer optical feedback coming from the wavefront sensor is used to generate references for the inner motion control loop of the secondary mirror positioning robots. Two devices are presented: a 6-6 Stewart platform where both fixed and mobile platforms are regular and similar hexagons whose vertexes belong to the same plane and are on a circle, and a two stages device composed by a XY table plus a tilt platform. The basic theory of active optics corrections is presented. The kinematics of both devices is solved in connection with the active optics application; first test data are presented.

  18. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  19. Metrology systems for active alignment control of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide field corrector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Hart, Michael; Cornell, Mark E.; Savage, Richard; Vattiat, Brian; Perry, Dave; Moller, William M.; Rafferty, Tom; Taylor, Trey; Rafal, Marc D.

    2010-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) will be equipped with new metrology systems to actively control the optical alignment of the new four-mirror Wide-Field Corrector (WFC) as it tracks sidereal motion with respect to the fixed primary mirror. These systems include a tip/tilt sensor (TTS), distance measuring interferometers (DMI), guide probes (GP), and wavefront sensors (WFS). While the TTS and DMIs are to monitor the mechanical alignment of the WFC, the WFSs and GPs will produce direct measurement of the optical alignment of the WFC with respect to the HET primary mirror. Together, these systems provide fully redundant alignment and pointing information for the telescope, thereby keeping the WFC in focus and suppressing alignment-driven field aberrations. We describe the current snapshot of these systems and discuss their roles, expected performance, and operation plans.

  20. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope: Structural-Thermal-Optical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.; Parrish, Keith A.; McGinnis, Mark A.; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Kong Q.

    2004-01-01

    The James Web Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. This is a continuation of a series of papers on modeling activities for JWST. The structural-thermal-optical, often referred to as STOP, analysis process is used to predict the effect of thermal distortion on optical performance. The benchmark STOP analysis for JWST assesses the effect of an observatory slew on wavefront error. Temperatures predicted using geometric and thermal math models are mapped to a structural finite element model in order to predict thermally induced deformations. Motions and deformations at optical surfaces are then input to optical models, and optical performance is predicted using either an optical ray trace or a linear optical analysis tool. In addition to baseline performance predictions, a process for performing sensitivity studies to assess modeling uncertainties is described.

  1. Curvature wavefront sensing performance evaluation for active correction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Anastacia M; Phillion, Donald W; Olivier, Scot S; Baker, Kevin L; Cannon, Brice

    2010-01-18

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design, with an 8.4-meter primary mirror, a 3.4-m secondary, and a 5.0-m tertiary, along with three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat focal plane with a field of view of 9.6 square degrees. In order to maintain image quality during operation, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations, which arise primarily from forces due to gravity and thermal expansion. We describe the methodology for measuring the telescope aberrations using a set of curvature wavefront sensors located in the four corners of the LSST camera focal plane. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wavefront sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, demonstrating that this system will perform to the specifications required to meet the LSST performance goals. PMID:20173981

  2. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope: Optical Jitter Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, T. Tupper; Ha, Kong Q.; Johnston, John D.; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    This is a continuation of a series of papers on the integrated modeling activities for the James Webb Space Telescope(JWST). Starting with the linear optical model discussed in part one, and using the optical sensitivities developed in part two, we now assess the optical image motion and wavefront errors from the structural dynamics. This is often referred to as "jitter: analysis. The optical model is combined with the structural model and the control models to create a linear structural/optical/control model. The largest jitter is due to spacecraft reaction wheel assembly disturbances which are harmonic in nature and will excite spacecraft and telescope structural. The structural/optic response causes image quality degradation due to image motion (centroid error) as well as dynamic wavefront error. Jitter analysis results are used to predict imaging performance, improve the structural design, and evaluate the operational impact of the disturbance sources.

  3. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  4. Planning and Conducting Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Some directions and influences on dental research activities in the near future are discussed. Current challenges include international competition, fellowships, and equipment. Potential research activity includes preventive medicine, epidemiology, chronic illness, the elderly, bioengineering, materials research, nutrition, soft tissue research,…

  5. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  6. Common-pull, multiple-push, vacuum-activated telescope mirror cell.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Salas, Luis; Luna, Esteban; Araiza-Durán, José A

    2014-11-20

    A new concept for push-pull active optics is presented, where the push-force is provided by means of individual airbag type actuators and a common force in the form of a vacuum is applied to the entire back of the mirror. The vacuum provides the pull-component of the system, in addition to gravity. Vacuum is controlled as a function of the zenithal angle, providing correction for the axial component of the mirror's weight. In this way, the push actuators are only responsible for correcting mirror deformations, as well as for supporting the axial mirror weight at the zenith, allowing for a uniform, full dynamic-range behavior of the system along the telescope's pointing range. This can result in the ability to perform corrections of up to a few microns for low-order aberrations. This mirror support concept was simulated using a finite element model and was tested experimentally at the 2.12 m San Pedro Mártir telescope. Advantages such as stress-free attachments, lighter weight, large actuator area, lower system complexity, and lower required mirror-cell stiffness could make this a method to consider for future large telescopes. PMID:25607876

  7. Stellar activity cycles from long-term data by robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oláh, K.

    2014-03-01

    All results about stellar activity cycles stem from decades-long systematic observations that were done by small telescopes. Without these equipments we would not know much, if anything, about stellar activity cycles, like those we see and observe easily on the nearest star, the Sun. In the early 80's of the last century systematic photometric monitoring of active stars began with automated photometric telescopes (APTs), some of which continue the observations to date. The Vienna-Potsdam APT now works for about two decades (Strassmeier et al. 1997), similarly to the 4-College Consortium APT (Dukes et al. 1995), while the Catania APT (Rodono et al. 2001) was closed down a few years ago. These small tools with the same setups for decades do not cost much and are relatively cheap to maintain. The longest continuous photometric datasets of a few objects from APTs span now over 30 years, which, together with earlier, manually-obtained data allow to study those activity cycles of stars which are in the order of 10 years or shorter: to be sure in the timescale of a cycle it should be observed repeatedly at least 2-3 times. The spectroscopic automated telescope STELLA (Strassmeier et al. 2004), built in the first decade of this century, measured already a few dozens of radial velocity curves for long-period binary stars and measured their activity levels (Strassmeier et al. 2012); these results can be gathered only by robotic telescopes. Only with STELLA it is possible to study the decades-long behavior of starspots on active giants with long rotational periods via Doppler Imaging. As the databases were growing it became clear that stars, just as the Sun, had multiple cycles. It was also found that stellar cycles showed systematic changes and that the cycle lengths correlated with the rotational periods of the stars. Extensive summaries of stellar activity cycles are found in Baliunas et al. (1995) using the Mt. Wilson Ca-index survey, and Oláh et al. (2009) based on

  8. PM ACTIVITY PATTERN RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  9. Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students: Young Stars in IC2118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weehler, C. R.; Herrera, J. M.; Maranto, A. R.; Greer, M. T.; Preis, J. V.; Weston, P. D.; Rebull, L. M.; Roelofsen, T. E.; Sepulveda, B.; Hughes, A. S.; Sharma, N. D.; Spuck, T. S.; Bowser, D. H., II; Ehrhart, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Teacher Program is a collaboration between the Spitzer Science Center and National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Through the program, twelve teachers were selected to submit observing proposals for time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Young Stars in IC 2118 Project was one of those selected and awarded 62 minutes of Director's discretionary observing time to study a small region of IC 2118 (the Witch Head Nebula), a star forming region of small-mass stars embedded in their natal cloud. The five teachers involved in this project met at the Spitzer Science Center in August and September 2005 to analyze the data received from IRAC and MIPS observations. Six high school students were included in these visits, and several more are working on data analysis at their home schools. We are making tri-color images to identify structure in the ISM, Spectral Energy Distributions to identify cluster members and color plots to determine their stage of development, thereby estimating their ages. We are working toward adapting lessons that can use software that is readily available in public schools to do the data analysis. As teachers develop lesson plans for these activities, they will apply them in their science classes and provide professional development on infrared astronomy and the use of astronomical data to other teachers through in-service training around the country. The team is being mentored by Dr. Luisa Rebull from the Spitzer Science Center. Please see our companion poster, Spuck et al., on our science results using these data.

  10. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  11. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  12. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ˜ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ˜40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ˜ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  13. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton; Lafrenière, David; Parmentier, Sébastien

    2014-03-10

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ∼65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ∼10{sup –2} around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ∼10{sup –4} (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 μm), F380M (3.8 μm), F430M (4.3 μm), and F480M (4.8 μm) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ∼2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  14. The New 2-M RCC Telescope in the Northern Caucasus for Modern Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarady, V. K.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    A new 2-m Ritchey-Chretien-Coude (RCC) telescope in the Northern Caucasus (the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, Russian Federation) is nearing being put into operation. It has been developed by the National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine on the Terskol peak (near Elbrus) which seems to be one of the best sites for astronomical ground observations in terms of its astroclimate. This paper describes the present status of the telescope, its instrumentation and outlines the scientific problems that can be solved using the telescope.

  15. Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope Requirements and Development Program: MSFC Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Jones, W. D.; Russell, J. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Cohen, L. M.; VanSpeybroeck, L. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT) will provide high-throughput, high-resolution spectroscopy of cosmic sources, from 0.25 keV to 10 keV. Key to this capability is the development of large (1.6 m diameter), lightweight optics for the SXT mirror assembly. Teams led by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and by Italy's Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (OAB) are currently developing competing mirror technologies for this planned mission. Each team is making significant research progress in developing mirror technologies which satisfy the SXT requirements for lightweight optics, consistent with a system-level optical performance of better than 15 arcsec half-power diameter. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), in collaboration with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), has focussed its efforts on full-shell replicated optics, of electroformed nickel alloys. Recent progress in identifying a surface treatment to effect low, controlled adhesion and, more significantly, in developing new high-strength nickel alloys make this a viable, low cost approach to satisfying the SXT requirements.

  16. Researchers Use NRAO Telescope to Study Formation Of Chemical Precursors to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    In just two years of work, an international research team has discovered eight new complex, biologically-significant molecules in interstellar space using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This is a feat unprecedented in the 35-year history of searching for complex molecules in space and suggests that a universal prebiotic chemistry is at work," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, leader of the research team. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Interactive Graphic With "Mouseover" Text Blocks Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) Green Bank Telescope and Molecule Diagrams (JPEG, 58K) Green Bank Telescope and Molecule Diagrams (TIFF, 21M) New Molecules: Chemical Diagrams (PDF, 64K) The new discoveries are helping scientists unlock the secrets of how the molecular precursors to life can form in the giant clouds of gas and dust in which stars and planets are born. "The first of the many chemical processes that ultimately led to life on Earth probably took place even before our planet was formed. The GBT has taken the leading role in exploring the origin of biomolecules in interstellar clouds," said Phil Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The eight new molecules discovered with the GBT bring the total to 141 different molecular species found in interstellar space. About 90 percent of those interstellar molecules contain carbon, which is required for a molecule to be classified as organic. The newly-discovered molecules all contain carbon and are composed of 6 to 11 atoms each. These results suggest, the scientists say, that chemical evolution occurs routinely in the gas and dust from which stars and planets eventually are born. The mass of an interstellar cloud is 99 percent gas and one

  17. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  18. Minimizing high spatial frequency residual error in active space telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Thomas L.; Smith, Matthew W.; Cohan, Lucy E.; Miller, David W.

    2009-08-01

    The trend in future space telescopes is towards larger apertures, which provide increased sensitivity and improved angular resolution. Lightweight, segmented, rib-stiffened, actively controlled primary mirrors are an enabling technology, permitting large aperture telescopes to meet the mass and volume restrictions imposed by launch vehicles. Such mirrors, however, are limited in the extent to which their discrete surface-parallel electrostrictive actuators can command global prescription changes. Inevitably some amount of high spatial frequency residual error is added to the wavefront due to the discrete nature of the actuators. A parameterized finite element mirror model is used to simulate this phenomenon and determine designs that mitigate high spatial frequency residual errors in the mirror surface figure. Two predominant residual components are considered: dimpling induced by embedded actuators and print-through induced by facesheet polishing. A gradient descent algorithm is combined with the parameterized mirror model to allow rapid trade space navigation and optimization of the mirror design, yielding advanced design heuristics formulated in terms of minimum machinable rib thickness. These relationships produce mirrors that satisfy manufacturing constraints and minimize uncorrectable high spatial frequency error.

  19. Active correction of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) for space telescope pupils: a parametic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; Choquet, Élodie; Carlotti, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    As the performance of coronagraphs improves, the achievable contrast is more and more dependent of the shape of the pupil. The future generation of space and ground based coronagraphic instruments will have to achieve high contrast levels on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes. To correct for the high amplitude aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror, we explore a two deformable mirror (DM) method. The major difficulty of several DM methods is the non-linear relation linking actuator strokes to the point spread function in the coronagraph focal plane. The Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) method is achieving this minimization by solving a non linear differential Monge Ampere equation. Once this open loop method have reached the minimum, a close-loop stroke minimization method can be applied to correct for phase and amplitude aberrations to achieve the ultimate contrast. In this paper, I describe the results of the parametric analysis that that I have undertaken on this method. After recalling the principle of the method, I will described the explored parameter space (deformable mirror set-up, shape of the pupil, bandwidth, coronagraph designs). I will precisely described the way I simulated the Vortex coronagraph for this numerical simulation. Finally I will present the preliminary results of this parametric analysis for space telescope pupils only.

  20. New Solar System Researches expected by a New Telescope Project at Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagitani, Masato; Okano, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Kuhn, J.; Berdyugina, S.

    2009-09-01

    We Tohoku University starts the project for the new ground-based telescope dedicated to planets and exoplanets, in collaboration with the Institute for Astronomy of University of Hawaii(IfA/UH) and ETH Zurich. The summit of Mt. Haleakala in Maui, Hawaii is one of the best sites with clear skies, good seeing, and low humidity conditions as well as good accessibility despite its high altitude (elv. 3,000m). Haleakala High Altitude Observatory is operated by IfA/UH, and we have been making observation of planets there since 2000. Currently, our observation facility consists of a 40cm telescope. We have been making observations of faint atmospheric and plasma features around bright planets, Io plasma torus, Mercury and Lunar sodium tail, and so on. Atmospheric escapes from Mars and Venus, the exoplanets close to mother stars are also possible future important topics. When we try to observe those faint emissions surrounding the bright objects, intense scattered light causes a serious problem. The new telescope shall avoid the diffraction due to a spider structure that holds a secondary mirror and to minimize the scattered light from mirror surfaces as far as possible. Such telescope with a wide dynamic range dedicated to planetary and exoplanetary sciences does not exist yet. The project, called PLANETS (Poralized Light from Atmospheres of Nearby Extra Terrestrial Planets), develops a new telescope (tentatively named as JHET; Japan Hawaii Europe Telescope) which consists of an off-axis primary mirror with a diameter of 1.8m, and Gregorian optics on an equatorial mount. State-of-art adaptive optics and masking technologies will also be adopted to eliminate the scattering light. This telescope will enables us to do spectro-polarimetric observations and faint plasma and atmospheres around the bright bodies. We will introduce the progress of our ground-based observations and the future plan involving the wide area of the international communities.

  1. Dust Telescopes and Active Dust Collectors: Linking Dust to Their Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, K. J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.; Postberg, F.

    2010-12-01

    Cosmic dust particles from remote sites and times are treasures of information. By determining the dust particles' source and their elemental properties, we can learn about the environments, where they were formed and processed. Born as stardust in the cool atmospheres of giant stars or in novae and supernovae explosions, the particles are subsequently modified in the interstellar medium. Interplanetary dust that originates from comets and asteroids represents even more processed material at different stages of Solar System evolution. Interstellar and interplanetary dust particles from various sources can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. The newly developed instruments Dust Telescope and Active Dust Collector are able to determine the origin of dust particles and provide their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) [1] together with an analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 µm in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 [2]. The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential to

  2. Active hexagonally segmented mirror to investigate new optical phasing technologies for segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Gonté, Frédéric; Dupuy, Christophe; Luong, Bruno; Frank, Christoph; Brast, Roland; Sedghi, Baback

    2009-11-10

    The primary mirror of the future European Extremely Large Telescope will be equipped with 984 hexagonal segments. The alignment of the segments in piston, tip, and tilt within a few nanometers requires an optical phasing sensor. A test bench has been designed to study four different optical phasing sensor technologies. The core element of the test bench is an active segmented mirror composed of 61 flat hexagonal segments with a size of 17 mm side to side. Each of them can be controlled in piston, tip, and tilt by three piezoactuators with a precision better than 1 nm. The context of this development, the requirements, the design, and the integration of this system are explained. The first results on the final precision obtained in closed-loop control are also presented. PMID:19904341

  3. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, K.; Artuso, M.; van Beveren, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; van der Heijden, B.; Hombach, C.; Hynds, D.; Hsu, D.; John, M.; Koffeman, E.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Longstaff, I.; Morton, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Plackett, R.; Reid, M. M.; Rodríguez Perez, P.; Schindler, H.; Tsopelas, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Wysokiński, M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  4. Scientific Highlights from Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert

    2008-12-24

    Since 2004, the MAGIC {gamma}-ray telescope has newly discovered 6 TeV blazars. The total set of 13 MAGIC-detected active galactic nuclei includes well-studied objects at other wavelengths like Markarian 501 and the giant radio galaxy M 87, but also the distant the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, and the newly discovered TeV {gamma}-ray emitter S5 0716+71. In addition, also long-term and multi-wavelength studies on well-known TeV blazars and systematic searches for new TeV blazars have been carried out. Here we report selected highlights from recent MAGIC observations of extragalactic TeV {gamma}-ray sources, emphasizing the new physics insights MAGIC was able to contribute.

  5. Hubble and Keck Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Keck 10 m telescope observations of active asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139) taken to examine ejected dust. The nucleus is a C-type object with absolute magnitude HV = 17.0 ± 0.1 and estimated diameter ˜2.6 km (for assumed visual geometric albedo pV = 0.04). Variations in the brightness of the nucleus at the 10%-15% level are significant in both 2011 December and 2012 October but we possess too few data to distinguish variations caused by activity from those caused by rotation. The dust scattering cross-section in 2011 December is ˜40 km2, corresponding to a dust mass ˜9 × 106 kg (88 μm mean particle radius assumed). The FWHM of the debris sheet varies from ˜100 km near the nucleus to ˜1000 km 30″ (40,000 km) east of it. Dust dynamical models indicate ejection speeds between 0.06 and 0.3 m s-1, particle sizes between 10 and 300 μm and an inverse square-root relation between particle size and velocity. Overall, the data are most simply explained by prolonged, low velocity ejection of dust, starting in or before 2011 July and continuing until at least 2011 October. These properties are consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice aided by centrifugal forces. The high spatial resolution of our HST images (52 km pixel-1) reveals details that remained hidden in previous ground-based observations, such as the extraordinarily small vertical extent of the dust sheet, ejection speeds well below the nucleus escape speed, and the possibility of a binary nucleus.

  6. Researchers Use NRAO Telescope to Study Formation Of Chemical Precursors to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    In just two years of work, an international research team has discovered eight new complex, biologically-significant molecules in interstellar space using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This is a feat unprecedented in the 35-year history of searching for complex molecules in space and suggests that a universal prebiotic chemistry is at work," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, leader of the research team. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Interactive Graphic With "Mouseover" Text Blocks Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) Green Bank Telescope and Molecule Diagrams (JPEG, 58K) Green Bank Telescope and Molecule Diagrams (TIFF, 21M) New Molecules: Chemical Diagrams (PDF, 64K) The new discoveries are helping scientists unlock the secrets of how the molecular precursors to life can form in the giant clouds of gas and dust in which stars and planets are born. "The first of the many chemical processes that ultimately led to life on Earth probably took place even before our planet was formed. The GBT has taken the leading role in exploring the origin of biomolecules in interstellar clouds," said Phil Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The eight new molecules discovered with the GBT bring the total to 141 different molecular species found in interstellar space. About 90 percent of those interstellar molecules contain carbon, which is required for a molecule to be classified as organic. The newly-discovered molecules all contain carbon and are composed of 6 to 11 atoms each. These results suggest, the scientists say, that chemical evolution occurs routinely in the gas and dust from which stars and planets eventually are born. The mass of an interstellar cloud is 99 percent gas and one

  7. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  8. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  9. Research and implementation of a large telescope control system based on wireless smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Ren, Changzhi; Zhu, Yongtian

    2008-07-01

    Telescope Control System (TCS) becomes more and more complexity, especially the large telescope control system of force actuators for deformed mirror and position actuators for modifiable degrees of mirrors. It is very difficult to connect thousands of sensors, actuators and controller with wired link. This paper presented a large telescope control system based on wireless smart sensor (WLTCS), connecting wireless sensors and controllers with wireless link, employing the TCP/IP protocol as communication protocol. Polling access can overcome contention and guarantee every sensor to communicate with controller in time; using intelligent control methods when some channels are interfered, multi-hop wireless paths can improve throughput and performance. The analysis and simulation indicate that WLTCS can greatly reduce complex of implementation and improve communication performance.

  10. Recent Research Activity at OECD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economics of Education Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research topics and activities at upcoming and past conferences involving the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Human resources activity is stressing partnerships and the adult learner. New policies and direction in teacher education are focusing on the new professionalism and training innovations. Imbalances in the…

  11. Development of the NASA MCAT Auxiliary Telescope for Orbital Debris Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Hickson, Paul; Anz-Meador, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) has recently deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island. MCAT will provide NASA with a dedicated optical sensor for observations of orbital debris with the goal of statistically sampling the orbital and photometric characteristics of the population from low Earth to Geosynchronous orbits. Additionally, a small auxiliary telescope, co-located with MCAT, is being deployed to augment its observations by providing near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry, as well as offloading low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. It will also be available to provide observational measurements to the Space Surveillance Network for the United States Air Force.

  12. The impact of F.F. Gardner on our early research with the Parkes Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, D. K.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    2005-06-01

    Frank Gardner, who died in 2002, aged 78, was one of the driving forces in the early years of the Parkes Radio Telescope, and it is hard to separate Frank from any of the early discoveries. An inventive receiver engineer who turned radio astronomer with the commissioning of the Parkes Telescope, Frank was a pioneer in radio polarization and spectral line observations. The present authors both benefited greatly from their association with him. In this paper we outline those early scientific discoveries and tell some of the tales that reveal his character.

  13. SkWwatch: Introducing European Youth to the World of Scientific Research through Interactive Utilisation of a Global Network of Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, M.; Vrazopoulos, H.; Ioannou, P.; Sotiriou, S.; Vagenas, E.

    2005-12-01

    The SkyWatch project is co-fi nanced by the European Community, within the FP6 framework of Science and Society, The SkyWatch consortium is composed by the following partners: Q-PLAN (GR), EDEN - Open Classroom (UK), Astrophysics Research Institute - Liverpool John Moores University (UK), European Physical Society (FR), Ellinogermaniki Agogi (GR), Stockholm University (SE), SCIENCE PROJECTS (UK) and University of Duisburg-Essen (DE). The aim of the SkyWatch project is to build up the number of youngsters involved in a series of science projects to create a virtual community of prospective young researchers promoting scientifi c culture. The project will allow young people to access and use robotic telescopes remotely in real-time, perform observations, analyze data and results and fi nally to develop and suggest solutions to selected research/scientifi c topics, all achieved through an innovative web-based learning environment. The dissemination of the project's activities is also served by a European Science Contest on science topics and projects, a series of popular science distance learning courses (Science Days) for European youth, promotion of concepts and ideas of science of a multidisciplinary nature: astronomy, physics, mathematics, chemistry, etc. The young participants are prompted to organize teams (school classes, groups of students, etc.) and to design, develop and implement projects and activities with the use of robotic telescopes under the guidance and the continuous support of a team of experts.

  14. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST Hα data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75 Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11 Mm, and the estimated twist is 1π. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in Hα images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 Å, and as a bright structure in 171 Å and 131 Å images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  15. Solar System Research with the Spacewatch 1.8-m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    During this grant period, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope was put into routine operation to search for asteroids and comets ranging in location from near-Earth space to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune. All of these classes of objects can be detected simultaneously with our uniform scanning procedures. We are studying near Earth objects (NEOs), main belt asteroids, comets, Centaurs, and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), as well as the interrelationships of these classes and their bearing on the origin and evolution of the solar system. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter telescope is sensitive to V(mag) < 22.6 in sidereal scanning mode and is able to reach even fainter in longer 'staring' exposures, with a field of view 0.5 degrees square. These faint limits make the operation of the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope complementary to asteroid surveys being done by other groups. Specifically, EAs smaller than 100 m in diameter and small main belt asteroids can be found, as well as more distant objects such as Centaurs/Scattered Disk Objects (SDOs) and TNOs. The 1.8-m telescope is also being used to do recoveries and astrometry of recently-discovered asteroids that subsequently become too faint for the other groups before good orbits are established.

  16. The design and experiment research on Hα and White Light Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Yang, Shimo; Xue, Junsun

    2008-07-01

    The H-alpha and White Light Telescope (HWT), one of the five payloads on board the Space Solar Telescope (SST), is mainly for the observation of the chromosphere, solar flares and white light of the full solar disc, also as a location reference for the detailed Main Optical Telescope (MOT). The HWT prototype experiment, structure analysis and modal testing are discussed. The HWT alignment is addressed. The result of interferometric tests is presented. In order to realize the mechanical characteristics of Hα and white light telescope (HWT), the analytical model of HWT is set up by using the finite element analysis software MSC.PATRAN/NASTRAN, and the first several orders of natural frequencies and modal shapes are calculated with eigenvectors method. Based on modal experiment with free hanging, single input / multi-output methods, the modal parameters of HWT are identified. The maximum relative error between the experiment results and the calculated results is 6.4%, and the vibration shapes of experiment are similar to ones of calculation. The vibration environmental simulation test is accomplished to check the HWT structural strength.

  17. "Amazing Space": Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…

  18. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  19. Global TIE (Telescopes in Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Schweitzer, A. E.; Clark, G.; Hoban, S.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) project (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE seeks to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers.

  20. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. H.; Schloerb, F. P.; LMT Project Team

    2009-05-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between México and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of ˜ 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  1. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32m-diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  2. Activities report of PTT Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the field of postal infrastructure research, activities were performed on postcode readers, radiolabels, and techniques of operations research and artificial intelligence. In the field of telecommunication, transportation, and information, research was made on multipurpose coding schemes, speech recognition, hypertext, a multimedia information server, security of electronic data interchange, document retrieval, improvement of the quality of user interfaces, domotics living support (techniques), and standardization of telecommunication prototcols. In the field of telecommunication infrastructure and provisions research, activities were performed on universal personal telecommunications, advanced broadband network technologies, coherent techniques, measurement of audio quality, near field facilities, local beam communication, local area networks, network security, coupling of broadband and narrowband integrated services digital networks, digital mapping, and standardization of protocols.

  3. The architecture of the active surface control system of the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souccar, Kamal; Wallace, Gary; Grosslein, Ron; Schloerb, F. Peter

    2014-07-01

    One of the fundamental design principles of the LMT is that its segmented primary surface must be active: the position and orientation of each of the segments must be moved in order to maintain the precise parabolic surface that is required by the specifications. Consequently, a system of actuators, one at the corner of each segment, is used to move the segments to counteract surface deformations attributed to gravity or thermal effects. A new control system was designed and built within the project to implement an active surface at the LMT. The technical concept for the active surface control system is to provide a set of bus boxes with built-in control and I/O capabilities to run four actuators each. Bus boxes read the LVDT sensor position and limit switch status for each actuator and use this information to drive the actuator's DC motor, closing the position loop. Each bus box contains a DC power supply for the electronics, a second DC power supply for the motors, an embedded controller with I/O to close the position loop, and a custom printed circuit board to condition the LVDT signals and drive the motors. An interface printed circuit board resides in each actuator providing a single connector access to the LVDT, the motor, and the limit switches. During the fall of 2013, 84 bus boxes were commissioned to control the 336 actuators of the inner three rings of the telescope. The surface correction model was determined using holography measurements and the active surface system has been in regular use during the scientific observation at the LMT.

  4. A Preliminary Research on the Development of the Hard X-ray Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chun-Xiao; Cai, Ming-Sheng; Hu, Yi-Ming; Huang, Yong-Yi; Gong, Yi-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    The hard X-ray imaging telescope based on the Fourier transform imaging technique is introduced. The double-layer parallel gratings are used to make the modulation and coding on the light emerging from a celestial X-ray source, the modulated light is acquired, to make the optoelectronic conversion by scintillation crystal detectors, and finally read out by the electronic system. The modulation collimator X-ray telescopes can be divided into two types: the spatial modulation and temporal modulation. The temporal modulation system requires the scanning motion of the detector system, but the spatial modulation system requires no motion. The technology of grating fabrication is investigated, and the basic structure design of the collimators is given. The principal compo- nents of the prototype hard X-ray imaging telescope of spatial modulation type are successfully developed, including the 8 CsI crystal detector modules (contain- ing photomultipliers or PMTs), 8-channel shaping amplifiers (two of them are prepared for experiments), and the data acquisition system. And the preliminary test results of the electronic system are also given.

  5. The Air Force Academy’s Falcon Telescope Network: An Educational and Research Network for K-12 and Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Francis; Tippets, Roger; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Polsgrove, Daniel; Gresham, Kimberlee; Barnaby, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. The diversity of the users implies a wide variety of observing interests, and thus the FTN collects images on diverse objects, including satellites, galactic and extragalactic objects, and objects popular for education and public outreach. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA. USAFA cadets use the FTN to continue a tradition of satellite characterization and astronomical research; this tradition is the model used for designing the network to serve undergraduate research needs. Additionally, cadets have led the development of the FTN by investigating observation priority schemes and conducting a 'day-in-the-life' study of the FTN in regards to satellite observations. With respect to K-12 outreach, cadets have provided feedback to K-12 students and teachers through evaluation of first-light proposals. In this paper, we present the current status of the network and results from student participation in the project.

  6. In-flight aberrations corrections for large space telescopes using active optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Lemaitre, G.

    2010-07-01

    The need for both high quality images and light structures is a constant concern in the conception of space telescopes. The goal here is to determine how an active optics system could be embarked on a satellite in order to correct the wave front deformations of the optical train. The optical aberrations appearing in a space environment are due to mirrors' deformations, with three main origins: the thermal variations, the weightlessness in space with respect to the Assemblage, Integration and Testing (AIT) conditions on ground and the use of large weightlighted primary mirrors. We are developing a model of deformable mirror as minimalist as possible, especially in term of number of actuators, which is able to correct the first Zernike polynomials in the specified range of amplitude and precision. Flight constraints as weight, volume and power consumption have to be considered. Firstly, such a system is designed according to the equations from the elasticity theory: we determine the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the mirror, the location of the forces to be applied and the way to apply them. The concept is validated with a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), allowing optimizing the system by taking into account parameters absent from the theory. At the end of the program the mirror will be realized and characterized in a representative optical configuration.

  7. Modeling active region transient brightenings observed with X-ray telescope as multi-stranded loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.; Donachie, Martin

    2014-05-10

    Strong evidence exists that coronal loops as observed in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays may not be monolithic isotropic structures, but can often be more accurately modeled as bundles of independent strands. Modeling the observed active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) within this framework allows for the exploration of the energetic ramifications and characteristics of these stratified structures. Here we present a simple method of detecting and modeling ARTBs observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) as groups of zero-dimensional strands, which allows us to probe parameter space to better understand the spatial and temporal dependence of strand heating in impulsively heated loops. This partially automated method can be used to analyze a large number of observations to gain a statistical insight into the parameters of coronal structures, including the number of heating events required in a given model to fit the observations. In this article, we present the methodology and demonstrate its use in detecting and modeling ARTBs in a sample data set from Hinode/XRT. These initial results show that, in general, multiple heating events are necessary to reproduce observed ARTBs, but the spatial dependence of these heating events cannot yet be established.

  8. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 324P/La Sagra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Li, Jing; Larson, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of active asteroid 324P/La Sagra near perihelion show continued mass loss consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice. Isophotes of the coma measured from a vantage point below the orbital plane are best matched by steady emission of particles having a nominal size of a ∼ 100 μm. The inferred rate of mass loss, dM d /dt ∼ 0.2 kg s‑1, can be supplied by sublimation of water ice in thermal equilibrium with sunlight from an area as small as 930 m2, corresponding to about 0.2% of the nucleus surface. Observations taken from a vantage point only 0.°6 from the orbital plane of 324P set a limit to the velocity of ejection of dust in the direction perpendicular to the plane, V ⊥ < 1 m s‑1. Short-term photometric variations of the near-nucleus region, if related to rotation of the underlying nucleus, rule-out periods ≤3.8 hr and suggest that rotation probably does not play a central role in driving the observed mass loss. We estimate that, in the previous orbit, 324P lost about 4 × 107 kg in dust particles, corresponding to 6 × 10‑5 of the mass of a 550 m spherical nucleus of assumed density ρ = 1000 kg m‑3. If continued, mass loss at this rate would limit the lifetime of 324P to ∼1.6 × 104 orbits (about 105 years). To survive for the 100–400 Myr timescales corresponding to dynamical and collisional stability requires a duty cycle of 2 × 10‑4 ≤ f d ≤ 8 × 10‑4. Unless its time in orbit is overestimated by many orders of magnitude, 324P is revealed as a briefly active member of a vast population of otherwise dormant ice-containing asteroids.

  10. Multidirectional Muon Telescopes and eEAS Arrays for High Energy Cosmic Ray Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Lev I.

    2007-11-01

    Two multidirectional muon telescopes with EAS arrays are now under construction in Israel: one from 24 scintillators on Mt. Hermon (in combination with neutron monitor), and one from 96 scintillators as semi-underground (in the big bomb-shelter in Qazrin at a distance of about 1 nkm from the Central Laboratory of the Israel Cosmic Ray & Space Weather Center). The big one consists from 49 scintillation detectors inside the special constructed building with very light roof over the bomb-shelter and 49 scintillation detectors underground inside the bomb-shelter. This multidirectional telescope contain more than two thousand elementary telescopes directed at different zenith and az-imuthal angles and formed by double coincidences of any top scintillator with each bottom scintillator (the effective energy of primary CR from about 50 GeV for vertical direction to about 1-2 TeV for very inclined directions). It will give possibility to investigate global and other types of galactic CR modulations in the Heliosphere at very high energies, near the upper limit of CR energy on which magnetic fields frozen in solar wind may yet influence. Also we plane to obtain detailed information on the sidereal CR anisotropy in this range of energy. We will measure also three types of EAS. Our estimations show that by EAS array we can continue measure high energy CR time variations in the broad range from about 1-2 TeV to about 10,000 TeV. By this experiment, we suppose to investigate with a high accuracy CR anisotropy in the Galaxy in dependence of particle energy and CR modulation in the Heliosphere at high-energy range.

  11. News and Views: Research council resource allocations: managing demand; e-MERLIN radio telescope network is up and running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The research councils discovered in December the allocation of money from the UK government's Comprehensive Spending Review, and have set out their delivery plans outlining how they will spend it. Details and decisions will follow consultation in the coming months. The first image from eMerlin, the UK's national radio astronomy facility, shows the power of the enhanced network of radio telescopes spread over 220 km and now linked by fibre optics. These links and advanced receivers will allow astronomers to see in a single day what would have previously taken them more than a year of observations.

  12. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  13. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Gérard R; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey-and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces-the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5-2 degrees field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images. PMID:16353802

  14. The Smiley Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M. W.; Daugherty, J.; Owen, L.

    2004-12-01

    More than ever modern astronomy is based upon a multi-wavelength approach combining data-sets from optical, infrared, radio, X-ray and gamma ray observatories to provide improved understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the field of astronomy education however, until recently most teaching resources available to high schools have been limited to small optical telescopes, with little coverage of other branches of observational astronomy. To fill in this resource gap, PARI has developed the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy and the Smiley 4.6 m Radio Telescope to provide high schools access to a state-of-the-art, internet accessable radio observatory for class projects and activities. We describe here the development of the Smiley radio telescope, its control systems and give examples of several class activities which have been developed for use by high school students. We describe the future development of Smiley and plans to upgrade its performance. The SGRA has been supported by grants from Progress Energy, Z. Smith Reynolds, STScI IDEAS, and the AAS Small Research Grant Program which is supported by NASA.

  15. The ultra-low speed research on friction drive of large telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fujia; Wang, Daxing

    2006-06-01

    No periodical error and free of backlash are the main advantages of friction drive. So friction drive is applied in many ultra-low speed systems in the past years. With the trend that the aperture of optical telescope becomes bigger and bigger, there are some reports about friction drive employed to drive the telescopes. However friction drive also brings up challenge to control system because the inherent nonlinear characteristics of friction drive. This report describes the study on the friction drive finished in an experiment arranged by LAMOST project. It comprises three main parts. First, it introduces the experiment apparatus and presents a friction nonlinear curve to indicate the nonlinear characteristics of friction drive. Subsequently, this report illuminates the negative result that influenced by the nonlinear characteristic. Secondly, this report use nonlinear PID control algorithm to control friction drive. It achieves ultra-low speed and high precision position control. The ultra-low velocity is 0.2"/S and error is 0.032"(RMS). This report also lists some factors that influence the precision of speed. Lastly, this report gives the analysis fluctuating speed of friction drive and applies acceleration feedback to diminish this fluctuating.

  16. The UK Schmidt telescope objective prisms. Part 1: Their applicability to some modern research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, A.; Beard, S. M.; Palmer, J. B.

    United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope (UKST) prism applications are summarized. Quasar searches over several square degrees yield sufficiently large samples to allow three-dimensional superclustering studies on 100 to 500 Mpc scales to be made. Surveys for emission-line galaxies and extragalactic HII regions are useful for detailed astrophysical studies on the populations of galaxies found. Surveys to probe the large scale distribution of galaxies, to detect voids and superclustering, are possible from UKST plates. Surveys for emission-line stars, particularly planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds and H alpha emission stars in the Orion star formation region, are described. Detailed spectral classification is possible off the UKST prism plate material thus making searches for specific spectral classes relatively easy, and permitting all stars in large areas of sky to be spectrally classified.

  17. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U ‑ Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  18. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 3; Wavefront Aberrations due to Alignment and Figure Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part three of a series describing the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The work here investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The optical design of the telescope is a three-mirror anastigmat, with an active fold mirror at the exit pupil for fine guiding. The primary mirror is over 6.5 meters in diameter, and is composed of 18 hexagonal segments that can individually positioned on hexapods, as well as compensated for radius of curvature. This effectively gives both alignment and figure control of the primary mirror. The secondary mirror can be moved in rigid body only, giving alignment control of the telescope. The tertiary mirror is fixed, however, as well as the location of the science instrumentation. Simulations are performed of various combinations of active alignment corrections of component figure errors, and of primary mirror figure corrections of alignment errors. Single field point and moderate field knowledge is assumed in the corrections. Aberrations over the field are reported for the varying cases, and examples presented.

  19. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  20. The thermo-optical design and experiment research on Hα and white light telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Wu, Mingchang; Yang, Shimo; Gu, Xuedong; Wang, Shen

    2010-07-01

    In order to study the impact of the thermal environment on the optical performance of the Ha and White light telescope(HWT), a thermo-optical experimental system is built test the optical performance of the HWT under a thermal vacuum condition. This system is made up of four sub-systems: an optical system to be tested, a vacuum system, a temperature measurement and control system, and a wavefront sensing system. The temperature conditions of the thermo-optical testing are designed on the basis of the measurement and numerical simulation of the ground observing condition. An integrated STOP test based on the HWT is performed. The optical performances of the HWT under different vacuum degree and different thermal control conditions are tested using the wavefront sensing system. The results show that when the temperature of the secondary mirror is below 40°C, the optical performance of HWT is about λ/8, which satisfies the requirement of λ/6. The secondary mirror structure is the most effect to the system optical performance, which is the key part improving HWT. After the analytical model of HWT is set up by using the finite element analysis software MSC.PATRAN/NASTRAN, finite element based optical analysis (FEMOPT) software is used to calculate the optical performance. The comparison of the temperature control condition simulation and experimental results show that FEMOPT optical structural thermal integral analysis is reasonable.

  1. Research with Large Area Imaging X-Ray Telescope Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    1999-01-01

    We are engaged in a program to develop focussing hard X-ray telescopes in a double conical or Wolter 1 geometry that function up to 100 keV by employing small graze angles and multilayer coatings. Directly polished substrates are not an option because they are too thick to be nested efficiently. The only alternative is to fabricate the very thin substrates by replication. Our objective is the production of integral cylindrical substrates because they should result in better angular resolution than segmented foil geometries. In addition, integral cylinders would be more resistant to possible stress from deep multilayer coatings than segmented ones. Both electroforming of nickel (method of SkX, JET-X, and XMM) and epoxy replication are under consideration. Both processes can utilize the same types of mandrels and separation agents- While electroforming can produce substrates that are thin, the high density of the nickel may result in high weight optics for some missions. For convenience, experimentation with replication and coating is being carried out initially on flats. Our replication studies include trials with gold and carbon separation agents. This paper reports on our efforts with epoxy replicated optics.

  2. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  3. Space active optics: performance of a deformable mirror for in-situ wave-front correction in space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lopez, Céline; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Chazallet, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    MADRAS (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) project aims at demonstrating the interest of Active Optics for space applications. We present the prototype of a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror to be included in a space telescope's pupil relay to compensate for large lightweight primary mirror deformation. The mirror design has been optimized with Finite Element Analysis and its experimental performance characterized in representative conditions. The developed deformable mirror provides an efficient wave-front correction with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements.

  4. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  5. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D.; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14 - 1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97 per cent of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogues. When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, alpha(sub 148-218), of 3.7 +0.62/-0.86), and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshift around 6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  6. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Duenner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, EriK D.; Wollack, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and/or 218GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14-1700mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two sub-populations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN), and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97% of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogs. When combined with flux densities from the Australian Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148GHz, with the trend continuing to 218GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, alpha(sub 148-218), of 3.7+0.62 or -0.86, and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshifts as great as 5.6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogs likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  7. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crighton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D.; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Johnathan; Staggs, Suzanne; Swetz, Daniel; Thornton, Robert; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14 -1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97 per cent of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogues. When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, A(sub 148-218), of 3.7 (+0.62 or -0.86), and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshift around 6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  8. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a deformable mirror in a woofer-tweeter configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2016-04-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's segmented mirror telescope (SMT) was developed using prototype silicon carbide active hybrid mirror technology to demonstrate lower cost and rapid manufacture of primary mirror segments for a space telescope. The developmental mirror segments used too few actuators limiting the ability to adequately correct the surface figure error. To address the unintended shortfall of the developmental mirrors, a deformable mirror is added to the SMT and control techniques are developed. The control techniques are similar to woofer-tweeter adaptive optics, where the SMT segment represents the woofer and the deformable mirror represents the tweeter. The optical design of an SMT woofer-tweeter system is presented, and the impacts of field angle magnification on the placement and size of the deformable mirror are analyzed. A space telescope woofer-tweeter wavefront control technique is proposed using a global influence matrix and closed-loop constrained minimization controller. The control technique simultaneously manipulates the woofer and tweeter mirrors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate a significant improvement in wavefront error of the primary mirror and the control technique shows significant wavefront error improvement compared to sequentially controlling the woofer and tweeter mirrors.

  9. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  10. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  11. Matching software practitioner needs to researcher activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.

  12. TECHBREAK: a technology foresight activity for the European Space Agency points the way to future space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Colin; Cullum, Martin; Detsis, Emmanouil; Henry, David; Kamoun, Paul; Swings, Jean-Pierre; Tortora, Jean-Jacques; Worms, Jean-Claude

    2015-09-01

    We report on a joint European Science Foundation-ESA "Forward Look" project called TECHBREAK aimed at identifying technological breakthroughs for space originating in the non-space sector. We show how some of the technologies highlighted may impact future space programmes, in particular novel ideas to enable future long-life large telescopes to be deployed. The study's final report was presented to ESA's High level Science Policy Advisory Committee (HISPAC) in late 2014. The goals of the study were to forecast the development of breakthrough technologies to enable novel space missions in the 2030-2050 timeframe, and to identify related partnerships through synergies with non-space specialists. It was not prepared to serve as a definitive guide for very specific technologies to be developed for future space missions, but to inform on and flag up the main developments in various technological and scientific areas outside space that may hold promise for use in the space domain. The report does this by identifying the current status of research for each domain, asserting the development horizon for each technology and providing some entry points, in the form of key European experts and institutions with knowledge of the domain. The identification of problems and solutions specific to the space area led us to focus the discussion around the concept of "Overwhelming Drivers" for space research and exploration, i.e. long-term goals that can be transposed into technological development goals. Two of these overwhelming drivers are directly relevant to ambitious future telescope projects, and we will show how some of the technologies we identified such as biomimetic structures, nanophotonics, novel materials and additive manufacturing could be combined to enable revolutionary new concepts for space telescopes.

  13. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  14. OCLC Research: 2012 Activity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing library costs. OCLC Research is dedicated to three roles: (1)To act as a community resource for shared research and development (R&D); (2) To provide advanced…

  15. Active and passive shielding design optimization and technical solutions for deep sensitivity hard x-ray focusing telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaguti, G.; Pareschi, G.; Ferrando, P.; Caroli, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Foschini, L.; Basso, S.; Del Sordo, S.; Fiore, F.; Bonati, A.; Lesci, G.; Poulsen, J. M.; Monzani, F.; Stevoli, A.; Negri, B.

    2005-08-01

    The 10-100 keV region of the electromagnetic spectrum contains the potential for a dramatic improvement in our understanding of a number of key problems in high energy astrophysics. A deep inspection of the universe in this band is on the other hand still lacking because of the demanding sensitivity (fraction of μCrab in the 20-40 keV for 1 Ms integration time) and imaging (≈ 15" angular resolution) requirements. The mission ideas currently being proposed are based on long focal length, grazing incidence, multi-layer optics, coupled with focal plane detectors with few hundreds μm spatial resolution capability. The required large focal lengths, ranging between 8 and 50 m, can be realized by means of extendable optical benches (as foreseen e.g. for the HEXITSAT, NEXT and NuSTAR missions) or formation flight scenarios (e.g. Simbol-X and XEUS). While the final telescope design will require a detailed trade-off analysis between all the relevant parameters (focal length, plate scale value, angular resolution, field of view, detector size, and sensitivity degradation due to detector dead area and telescope vignetting), extreme attention must be dedicated to the background minimization. In this respect, key issues are represented by the passive baffling system, which in case of large focal lengths requires particular design assessments, and by the active/passive shielding geometries and materials. In this work, the result of a study of the expected background for a hard X-ray telescope is presented, and its implication on the required sensitivity, together with the possible implementation design concepts for active and passive shielding in the framework of future satellite missions, are discussed.

  16. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-12-31

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Optical modeling activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): III. Wavefront aberrations due to alignment and figure compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Joseph M.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is part three of a series describing the ongoing optical modeling activities for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two papers discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients [1-2]. The work here investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (i.e. the primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The optical design of the telescope is a three-mirror anastigmat, with an active fold mirror at the exit pupil for fine guiding. The primary mirror is over 6.5 meters in diameter, and is composed of 18 hexagonal segments that can individually positioned on hexapods, as well as compensated for radius of curvature. This architecture effectively gives both alignment and figure control of the primary mirror. The secondary mirror can be moved in rigid body only, and the tertiary mirror is fixed. Simulations are performed of various combinations of alignment and figure errors corrected by the primary and secondary mirrors. Single field point knowledge is assumed in the corrections, and aberrations over the field are reported for the varying cases.

  19. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  20. A technique for designing active control systems for astronomical telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, W. E.; Creedon, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of designing a control system to achieve and maintain the required surface accuracy of the primary mirror of a large space telescope was considered. Control over the mirror surface is obtained through the application of a corrective force distribution by actuators located on the rear surface of the mirror. The design procedure is an extension of a modal control technique developed for distributed parameter plants with known eigenfunctions to include plants whose eigenfunctions must be approximated by numerical techniques. Instructions are given for constructing the mathematical model of the system, and a design procedure is developed for use with typical numerical data in selecting the number and location of the actuators. Examples of actuator patterns and their effect on various errors are given.

  1. Spectral observations of active region sources with RATAN-600 and WSRT. [Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Gel'frejkh, G. B.; Borovik, V. N.; Korzhavin, A. N.; Bogod, V. M.; Nindos, A.; Kundu, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    We present spectral observations of neutral line and sunspot associated sources obtained with the RATAN-600 radio telescope and the WSRT in the wavelength range of 2 to 6 cm. Sources associated with large sunspots have flat spectra, while neutral line sources have very steep spectra. In the case of a large spot we estimated the magnetic field to be at least 2700 G at the base of the transition region and 1800 G in the low corona. We consider possible interpretations of the radio emission above the neutral lines. Gyroresonance emission at the fourth harmonic is inadequate, whereas emission from a small population of nonthermal electrons (total number 10 exp 30 to 10 exp 31) with a delta = 3 power law distribution seems to be sufficient.

  2. Active Learning in Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The 3-year research…

  3. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  4. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  5. Active optics and the axisymmetric case: MINITRUST wide-field three-reflection telescopes with mirrors aspherized from tulip and vase forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulie, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires larger size telescopes. Compared to the catadioptric Schmidt, the optical properties of a three mirror telescope provides significant advantages. (1) The flat field design is anastigmatic at any wavelength, (2) the system is extremely compact -- four times shorter than a Schmidt -- and, (3) compared to a Schmidt with refractive corrector -- requiring the polishing of three optical surfaces --, the presently proposed Modified-Rumsey design uses all of eight available free parameters of a flat fielded anastigmatic three mirror telescope for mirrors generated by active optics methods. Compared to a Rumsey design, these parameters include the additional slope continuity condition at the primary-tertiary link for in-situ stressing and aspherization from a common sphere. Then, active optics allows the polishing of only two spherical surfaces: the combined primary-tertiary mirror and the secondary mirror. All mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. This compact system is of interest for space and ground-based astronomy and allows to built larger wide-field telescopes such as demonstrated by the design and construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° FOV, consisting of an in-situ stressed double vase form primary-tertiary and of a stress polished tulip form secondary. Optical tests of these telescopes, showing diffraction limited images, are presented.

  6. Linearized Model of an Actively Controlled Cable for a Carlina Diluted Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T.; Le Coroller, H.; Owner-Petersen, M.; Dejonghe, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Carlina thinned pupil telescope has a focal unit (``gondola'') suspended by cables over the primary mirror. To predict the structural behavior of the gondola system, a simulation building block of a single cable is needed. A preloaded cable is a strongly non-linear system and can be modeled either with partial differential equations or non-linear finite elements. Using the latter, we set up an iteration procedure for determination of the static cable form and we formulate the necessary second-order differential equations for such a model. We convert them to a set of first-order differential equations (an ``ABCD''-model). Symmetrical in-plane eigenmodes and ``axial'' eigenmodes are the only eigenmodes that play a role in practice for a taut cable. Using the model and a generic suspension, a parameter study is made to find the influence of various design parameters. We conclude that the cable should be as stiff and thick as practically possible with a fairly high preload. Steel or Aramid are suitable materials. Further, placing the cable winches on the gondola and not on the ground does not provide significant advantages. Finally, it seems that use of reaction-wheels and/or reaction-masses will make the way for more accurate control of the gondola position under wind load. An adaptive stage with tip/tilt/piston correction for subapertures together with a focus and guiding system for freezing the fringes must also be studied.

  7. Active control of adaptive optics system in a large segmented mirror telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, M.; Agrawal, B. N.

    2014-02-01

    For a large adaptive optics system such as a large segmented mirror telescope (SMT), it is often difficult, although not impossible, to directly apply common multi-input multi-output (MIMO) controller design methods due to the computational burden imposed by the large dimension of the system model. In this article, a practical controller design method is proposed which significantly reduces the system dimension for a system where the dimension required to represent the dynamics of the plant is much smaller than the dimension of the full plant model. The proposed method decouples the dynamic and static parts of the plant model by a modal decomposition technique to separately design a controller for each part. Two controllers are then combined using the so-called sensitivity decoupling method so that the resulting feedback loop becomes the superposition of the two individual feedback loops of the dynamic and static parts. A MIMO controller was designed by the proposed method using the H ∞ loop-shaping technique for an SMT model to be compared with other controllers proposed in the literature. Frequency-domain analysis and time-domain simulation results show the superior performance of the proposed controller.

  8. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  9. Teaching Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)

  10. NASA research activities in aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.; Weber, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    NASA is responsible for advancing technologies related to air transportation. A sampling of the work at NASA's Lewis Research Center aimed at improved aircraft propulsion systems is described. Particularly stressed are efforts related to reduced noise and fuel consumption of subsonic transports. Generic work in specific disciplines are reviewed including computational analysis, materials, structures, controls, diagnostics, alternative fuels, and high-speed propellers. Prospects for variable cycle engines are also discussed.

  11. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with the Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V.

    2008-02-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied, using data that were obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard Yohkoh between 1991 November and 1993 March. The following characteristics are found. Many of the active regions (ARs) appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a sea anemone. Such active regions are called anemone ARs. About one-fourth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure. For almost all the anemone ARs, the order of the magnetic polarities is consistent with the Hale-Nicholson polarity law. These anemone ARs also showed, to a greater or lesser extent, an east-west asymmetry in the X-ray intensity distribution, such that the following (eastern) part of the AR was brighter than its preceding (western) part. This, as well as the anemone shape itself, is consistent with the magnetic polarity distribution around the anemone ARs. These observations also suggest that an active region appearing in coronal holes has a simpler (less sheared) and more preceding-spot-dominant magnetic structure than those appearing in other regions.

  12. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  13. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  14. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  15. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  16. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  17. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  18. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55-m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  19. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  20. Embedding Research Activities to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Cynthia M.; Kenney, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper's novel, research-oriented approach is to embed research-based activities in a core second-year course of a university business degree program to support and develop student research capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: The design draws on Boud and Prosser's work to foster participation in a…

  1. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  2. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  3. OPTICAL SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE HARD X-RAY-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Lisa M.; Keeney, Brian; Lewis, Karen T.; Koss, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2010-02-10

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope survey of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is providing an unprecedented view of local AGNs ((z) {approx} 0.03) and their host galaxy properties. In this paper, we present an analysis of the optical spectra of a sample of 64 AGNs from the nine month survey, detected solely based on their 14-195 keV flux. Our analysis includes both archived spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and our own observations from the 2.1 m Kitt Peak National Observatory telescope. Among our results, we include line ratio classifications utilizing standard emission line diagnostic plots, [O III] 5007 A luminosities, and Hbeta-derived black hole masses. As in our X-ray study, we find the type 2 sources to be less luminous (in [O III] 5007 A and 14-195 keV luminosities) with lower accretion rates than the type 1 sources. We find that the optically classified low-ionization narrow emission line regions, H II/composite galaxies, and ambiguous sources have the lowest luminosities, while both broad-line and narrow-line Seyferts have similar luminosities. From a comparison of the hard X-ray (14-195 keV) and [O III] luminosities, we find that both the observed and extinction-corrected [O III] luminosities are weakly correlated with X-ray luminosity. In a study of the host galaxy properties from both continuum fits and measurements of the stellar absorption indices, we find that the hosts of the narrow-line sources have properties consistent with late-type galaxies.

  4. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  5. Two-mirror, three-reflection telescopes as candidates for sky surveys in ground and space applications. The MINITRUST: an active optics warping telescope for wide-field astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotti, Roberto F.; La Padula, Cesare D.; Vignato, Agostino; Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Dohlen, Kjetil

    2002-12-01

    A concept based on a two-mirror, three-reflection telescope has been investigated. Its anastigmatism and flat fielded properties, the compactness and optical performances over 2-2.5 arc deg field of view, make this optical system of high interest for the development of much larger telescopes than with Schmidt designs. The 2MTRT concept is a potential candidate for sky surveys with 2-3 meter class telescopes and particularily well adapted for UV space surveys. Preliminary developments have been carried out with the construction of a 30-cm prototype on Amoretti's design, providing encouraging results. At present, a 45-cm 2MTRT prototype has been realized for ground based sky survey of NEOs, based on active optics (MINITRUST), in order to overcome the difficulty of obtaining three aspherical surfaces. The primary and tertiary lie on the same double vase substrate, and have a rest profile. The hyperbolization is carried out in situ by air depressure. The secondary, in a tulip form substrate, has been hyperbolized by elastic relaxation. The project is planned for operation in 2003.

  6. Design, fabrication and testing of active carbon shell mirrors for space telescope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeves, John; Laslandes, Marie; Pellegrino, Sergio; Redding, David; Bradford, Samuel Case; Wallace, James Kent; Barbee, Troy

    2014-07-01

    A novel active mirror concept based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials is presented. A nanolaminate facesheet, active piezoelectric layer and printed electronics are implemented in order to provide the reflective surface, actuation capabilities and electrical wiring for the mirror. Mirrors of this design are extremely thin (500-850 µm), lightweight (~ 2 kg/m2) and have large actuation capabilities (~ 100 µm peak- to-valley deformation per channel). Replication techniques along with simple bonding/transferring processes are implemented eliminating the need for grinding and polishing steps. An outline of the overall design, component materials and fabrication processes is presented. A method to size the active layer for a given mirror design, along with simulation predictions on the correction capabilities of the mirror are also outlined. A custom metrology system used to capture the highly deformable nature of the mirrors is demonstrated along with preliminary prototype measurements.

  7. Active control of primary mirror of an orbiting telescope with thermal excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. L.; Youngblood, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study of the feasibility of an active method of surface error control using thermal elements are presented. It is shown that the control effort of the thermal elements is sufficient for the purpose, and that such benefits as low cost, low weight, and high reliability may be achieved in conjunction with a significant reduction in the mirror surface error figure.

  8. Task network models in the prediction of workload imposed by extravehicular activities during the Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Takamoto, Neal; Woolford, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    In a joint effort with Brooks AFB, Texas, the Flight Crew Support Division at JSC has begun a computer simulation and performance modeling program directed at establishing the predictive validity of software tools for modeling human performance during spaceflight. This paper addresses the utility of task network modeling for predicting the workload that astronauts are likely to encounter in extravehicular activities (EVA) during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) repair mission. The intent of the study was to determine whether two EVA crewmembers and one intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmember could reasonably be expected to complete HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) replacement in the allotted time. Ultimately, examination of the points during HST servicing that may result in excessive workload will lead to recommendations to the HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project concerning (1) expectation of degraded performance, (2) the need to change task allocation across crewmembers, (3) the need to expand the timeline, and (4) the need to increase the number of EVA's.

  9. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  10. Connecting active living research and public policy: transdisciplinary research and policy interventions to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F

    2009-01-01

    National and international organizations recommend creation of environments that support physical activity where people live, work, play, study, and travel. Policy changes can lead to activity-supportive environments and incentives. Research on environmental and policy influences on physical activity is well underway in many countries. An important use of the research is to inform policy debates, but the "translation" of research to policy is an emerging science. The papers in this supplement were presented at the 2008 Active Living Research Conference whose theme was "Connecting Active Living Research to Policy Solutions." The papers include evaluations of policy initiatives and research that suggests promising new policies. Commentaries propose principles for improving the translation of research to policy. Improving the rigor of research, asking policy-relevant questions, presenting country-specific data, and effectively communicating findings to policy makers are likely to contribute to greater impact of research on policy processes. PMID:19190567

  11. Overview of Langley activities in active controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active controls technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. The activities of the Langley Research Center (laRC) in advancing active controls technology. Activities are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  12. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  13. EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) for use in drinking water treatment has a long history in the Drinking Water Research Division and its predecessor organizations. tudies were conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in the late fifties and early sixties to examine...

  14. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  15. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  16. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  17. Optical observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Nordic Optical Telescope. Comet activity before the solar conjunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaprudin, B.; Lehto, H. J.; Nilsson, K.; Pursimo, T.; Somero, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Schulz, R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is a short-period Jupiter-family comet that was chosen as a target for the Rosetta mission by the European Space Agency (ESA). Monitoring of 67P with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT; La Palma, Spain) intends to aid this mission by providing ground-based reference information about the overall activity of the target and its astrometric position before the rendezvous. One motivation for our observations was to monitor sudden major increases in activity because they might have affected the Rosetta mission planning. None were observed. Ground-based photometric observations register the global activity of the comet, while the Rosetta spacecraft mostly measures local events. These data combined can lead to new insights into the comet behavior. Aims: The aim of this work is to perform the photometric and the astrometric monitoring of comet 67P with the NOT and to compare the results with the latest predictions for its position and activity. A new method of fitting extended-source components to the target surface brightness distribution was developed and applied to the data to estimate the size and contribution of the coma to the total brightness of the target. Methods: Comet 67P was monitored by the NOT in service mode during the period between 12.5.2013 and 11.11.2014. The very first observations were performed in the V band alone, but in the latest observations, the R band was used as well to estimate the color and nature of activity of the target. We applied a new method for estimating the coma size by deconvolving the point spread function profile from the image, which used Markov chain Monte Carlo and Bayesian statistics. This method will also be used for coma size estimations in further observations after the solar conjunction of 67P. Results: Photometric magnitudes in two colors were monitored during the period of observations. At the end of April 2014, the beginning of activity was observed. In late September 2014, a

  18. A search for pair haloes around active galactic nuclei through a temporal analysis of Fermi-Large Area Telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, D. A.; Moraghan, A.

    2016-04-01

    We develop a method to search for pair haloes around active galactic nuclei (AGN) through a temporal analysis of γ-ray data. The basis of our method is an analysis of the spatial distributions of photons coming from AGN flares and from AGN quiescent states and a further comparison of these two spatial distributions. This method can also be used for a reconstruction of a point spread function (PSF). We found no evidence for a pair halo component through this method by applying it to the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data in the energy bands of 4.5-6, 6-10, and >10 GeV and set upper limits on the fraction of photons attributable to a pair halo component. An illustration of how to reconstruct the PSF of Fermi-LAT is given. We demonstrate that the PSF reconstructed by using this method is in good agreement with that which was obtained by using the γ-ray data taken by LAT in the direction of the Crab pulsar and nebula.

  19. Research study entitled advanced X-ray astrophysical observatory (AXAF). [system engineering for a total X-ray telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasche, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    General background and overview material are presented along with data from studies performed to determine the sensitivity, feasibility, and required performance of systems for a total X-ray telescope assembly. Topics covered include: optical design, mirror support concepts, mirror weight estimates, the effects of l g on mirror elements, mirror assembly resonant frequencies, optical bench considerations, temperature control of the mirror assembly, and the aspect determination system.

  20. The Third Catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Britto, R. J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carpenter, B.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Abrusco, R.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Furniss, A. K.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kataoka, J.; Kawano, T.; Krauss, F.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Leto, C.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paggi, A.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Salvetti, D.; Schaal, M.; Schinzel, F. K.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, L.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Zimmer, S.

    2015-09-01

    The third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC) is presented. It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected between 100 MeV and 300 GeV with a Test Statistic greater than 25, between 2008 August 4 and 2012 July 31. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 10^\\circ ), a 71% increase over the second catalog based on 2 years of data. There are 28 duplicate associations, thus 1563 of the 2192 high-latitude gamma-ray sources of the 3FGL catalog are AGNs. Most of them (98%) are blazars. About half of the newly detected blazars are of unknown type, i.e., they lack spectroscopic information of sufficient quality to determine the strength of their emission lines. Based on their gamma-ray spectral properties, these sources are evenly split between flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. The most abundant detected BL Lacs are of the high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) type. About 50% of the BL Lacs have no measured redshifts. A few new rare outliers (HSP-FSRQs and high-luminosity HSP BL Lacs) are reported. The general properties of the 3LAC sample confirm previous findings from earlier catalogs. The fraction of 3LAC blazars in the total population of blazars listed in BZCAT remains non-negligible even at the faint ends of the BZCAT-blazar radio, optical, and X-ray flux distributions, which hints that even the faintest known blazars could eventually shine in gamma-rays at LAT-detection levels. The energy-flux distributions of the different blazar populations are in good agreement with extrapolation from earlier catalogs.

  1. Towards Better Simple Stellar Population Modeling of Active Galaxies Using Diffusion K-Means and the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Gregory; Wold, I.; Sheinis, A.; Richards, J.

    2012-01-01

    We now know that most galaxies have supermassive black holes in their centers, and somewhat unexpectedly, there are relationships--such as the M-sigma relation--between the mass of the central black hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy's stellar spheroid (bulge), even though they lie outside the black hole's influence. Galaxy merger models show reasonable evidence for coevolution of the bulge and black hole since the merging process initiates simultaneous growth of the black hole and galaxy by supplying gas to the nucleus for accretion onto the black hole and triggering bursts of star formation. The merging process truncates the growth of both by removing the gas reservoir via feedback from these processes. However, it's very difficult to observationally test such models on objects at the peak of black hole growth--during the quasar phase, when the central nucleus outshines the host galaxy. But, by using 3-d spectroscopy methods, namely integral field units (IFUs), we have shown that it is possible to successfully recover information about the host galaxy's integrated star formation history that can be used to check merger-induced galaxy evolution predicted by the models. This research focuses on more reliably decomposing AGN host galaxy spectra into simple stellar populations (SSPs) using a statistical method called diffusion k-means. And in effort to advance this topic further with new instrumentation, this research also involves testing and development of the detector for the near infrared arm of the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) for the newly commissioned 11-meter Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  2. The Aloha Telescope for K-12 STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowell, James R.

    2015-01-01

    How does one bring night-time astronomical observations into the classroom? How does a teacher - during the school day - show students the craters on the Moon, the rings of Saturn, or the four Galilean moons of Jupiter? One of the greatest drawbacks to teaching Astronomy is the lack of real-time telescopic observations during the school day, and yet this is a very exciting time for astronomical discoveries. The solution is to access a telescope in a substantially different time zone where it is still night. This facility - the Aloha Telescope - on Maui has already been established by a partnership between Georgia Tech and the Air Force Research Lab. This robotic telescope's sole purpose is for K-12 education, as it is equipped with a video-camera and is operated remotely via high-speed internet connections. This facility and its outreach program allow east-coast teachers and, in turn, students to have local daytime access to - and direct control of - the telescope. When observing the Moon, teachers and students will move the telescope wherever they wish across the highly-magnified lunar surface (~ 5 arcminute FOV). This telescope will enable night-time astronomical observations to come alive as day-time activities and will be an important tool for STEM education and activities. The use of the Aloha Telescope requires minimal training and is free after registering for a date and time.Dr. Sowell has written specific telescopic exercises and surface feature tours appropriate for K-12 and college-level users. These exercises, and other aspects of the Aloha Telescope and program, are posted on the website at http://aloha.gatech.edu

  3. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  4. Himalayan optical telescope switches on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, T. V.

    2016-05-01

    The largest optical telescope in India has turned on, opening up a new era for astronomy in the country. The 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) – part of an Indo-Belgian collaboration – was activated remotely on 30 March from Belgium by visiting Indian prime minister Narendra Modi and his Belgian counterpart Charles Michel.

  5. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  6. Virtual Telescopes in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoban, S.; Des Jardins, M.; Farrell, N.; Rathod, P.; Sachs, J.; Sansare, S.; Yesha, Y.; Keating, J.; Busschots, B.; Means, J.; Clark, G.; Mayo, L.; Smith, W.

    Virtual Telescopes in Education is providing the services required to operate a virtual observatory comprising distributed telescopes, including an interactive, constraint-based scheduling service, data and resource archive, proposal preparation and review environment, and a VTIE Journal. A major goal of VTIE is to elicit from learners questions about the nature of celestial objects and the physical processes that give rise to the spectacular imagery that catches their imaginations. Generation of constrained science questions will assist learners in the science process. To achieve interoperability with other NSDL resources, our approach follows the Open Archives Initiative and the W3C Semantic Web activity.

  7. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  8. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  9. Active figure maintenance control using an optical truss laser metrology system for a space-based far-IR segmented telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Kenneth; Breckenridge, Bill; Nerheim, Noble; Redding, David

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage active control approach was developed addressing the figure control problem for a spaceborne FIR telescope, the Precision Segmented Reflectors Focus Moderate Mission Telescope (FMMT). The first active control stage aligns the optical segments based on images; attention is here given to the second stage, active figure maintenance control system, which maintains the alignment of the optical elements between initializations to hold the mirror figure steady while obtaining data and fixes translational and rotational changes of the optical segments induced by long-term thermal drifts of the support structure. Errors are expected to be 10-100 microns at the nodes of the primary backup structure over the course of an orbit. An rms performance of 0.8 microns of wavefront error can be expected during the maintenance function based on specified nominal sensor noises, actuator accuracies, and system environments. A performance of less than 0.3 microns rms can be expected, based on advanced components.

  10. Remote Telescope System for Science Education and Small-scale Researches at Bosscha Observatory, Indonesia and at Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malasan, H. L.; Kurata, T.; Kurabayashi, T.; Taguchi, H.; Indradjaja, B.; Prasetyono, G. I.; Kinugasa, K.

    2006-08-01

    This talk presents the concept of The Gunma Astronomical Observatory-Instititute of Technology Bandung Remote Telescope System (hereafter the GAO-ITB RTS) that has been commisioned in March, 2004. GAO-ITB RTS consists of two 21 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain (f/D=10.0) telescopes, equatorially mounted and supported by Takahashi EM-200 (drive) + GO TO System Temma 2 (control system) connected to a PC through RS 232 C cable. The ITB-side telescope will be situated inside a lightweight sliding roof on the roof of the visitor center at Bosscha Observatory in Lembang. The main software is the Telescope Tracer 98 working under Windows XP that enables chart-based pointing for epoch 2000 or at the observing time, hand-set emulator, and equipped with a database containing SAO, variable star, double star (V ≤ 9.5 mag); Deep sky objects: Messier (110), NGC (7840), IC (5382); and Solar system. Furthermore, with the support of the software TelAgent, web-based remote control can be conducted under Internet Explorer (Ver 5.5 or later). Assigning a static IP address for the mounting system is indispensable. The remote system has been set up to fulfill three basic functions, i.e. command sending through TelAgent, image streaming using web server, and teleconferencing. To support the whole activity, a data communication rate greater than 64 Kbps is needed. The system is currently furnished with TGV-M (811(H)´508(V) pixels, 8.4μm(H) ´9.8 μm(V) @ pixel) camera. Although primarily designed for public distant-learning, the potential of GAO-ITB RTS for high-time resolution photometric observation, such as occultation, and patrol-type observation have been identified and will be explored.

  11. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  12. Research on modeling and motion simulation of a spherical space robot with telescopic manipulator based on virtual prototype technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chengkun; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan; Zhao, Kailiang

    2009-05-01

    For realizing omni-directional movement and operating task of spherical space robot system, this paper describes an innovated prototype and analyzes dynamic characteristics of a spherical rolling robot with telescopic manipulator. Based on the Newton-Euler equations, the kinematics and dynamic equations of the spherical robot's motion are instructed detailedly. Then the motion simulations of the robot in different environments are developed with ADAMS. The simulation results validate the mathematics model of the system. And the dynamic model establishes theoretical basis for the latter job.

  13. Research study on stabilization and control modern sampled-data control theory. [design of the Large Space Telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    The methods of continuous and discrete describing function analysis were applied to predicting the existence of self-sustained oscillations in the single-axis model of the large space telescope system with nonlinear control moment gyroscope friction characteristics. It is shown that the stability equations may be solved by a numerical-iterative technique using the describing function analysis, instead of the usual graphical methods. The numerical method is found to be effective in leading to a convergent solution rapidly, with an appropriate guess of the initial condition.

  14. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  15. Research Activities within NASA's Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Horta, Lucas G.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, smart technologies have become important enabling technologies that cut across traditional boundaries in science and engineering. Here smart is defined as the ability to respond to a stimulus in a predictable and reproducible manner. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart technologies to actual aircraft and spacecraft. The NASA Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff applications on aircraft and spacecraft. The program bridges research in several technical disciplines and combines the effort into applications that include active aerodynamic control, active aeroelastic control, and vehicle performance improvement. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft and spacecraft. This paper will discuss the overall goals of NASA's Morphing program, highlight some of the recent research efforts and discuss the multidisciplinary studies that support that research and some of the challenges associated with bringing the smart technologies to real applications on flight vehicles.

  16. THE 60 MONTH ALL-SKY BURST ALERT TELESCOPE SURVEY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND THE ANISOTROPY OF NEARBY AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Madejski, G. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Burlon, D.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-04-10

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of {approx}2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent {approx}5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to {approx}10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9{sup +4.1}{sub -2.9} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local ({<=}85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions.

  17. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  18. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  19. Telescope-optical system performance analysis for the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, A. E.; Forney, P. B.; Morrow, H. E.; Anapol, M.

    1983-01-01

    A first-order performance analysis of the CLAES telescope-optical system is presented. The experiment involves the passive measurement of earth-limb radiance over a 10-60 km tangent altitude range, and is based on a solid Fabry-Perot spectrometer which provides spectral resolution of 0.25/cm for atmospheric emission spectroscopy over the 3.5-12 micron IR range. The optical system is required to provide a high degree of off-axis rejection and stray-light control, primarily to suppress intense emission from the earth surface. The astigmatism and other geometric aberrations are corrected by a secondary mirror which produces an excellent image of the primary one, allowing for location of a diffraction control or Lyot stop. The off-axis scattering performance of the telescope is examined in terms of the mirror scatter coefficient and point source rejection ratio. A mirror bidirectional reflectance distribution function of 0.0001 at 1 deg with a 1/theta-squared roll-off between 1 and 0.2 deg is realizable based on recent measurements. This results in an off-axis radiance term that is generally small in comparison with the system-limiting NER.

  20. Stellar activity observed by the Kepler Space Telescope. The M dwarf of the Kepler-32 system with five orbiting planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    The activity of the central star of the Kepler-32 planetary system is studied using continuous 1141-day observations with the Kepler Space Telescope. The Kepler-32 system includes a slowly rotating Mdwarf (rotational period of 37.8 d) with a mass of 0.54 M ⊙ and five planets. One of the unique properties of the system is its compactness: the orbits of all five planets are less than a third of the size of the orbit of Mercury; the planet closest to the star is separated from it by only 4.3 stellar radii. Surface-temperature inhomogeneities of the central star are studied using precise photometric observations of Kepler-32, and their evolution traced. In total, 42 624 individual brightness measurements in the 1141-day (3.1-year) observing interval were selected for the analysis. The calculated amplitude power spectra for the first and second halves of the interval of the Kepler-32 observations indicate appreciable variability of the photometric period, corresponding to the evolution of active regions at various latitudes on the stellar surface. Evidence for the existence of two active regions on the stellar surface separated in phase by 0.42 has been found. Time intervals in which the longitudes of the active regions changed ("flip-flops") with durations of the order of 200-300 days have been established. The spotted area of the star was, on average, about 1% of the total visible surface, and varied from 0.3 to 1.7%. The results for the dwarf Kepler-32 are compared with those from a spectropolarimetric survey of 23 M dwarfs, including both fully convective stars and stars with weakly radiative cores. For a more detailed comparison, temperature inhomogeneities on the surface of one of the survey stars, DS Leo, was reconstructed using the ground-based observations (316 individual measurements of the V-band brightness of the star during seven observing seasons in an all-sky automated survey). The general properties and evolution of the active regions on DS Leo and

  1. Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  2. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction a nd ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror. Keywords: precision deployment, hinge joint, latch joint, deployable structures, fabrication, space telescopes, optical instruments, microdynamics.

  3. Heuristic Programming of Educational - Research Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoev, Alexey

    HEURISTIC PROGRAMMING OF EDUCATIONAL - RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF THE STUDENTS OF ASTRONOMY AT PUBLIC ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES A.Stoev Yu. Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory Stara Zagora Bulgaria Seeking for optimal conditions of the students’ investigation skills development is exceptionally actual task in Astronomy school at Public astronomical observatory. The didactic plan of its solving is connected with a realization of the concept of the problematic approach in astronomical education. In addition different means of astronomical educative activity organization are used depending on the didactic task. In some cases they are algorithmic but in others - mainly heuristic. Educational - research skills are defined as skills of scientific method use in the conditions of seeking for educational problem solving the astronomical educational - research task. The influence of the system of heuristic programming didactic means on the process of teaching and the use of system of didactic means for out of the school education on astronomy aimed mainly to this activity rule are analyzed. In conclusion the process of optimization of the didactic conditions for students’ self-organization during the individual or collective completion of the educational - research astronomical tasks at the transition from secondary to high education.

  4. Research of advanced techniques for X-ray detectors and telescopes with applications to rockets and the LAMAR facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1985-01-01

    A program for the development of high throughput instrumentation for X-ray astronomy based upon focusing optics is being carried out by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumentation is applicable to investigations requiring large area focusing optics for direct imaging or dispersive spectroscopy. The long range goals of this program are the development of telescopes and gratings for future major X-ray astronomy facilities, including additions to the LAMAR OSS-2/SHEAL experiment after the initial flights. Tests of the devices and their more immediate utilization in scientific investigations can be carried out with SPARTAN payloads deployed and retrieved by the Space Shuttle. However, the present backlog of approved SPARTAN missions is longer than the three-year duration of the program described in this program. Laboratory studies and breadboarding of instrumentation are discussed.

  5. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for pre-college students and teachers. (1) not many schools have teachers trained to use and maintain astronomy equipment; (2) school usually happens during the day and observing normally is a night-time activity; (3) the scourge of light pollution has hidden the stars from many students living in or near cities; (4) there is a general lack of access to expertise when needed. In addition, physically disabled students cannot climb ladders, to access the telescope eyepiece. Internet access to computer-controlled telescopes equipped with digital cameras can solve many of these difficulties. This enables students and their teachers to access well-maintained, robust Internet-controllable telescopes in dark-site locations and to consult more readily with experts. We present the results of technical solutions to Internet-control of telescopes, by Software Bisque, the New Mexico Skies Guest Observatory and the Youth Activities Committee of the Astronomical League in collaboration with Denver University Astronomy. We jointly submitted a funding proposal to the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom, and conducted a pilot program allowing high school students to access a CCD-equipped, accurately-pointing and tracking telescope, controllable over the Web, with a user-friendly skymap browser tool. With suitably placed telescopes worldwide, observing from the classroom in daylight will become feasible, as we have demonstrated with Australian and Eurasian student users of the New Mexico Skies Internet telescope. We report here on a three-month pilot project exploring this solution, conducted Feb-May 2002. User interest proved phenomenal, while user statistics proved diverse and there were distinct lessons learned about how to enhance student participation in the research process. We thank the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom for a grant to the University of Denver in partial

  6. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  7. New Radio Telescope Makes First Scientific Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The world's two largest radio telescopes have combined to make detailed radar images of the cloud-shrouded surface of Venus and of a tiny asteroid that passed near the Earth. The images mark the first scientific contributions from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, which worked with the NSF's recently-upgraded Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico. The project used the radar transmitter on the Arecibo telescope and the huge collecting areas of both telescopes to receive the echoes. GBT-Arecibo Radar Image of Maxwell Montes on Venus "These images are the first of many scientific contributions to come from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a great way for it to begin its scientific career," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Our congratulations go to the scientists involved in this project as well as to the hard-working staffs at Green Bank and Arecibo who made this accomplishment possible," Vanden Bout added. To the eye, Venus hides behind a veil of brilliant white clouds, but these clouds can be penetrated by radar waves, revealing the planet's surface. The combination of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), the world's largest fully-steerable radio telescope, and the Arecibo telescope, the world's most powerful radar, makes an unmatched tool for studying Venus and other solar-system bodies. "Having a really big telescope like the new Green Bank Telescope to receive the radar echoes from small asteroids that are really close to the Earth and from very distant objects like Titan, the large moon of Saturn, will be a real boon to radar studies of the solar system." said Cornell University professor Donald Campbell, leader of the research team. Ten years ago, the radar system on NASA's Magellan spacecraft probed though the clouds of Venus to reveal in amazing detail the surface of the Earth's twin planet. These new studies using the GBT and Arecibo, the

  8. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  9. Analysis of active alignment control of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field corrector using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hart, Michael; Hill, Gary J.; Rafal, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    One of the key aspects of the Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) for the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is the use of wavefront sensing (WFS) to close the loop of active alignment control of the new four-mirror Wide-Field Corrector (WFC), as it tracks sidereal motion, with respect to the fixed spherical segmented primary mirror. This makes the telescope pupil dynamically change in shape. This is a unique challenge to the WFS on the HET, in addition to various influences of seeing, primary mirror segment errors, and dynamic deflection of the internal optical components of the WFC. We conducted extensive simulations to understand the robustness of the WFS in the face of these errors and the results of these analyses are discussed in this paper.

  10. Nordic optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeberg, Arne

    The Nordic Optical Telescope for the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory at La Palma is presented. It has been designed with highest emphasis on good resulting image quality. Within a tight budget frame a compact altazimuth mounted telescope has emerged. We have aimed at high-quality blind pointing and tracking. Optomechanically the telescope should be able to take advantage also of the observing periods with best seeing. The building has been designed with main emphasis on image quality. Partly guided by wind-tunnel tests, we have chosen a small dome with favourable air-flow performance. Data on micro-thermal activity has made us opt for a height above ground of the primary mirror being about eight metres. A relatively complete site-testing programme has confirmed the excellent quality of the observatory. The telescope will be operated with a Cassegrain focus only. Provisions are foreseen for rapid exchange of ancillary instrumentation. A set of standard ancillary instruments will be available at all times under the responsibility of on-site staff. It will include modern imaging devices, photometers, polarimeters and spectrographs for various tasks.

  11. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Chesworth, R.H.; Razvi, J.; Whittemore, W.L. )

    1991-11-01

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia.

  12. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ``Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,`` April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC`s regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC`s Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff`s findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  13. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  14. Research Activities at the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA) is an institute of Academia Sinica, the national research organization in Taiwan. The institute has a staff of approximately 100, and has operations in both Taipei and Hawaii. Present research at the ASIAA includes the Solar System, Stellar Evolution, Star Formation, Interstellar Chemistry, Galactic Dynamics, Active Galaxies, and Cosmology. We are partners in the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) project on Mauna Kea, and are developing an Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) in Mauna Loa. ASIAA also participates in the CFHT Wide Field Infrared Camera development in exchange for observing time on the telescope. A 3-telescope system is being built in Lulin Mountain in Taiwan to conduct an occultation survey in search for small Kuiper Belt objects. An increasing level of theoretical and computational astrophysics is being pursued through the establishment of Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics (TIARA) in collaboration with TsingHua University. In this paper, we will report on some of the current research activities at ASIAA as well as plans for the future.

  15. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Decker, T. A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Garcia, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Garza, J. G.; Hailey, C. J.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Luzon, G.; Mirallas, H.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas detector of the microbulk technology. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a ~ 5 cm diameter, 1.5 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10-3 counts per hour in the energy region-of-interest and signal spot area.

  16. Bringing Perfect Vision to the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevich, Russ; Johansson, Erik; Johnson, Luke; Cavaco, Jeff; National Solar Observatory

    2016-01-01

    The world's largest ground-based solar telescope is one step closer to operation with the acceptance of the deformable mirror engineered by AOA Xinetics, a Northrop Grumman Corporation company. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), currently under construction in Haleakala, Hawaii, will offer unprecedented high-resolution images of the sun using the latest adaptive optics technology to provide its distortion-free imaging.Led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the Inouye Solar Telescope will help scientists better understand how magnetic fields affect the physical properties of the Sun, what roles they play in our solar system and how they affect Earth.Ground-based telescopes, whether observing the sun or the night sky must contend with atmospheric turbulence that acts as a flexible lens, constantly reshaping observed images. This turbulence makes research on solar activity difficult and drives the need for the latest adaptive optics technology.To provide DKIST with the distortion-free imaging it requires, AOA Xinetics designed a deformable mirror with 1,600 actuators, four times the normal actuator density. This deformable mirror (DM) is instrumental in removing all of the atmospheric blurriness that would otherwise limit the telescope's performance. The mirror also has an internal thermal management system to handle the intense solar energy coming from DKIST's telescope. This poster provides the history behind this incredible success story.

  17. AGU Activities to Promote Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Johnson, R.; Giesler, J.

    2001-05-01

    A primary goal of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) is to significantly increase the participation of undergraduate students at AGU meetings. Involving students in scientific meetings at this level of their education helps them to better prepare for graduate school and for a career in the geophysical sciences. Ongoing CEHR activities to promote undergraduate participation include: (1) sponsoring technical sessions to showcase undergraduate research; (2) sponsoring sessions about careers and other topics of special interest to students; (3) sponsoring workshops to inform faculty about doing research with undergraduates; (4) sponsoring meeting events to partner graduate student mentors with first-time undergraduate attendees; (5) working with sections to create situations where undergraduates and section scientists can interact; (6) creating a guide for first-time meeting attendees; (7) sponsoring an Academic Recruiting Forum at meetings to connect undergraduates with geophysical graduate programs; (8) running a Career Center at meetings to connect students and employers; (9) raising funds for more travel grants to provide more student support to attend meetings; (10) developing a listserve to inform AGU members about opportunities to do research with undergraduates and to involve more members in mentoring activities; and (11) collecting data, such as career outcomes and demographic characteristics of recent Ph.D. recipients, that are of interest to students.

  18. Fluence measurement of fast neutron fields with a highly efficient recoil proton telescope using active pixel sensors.

    PubMed

    Taforeau, J; Higueret, S; Husson, D; Kachel, M; Lebreton, L

    2014-10-01

    The spectrometer ATHENA (Accurate Telescope for High-Energy Neutron metrology Applications) is being developed at the LNE-IRSN and aims at characterising energy and fluence of fast neutron fields. The detector is a recoil proton telescope and measures neutron fields in the range of 5-20 MeV. This telescope is intended to become a primary standard for both energy and fluence measurements. The neutron detection is achieved by a polyethylene radiator for n-p conversion, three 50-µm-thick silicon sensors that use CMOS technology for proton tracking and a 3-mm-thick silicon diode to measure the residual proton energy. The use of CMOS sensors and silicon diode, owing to a large detection solid angle, increases the intrinsic efficiency of the detector by a factor of 10 compared with conventional designs. The ability of the spectrometer to determine the neutron energy was demonstrated and reported elsewhere. This paper focuses on the fluence measurement of monoenergetic neutron fields in the range of 5-20 MeV. Experimental investigations, performed at the AMANDE facility, indicate a good estimation of neutron fluence at various energies. In addition, a complete description of uncertainties budget is presented in this paper and a Monte Carlo propagation of uncertainty sources leads to a fluence measurement with a precision ∼3-5 % depending on the neutron energy. PMID:24243312

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE POINT-SPREAD FUNCTION FOR THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FROM ON-ORBIT DATA AND LIMITS ON PAIR HALOS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: mar0@uw.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS and others

    2013-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from Almost-Equal-To 20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of {gamma} rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of {gamma}-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121.

  20. Global Astrophysical Telescope System - telescope No. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Baranowski, Roman; Fagas, Monika; Borczyk, Wojciech; Dimitrov, Wojciech; Polińska, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    We present the new, second spectroscopic telescope of Poznań Astronomical Observatory. The telescope allows automatic simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations and is scheduled to begin operation from Arizona in autumn 2013. Together with the telescope located in Borowiec, Poland, it will constitute a perfect instrument for nearly continuous spectroscopic observations of variable stars. With both instruments operational, the Global Astrophysical Telescope System will be established.

  1. Evaluating Teaching and Research Activities--Finding the Right Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes on a national, regional, and institutional level the evaluation systems used to assess teaching and research activities at Spanish universities. Also examines ways in which evaluation systems orient to promote research activities to the detriment of teaching activities. (SWM)

  2. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  3. The JCMT Telescope Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Cockayne, Steve

    Established telescopes often face a challenge when trying to incorporate new software standards and utilities into their existing real-time control system. At the JCMT we have successfully added important new features such as a Relational Database (the Telescope Management System---TMS), an online data Archive, and WWW based utilities to an, in part, 10-year old system. The new functionality was added with remarkably few alterations to the existing system. We are still actively expanding and exploring these new capabilities.

  4. Telescope enclosure flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Fred F.; Wong, Woon-Yin; Baldwin, Jack; Siegmund, Walter A.; Limmongkol, Siriluk; Comfort, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    Dome-induced thermal disturbances that degrade seeing can originate when temperature differences exist between the interior and exterior of a telescope enclosure. It is important to design enclosures which minimize the effect. One design aid is to model the enclosure and study the flow patterns in and around the model at various angles to the flow direction. We have used a water tunnel and models of spherical, octagonal, and rectangular enclosures to investigate the flow characteristics as a function of angle and venting configuration. In addition to a large video data-base, numerical results yield flushing times for all models and all venting arrangements. We have also investigated the comparative merits of passive venting as opposed to active forced flow circulation for the 4m telescope enclosure at the NOAO Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory at La Serena, Chile. Finally, the flow characteristics of a tracking half-shroud were studied as a possible shield for the enclosureless case.

  5. Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

  6. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  7. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  8. BCK Network of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Antoniuk, Krill; Carini, Michael T.; Gelderman, Richard; Hammond, Benjamin; Hicks, Stacy; Laney, David; Shakhovskoy, David; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Williams, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The BCK network consists of three research grade telescopes: 0.6m (B) at the Bell Observatory near Western Kentucky University (WKU), 1.3m (C) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and a 1.3m (K) at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The Bell Telescope is operated remotely from WKU while the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak possesses an autonomous scheduler. The BCK telescopes are distributed longitudinally over 145º and can be used to observe continuously up to 21.2 hours/day. The network will be chiefly employed to observe variable stars, blazars and unpredictable celestial events.Because celestial objects with ground-based telescopes cannot be observed optically during the daytime, continuous ground-based astronomical observations are only possible via a network of longitudinally distributed telescopes. When the sun rises in Crimea after it sets at Bell, continuous observations are possible. This occurs for about six and ½ months per year - mid September to early April. A network is highly desirable for events that are not predictable for instance the appearance of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, or undiscovered exoplanetsVariable stars are really only known in significant numbers to about 14 mag. But, as the magnitude increases the number of stars in any field increases very sharply, so there are many variable stars to discover at faint magnitude (m > 14). Discovering new variables makes great undergraduate student projects, a major component of astronomical research at WKU. In addition, pinning down the periods of variable stars is greatly facilitated with a network of telescopes.The BCK telescope network will also be used for monitoring the optical variability of blazars. The network provides increased coverage on daily variability timescales by minimizing interruptions due to weather and or mechanical problems at any one observatory and is used for obtaining continuous (12+ hours) of observations of rapid variability in blazars which would

  9. ESO Telescope Designer Raymond Wilson Wins Prestigious Kavli Award for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    Raymond Wilson, whose pioneering optics research at ESO made today's giant telescopes possible thanks to "active optics" technology, has been awarded the 2010 Kavli Prize in astrophysics. The founder and original leader of the Optics and Telescopes Group at ESO, Wilson shares the million-dollar prize with two American scientists, Jerry Nelson and Roger Angel. The biennial prize, presented by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Kavli Foundation, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, was instituted in 2008 and is given to researchers who significantly advance knowledge in the fields of nanoscience, neuroscience, and astrophysics, acting as a complement to the Nobel Prize. The award is named for and funded by Fred Kavli, the Norwegian entrepreneur and phi­lanthropist who later founded the Kavlico Corpora­tion in the US - today one of the world's largest suppliers of sensors for aeronautic, automotive and industrial applications. Wilson, who joined ESO in 1972, strived to achieve optical perfection, developing the concept of active optics as a way to enhance the size of telescopic primary mirrors. It is the size of these mirrors that determines the ability of a telescope to gather light and study faint and distant objects. Before active optics, mirrors over six metres in diameter were impossible, being too heavy, costly, and likely to bend from gravity and temperature changes. The use of active optics, which preserves optimal image quality by continually adjusting the mirror's shape during observations, made lighter, thinner so-called "meniscus mirrors" possible. Wilson first led the implementation of active optics in the revolutionary New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, and continued to develop and improve the technology until his retirement in 1993. Since then, active optics have become a standard part of modern astronomy, applied in every big telescope including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), a telescope array

  10. Muon cherenkov telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamova, E.; Angelov, I.; Kalapov, I.; Davidkov, K.; Stamenov, J.

    2001-08-01

    : The Muon Cerenkov Telescope is a system of water cerenkov detectors, using the coincidence technique to register cosmic ray muons. It is constructed in order to study the variations of cosmic rays and their correlation with solar activity and processes in the Earth magnetosphere. 1 Basic design of the Muon Cerenkov Telescope The telescope has 18 water cerenkov detectors / 0.25 m2 each /, situated in two parallel planes. / Fig. 1/ Each detector /fig. 2/ consists of a container with dimensions 50x50x12.5 cm made of 3mm thick glass with mirror cover of the outer side. The container is filled with distilled water to 10cm level. A photomultiplier is attached to a transparent circle at the floor of the container and the discriminator is placed in its housing. When a charged particle with energy greater than the threshold energy for cerenkov radiation generation passes the radiator, cerenkov photons are initiated and a part of them reach the PMT cathode after multiple reflections from the mirror sides of the container.

  11. Coherent large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. E.

    Present ground-based telescopes are compared with those of the future. The inherent limitations of ground-based telescopes are reviewed, and existing telescopes and their evolution are briefly surveyed in order to see the trends that led to the present period of innovative telescope design. The major telescope types and the critical design factors that must be considered in designing large telescopes for the future are reviewed, emphasizing economicality. As an example, the Ten Meter Telescope project at the University of California is discussed in detail, including the telescope buildings, domes, and apertures, the telescope moving weights, the image quality, and the equipment. Finally, a brief review of current work in progress on large telescopes is given.

  12. E-ELT telescope main structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orden Martínez, Alfredo; Dilla Martínez, Angel; Ballesteros Pérez, Noelia; Alcantud Abellán, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The European Extra Large Telescope is ESO's biggest astronomical telescope project. The E-ELT is an active and adaptive telescope. It has an astigmatic optical solution (five mirrors, including two flat ones). The telescope structure is of alt-azimuth type able to support a primary mirror with an equivalent diameter of 40 m. The telescope will be installed in a high-seismicity zone, in Cerro Armazones, Antofagasta Region, Chile, at an altitude of 3046 metres above sea level. This has significantly affected the boundary conditions and safety aspects considered during the project. The scope of the paper describes the Telescope Main Structure configuration developed by Empresarios Agrupados (Spain) during the FEED Studies performed from June 2009 to July 2011 in the frame of ESO Contracts. Most of the solutions implemented were extrapolated from existing installations in which Empresarios Agrupados has participated, adjusting for the extra large size of this new telescope.

  13. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  14. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  15. Simulation of Telescope Detectivity for Geo Survey and Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, P.

    2014-09-01

    As the number of space debris on Earths Orbit increases steadily, the need to survey, track and catalogue them becomes of key importance. In this context, CNES has been using the TAROT Telescopes (Rapid Telescopes for Transient Objects owned and operated by CNRS) for several years to conduct studies about space surveillance and tracking. Today, two testbeds of services using the TAROT telescopes are running every night: one for GEO situational awareness and the second for debris tracking. Additionally to the CNES research activity on space surveillance and tracking domain, an operational collision avoidance service for LEO and GEO satellites is in place at CNES for several years. This service named CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation: Alerts and Recommendations) is used by CNES as well as by external customers. As the optical debris tracking testbed based on TAROT telescopes is the first step toward an operational provider of GEO measures that could be used by CAESAR, simulations have been done to help choosing the sites and types of telescopes that could be added in the GEO survey and debris tracking telescope network. One of the distinctive characteristics of the optical observation of space debris compared to traditional astronomic observation is the need to observe objects at low elevations. The two mains reasons for this are the need to observe the GEO belt from non-equatorial sites and the need to observe debris at longitudes far from the telescope longitude. This paper presents the results of simulations of the detectivity for GEO debris of various telescopes and sites, based on models of the GEO belt, the atmosphere and the instruments. One of the conclusions is that clever detection of faint streaks and spread sources by image processing is one of the major keys to improve the detection of debris on the GEO belt.

  16. Nursing Research--Taking an Active Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverly, Dankay

    1998-01-01

    In Britain, nurses' attitudes toward research are changing. Schools of nursing must consider the following research issues: funding, contracts, support, publication, and staff recruitment and retention. (SK)

  17. Update on U.S.EPA Cookstove Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation includes background information on EPA's stove research, focuses on cookstove testing for air pollutant emissions and energy efficiency, and briefly describes current research activities. Ongoing activities are highlighted, and EPA contacts are provided.

  18. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  19. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  20. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  1. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  2. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  3. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ACTIVE GALAXY 4C +55.17: STEADY, HARD GAMMA-RAY EMISSION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C. C.; Ajello, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Donato, D.; Finke, J.; Furniss, A.; Williams, D. A.; Orienti, M.; Reyes, L. C.; Rossetti, A. E-mail: stawarz@astro.isas.jaxa.jp

    2011-09-10

    We report Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations and broadband spectral modeling of the radio-loud active galaxy 4C +55.17 (z = 0.896), formally classified as a flat-spectrum radio quasar. Using 19 months of all-sky survey Fermi-LAT data, we detect a {gamma}-ray continuum extending up to an observed energy of 145 GeV, and furthermore we find no evidence of {gamma}-ray variability in the source over its observed history. We illustrate the implications of these results in two different domains. First, we investigate the origin of the steady {gamma}-ray emission, where we re-examine the common classification of 4C +55.17 as a quasar-hosted blazar and consider instead its possible nature as a young radio source. We analyze and compare constraints on the source physical parameters in both blazar and young radio source scenarios by means of a detailed multiwavelength analysis and theoretical modeling of its broadband spectrum. Second, we show that the {gamma}-ray spectrum may be formally extrapolated into the very high energy (VHE, {>=}100 GeV) range at a flux level detectable by the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. This enables us to place constraints on models of extragalactic background light within LAT energies and features the source as a promising candidate for VHE studies of the universe at an unprecedented redshift of z = 0.896.

  5. Two-channel imaging system for the White light Active Region Monitor (WARM) telescope at Kodaikanal Observatory: design, development, and first images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruthvi, Hemanth; Ramesh, K. B.

    2015-06-01

    One of the three planned back-end systems for the proposed National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is the Solar Dynamics Imaging System (SDIS) which is intended to obtain near simultaneous images in multiple wavelengths. As a first step, a prototype system with two channel imaging has been developed and installed at the back-end of the White light Active Region Monitor (WARM) telescope at Kodaikanal Observatory. A two-mirror Coelostat serves as a light feeding system to a refracting objective while an optical breadboard serves as a platform for the back-end instruments. A re-imaging system is used before the prime focus to get two light channels for the observations in two wavelengths. The re-imaging system is designed using ZEMAX and the alignment of the system is done using a laser. Full disk images are obtained using a red filter (674.2nm/10nm) and a G-band filter (430.5nm/0.84nm). Design aspects of the re-imaging system, preliminary observations and image reduction methods are described in this paper.

  6. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. 10: Galactic H I 21 centimeter emission toward 143 quasars and active Galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockman, Felix J.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Sensitive H I 21 cm emission line spectra have been measured for the directions to 143 quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) chosen from the observing lists for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Narrow-band and wide-band data were obtained with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 43 m radio telescope for each object. The narrow-band data have a velocity resolution of 1 km/s, extend from -220 to +170 km/s, and are corrected for stray 21 cm radiation. The wide-band data have a resolution of 4 km/s and extend from -1000 to +1000 km/s. The data are important for the interpretation of ultraviolet absorption lines near zero redshift in Key Project spectra. Twenty-two percent of the quasars lie behind Galactic high-velocity H I clouds with absolute value of V(sub LSR) greater than 100 km/s whose presence can increase the equivalent width of interstellar absorption lines significantly. This paper contains the emission spectra and measures of the H I velocities and column densities along the sight line to each quasar. We discuss how the measurements can be used to estimate the visual and ultraviolet extinction toward each quasar and to predict the approximate strength of the strong ultraviolet resonance lines of neutral gas species in the HST Key Project spectra.

  7. Action Research as a Professional Development Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…

  8. eSTAR: a distributed telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Iain A.; Naylor, Tim; Allan, Alisdair; Etherton, Jason; Mottram, C. J.

    2002-11-01

    The e-STAR (e-Science Telescopes for Astronomical Research) project uses GRID techniques to develop the software infrastructure for a global network of robotic telescopes. The basic architecture is based around Intelligent Agents which request data from Discovery Nodes that may be telescopes or databases. Communication is based on a development of the XML RTML language secured using the Globus I/O library, with status serving provided via LDAP. We describe the system architecture and protocols devised to give a distributed approach to telescope scheduling, as well as giving details of the implementation of prototype Intelligent Agent and Discovery Node systems.

  9. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  10. RATAN-600 radio telescope in the 24th solar-activity cycle. III. System of data acquisition and control of the solar spectral facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, S. V.; Garaimov, V. I.

    2011-07-01

    We report the development of a multichannel data acquisition and control system for the Spectral and Polarization High-Resolution Solar Research System, installed at the RATAN-600 radio telescope. This facility provides high-speed registration of signals from 240 channels and controls the preparation for observations and the process of automatic observations. The hardware is made in the form factor of 3U Evromekhanika modules. The measurement facility is controlled by the software based on the QT cross-platform library (the open source version), which can be run both on Linux and Windows operating systems. The data are written to a magnetic carrier and then transferred to the computer network of the Special Astrophysical Observatory for archiving, and can be accessed by external users.

  11. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  12. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  13. Biology Research Activities: Teacher's Edition (with Answers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara

    This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…

  14. Proposed Integrated Radio-Telescope Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Ewing, M. S.; Levy, G. S.; Mallis, R. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Smith, J. R.; Backer, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed network of radio telescopes, controlled by a central computer and managed by a single organization, offer potential for research on a scale that could not be matched by present privately and publicly-owned radio telescopes. With 10 antenna sites, network would establish base lines thousands of miles long. Antennas will be linked to computer center by telephone circuits.

  15. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  16. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  17. Coma-compensation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, Malcolm J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A telescope for eliminating on axis coma due to tilt of the secondary mirror in infrared astronomy. The secondary mirror of a reflecting telescope is formed to cause field coma to always be equal and opposite at the optical axis of the telescope to tilt coma regardless of the angle through the secondary mirror is tilted with respect to the optical axis.

  18. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  19. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  20. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  1. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  2. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  3. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  4. Engaging Students in Qualitative Research through Experiential Class Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Piercy, Fred P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the experiential activities that are used in a graduate course on qualitative research that addresses focus groups, observation, data collection, cultural sensitivity, ethnomethodology, data analysis, and morals and ethics in research. Explains that students participate in an activity in which they defend qualitative research. (CMK)

  5. Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

  6. Composite telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  7. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity. (a) Scientific research activity. Nothing in this...

  8. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity. (a) Scientific research activity. Nothing in this...

  9. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity. (a) Scientific research activity. Nothing in this...

  10. Space Telescope Sensitivity and Controls for Exoplanet Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Herein we address design considerations and outline requirements for space telescopes with capabilities for high contrast imaging of exoplanets. The approach taken is to identify the span of potentially detectable Earth-sized terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of the nearest stars within 30 parsecs and estimate their inner working angles, flux ratios, SNR, sensitivities, wavefront error requirements and sensing and control times parametrically versus aperture size. We consider 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16-meter diameter telescope apertures. The achievable science, range of telescope architectures, and the coronagraphic approach are all active areas of research and are all subject to change in a rapidly evolving field. Thus, presented is a snapshot of our current understanding with the goal of limiting the choices to those that appear currently technically feasible. We describe the top-level metrics of inner working angle, contrast and photometric throughput and explore how they are related to the range of target stars. A critical point is that for each telescope architecture and coronagraphic choice the telescope stability requirements have differing impacts on the design for open versus closed-loop sensing and control.

  11. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  12. S-20 photocathode research activity. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Gex, F.; Huen, T.; Kalibjian, R.

    1983-11-22

    The goal of this activity has been to develop and implement S-20 photocathode processing techniques at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to study the physical properties of the photocathode films. The present work is the initial phase of a planned activity in understanding cathode fabrication techniques and the optical/electrical characterization of these films.

  13. The CCAT Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Jason; CCAT

    2013-01-01

    CCAT will be a 25 m diameter on-axis Gregory telescope operating in the 0.2 to 2.1 mm wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude of 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. CCAT will support cameras and spectrometers with up to 1 field of view at its f/6 Nasmyth foci. The key performance requirements for the telescope are a half wavefront error <12.5 μm rms and pointing error <0.35"/350 μm). CCAT will have an f/0.4 primary with an active surface to compensate gravitational and thermal deformations. The primary will be made of 2 m keystone-shaped segments, each with 16 machined aluminum tiles mounted on a carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CFRP) subframe. The segments will be supported by a CFRP spaceframe truss on an elevation over azimuth mount made of steel. CCAT will be inside an enclosure to reduce wavefront and pointing errors due to wind forces and thermal deformation due to solar illumination.

  14. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.

    2008-07-01

    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  15. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cosponsored research and....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research... objectives of the contract. Since the purpose of the cosponsored research and development, the...

  16. An overview of TPV research activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2004-11-01

    The thermophotovoltaic (TPV) research activity in Japan has prospered from the second half of the 90s. In this paper, we will present an overview of TPV research activities in Japan. TPV technologies have been surveyed by research committees in NEDO as a part of the research activity of the New Sunshine Project. The TPV is considered as a new application of non-conventional solar cells, and the situation of TPV technologies, especially TPV cells, in USA and EU is surveyed. Systematic investigative research on TPV systems was performed by ENAA on FY1997 and 1998. In this investigative research on potential market for a TPV power source in Japan has been focused on how TPV can contribute to energy conservation and environmental protection and harmony, compared with conventional engine or turbine generators and underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, etc. In addition to the investigative research, the technical research activities are introduced in this paper.

  17. Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) Work Station in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo captures the activity of WUPPE (Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment) data review at the Science Operations Area during the mission. This image shows mission activities at the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) Work Station in the Science Operations Area (SOA).

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Data and Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol A.

    2015-08-01

    The general public is enthusiastic about astronomy and in particular the research and associated imagery produced by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST Education and Outreach program (EPO) offers myriad resources for education and also engagement by the public in the research endeavor (hubblesite.org). One facet of this landscape is the opportunity to participate in Citizen Science projects. There are many flavors of citizen science and those discussed here are focussed on producing research results through the collaboration and activity of volunteer members of the public who conduct tasks that only can be accomplished through human endeavor. This paper touches upon several projects based on HST data and reviews a few others that are derived from the archives at STScI covering several different astrophysics areas.

  19. Boost-phase discrimination research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David M.; Deiwert, George S.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical research in two areas was performed. The aerothermodynamics research focused on the hard-body and rocket plume flows. Analytical real gas models to describe finite rate chemistry were developed and incorporated into the three-dimensional flow codes. New numerical algorithms capable of treating multi-species reacting gas equations and treating flows with large gradients were also developed. The computational chemistry research focused on the determination of spectral radiative intensity factors, transport properties and reaction rates. Ab initio solutions to the Schrodinger equation provided potential energy curves transition moments (radiative probabilities and strengths) and potential energy surfaces. These surfaces were then coupled with classical particle reactive trajectories to compute reaction cross-sections and rates.

  20. Productivity of Indian Telescopes: Impact Analysis through Scientometric Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meera, B. M.; Manjunath, M.

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to study the productivity of modern Indian telescopes that were installed after India attained independence from colonial rule. (The study also includes one telescope built under colonial rule that is still in operation today.) Productivity is measured by the number of papers published from the fourteen telescopes included in the study. Researchers make use of the astronomical data generated by these telescopes and write research papers, which are then used by other researchers and cited in subsequent papers. This study quantifies the impact that the telescopes have on scholarship and analyzes the data using scientometric indicators.

  1. Activities of the Research Laboratory of Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jonathan; Kleppner, Daniel

    1991-08-01

    This progress report contains both a statement of research objectives and a summary of research efforts for research projects listed. Partial contents include: (1) submicron structures technology and research; (2) microstructural evolution in thin films of electronic materials; (3) focused ion beam fabrication; (4) chemical reaction dynamics at surfaces; (5) measurement of electron-phonon interactions through large-amplitude phonon excitation; (6) chemical beam epitaxy of compound semiconductors; (7) high-frequency InAlAs/InGaAs metal-insulator-doped semiconductor field-effect transistors for telecommunications; (8) novel superconducting tunneling structures; (9) optics and quantum electronics; (10) superconducting electronic devices; (11) synchrotron X ray studies of surface disordering; (12) semiconductor surface studies; (13) single electron transistors; (14) quantum optics and photonics; (15) plasma dynamics; (16) electromagnetic wave theory and applications; (17) radio astronomy; (18) digital signal processing; (19) speech processing; (20) custom integrated circuits; (21) speech communication; (22) sensory communications; (23) signal transmission in the auditory system; and (24) linguistics.

  2. Action Research: Conducting Activities for Third Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the action research conducted on whether the use of conducting patterns will not only help students understand meter, but also assist them in grasping certain expressive qualities of music. Finds that the posttest showed a 10 percent gain overall in the understanding of meter, tempo, dynamics, and style. (CMK)

  3. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Rosing, W.; Pickles, A.; Howell, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a privately-funded observatory dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Our main observing tool will be a homogeneous world-wide network of 12 x 1m optical telescopes, each equipped for both imaging and spectroscopy. We will also continue to operate 2m telscopes in Hawaii and Australia, and we plan to deploy a few tens of 0.4m imaging telescopes for education and for bright-object research. LCOGT has membership in the Pan-STARRS1 consortium, in the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and in LSST. In accord with these affiliations, our staff's scientific interests are concentrated in (but not restricted to) the areas of extrasolar planets, extragalactic transients (especially SNe), and pulsating stars. In this poster we describe the observatory in general terms, including its research agenda, its telescope deployment plans and schedule, its notable technical challenges, and its anticipated methods of working with the wider astronomical community. For more detailed information about LCOGT's aims and projects, please see the related posters in this session.

  4. Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of authentic scientific research and its associated activities. This study describes the most commonly held preconceptions of authentic research activities among students with little or no previous research experience. Seventeen undergraduate science majors who participated in a ten week research program discussed, at various times during the program, their preconceptions of research and how these ideas changed as a result of direct participation in authentic research activities. The preconceptions included the belief that authentic research is a solitary activity which most closely resembles the type of activity associated with laboratory courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Participants' views showed slight maturation over the research program; they came to understand that authentic research is a detail-oriented activity which is rarely successfully completed alone. These findings and their implications for the teaching and research communities are discussed in the article.

  5. Research activities of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography are discussed. The NASA programs, include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX), and the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  6. Hunting Spinning Asteroids with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Faulkes telescopes are proving a dab hand at allowing schools and amateurs to do real science. The author discusses the latest Faulkes research project, and his record-breaking discovery that was pert of it.

  7. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  8. NASA Glenn Research Center Battery Activities Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon and GRC's involvement in their development. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  9. Corrosion Research And Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  10. Corrosion Research and Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  11. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  12. JWST pathfinder telescope integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI and T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  13. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  14. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  15. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) OIL SHALE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of EPA's oil shale research activities. In spite of substantial cutbacks in the program, several new projects should not only be of interest to developers and researchers but also support future regulatory and permitting decisions by the Agency. New activ...

  16. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  17. Partnerships for progress in active living: from research to action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theme for the 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference was "Partnerships for Progress in Active Living: From Research to Action." The rationale for this theme was simple: no person is an island. The theme recognizes that partnerships are essential to identify and implement solutions for co...

  18. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  19. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  20. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  1. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  2. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  3. News UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

  4. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be an 8 m class deployable, radiatively cooled telescope, optimized for the 1-5 μm band, with zodiacal background limited sensitivity from 0.6 to 10 μm or longer, operating for 10 yr near the Earth-Sun second LAGRANGIAN POINT (L2). It will be a general-purpose observatory, operated by the SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE (STScI) for competitively s...

  5. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  6. The Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Olmi, L.; Durand, G.; Daddi, E.; Israel, F.; Kramer, C.; Lagage, P.-O.; de Petris, M.; Sabbatini, L.; Spinoglio, L.; Schneider, N.; Tothill, N.; Tremblin, P.; Valenziano, L.; Veyssière, C.

    This report aims to provide a summary of the status of our Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope (AST) project up to date. It is a very new project for Antarctic astronomy. Necessary prerequisites for a future deployment of a large size telescope infrastructure have been tested in years 2007 and 2008. The knowledge of the transmission, frost formation and temperature gradient were fundamental parameters before starting a feasibility study. The telescope specifications and requirements are currently discussed with the industrial partnership.

  7. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.

  8. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  9. The first VERITAS telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, J.; Atkins, R. W.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Byrum, K. L.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Celik, O.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Dowdall, C.; Dowkontt, P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A. D.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G.; Glidewell, O. J.; Grube, J.; Gutierrez, K. J.; Gyuk, G.; Hall, J.; Hanna, D.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, S. B.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kenny, G. E.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Knapp, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Linton, E.; Little, E. K.; Maier, G.; Manseri, H.; Milovanovic, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ogden, P. A.; Ong, R. A.; Petry, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sleege, G.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Syson, A.; Toner, J. A.; Valcarcel, L.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; White, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Wagner, R.

    2006-07-01

    The first atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) has been in operation since February 2005. We present here a technical description of the instrument and a summary of its performance. The calibration methods are described, along with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the telescope and comparisons between real and simulated data. The analysis of TeV γ-ray observations of the Crab Nebula, including the reconstructed energy spectrum, is shown to give results consistent with earlier measurements. The telescope is operating as expected and has met or exceeded all design specifications.

  10. ATST telescope pier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Manuel, Eric; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world with a 4m aperture primary mirror. The off axis nature of the telescope optical layout, has the proportions of an 8 metre class telescope. Accordingly the instrumentation for solar observations a 16m diameter co-rotating laboratory (Coude Rotator) is also located within the telescope pier. The pier has a lower cylindrical profile with an upper conical section to support both the telescope mount with a 9m bearing diameter and contain the 16m diameter Coudé rotator. The performance of this pier cannot be considered in isolation but must account for ancillary equipment, access and initial installation. The Coude rotator structure and bearing system are of similar size to the telescope base structure and therefore this is the proverbial 'ship in a bottle' problem. This paper documents the competing requirements on the pier design and the balancing of these as the design progresses. Also summarized is the evolution of the design from a conceptual traditional reinforced concrete pier to a composite concrete and steel framed design. The stiffness requirements of the steel frame was a unique challenge for both the theoretical performance and overall design strategy considering constructability. The development of design acceptance criteria for the pier is discussed along with interfacing of the AandE firm responsible for the pier design and the telescope designer responsible for the telescope performance.

  11. Telescope performance verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Buckley, David A. H.

    2004-09-01

    While Systems Engineering appears to be widely applied on the very large telescopes, it is lacking in the development of many of the medium and small telescopes currently in progress. The latter projects rely heavily on the experience of the project team, verbal requirements and conjecture based on the successes and failures of other telescopes. Furthermore, it is considered an unaffordable luxury to "close-the-loop" by carefully analysing and documenting the requirements and then verifying the telescope's compliance with them. In this paper the authors contend that a Systems Engineering approach is a keystone in the development of any telescope and that verification of the telescope's performance is not only an important management tool but also forms the basis upon which successful telescope operation can be built. The development of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has followed such an approach and is now in the verification phase of its development. Parts of the SALT verification process will be discussed in some detail to illustrate the suitability of this approach, including oversight by the telescope shareholders, recording of requirements and results, design verification and performance testing. Initial test results will be presented where appropriate.

  12. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  13. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cosponsored research and... Cosponsored research and development activities. Because of the Department of Energy's statutory duties to disseminate data first produced under its contracts for research, development, and demonstration,...

  14. A Typology of Nursing Research Activities According to Educational Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    A typology of research activities (generation of basic, applied, and clinical research; dissemination of findings; and use of findings) considered appropriate to nurses with different levels of educational preparation (ADN, BSN, MSN, DNSc/EdD, and PhD) is presented to assist potential researchers and nurse educators in undertaking realistic and…

  15. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cosponsored research and... Cosponsored research and development activities. Because of the Department of Energy's statutory duties to disseminate data first produced under its contracts for research, development, and demonstration,...

  16. Rational protection of subjects in research and quality improvement activities.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Beth; Dixon, Lisa B; Adler, David A; Berlant, Jeffrey; Dulit, Rebecca A; Hackman, Ann; Oslin, David W; Siris, Samuel G; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-02-01

    This Open Forum illuminates shortcomings with the basis for determining degree of oversight of health services research and quality improvement activities. Using a federally regulated definition of research rather than a direct appraisal of risk to patients can misallocate effort from activities with higher risk for patients to those with lower risk. The case of the Johns Hopkins multicenter study of central line safety checklists in intensive care units is cited. Definitions of research promulgated by the Office of Human Research Protection are reviewed, and an alternative model based on patient risk is proposed. Suggestions for how quality improvement work fits into the larger paradigm of research are made. PMID:20123824

  17. Using Telescopic Observations to Mentor High School Students in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2011-09-01

    Over the past two summers (2009 and 2010) the NASA EPO Group at Sonoma State University (SSU) has sponsored local high school students in a summer science internship program at the University. The students, chosen from Sonoma County high schools in a competitive selection process, work in various science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the School of Science and Technology at SSU. The two interns sponsored by the EPO Group each summer monitor active galaxies using GORT, the NASA/Fermi-sponsored optical robotic telescope operated by the Group. They are mentored in their projects by EPO Group personnel and by SSU undergraduates who have experience with the telescope. The students learn about the sky, telescopes and the active galaxies they observe. They also learn how to make telescopic observations and how to reduce the CCD images obtained. Interns also participate in weekly meetings with other interns working on different projects around campus. At the end of the summer all the interns present their research results at a symposium held on campus.The symposium is attended by the interns themselves, their parents, their high school science teachers, and university faculty and administrators.The program has had a positive impact on how our interns view science, and specifically on their view of astronomy, as reported by the interns themselves in the first two years of the program.

  18. Research study on stabilization and control. Modern sampled-date control theory. Stability analysis of the low cost large space telescope system. [numerical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model employing Fourier series is used to show quantization and reaction wheel friction nonlinearity in a telescope system for use in space. Block diagrams are used to illustrate the system. A discrete describing function of a quantizer also is given, and input and output signal waveforms, with illustrative examples, are shown.

  19. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  20. The Metagenomic Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well–known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well–researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  1. [Activities of Bay Area Research Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    During the final year of this effort the HALFSHEL code was converted to work on a fast single processor workstation from it s parallel configuration. This was done because NASA Ames NAS facility stopped supporting space science and we no longer had access to parallel computer time. The single processor version of HALFSHEL was upgraded to address low density cells by using a a 3-D SOR solver to solve the equation Delta central dot E = 0. We then upgraded the ionospheric load packages to provide a multiple species load of the ionosphere out to 1.4 Rm. With these new tools we began to perform a series of simulations to address the major topic of this research effort; determining the loss rate of O(sup +) and O2(sup +) from Mars. The simulations used the nominal Parker spiral field and in one case used a field perpendicular to the solar wind flow. The simulations were performed for three different solar EUV fluxes consistent with the different solar evolutionary states believed to exist before today. The 1 EUV case is the nominal flux of today. The 3 EUV flux is called Epoch 2 and has three times the flux of todays. The 6 EUV case is Epoch 3 and has 6 times the EUV flux of today.

  2. Relationships between Interlibrary Loan and Research Activity in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duy, Joanna; Larivière, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Interlibrary Loan borrowing rates in academic libraries are influenced by an array of factors. This article explores the relationship between interlibrary loan borrowing activity and research activity at 42 Canadian academic institutions. A significant positive correlation was found between interlibrary loan borrowing activity and measures of…

  3. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  4. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, June 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Smith, B. W.; Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Wiecha, O. M.; Marshall, H.

    2006-06-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, Centaurs, NEA’s, and other time-variable objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera.The DCT facility enclosure and control building will be completed this year, including the supports for the telescope mount and dome, the major infrastructure for facility machinery, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating facility. Meanwhile, the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank was completed at Corning, Inc., in October 2005, and the 2-3 year mirror figuring effort is due to begin June 2006. The primary mirror and its design support, and the preliminary integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces.The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory is actively seeking additional partners in the project; interested parties should contact R. L. Millis, Director.

  5. Europe discusses role in future space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Prof. Roger Bonnet said it was important for Europe to make an informed decision in the next few years on whether to support NASA's proposed New Generation Space Telescope (NGST), a follow-on programme to the Hubble Space Telescope. NGST's observing capabilities will far extend the reach of existing ground or space-based telescopes, providing the opportunity for the first time to look back through eons of time to the very first stars and galaxies in the Universe. With an aperture greater than four metres, NGST could also provide European astronomers with a crucial complement to some of ESA's planned future space projects, like FIRST (the Far InfraRed Submillimetre Telescope) and Planck (a mission to study the cosmic background radiation field). NASA and ESA are already involved in preliminary NGST studies but Europe has yet to make a commitment to support the programme. NASA wants to start formal development in 2003, with a launch currently planned for 2007. This week's conference at Liege in Belgium was the first opportunity for many astronomers to exchange ideas and compare technological notes on a Next Generation Space Telescope. It also provided a forum for representatives of Europe's space industry to discuss the technological challenges presented by such a project. Prof. Bonnet said: "From recent experience it is clear that the best scientific results in astronomy and astrophysics are obtained by coordinated observations in different wavelength ranges. "The joint effort of the European space programme and of the various large European ground observatories currently allows European astronomers to be on the front-line of astrophysics research."He said that ESA - if supported programmatically and financially by its member states - is willing to discuss with NASA a mutually fruitful form of NGST participation. But Prof. Bonnet stressed that for this type of collaboration to be approved it remained crucial that the European share contained both scientific and

  6. Zoo visitors' understanding of terms denoting research activity.

    PubMed

    Carson, Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    Zoos have increasingly sought to justify their existence by reference to a scientific role particularly in the domains of animal welfare and conservation. Given recent initiatives by the UK government to foster public engagement with science, it is timely to investigate public attitudes towards primary research activity by zoos. This study reports the views of 83 visitors to Edinburgh Zoo. Within certain items in a structured interview noun terms denoting research activity were manipulated ("research" versus "studies") as was their qualification (adjective "scientific" present or absent before the noun term). "Research" was associated with a restricted and negative perception of investigatory activity. This effect was intensified when the noun term was preceded by "scientific". It is concluded that there is a continuing need to challenge public perceptions, particularly of the phrase "scientific research"; that in the meantime zoos should perhaps exercise caution when using it in relation to their activities. PMID:25414921

  7. LSST telescope integration and tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, Jacques; Gressler, William; Neill, Doug; Barr, Jeff; Claver, Chuck; Andrew, John

    2014-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Telescope integration and test plan is phased to ensure that subsystems and services are available to support the integration flow. It begins with the summit facility construction and shows how the major subsystems feed into the activities through final testing. In order to minimize the amount of hardware mated for the first time during that period, the approach is to favor all hardware mated and pre-tested at vendors' facilities with associated hardware and software prior to delivery onsite. The integration and test plan exploits the diffraction limited on-axis image quality of the three-mirror design. In addition, fiducials will be used during optical acceptance testing at vendors' facilities to capture the optical axis geometry of each optical element. These fiducials will be used during the integration and tests sequence to facilitate the telescope optical alignment. In this paper, we describe the major steps of the LSST telescope integration and test sequence prior to the start of commissioning with the science camera.

  8. Research on substances with activity against orthopoxviruses.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Marcin; Joniec, Justyna; Bartoszcze, Michał; Gryko, Romuald; Kocik, Janusz; Knap, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Although smallpox was eradicated over 30 years ago, the disease remains a major threat. High mortality, high infectivity and low resistance of the contemporary population make the smallpox virus very attractive to terrorists. The possible presence of illegal stocks of the virus or risk of deliberate genetic modifications cause serious concerns among experts. Hence, it is reasonable to seek effective drugs that could be used in case of smallpox outbreak. This paper reviews studies on compounds with proven in vitro or in vivo antipoxviruses potential, which show various mechanisms of action. Nucleoside analogues, such as cidofovir, can inhibit virus replication. Cidofovir derivatives are developed to improve the bioavailability of the drug. Among the nucleoside analogues under current investigation are: ANO (adenozine N1-oxide) and its derivatives, N-methanocarbothymidine [(N)-MCT], or derivatitives of aciklovir, peninclovir and brivudin. Recently, ST-246 - which effectively inhibits infection by limiting release of progeny virions - has become an object of attention. It has been also been demonstrated that compounds such as: nigericin, aptamers and peptides may have antiviral potential. An interesting strategy to fight infections was presented in experiments aimed at defining the role of individual genes (E3L, K3L or C6L) in the pathogenesis, and looking for their potential blockers. Additionally, among substances considered to be effective in the treatment of smallpox cases, there are factors that can block viral inhibitors of the human complement system, epidermal growth factor inhibitors or immunomodulators. Further studies on compounds with activity against poxviruses are necessary in order to broaden the pool of available means that could be used in the case of a new outbreak of smallpox. PMID:23540204

  9. Activity and cool spots on the surfaces of G-type stars with superflares from observations with the Kepler Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2015-09-01

    available photometric data from the Kepler Space Telescope archives. KIC 11551430 was determined earlier to display the highest number of flares (on average, one flare every 7 days); KIC 11764567 displayed the highest number of flares among stars with rotational periods comparable to the solar period (on average, one flare every 25 days). Maps of surface temperature inhomogeneities of these stars are used to determine the longitudes and other characteristics of their active regions.

  10. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 4; Overview and Introduction of Matlab Based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part four of a series on the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The third investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The work here introduces some of the math software tools used to perform the work of the previous three papers of this series. NASA has recently approved these in-house tools for public release as open source, so this presentation also serves as a quick tutorial on their use. The tools are collections of functions written in Matlab, which interface with optical design software (CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax) using either COM or DDE communication protocol. The functions are discussed, and examples are given.

  11. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided. PMID:26117519

  12. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  13. Inherent small telescope projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    As we stand on the verge of substantial access to the new generation of giant telescopes (Gemini, VLT and others) it is timely to consider the range of science that can be undertaken with the substantial number of smaller telescopes that are spread around the globe. While providing survey science input to the giant telescopes, or simultaneous monitoring capability for space missions, is a clearly important role (see previous contributions), it should not be forgotten that there are still many outstanding scientific programmes that can be undertaken on smaller telescopes in their own right. There is a danger of these opportunities being overlooked in the stampede to abandon the smaller telescope 'baggage' in the hope of acquiring access to more giant telescope time. I will try to demonstrate that the most effective and efficient use of all our telescope time requires access to a broad range of complementary facilities. I will therefore describe here some of the projects currently being undertaken with smaller telescopes as well as some of those planned for future facilities such as ROBONET.

  14. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  15. The Radio/Gamma-Ray Connection in Active Galactic Nuclei in the Era of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Angelakis, E.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; MeEnery, J. E.; Scargle, J. D.; Thompson, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of the correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by Fermi during its first year of operation, with the largest data sets ever used for this purpose.We use both archival interferometric 8.4 GHz data (from the Very Large Array and ATCA, for the full sample of 599 sources) and concurrent single-dish 15 GHz measurements from the OwensValley RadioObservatory (OVRO, for a sub sample of 199 objects). Our unprecedentedly large sample permits us to assess with high accuracy the statistical significance of the correlation, using a surrogate data method designed to simultaneously account for common-distance bias and the effect of a limited dynamical range in the observed quantities. We find that the statistical significance of a positive correlation between the centimeter radio and the broadband (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray energy flux is very high for the whole AGN sample, with a probability of <10(exp -7) for the correlation appearing by chance. Using the OVRO data, we find that concurrent data improve the significance of the correlation from 1.6 10(exp -6) to 9.0 10(exp -8). Our large sample size allows us to study the dependence of correlation strength and significance on specific source types and gamma-ray energy band. We find that the correlation is very significant (chance probability < 10(exp -7)) for both flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects separately; a dependence of the correlation strength on the considered gamma-ray energy band is also present, but additional data will be necessary to constrain its significance.

  16. Nursing research on physical activity: a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Im, E

    2001-04-01

    Studies on physical activity have rarely included women as research participants, and have been mainly conducted among Western populations. In this paper, nursing research on women's physical activity is analyzed and critiqued using a feminist perspective that respects and values women's own experiences and their diversities. An extensive literature search was conducted using computerized data retrieval systems and 47 empirical studies published in nursing literature were selected and analyzed. The critique is presented with three main themes emerged from the analysis: (a) "without considering women's own experiences"; (b) "implicit androcentric and ethnocentric assumptions"; (c) "without meaningful interactions". Based on the analysis, future directions for nursing research on physical activity are proposed. PMID:11223059

  17. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  18. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  19. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero

    1998-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. With the addition of the partners from Ohio State and Germany in February 1997, the Large Binocular Telescope Corporation has the funding required to build the full telescope populated with both 8.4 meter optical trans. The first of two 8.4 meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors for LBT was cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in 1997. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes adaptive infrared secondaries of a Gregorian design. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage the two folded Gregorian focal planes to three central locations. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance were important drivers for the design of the telescope in order to provide the best possible images for interferometric observations. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure was completed in 1997 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). A series of contracts for the fabrication and machining of the telescope structure had been placed at the end of 1997. The final enclosure design was completed at M3 Engineering & Technology (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia. During 1997, the telescope pier and the concrete ring wall for the rotating enclosure were completed along with the steel structure of the fixed portion of the enclosure. The erection of the steel structure for the rotating portion of the enclosure will begin in the Spring of 1998.

  20. Herschel Far-infrared Photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope Active Galactic Nuclei Sample of the Local Universe. I. PACS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Shimizu, T. T.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    Far-Infrared (FIR) photometry from the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 313 nearby, hard X-ray selected galaxies from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Active Galactic Nuclei catalog. The present data do not distinguish between the FIR luminosity distributions at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. This result suggests that if the FIR emission is from the nuclear obscuring material surrounding the accretion disk, then it emits isotropically, independent of orientation. Alternatively, a significant fraction of the 70 and 160 μm luminosity could be from star formation, independent of active galactic nucleus (AGN) type. Using a non-parametric test for partial correlation with censored data, we find a statistically significant correlation between the AGN intrinsic power (in the 14-195 keV band) and the FIR emission at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find no correlation between the 14-195 keV and FIR luminosities in Seyfert 2 galaxies. The observed correlations suggest two possible scenarios: (1) if we assume that the FIR luminosity is a good tracer of star formation, then there is a connection between star formation and the AGN at sub-kiloparsec scales, or (2) dust heated by the AGN has a statistically significant contribution to the FIR emission. Using a Spearman rank-order analysis, the 14-195 keV luminosities for the Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies are weakly statistically correlated with the F 70/F 160 ratios. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. NATURE OF THE NUCLEAR IONIZING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Civano, Francesca; Shen, Yue; Green, Paul; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2013-01-10

    Kiloparsec-scale binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) signal active supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs in merging galaxies. Despite their significance, unambiguously confirmed cases remain scarce and most have been discovered serendipitously. In a previous systematic search, we optically identified four kpc-scale binary AGNs from candidates selected with double-peaked narrow emission lines at z = 0.1-0.2. Here, we present Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of these four systems. We critically examine and confirm the binary-AGN scenario for two of the four targets, by combining high angular resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy with Chandra ACIS-S, better nuclear position constraints from WFC3 F105W imaging, and direct starburst estimates from WFC3 F336W imaging; for the other two targets, the existing data are still consistent with the binary-AGN scenario, but we cannot rule out the possibility of only one AGN ionizing gas in both merging galaxies. We find tentative evidence for a systematically smaller X-ray-to-[O III] luminosity ratio and/or higher Compton-thick fraction in optically selected kpc-scale binary AGNs than in single AGNs, possibly caused by a higher nuclear gas column due to mergers and/or a viewing angle bias related to the double-peak narrow-line selection. While our result lends some further support to the general approach of optically identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, it also highlights the challenge and ambiguity of X-ray confirmation.

  2. Herschel far-infrared photometry of the swift burst alert telescope active galactic nuclei sample of the local universe. I. PACS observations

    SciTech Connect

    Meléndez, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Shimizu, T. T.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-20

    Far-Infrared (FIR) photometry from the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 313 nearby, hard X-ray selected galaxies from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Active Galactic Nuclei catalog. The present data do not distinguish between the FIR luminosity distributions at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. This result suggests that if the FIR emission is from the nuclear obscuring material surrounding the accretion disk, then it emits isotropically, independent of orientation. Alternatively, a significant fraction of the 70 and 160 μm luminosity could be from star formation, independent of active galactic nucleus (AGN) type. Using a non-parametric test for partial correlation with censored data, we find a statistically significant correlation between the AGN intrinsic power (in the 14-195 keV band) and the FIR emission at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find no correlation between the 14-195 keV and FIR luminosities in Seyfert 2 galaxies. The observed correlations suggest two possible scenarios: (1) if we assume that the FIR luminosity is a good tracer of star formation, then there is a connection between star formation and the AGN at sub-kiloparsec scales, or (2) dust heated by the AGN has a statistically significant contribution to the FIR emission. Using a Spearman rank-order analysis, the 14-195 keV luminosities for the Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies are weakly statistically correlated with the F {sub 70}/F {sub 160} ratios.

  3. INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SEYFERT GALAXIES: SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE 12 {mu}m SAMPLE OF ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gallimore, J. F.; Yzaguirre, A.; Jakoboski, J.; Stevenosky, M. J.; Axon, D. J.; O'Dea, C. P.; Robinson, A.; Baum, S. A.; Buchanan, C. L.; Elitzur, M.; Elvis, M.

    2010-03-01

    The mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 83 active galaxies, mostly Seyfert galaxies, selected from the extended 12 {mu}m sample are presented. The data were collected using all three instruments, Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS data were obtained in spectral mapping mode, and the photometric data from IRAC and IRS were extracted from matched, 20'' diameter circular apertures. The MIPS data were obtained in SED mode, providing very low-resolution spectroscopy (R {approx} 20) between {approx}55 and 90 {mu}m in a larger, 20'' x 30'' synthetic aperture. We further present the data from a spectral decomposition of the SEDs, including equivalent widths and fluxes of key emission lines; silicate 10 {mu}m and 18 {mu}m emission and absorption strengths; IRAC magnitudes; and mid-far-infrared spectral indices. Finally, we examine the SEDs averaged within optical classifications of activity. We find that the infrared SEDs of Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s with hidden broad line regions (HBLRs, as revealed by spectropolarimetry or other technique) are qualitatively similar, except that Seyfert 1s show silicate emission and HBLR Seyfert 2s show silicate absorption. The infrared SEDs of other classes within the 12 {mu}m sample, including Seyfert 1.8-1.9, non-HBLR Seyfert 2 (not yet shown to hide a type 1 nucleus), LINER, and H II galaxies, appear to be dominated by star formation, as evidenced by blue IRAC colors, strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, and strong far-infrared continuum emission, measured relative to mid-infrared continuum emission.

  4. Bling My Research! A Mock Grant Panel Activity Illustrating the Importance of Basic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leander, Celeste A.; Whitton, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    First-year university students have misconceptions about the source and dynamics of publicly funded research money. We designed an activity in which students take part in a mock grant panel. The results indicated a strong tendency toward student funding of applied medical research at the expense of basic research. Exposure to a few examples of…

  5. Reviewing the "Research Placement" as a Means of Enhancing Student Learning and Stimulating Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Fiona; Boast, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The links between research and teaching have been the subject of much debate and controversy over the need for both activities to take place in universities remains current. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a research placement module, which aimed to provide opportunities for students to work as research assistants on…

  6. How the Doctorate Contributes to the Formation of Active Researchers: What the Research Tells Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Jennifer; Barnacle, Robyn; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While much research focuses on factors contributing to doctoral completion, few studies explore the role of the doctorate in forming active researchers with the skills, know-how and appetite to pursue research post-completion. This article investigates 15 existing studies for evidence of what factors in the doctoral experience may contribute to…

  7. Activities report of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning fluid dynamics and acoustics; audiology and human effects; structures and machinery; and signal processing and control is summarized. Aircraft noise; underwater acoustics; silencers; biomechanics; noise measurement; hearing; structural dynamics; laser technology; automotive engineering; and active control are discussed.

  8. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  9. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  10. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  11. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  12. NASA Infrared Telescope Facility- The Next 5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, A. T.; Bus, S. J.; Tollestrup, E. V.; Rayner, J. T.

    2005-08-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3-meter optical/IR telescope dedicated to NASA-related programs of mission support and basic solar system research. All of the funding for IRTF operations comes from the Planetary Astronomy Program. We are preparing the Cooperative Agreement with NASA for the next 5 years (Feb. 2006 -- Jan. 2011). We will strive to refurbish the telescope in order to provide mission support and to allow the IRTF to provide fundamental data for future missions to Mars, comets, satellites, Near-Earth Objects, and asteroids. A major component of our activities will be to improve the image quality of the telescope and to provide high dynamic imaging on the IRTF. Details of our plans can be obtained at: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/Documents/pdf/1_plan_mar04C.pdf We acknowledge the support of NASA Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Planetary Astronomy Program.

  13. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  14. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010. PMID:20517352

  15. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  16. Creating evidence-based research in adapted physical activity.

    PubMed

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five beliefs are individualization, critical thinking, self-determination, program effectiveness, and multifactor complexity. The research model includes conceptualize the problem, conduct research on the process of the problem, conceptualize and specify the intervention, evaluate intervention outcomes, evaluate intervention processes, determine person-by-treatment interactions, determine context-dependent limitations, and investigate factors related to intervention adoption maintenance. The eight steps are explained with reference to two research programs that used a randomized control group design. PMID:22467832

  17. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT THE US EPA'S GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this talk was to present an overview of research activities at the US EPA's Office of Research and Development, Gulf Ecology Division located on Pensacola Beach, Florida. The talk was organized into three major sections. The first section covered my educational b...

  18. ACTIVATED SLUDGE CLARIFIERS: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The literature review of 320 references was conducted in an EPA-funded project to identify the needs for further research on activated sludge clarifier design and performance. The findings were summarized in a report and used as a basis of a 3-day research needs symposium. The pr...

  19. Health and Physical Activity Research as Represented in RQES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2005-01-01

    In the past 75 years, articles in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) have contributed to the understanding of the role physical activity plays in the health of individuals and populations. Articles have described laboratory and community research studies in humans and animals, presented reviews of topics and conference proceedings,…

  20. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  1. Lear jet telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Goorvitch, D.; Dix, M. G.; Hitchman, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The telescope system was designed as a multi-user facility for observations of celestial objects at infrared wavelengths, where ground-based observations are difficult or impossible due to the effects of telluric atmospheric absorption. The telescope is mounted in a Lear jet model 24B which typically permits 70 min. of observing per flight at altitudes in excess of 45,000 ft (13 km). Telescope system installation is discussed, along with appropriate setup and adjustment procedures. Operation of the guidance system is also explained, and checklists are provided which pertain to the recommended safe operating and in-flight trouble-shooting procedures for the equipment.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,0000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  4. Ritchey-Chretien Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosin, S.; Amon, M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Ritchey-Chretien telescope is described which was designed to respond to images located off the optical axis by using two transparent flat plates positioned in the ray path of the image. The flat plates have a tilt angle relative to the ray path to compensate for astigmatism introduced by the telescope. The tilt angle of the plates is directly proportional to the off axis angle of the image. The plates have opposite inclination angles relative to the ray paths. A detector which is responsive to the optical image as transmitted through the plates is positioned approximately on the sagittal focus of the telescope.

  5. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  6. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Genet, David R.; Talent, David L.; Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler P.; Boyd, Louis J.; Trueblood, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  7. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  8. Design of Activities on Numerical Representations Based on Cognitive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalifatidou, Eleftheria R.

    2008-01-01

    The results of the cognitive research on numbers' representations can provide a sound theoretical framework to develop educational activities on representing numbers. A program of such activities for a nursery school was designed in order to enable the children to externalize and strengthen their internal representations about numerosity and link…

  9. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

  10. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  11. Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research: Interdisciplinary research and educational activities in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Innocenti, Federico; van Schaik, Ron H.; Lezhava, Alexander; Tzimas, Giannis; Kollia, Panagoula; Macek, Milan; Fortina, Paolo; Patrinos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    The Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research is an international non-profit scientific organization with interdisciplinary research and educational activities in the field of genome medicine in Europe, Asia and Latin America. These activities are supervised by an international scientific advisory council, consisting of world leaders in the field of genomics and translational medicine. Research activities include the regional coordination of the Pharmacogenomics for Every Nation Initiative in Europe, in an effort to integrate pharmacogenomics in developing countries, the development of several National/Ethnic Genetic databases and related web services and the critical assessment of the impact of genetics and genomic medicine to society in various countries. Also, educational activities include the organization of the Golden Helix Symposia®, which are high profile scientific research symposia in the field of personalized medicine, and the Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days, an international educational activity focused on pharmacogenomics, as part of its international pharmacogenomics education and outreach efforts. PMID:22379996

  12. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. Current and foreseeable launch vehicles will be limited to carrying around 4-5 meter diameter objects. Thus, if a large, filled-aperture telescope (6-20 meters in diameter) is to be placed in space, it will be required to have a deployable primary mirror. Such a mirror may be an inflatable membrane or a segmented mirror consisting of many smaller pieces. In any case, it is expected that the deployed primary will not be of sufficient quality to achieve diffraction-limited performance for its aperture size. Thus, an active optics system will be needed to correct for initial as well as environmentally-produced primary figure errors. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed considerable expertise in the area of active optics with the PAMELA test-bed. The combination of this experience along with the Marshall optical shop's work in mirror fabrication made MSFC the logical choice to lead NASA's effort to develop active optics technology for large, space-based, astronomical telescopes. Furthermore, UAH's support of MSFC in the areas of optical design, fabrication, and testing of space-based optical systems placed us in a key position to play a major role in the development of this future-generation telescope. A careful study of the active optics components had to be carried out in order to determine control segment size, segment quality, and segment controllability required to achieve diffraction-limited resolution with a given primary mirror. With this in mind, UAH undertook the following effort to provide NASA/MSFC with optical design and analysis support for the large telescope study. All of the work performed under this contract has already been reported, as a team member with MSFC, to NASA Headquarters in a series of presentations given between May and December of 1995. As specified on the delivery

  13. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaña, Alfredo; Vega, Olga; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Shi, Yong

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ′} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  14. Herschel far-infrared photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope active galactic nuclei sample of the local universe - II. SPIRE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Meléndez, Marcio; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Koss, Michael J.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2016-03-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory's Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) for 313 nearby (z < 0.05) active galactic nuclei (AGN). We selected AGN from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalogue, the result of an all-sky survey in the 14-195 keV energy band, allowing for a reduction in AGN selection effects due to obscuration and host galaxy contamination. We find 46 per cent (143/313) of our sample is detected at all three wavebands and combined with our Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations represents the most complete FIR spectral energy distributions of local, moderate-luminosity AGN. We find no correlation among the 250, 350, and 500 μm luminosities with 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating the bulk of the FIR emission is not related to the AGN. However, Seyfert 1s do show a very weak correlation with X-ray luminosity compared to Seyfert 2s and we discuss possible explanations. We compare the SPIRE colours (F250/F350 and F350/F500) to a sample of normal star-forming galaxies, finding the two samples are statistically similar, especially after matching in stellar mass. But a colour-colour plot reveals a fraction of the Herschel-BAT AGN are displaced from the normal star-forming galaxies due to excess 500 μm emission (E500). Our analysis shows E500 is strongly correlated with the 14-195 keV luminosity and 3.4/4.6 μm flux ratio, evidence the excess is related to the AGN. We speculate these sources are experiencing millimetre excess emission originating in the corona of the accretion disc.

  15. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SAMPLE OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE. I. EMISSION-LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth, E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.; Armus, L.

    2010-06-20

    We compare mid-infrared emission-line properties from high-resolution Spitzer spectra of a hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission lines, [O IV] 25.89 {mu}m, [Ne II] 12.81 {mu}m, [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m, and [Ne V] 14.32/24.32 {mu}m, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations; however, six newly discovered BAT AGNs are under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT fluxes and luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGNs. We also compare the mid-infrared emission lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of ULIRGs, Palomar-Green quasars, star-forming galaxies, and LINERs. We find that the BAT AGN sample falls into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] ratios. These line ratios are lower in sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGNs than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGNs represent the main contribution to the observed line emission. These ratios represent a new emission line diagnostic for distinguishing between AGNs and star-forming galaxies.

  16. Merger-driven fueling of active galactic nuclei: Six dual and of AGNs discovered with Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope observations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Comerford, Julia M.; Pooley, David; Barrows, R. Scott; Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Madejski, Greg M.; Cooper, Michael C.

    2015-06-19

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and offset AGNs are kpc-scale separation supermassive black holes pairs created during galaxy mergers, where both or one of the black holes are AGNs, respectively. These dual and offset AGNs are valuable probes of the link between mergers and AGNs but are challenging to identify. Here we present Chandra/ACIS observations of 12 optically selected dual AGN candidates atmore » $$z\\lt 0.34$$, where we use the X-rays to identify AGNs. We also present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 observations of 10 of these candidates, which reveal any stellar bulges accompanying the AGNs. We discover a dual AGN system with separation $${\\rm \\Delta }x=2.2$$ kpc, where the two stellar bulges have coincident [O iii] λ5007 and X-ray sources. This system is an extremely minor merger (460:1) that may include a dwarf galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole. We also find six single AGNs, and five systems that are either dual or offset AGNs with separations $${\\rm \\Delta }x\\lt 10$$ kpc. Four of the six dual AGNs and dual/offset AGNs are in ongoing major mergers, and these AGNs are 10 times more luminous, on average, than the single AGNs in our sample. This hints that major mergers may preferentially trigger higher luminosity AGNs. Further, we find that confirmed dual AGNs have hard X-ray luminosities that are half of those of single AGNs at fixed [O III] λ5007 luminosity, on average. Lastly, this could be explained by high densities of gas funneled to galaxy centers during mergers, and emphasizes the need for deeper X-ray observations of dual AGN candidates.« less

  17. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  18. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a sky full of glittering jewels. The HST peered into the Sagittarius star cloud, a narrow dust free region, providing this spectacular glimpse of a treasure chest full of stars.

  20. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  1. Building a Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linas, Chris F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on the parts, materials, prices, dimensions, and tools needed for the construction of a telescope that can be used in high school science laboratories. Includes step-by-step directions and a diagram for assembly. (RT)

  2. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  3. Seismic analysis of the LSST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Douglas R.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be located on the seismically active Chilean mountain of Cerro Pachón. The accelerations resulting from seismic events produce the most demanding load cases the telescope and its components must withstand. Seismic ground accelerations were applied to a comprehensive finite element analysis (FEA) model which included the telescope, its pier and the mountain top. Response accelerations for specific critical components (camera and secondary mirror assembly) on the telescope were determined by applying seismic accelerations in the form of Power Spectral Densities (PSD) to the FEA model. The PSDs were chosen based on the components design lives. Survival level accelerations were determined utilizing PSDs for seismic events with return periods 10 times the telescope's design life which is equivalent to a 10% chance of occurring over the lifetime. Since the telescope has a design life of 30 years it was analyzed for a return period of 300 years. Operational level seismic accelerations were determined using return periods of 5 times the lifetimes. Since the seismic accelerations provided by the Chilean design codes were provided in the form of Peak Spectral Accelerations (PSA), a method to convert between the two forms was developed. The accelerations are also affected by damping level. The LSST incorporates added damping to meets its rapid slew and settle requirements. This added damping also reduces the components' seismic accelerations. The analysis was repeated for the telescope horizon and zenith pointing. Closed form solutions were utilized to verify the results.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  5. Optical tracking telescope compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    In order to minimize the effects of parameter variations in the dynamics of an optical tracking telescope, a model referenced parameter adaptive control system is described that - in conjunction with more traditional forms of compensation - achieves a reduction of rms pointing error by more than a factor of six. The adaptive compensation system utilizes open loop compensation, closed loop compensation, and model reference compensation to provide the precise input to force telescope axis velocity to follow the ideal velocity.

  6. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  7. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity research in people with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; Du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Diedens, Jolien; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence illustrating the benefits of physical activity for people with binge eating disorder, engaging this population in physical activity is challenging. The International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health (IOPTMH) set out to summarize, appraise, and strengthen the direction of physical activity endeavors. This process led to the identification of 10 important research questions which are discussed. Addressing these 10 research questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in people with binge eating disorder. PMID:26694684

  8. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  9. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    How can science teachers become more familiar with emerging technology, excite their students and give students a taste of astronomy research? Astronomy teachers do not always have research experience, so it is difficult for them to convey to students how researchers use telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier to providing teachers with insight into the process. Robotic telescopes (operated automatically with queued observing schedules) and remotely controlled telescopes (controlled by the user via the Internet) allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), and middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005). However, teachers need to be trained to use these resources. Responding to this need, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are developing teacher professional development programs using Internet-based telescopes. We conducted an online course in the science education graduate program at the University of Wyoming. This course was designed to sample different types of Internet-based telescopes to evaluate them as resources for teacher professional development. The 10 participants were surveyed at the end of the course to assess their experiences with each activity. In addition, pre-test/post-test data were collected focusing specifically on one of the telescopes (Gershun, Berryhill and Slater 2012). Throughout the course, the participants learned to use a variety of robotic and remote telescopes including SLOOH Space Camera (www.slooh.com), Sky Titan Observatory (www

  10. Telescope protection algorithm for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, B. F.; Welch, R. V.; Wiltsee, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a proposed on-board Telescope Protection Algorithm (TPA) for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This TPA consists of hardware and software capable of performing both fail-operational and fail-safe modes of operation. In the fail-operational mode, each ephemeris load and slew/dwell command sequence is checked on-board before use. The slew command monitor detects unallowable slew/dwell commands and transfers control to an algorithm which slews to and maintains a safe telescope orientation while preserving precise attitude determination and control. This fail-operational mode is also given the authority to autonomously restart the slew/dwell sequence at a point beyond the faulty command. The fail-safe system consists of software and hardware which detects impending earth, moon, or sun avoidance zone violations and activates a backup hardware safe hold mode. The subject TPA and relevant sensor complement were designed for the SIRTF mission; however, this system can easily be used as a basis for failure detection and correction in a wide range of other missions.

  11. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  12. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  13. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Education in the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Rachel J.; Geibink, W.; Rosing, W. E.; Brown, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network is a privately funded, non-profit organization that is constructing two overlapping networks of robotic telescopes for scientific and educational uses. The educational network will consist of at least thirty 0.4 1.0 meter telescopes that will be longitudinally spaced around the world so that there will always be at least one (more likely several) in the dark at any given time. All will be equipped with high quality CCD imagers, with the 1.0 meters having spectrographs and possible infrared capabilities. All networked telescopes will have identical, completely online interfaces that allow you to control the telescope and use different imaging instruments in either real-time or queued modes. Any registered school or group will have the capability to remotely observe using a telescope that is currently in the dark from the comfort of their classroom or science center, half a world away. Accompanying the robotic observations will be a library of resources and activities that will be usable in the formal classroom setting, informal groups and clubs, and for public outreach in the community for all age-groups and levels of science. Using the LCOGT network as a tool to enjoy real astronomical research will not only create a new awareness for science and technology, but also create connections between science and humanities. We aim to always keep astronomy education in the dark.

  14. MSFC Reviews Data from the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) During STS-35 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo captures the activity of BBKRT data review in the Science Operations Area during the mission.

  15. Engaging Undergraduate Students in Research Activities: Are Research Universities Doing a Better Job?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping; Kuh, George D.; Gayles, Joy Gaston

    2007-01-01

    Engaging undergraduate students in research activities has been advocated as an innovative strategy to improve American higher education (Boyer Commission, "Reinventing undergraduate education: A blueprint for America's research universities." The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Stony Brook, NY, 1998). This study compared the…

  16. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  17. Using Research Cruise Data to Improve Group Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Group activities can be used to create an interactive classroom learning environment. POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to new content. These activities have primarily been developed for chemistry courses, using general information in the model. New activities have been developed for an environmental chemistry course using real-world data as the model. The data used for one of these activities were collected during a research cruise in the Pacific Ocean. Halocarbons were measured in surface seawater and the overlying atmosphere as part of a research study on the natural cycling of compounds involved in ozone depletion. The coupled air and water measurements are used to help students learn about the solubility of gases in water. Students are first given a graph of atmospheric mixing ratios as a function of latitude for several halocarbons and then asked to predict what the corresponding graph of seawater concentrations will look like. The students are then guided through the interpretation of the seawater concentration graph. Plotting the data as a function of latitude enables the discussion of the temperature dependence of the solubility. This activity will be presented as an example of how research data can be incorporated into a classroom module. The effectiveness of this approach will be discussed.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  20. The CELSS research program - A brief review of recent activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Tremor, J.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Gale, J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program, initiated by NASA in the late 1970s to explore the use of bioregenerative methods of life support, is reviewed. The project focused on examining the process involved in converting inorganic minerals and gases into life support materials using sunlight as the primary energy source. The research, planning, and technological development required by the CELSS program and conducted at NASA field centers, at various universities, and by commercial organizations are reviewed. Research activities at universities have focused upon exploring methods of reducing the size of the system, reducing system power requirements, understanding issues that are associated with its long-term stability, and identifying new technologies that might be useful in improving its efficiency. Research activities at Ames research center have focused on the use of common duckweed as a high biomass-producing plant, which is high in protein and on waste processing.

  1. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  2. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will operate within the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy between 5 and 29 microns. The scientific investigations described here define the measurement capabilities of the telescope, but they do not imply that those particular observations will be made. JWST is a facility-class mission, so most of the observing time will be allocated to investigators from the international astronomical community through competitively-selected proposals.

  4. New Brunswick nurses' views on nursing research, and factors influencing their research activities in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Robichaud-Ekstrand, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    New Brunswick became the first province in Canada to require a baccalaureate degree in nursing as the entry to practice, yet nursing research in hospital settings remains quite low. This study examined clinical nurses' views on nursing research, and identified some contributing factors to the research-practice gap. This descriptive, cross-sectional multicenter study involved 1081 nurses working in the Francophone Regional Health Authority in New Brunswick, Canada. Nurses were eager to identify nursing-care problems to improve patient care (92.9%), and to be involved in collecting data for nursing research studies (95.2%). However, without research supervision, few had engaged in basic research activities, such as formulating or refining research questions (24.5%), presenting at research conferences (6.9%), or changing their practice based on research findings (27.2%). Younger, more educated nurses, nurse managers, and educators participated more readily in research. Sharing research and clinical expertise, as well as infrastructures between academic and clinical institutions is the key to enduring successful patient-centered nursing research in clinical settings. Concrete actions are proposed to build clinical nursing research. PMID:26822438

  5. Snapshot of Active Flow Control Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, A. E.; Gorton, S. Althoff; Anders, S. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Langley is aggressively investigating the potential advantages of active flow control as opposed to more traditional aerodynamic techniques. Many of these techniques will be blended with advanced materials and structures to further enhance payoff. Therefore a multi-disciplinary approach to technology development is being attempted that includes researchers from the more historical disciplines of fluid mechanics. acoustics, material science, structural mechanics, and control theory. The overall goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids rather than on specific engineering problems. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several programs such as the Morphing Project under Breakthrough Vehicle Technologies Program (BVT). the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEET), and the 21st Century Aircraft Technology Program (TCAT) is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research, as part of the fundamental NASA R and D (research and development) program. will be demonstrated as either bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight tests. Later they will be transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD (Department of Defense), and U.S. industry.

  6. Research on the Nature of Accretion in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    he purpose of this grant was to support theoretical research on the nature of accretion in active galactic nuclei. In the brief time of the award (one year), four papers that appeared in refereed journals were written, as well as two invited reviews in conference proceedings These papers significantly advanced our understanding of the structure of the most important parts of bright accretion disks around accreting black holes, such as active galactic nuclei.

  7. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. Teachers are generally not trained in observational astronomy techniques and are unfamiliar with the most basic astronomical concepts. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The problem becomes even more challenging in inner cities, remote rural areas and low socioeconomic communities where educational emphasis on topics in astronomy as well as access to observing facilities is limited or non existent. Access to most optical telescope facilities is limited to monthly observing nights that cater to a small percentage of the general public living near the observatory. Even here, the observing experience is a one-time event detached from the process of scientific enquiry and sustained educational application. Additionally, a number of large, "research grade" observatory facilities are largely unused, partially due to the slow creep of light pollution around the facilities as well as the development of newer, more capable telescopes. Though cutting edge science is often no longer possible at these sights, real research opportunities in astronomy remain numerous for these facilities as educational tools. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible through classrooms, after school, and community based programs all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA sponsored Telescopes In Education project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy

  8. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  9. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  10. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. PMID:26447061

  11. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE FLARING ACTIVITY OF PKS 1510-089 BETWEEN 2008 SEPTEMBER AND 2009 JUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Antolini, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Berdyugin, A. E-mail: enrico.massaro@uniroma1.i

    2010-10-01

    We report on the multi-wavelength observations of PKS 1510-089 (a flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) at z = 0.361) during its high activity period between 2008 September and 2009 June. During this 11 month period, the source was characterized by a complex variability at optical, UV, and {gamma}-ray bands, on timescales down to 6-12 hr. The brightest {gamma}-ray isotropic luminosity, recorded on 2009 March 26, was {approx_equal}2 x 10{sup 48} erg s{sup -1}. The spectrum in the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range shows a mild curvature described well by a log-parabolic law, and can be understood as due to the Klein-Nishina effect. The {gamma}-ray flux has a complex correlation with the other wavelengths. There is no correlation at all with the X-ray band, a weak correlation with the UV, and a significant correlation with the optical flux. The {gamma}-ray flux seems to lead the optical one by about 13 days. From the UV photometry, we estimated a black hole mass of {approx_equal}5.4 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} and an accretion rate of {approx_equal}0.5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Although the power in the thermal and non-thermal outputs is smaller compared to the very luminous and distant FSRQs, PKS 1510-089 exhibits a quite large Compton dominance and a prominent big blue bump (BBB) as observed in the most powerful {gamma}-ray quasars. The BBB was still prominent during the historical maximum optical state in 2009 May, but the optical/UV spectral index was softer than in the quiescent state. This seems to indicate that the BBB was not completely dominated by the synchrotron emission during the highest optical state. We model the broadband spectrum assuming a leptonic scenario in which the inverse Compton emission is dominated by the scattering of soft photons produced externally to the jet. The resulting model-dependent jet energetic content is compatible with a scenario in which the jet is powered by the accretion disk, with a total efficiency within the Kerr black hole

  12. Adjustment of a tower solar telescope and spectrograph: A method manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanian, N. N.; Sunitsa, G. A.; Malashchuk, V. M.

    2014-06-01

    Questions of the mounting and adjustment of a tower solar telescope are considered through the example of the TST-2 telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory Scientific Research Institute. The authors describe the optical circuits of the telescope and spectrograph and list the basic requirements for the mutual arrangement of individual components of the telescope. Simple methods for adjusting elements of the telescope and spectrograph are described.

  13. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2010-01-01

    The ATA is a 42-element centimeter wavelength array located in Hat Creek, California and jointly operated by UC Berkeley Radio Astronomy Laboratory and the SETI Institute. Since the ATA dedication in Fall 2007, activities have been focused on commissioning the array, retrofitting a handful of components including the feed, developing an operations model, creation of pipeline processing for correlator imaging data, early science observations, and launching of the major surveys for which the telescope was built. The retrofit of the feed improves feed mechanical robustness as well as high frequency performance. Science programs launched include imaging radio transient and static sky surveys (ATATS and PiGSS), commensal SETI and transient surveys of the Galactic Center, targeted SETI observations of nearby stars, the Fly's Eye transient survey, broadband spectra of nearby star-forming galaxies, polarimetric observations of bright radio sources, observations of hydrogen in nearby galaxies and galaxy groups, molecular line observations in the Galaxy, and observations of Jupiter and the Moon. The baseline Square Kilometer Array (SKA) design, a large-N-small-diameter (LNSD) array with wide-band single-pixel feeds and an offset Gregorian antenna, bears a strong resemblance to the ATA. Additional ATA contributions to the SKA include configuration studies for LNSD arrays, the use of fiber optics for broadband data transmission, the use of flexible FPGA-based digital electronics, passive cooling of antennas, and implementation of commensal observing modes. The ATA is currently used for exploration of calibration and imaging algorithms necessary for the SKA. I will summarize current technical status and performance, the results from early science and surveys, and ATA contributions to SKA development.

  14. Using Telescopic Observations to Mentor High School Students in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, Kevin M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2011-03-01

    Over the past two summers (2009/2010) the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University has sponsored local high school students in a summer science internship program at the University. The students, chosen from Sonoma County high schools in a competitive selection process, work in various STEM fields throughout the School of Science and Technology at SSU. The two interns sponsored by the E/PO Group each summer use GORT, the NASA/Fermi-sponsored robotic observatory operated by the Group, to monitor active galaxies. They are mentored in their projects by E/PO Group personnel and by SSU undergraduates who have experience with the telescope. The students learn about the sky, telescopes and the active galaxies they observe. They also learn how to make telescopic observations and how to reduce the CCD images obtained. Interns also participate in weekly meetings with other interns working on different projects around campus. At the end of the summer all the interns present their research results at a symposium held on campus.The symposium is attended by the interns themselves, their parents and sponsoring high school science teachers, and university faculty and administrators.The program has had a positive impact on how our interns view science, as reported by themselves, and specifically on their view of astronomy, in the first year of the program.

  15. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  16. Wind responses of Giant Magellan telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irarrazaval, Benjamin; Buleri, Christine; Johns, Matt

    2014-08-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is 25 meter diameter extremely large ground based infrared/optical telescope being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4 meter diameter borosilicate mirror segments. Two seven segment Gregorian secondary mirror systems will be built; an Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM) to support adaptive optics modes and a Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) with monolithic segments to support natural seeing modes when the ASM is being serviced. Wind excitation results in static deformation and vibration in the telescope structure that affects alignment and image jitter performance. The telescope mount will reject static and lower frequency windshake, while each of the Faststeering Secondary Mirror (FSM) segments will be used to compensate for the higher frequency wind-shake, up to 20 Hz. Using a finite element model of the GMT, along with CFD modeling of the wind loading on the telescope structure, wind excitation scenarios were created to study the performance of the FSM and telescope against wind-induced jitter. A description of the models, methodology and results of the analyses are presented.

  17. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-01

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced. PMID:27505830

  18. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  19. Activities report of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research in fluid dynamics and acoustics (noise and vibration control); audiology and human effects (audiotory communication and hearing conservation); structures and machinery (automotive design); and shock analysis is summarized. Underwater acoustics; active noise control; aircraft noise; wind turbine noise; laminar flow fans; helmet design; and the acoustics of flow ducts were studied.

  20. Advanced aerodynamics and active controls. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic and active control concepts for application to commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Selected topics include in flight direct strike lightning research, triply redundant digital fly by wire control systems, tail configurations, winglets, and the drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) program.

  1. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  2. Citation Networks as Indicators of Journalism Research Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews citation networks and discovers that the six major areas of activity in mass communication research are (1) television and politics, (2) sociological studies of journalists, (3) agenda setting, (4) the effects of mass communication, (5) the credibility of various news media, and (6) the characteristics of users and nonusers of mass media.…

  3. International Directory of IYF Research Activities [with] Supplement 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Family Studies, Melbourne.

    This directory is aimed at increasing understanding of functions and problems of families, by providing information on research activities which fall within the goals of the International Year of the Family (IYF) initiative. Compiled through a cooperative effort of the Australian Institute of Family Studies and The United Nations Secretariat for…

  4. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    This report is meant to highlight the activities of the 2003 field season, as well as to provide a general overview of the data collected. More in-depth data analysis will be conducted following the conclusion of each I phase of the research project, and in many cases will not be possible until several seasons of data are collected.

  5. Fathers' Activities with Their Kids. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.; Michelsen, Erik A.; Halle, Tamara G.; Moore, Kristin A.

    One of the critical elements of children's healthy development is the participation of parents in important activities in their children's lives. This research brief reports on the involvement of fathers in their children's lives. The brief focuses on the involvement of fathers who live with their children, including single fathers raising their…

  6. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  7. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Co-Investigator Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, Donna

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this contract has been to support investigation of astronomical problems primarily using data from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As a Co-investigator on STIS, I participated in several projects, which will be described below. The research resulted in 19 papers in refereed journals, 8 papers published in conference proceedings, and 27 papers presented at meetings. There are still at least four papers submitted or in press, as well as some additional research yet to be written up for publication. The research has also produced one master's thesis and two PhD dissertations currently underway, with one to be completed Spring 2003. Undergraduates have participated in the analysis of supporting observations. One student has published some of his results in a web- based refereed publication for undergraduate research (www.jyi.org). I have given several talks to the general public describing results from the HST as well as the results of my research. I have been named the UNLV Regents' Outstanding Faculty Member for 1995 and received the 2002 College of Science Distinguished Researcher's Award as a result of these activities.

  8. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  9. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  10. Telescoping tube assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Albert J. (Inventor); Marrinan, Thomas E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An extensible and retractable telescoping tube positions test devices that inspect large stationary objects. The tube has three dimensional adjustment capabilities and is vertically suspended from a frame. The tube sections are independently supported with each section comprising U-shaped housing secured to a thicker support plate. Guide mechanisms preferably mounted only to the thicker plates guide each tube section parallel to a reference axis with improved accuracy so that the position of the remote end of the telescoping tube is precisely known.

  11. Apollo Telescope Mount Thermal Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM thermal unit being tested in MSFC's building 4619. The thermal unit consisted of an active fluid-cooling system of water and methanol that was circulated to radiators on the outside of the canister. The thermal unit provided temperature stability to the ultrahigh resolution optical instruments that were part of the ATM.

  12. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  13. Pixel telescope test in STAR at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiangming; Szelezniak, Michal; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Vu, Chinh; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Wieman, Howard

    2007-10-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is designing a new inner vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT). The HFT's innermost two layers is called the PIXEL detector which uses Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor technology (MAPS). To test the MAPS technology, we just constructed and tested a telescope. The telescope uses a stack of three MIMOSTAR2 chips, Each MIMOSTAR2 sensor, which was designed by IPHC, is an array of 132x128 pixels with a square pixel size of 30 μ. The readout of the telescope makes use of the ALICE DDL/SIU cards, which is compatible with the future STAR data acquisition system called DAQ1000. The telescope was first studied in a 1.2 GeV/c electron beam at LBNL's Advanced Light Source. Afterwards, the telescope was outside the STAR magnet, and then later inside it, 145 cm away from STAR's center. We will describe this first test of MAPS technology in a collider environment, and report on the occupancy, particle flux, and performance of the telescope.

  14. Telescopes from the Ground Up: Producing a history of science lesson in a technology-rich environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knisely, L.; Eisenhamer, J.; Cordes, K.; Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    The production process for the newest Amazing Space Online Exploration, "Telescopes from the Ground Up," required a team of professionals, including educators, scientists, graphic artists, writers, and programmers, to blend science, history, and technology into a story rich with people and their discoveries. Using the original Amazing Space lesson, "Galileo to Hubble," as a basis, the team began identifying national science and technology standards that could be addressed by the activity. Research was then conducted to span the history of telescope development from Galileo's small refractor to NASA's Great Observatories. Capitalizing on the expertise of each team member, the lesson evolved to reflect the many components of telescope development. The poster provides a detailed look at how the production team intermingled the concepts of science understanding, technological advancements, astronomical discoveries, and the people who made them into a comprehensive look at telescope history.

  15. Practical considerations for pointing a binocular telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Peña, Michele D.; Terrett, David L.; Thompson, David; Biddick, Christopher J.

    2010-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) consists of two 8.4-meter primary mirrors on a common mount. When the telescope is complete, to complement the two primaries there will be two 0.9-meter adaptive secondaries and two tertiary mirror flats that all work to support a variety of Gregorian focal stations, as well as prime focus. A fundamental goal of the telescope is to perform interferometric observations, and therefore, there is a critical need for the ability to co-point the individual telescopes to high precision. Further, a unique aspect of the LBT is the comparatively large range over which the optics can be adjusted which provides flexibility for the acquisition of targets. In the most general case, an observer could be performing an observation using different targets, within constraints, with different instruments on each of the two telescope sides, with different observing duty cycles. As a consequence of the binocular nature of the telescope and the number of possible observing combinations, there are unique requirements imposed on the Telescope Control System (TCS), and in particular, on the Pointing Control Subsystem (PCS). It is the responsibility of the PCS to arbitrate the pointing requests made on the two sides of the telescope by the observers, incorporate guide updates, and generate tracking trajectories for the mount and the rotators, in conjunction with providing tip/tilt demands on the subsystem controlling the optical elements, and ensure each target remains on the specified location (i.e., pointing origin) in the focal plane during an active observation. This paper describes the current design and implementation of the LBT PCS.

  16. The Iowa Robotic Telescope Facility: Lessons from Five Years of Robotic Telescope Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutel, R. L.

    2003-05-01

    The University of Iowa has operated a robotic telescope facility (Iowa Robotic Telescope Facility, IRTF) in southern Arizona since 1998. There are currently two telescopes (0.37m and 0.5m) in operation, with imaging CCD cameras, filter wheels, and an uncooled 2048-channel spectrometer. The facility is scheduled and administered from Iowa City using web-based tools. It is operated primarily by and for undergraduate and graduate students. We typically acquire 500-600 images from each telescope every clear night. Each image is CCD-calibrated and has an astrometric solution applied immediately after the exposure is completed. The IRTF web site (http://phobos.physics.uiowa.edu) reports statistical summaries of observing conditions (seeing, weather, image summaries by observer code) for each night's observing. The IRTF has been in routine operation for over five years, and has produced more than 100,000 images. It has been used in laboratory research projects by more than 3,000 undergraduate students and by several graduate students for M.S. theses. It has also been used for faculty research, resulting in several peer-reviewed research papers. In this talk, I will address four issues related to robotic telescopes based on our experience with the IRTF: 1. What hardware and software challenges need to be overcome to operate a robotic telescope reliably using non-professional observers (i.e. undergraduates)? 2. What are the software and hardware design criteria needed for reliable, user-friendly scheduling and image acquisition? 3. What types of undergraduate astronomical laboratory projects can be done with a robotic telescope? 4. What types of scientific research can be done using small robotic telescope facilities? The IRTF is supported by the National Science Foundation and the University of Iowa.

  17. The Research Assessment Exercise and Motivation: A Note on the Difference in the Impact on the Active Researchers and the Non-Active.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed British academics, hypothesizing that the effect of Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) on individual academics is dependent on their self-assessed level of research activity. Found that the RAE's effect does appear to be dependent on level of research activity, with moderately active researchers the most influenced to increase…

  18. Research Activities at Plasma Research Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. P.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2000-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's requirements for the rapid development and validation of future generation electronic devices as well as associated materials and processes, enabling technologies are being developed at NASA-Ames Research Center using a multi-discipline approach. The first step is to understand the basic physics of the chemical reactions in the area of plasma reactors and processes. Low pressure glow discharges are indispensable in the fabrication of microelectronic circuits. These plasmas are used to deposit materials and also etch fine features in device fabrication. However, many plasma-based processes suffer from stability and reliability problems leading to a compromise in performance and a potentially increased cost for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Although a great deal of laboratory-scale research has been performed on many of these processing plasmas, little is known about the gas-phase and surface chemical reactions that are critical in many etch and deposition processes, and how these reactions are influenced by the variation in operating conditions. Such a lack of understanding has hindered the development of process models that can aid in the scaling and improvement of plasma etch and deposition systems. Our present research involves the study of such plasmas. An inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) source in place of the standard upper electrode assembly of the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) radio-frequency (RF) Reference Cell is used to investigate the discharge characteristics. This ICP source generates plasmas with higher electron densities and lower operating pressures than obtainable with the original parallel-plate version of the GEC Cell. This expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma systems being used by the microelectronics industry. The research goal is to develop an understanding of the physical phenomena involved in plasma processing and to measure much needed fundamental

  19. Actuated Hybrid Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Ealey, Mark; Redding, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new, large, ultra-lightweight, replicated, actively controlled mirrors, for use in space telescopes. These mirrors utilize SiC substrates, with embedded solid-state actuators, bonded to Nanolaminate metal foil reflective surfaces. Called Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AHMs), they use replication techniques for high optical quality as well as rapid, low cost manufacturing. They enable an Active Optics space telescope architecture that uses periodic image-based wavefront sensing and control to assure diffraction-limited performance, while relaxing optical system fabrication, integration and test requirements. The proposed International Space Station Observatory seeks to demonstrate this architecture in space.

  20. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  1. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome 'Aperture Envy'.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-07-01

    Many users of small telescopes are disturbed by the trend of shutting down smaller instruments in order to help fund bigger and bolder ground-based telescopes. Small telescopes can thrive in the shadow of giant new observatories, they say--but only if they are adapted to specialized projects. Telescopes with apertures of 2 meters or less have unique abilities to monitor broad swaths of the sky and stare at the same objects night after night, sometimes for years; various teams are turning small telescopes into robots, creating networks that span the globe and devoting them to survey projects that big telescopes don't have a prayer of tackling. PMID:17832960

  2. Evolution of accelerometer methods for physical activity research

    PubMed Central

    Troiano, Richard P.; McClain, James J.; Brychta, Robert J.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2014-01-01

    The technology and application of current accelerometer-based devices in physical activity (PA) research allow the capture and storage or transmission of large volumes of raw acceleration signal data. These rich data provide opportunities to improve physical activity characterization, but also bring logistical and analytic challenges. We discuss how researchers and developers from multiple disciplines are responding to the analytic challenges and how advances in data storage, transmission, and big data computing will minimize logistical challenges. These new approaches also bring the need for several paradigm shifts for PA researchers, including a shift from count-based approaches and regression calibrations for PA energy expenditure (EE) estimation to activity characterization and EE estimation based on features extracted from raw acceleration signals. Furthermore, a collaborative approach toward analytic methods is proposed to facilitate PA research, which requires a shift away from multiple independent calibration studies. Finally, we make the case for a distinction between PA represented by accelerometer-based devices and PA assessed by self-report. PMID:24782483

  3. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  4. Earth Science Big Data Activities at Research Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Baumann, Peter; Evans, Ben; Riedel, Morris

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation we introduce Earth science related activities of the Big Data Interest Group (BDIG) in Research Data Alliance (RDA). "RDA is an international organization focused on the development of infrastructure and community activities that reduce barriers to data sharing and exchange, and the acceleration of data driven innovation worldwide." The participation of researchers in RDA is voluntary. As the name implies, an Interest Group is a collection of participants sharing the same interest. The BDIG seeks to address community needs on all things having to do with Big Data. The ultimate goal of RDA Big Data Interest Group is to produce a set of recommendation documents to advise diverse research communities with respect to: • How to select an appropriate Big Data solution for a particular science application to realize optimal value? and • What are the best practices in dealing with various data and computing issues associated with such a solution? The primary means to reaching such recommendations is through the establishment and work of Working Groups, each of which focuses on a specific issue. Although BDIG is not specific to Earth science, its recent activities revolve mostly around it. We introduce some of these activities that are designed to advance our knowledge and to characterize Big Data in Earth science.

  5. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  6. The Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.

    2011-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  7. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration. PMID:26368753

  8. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  9. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests that... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research...

  10. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests that... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research...

  11. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  12. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Education in the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. J.

    2011-09-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is creating a network of telescopes to be placed around the world providing 24/7 sky coverage of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These telescopes will range in size from 0.4 m to 2.0 m and will be available for scientific and educational uses in both real-time and in a queue-scheduler. The educational uses of LCOGT will be primarily online through our website (http://www.lcogt.net) where there will be how-to guides, ideas for activities, opportunities for participating in research projects with our astronomers, full access to the public archive, as well as an online community built through forums and groups. Content will be visible to all, although registered users will have the ability to add resources, post on blogs and forums, comment and rate existing pages and resources, collaborate in world-wide projects, and much more. The current network includes the two 2.0 m Faulkes Telescopes on Haleakala, Maui and at Siding Spring, Australia. A 0.8 m telescope located at Sedgwick Reserve in the Santa Ynez Valley is nearly commissioned and will be used both for local outreach events as well as on the LCOGT network. The first pair of 0.4 m telescopes has been deployed to Maui and are enclosed inside the clamshell dome with Faulkes Telescope North (FTN), but still have some time to go before they are fully commissioned. The site in Chile is currently being prepped for three 1.0 m and two pairs of 0.4 m telescopes with the site in South Africa to follow shortly. Other sites include the Canary Islands, a site in North America, one in Asia, and another site in Australia. The 0.4 m telescopes will be deployed by pair and the 1.0 m telescopes will be deployed in groups of two or three, all with research-grade instrumentation.

  13. Research study on stabilization and control. Modern sampled-data control theory: Stability analysis of the low cost large space telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1975-01-01

    The pointing stability of the low-cost large space telescope (LST) system was investigated. The low-cost LST is characterized by the use of reaction wheels for the generation of control torques. Because of the critical requirement on the pointing accuracy of the LST, the nonlinear frictional characteristics of the bearings of the reaction wheels were studied which can cause limit cycles in a closed-loop system. Another possible source of pointing error in the LST is due to the effect of quantization and sensor noise. Since the LST is a digital system, digital to analog and analog to digital converters and sensors for positional and rate feedbacks were used. Sensor noise and amplitude quantization causes pointing error in the LST and, in addition, quantization is a nonlinear phenomenon which can cause self-sustained oscillations in the closed-loop system. The dynamic modeling of the single-axis LST is described, and several methods of evaluating the attitude error of the digital LST due to quantization and noise inputs are given.

  14. The Australia Telescope Project - Going along nicely, thank you

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteoak, J. B.

    The Australia Telescope is an advanced radio astronomy facility planned to satisfy the major research requirements of Australian scientists. The construction project, begun in 1983, is now well along the way to completion as an Australian Bicentennial activity. The civil works at the main Culgoora site are complete. The construction of the seven 22-m antennas has begun: the first will be handed over in November 1986 and the last a year later. Most others areas of the project, feed construction, receiver construction, computer development, etc., are on schedule.

  15. Recent Activities at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Fred W; Bannister, Mark E; Hale, Jerry W; Havener, C C; Krause, Herbert F; Vane, C Randy; Deng, Shihu; Draganic, Ilija N; Harris, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent activities at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) are summarized. A brief summary of the MIRF high voltage (HV) platform and floating beam line upgrade is provided. An expansion of our research program to the use of molecular ion beams in heavy-particle and electron collisions, as well as in ion-surface interactions is described, and a brief description is provided of the most recently added Ion Cooling and Characterization End-station (ICCE) trap. With the expansion to include molecular ion beams, the acronym MIRF for the facility, however, remains unchanged: M can now refer to either Multicharged or Molecular.

  16. Research Activities at Fermilab for Big Data Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Wu, Wenji; Kim, Hyun W; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Dykstra, Dave; Slyz, Marko; DeMar, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation of 100GE Networking Infrastructure is the next step towards management of Big Data. Being the US Tier-1 Center for the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment and the central data center for several other large-scale research collaborations, Fermilab has to constantly deal with the scaling and wide-area distribution challenges of the big data. In this paper, we will describe some of the challenges involved in the movement of big data over 100GE infrastructure and the research activities at Fermilab to address these challenges.

  17. Computer Science Research Institute 2004 annual report of activities.

    SciTech Connect

    DeLap, Barbara J.; Womble, David Eugene; Ceballos, Deanna Rose

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories during the period January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. During this period the CSRI hosted 166 visitors representing 81 universities, companies and laboratories. Of these 65 were summer students or faculty. The CSRI partially sponsored 2 workshops and also organized and was the primary host for 4 workshops. These 4 CSRI sponsored workshops had 140 participants--74 from universities, companies and laboratories, and 66 from Sandia. Finally, the CSRI sponsored 14 long-term collaborative research projects and 5 Sabbaticals.

  18. Computer Science Research Institute 2005 annual report of activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Bernadette M.; Collis, Samuel Scott; Ceballos, Deanna Rose; Womble, David Eugene

    2008-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories during the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. During this period, the CSRI hosted 182 visitors representing 83 universities, companies and laboratories. Of these, 60 were summer students or faculty. The CSRI partially sponsored 2 workshops and also organized and was the primary host for 3 workshops. These 3 CSRI sponsored workshops had 105 participants, 78 from universities, companies and laboratories, and 27 from Sandia. Finally, the CSRI sponsored 12 long-term collaborative research projects and 3 Sabbaticals.

  19. Computer Science Research Institute 2003 annual report of activities.

    SciTech Connect

    DeLap, Barbara J.; Womble, David Eugene; Ceballos, Deanna Rose

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories during the period January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003. During this period the CSRI hosted 164 visitors representing 78 universities, companies and laboratories. Of these 78 were summer students or faculty members. The CSRI partially sponsored 5 workshops and also organized and was the primary host for 3 workshops. These 3 CSRI sponsored workshops had 178 participants--137 from universities, companies and laboratories, and 41 from Sandia. Finally, the CSRI sponsored 18 long-term collaborative research projects and 5 Sabbaticals.

  20. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  1. The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  2. Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2007-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a pioneering centimeter-wavelength radio telescope that will produce science that cannot be done with any other instrument. The ATA is the first radio telescope designed for commensal observing; it will undertake the most comprehensive and sensitive SETI surveys ever done as well as the deepest and largest area continuum and spectroscopic surveys. Science operations will commence this year with a 42-element array. The ATA will ultimately comprise 350 6-meter dishes at Hat Creek in California, and will make possible large, deep radio surveys that were not previously feasible. The telescope incorporates many new design features including hydroformed antenna surfaces, a log-periodic feed covering the entire range of frequencies from 500 MHz to 11.2 GHz, low noise, wide-band amplifiers with a flat response over the entire band. The full array has the sensitivity of the Very Large Array but with a survey capability that is greater by an order of magnitude due to the wide field of view of the 6-meter dishes. Even with 42 elements, the ATA will be one of the most powerful radio survey telescopes. Science goals include the Five GHz sky survey (FiGSS) to match the 1.4-GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within the first year of operation with the 42 element array, and a deep all-sky survey of extragalactic hydrogen to investigate galaxy evolution and intergalactic gas accretion. Transient and variable source surveys, pulsar science, spectroscopy of new molecular species in the galaxy, large-scale mapping of galactic magnetic filaments, and wide-field imaging of comets and other solar system objects are among the other key science objectives of the ATA. SETI surveys will reach sufficient sensitivity to detect an Arecibo planetary radar from 1,000,000 stars to distances of 300 pc.

  3. Infrared Detector Activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Refaat, T. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Amzajerdian, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared detector development and characterization at NASA Langley Research Center will be reviewed. These detectors were intended for ground, airborne, and space borne remote sensing applications. Discussion will be focused on recently developed single-element infrared detector and future development of near-infrared focal plane arrays (FPA). The FPA will be applied to next generation space-based instruments. These activities are based on phototransistor and avalanche photodiode technologies, which offer high internal gain and relatively low noise-equivalent-power. These novel devices will improve the sensitivity of active remote sensing instruments while eliminating the need for a high power laser transmitter.

  4. [Active research, registration, and prevention of tumors of professional origin].

    PubMed

    Binazzi, Alessandra; Scarselli, Alberto; Massari, Stefania; Bonafede, Michela; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Marzio, Davide; Iavicoli, Sergio; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Occupational cancer is an important public health concern in Italy and in many industrialized countries. The difficulties in monitoring and the complexity in retrieving occupational cancer cases have required the enrolment of a national epidemiologic sureveillance system at national scale with active search methods. A structured system for the registration of occupational cancer cases is normed by the Decree No. 81/2008, that accounts for the previous legislative procedures and experiences. Research activities and prevention of occupational cancer should be integrated with insurance policies to the purpose of an efficient protection of workers health. PMID:25558735

  5. The activities and prospect of planetary protection research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is an important activities and responsibilities for space exploration. In Chinese manned missions, micro-organism research and protection has been developed in Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 and Tiangong-2 missions. In the experiment facility of Lunar Palace-1, the micro-organism pollution and protection/control technology has been studied. In the lunar sample recovery mission and China Mars mission, the planetary protection has become an important issue. This paper introduced the research about planetary protection in China. The planetary protection activities, strategy and procedures have been suggested for future space exploration program to meet the requirement for planetary protection, such as cabin pollution isolation, pollutant detection, and so on.

  6. Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning.

    PubMed

    Lopatto, David

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of student evaluations of summer undergraduate research experiences using the SURE (Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences) and a follow-up survey disseminated 9 mo later. The survey further examines the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits and reported on career plans. Most of the participants began or continued to plan for postgraduate education in the sciences. A small group of students who discontinued their plans for postgraduate science education reported significantly lower gains than continuing students. Women and men reported similar levels of benefits and similar patterns of career plans. Undergraduate researchers from underrepresented groups reported higher learning gains than comparison students. The results replicated previously reported data from this survey. The follow-up survey indicated that students reported gains in independence, intrinsic motivation to learn, and active participation in courses taken after the summer undergraduate research experience. PMID:18056301

  7. Active-solar-energy-system materials research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, S.A.; Hien, L.K.; Silberglitt, R.

    1983-01-01

    THis report describes and prioritizes materials research alternatives to improve active solar heating and cooling system cost-effectiveness. Materials research areas analyzed are (polymer) glazings, heat mirrors, (selective) absorber surfaces, absorber adhesives, absorber substrates, fluids, thermal storage materials, and desiccants. Three classes of solar collectors are considered in the cost-effectiveness analysis: medium-temperature flat-plate collectors (operating temperature, 70/sup 0/C); high-temperature flat-plate collectors (operating temperature, 70 to 120/sup 0/C); and evacuated tubes (operating temperature 70 to 230/sup 0/C). We found the highest priority for medium-temperature flat-plate collectors to be research on polymeric materials to improve performance and durability characteristics. For the high-temperature, flat-plate collectors and evacuated tubes, heat mirror and selective absorber research is the highest priority. Research on storage materials, fluids, and desiccants is of relatively low priority for improving cost-effectiveness in all cases. The highest priority materials research areas identified include: optical properties and degradation of transparent conducting oxide heat mirrors and thickness insensitive selective paints; uv and thermal stabilization of polymeric glazing materials; and systems analysis of integrated polymeric collectors.

  8. Real Research In The Classroom - Solar Active Longitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagg, T.; Gearen, M.; Jacoby, S. H.; Jones, H. P.; Henney, C. J.; Hill, F.

    2000-12-01

    We present a high-school level educational/research module for a project that improves computer and analytical skills and contributes new scientific results to the field of solar astronomy and physics. The module has been developed within the RET (Research Experience for Teachers) program as a new application of a cooperative project between the RBSE (Research-Based Science Education) initiative of the NSF and the NASA Education/Public Outreach program. The research goal is to improve our knowledge of the characteristics of solar active longitudes, where sunspots tend to cluster. In particular, the rotation rate of these regions is poorly known. It is suspected that the active longitude rotation rate (ALRR) is different from the rotation rate of the solar surface. If this is true, the ALRR can be compared with the internal rotation rate deduced by helioseismology providing an estimate of the active region depth. A good determination of the ALRR requires the measurement of the position of thousands of individual active regions, a step best done by interactive examination of images, selection of regions, and determination of heliographic position. These tasks are well-suited for high school students, who are thus provided with a motivation to improve their computer and scientific thinking skills. ScionImage (PC)/NIH Image (Macs) macros for this purpose have been developed which access a CD-ROM of 25 years of NSO/Kitt Peak magnetogram data and laboratory exercises developed previously for classroom use. In the future, a web site will be created for collecting the data from classrooms across the US, and for status reports on the results.

  9. Research Data Management and Libraries: Relationships, Activities, Drivers and Influences

    PubMed Central

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M.; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a ‘jurisdictional’ driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against

  10. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, H.M.; Reuther, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected six integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

  11. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    PubMed

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  12. Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael; Cleveland, Paul; Durand, Dale; Klavins, Andy; Muheim, Daniella; Paine, Christopher; Petach, Mike; Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, Jason; Walyus, Keith

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program funded an effort to develop a system cooling technology, which is applicable to all future infrared, sub-millimeter and millimeter cryogenic space telescopes. In particular, this technology is necessary for the proposed large space telescope Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) mission. This technology will also enhance the performance and lower the risk and cost for other cryogenic missions. The new paradigm for cooling to low temperatures will involve passive cooling using lightweight deployable membranes that serve both as sunshields and V-groove radiators, in combination with active cooling using mechanical coolers operating down to 4 K. The Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes (LST) mission planned to develop and demonstrate a multi-layered sunshield, which is actively cooled by a multi-stage mechanical cryocooler, and further the models and analyses critical to scaling to future missions. The outer four layers of the sunshield cool passively by radiation, while the innermost layer is actively cooled to enable the sunshield to decrease the incident solar irradiance by a factor of more than one million. The cryocooler cools the inner layer of the sunshield to 20 K, and provides cooling to 6 K at a telescope mounting plate. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 7 will be achieved by the active cooling technology following the technology validation flight in Low Earth Orbit. In accordance with the New Millennium charter, tests and modeling are tightly integrated to advance the technology and the flight design for "ST-class" missions. Commercial off-the-shelf engineering analysis products are used to develop validated modeling capabilities to allow the techniques and results from LST to apply to a wide variety of future missions. The LST mission plans to "rewrite the book" on cryo-thermal testing and modeling techniques, and validate modeling techniques to scale to future space telescopes such as SAFIR.

  13. The Mercator telescope: relevance, status, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Gert; Pessemier, Wim; Merges, Florian; Pérez Padilla, Jesus; Prins, Saskia; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    exploitation scheme of the telescope, the scheduling software that we developed to guarantee that time series or time-critical observations can be acquired in an efficient way, and how this all serves the most important research themes for Mercator, mainly in the domain of stellar astrophysics.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  15. United States Atlas of Optical Telescopes. [2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Stephen Paul

    1987-01-01

    This atlas shows the locations of and gives information about optical telescopes used for astronomical research in the United States as of late 1986. Those instruments with mirror or lens diameters of 3/4 m (approx. 30 inches) and larger are included. These telescopes are concentrated in the Southwest, on the West Coast and on the island of Hawaii.

  16. Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Located on the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus, Baltimore, Maryland. The institute is responsible to NASA's GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER for the scientific operations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It was established by NASA, following a recommendation by the National Academy of Sciences, and is operated by ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY (AURA) under contract ...

  17. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  18. To Support Research Activities Under the NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    2003-01-01

    The Alabama NASA EPSCoR Program is a collaborative venture of The Alabama Space Grant Consortium, The Alabama EPSCoR, and faculty and staff at 10 Alabama colleges and universities as well as the Alabama School of Math and Science in Mobile. There are two Research Clusters which include infrastructure-building and outreach elements embedded in their research activities. Each of the two Research Clusters is in an area of clear and demonstrable relevance to NASA's mission, to components of other Alabama EPSCoR projects, and to the State of Alabama's economic development. This Final Report summarizes and reports upon those additional activities occurring after the first report was submitted in March 2000 (included here as Appendix C). Since the nature of the activities and the manner in which they relate to one another differ by cluster, these clusters function independently and are summarized in parallel in this report. They do share a common administration by the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC) and by this means, good ideas from each group were communicated to the other, as appropriate. During the past year these research teams, involving 15 scientists, 16 graduate students, 16 undergraduates, and 7 high school students involving 10 Alabama universities had 14 peer reviewed scientific journal articles published, 21 others reviewed for publication or published in proceedings, gave 7 formal presentations and numerous informal presentations to well over 3000 people, received 3 patents and were awarded 14 research proposals for more than $213K dollars in additional research related to these investigations. Each cluster's activities are described and an Appendix summarizes these achievements.

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J.

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy between 5 and 29 microns. JWST is a facility-class mission, so most of the observing time will be allocated to investigators from the international astronomical community through competitively-selected proposals.