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Sample records for activity rota-rod performance

  1. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  2. Antinociceptive Activity of Melicope ptelefolia Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Mohd Padzil, Azyyati; Shaari, Khozirah; Khalid, Syamimi; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Ahmad, Syahida; Akira, Ahmad; Israf, Daud; Lajis, Nordin

    2010-01-01

    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals. PMID:21274262

  3. Antinociceptive activity of Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Mohd Padzil, Azyyati; Shaari, Khozirah; Khalid, Syamimi; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Ahmad, Syahida; Akira, Ahmad; Israf, Daud; Lajis, Nordin

    2010-01-01

    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals. PMID:21274262

  4. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hitender; Garg, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett's test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes. PMID:26069368

  5. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Jaenisch, Nadine; Liebmann, Lutz; Guenther, Madlen; Hübner, Christian A.; Frahm, Christiane; Witte, Otto W.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show that stroke-induced glutamate release activates NMDA receptors, thereby reducing KCC2 transporters and down-regulates δ-GABAARs. Functionally, this is associated with improved motor performance on the RotaRod, a test in which mice are forced to move in a similar manner to rehabilitative training sessions. As an adverse side effect, decreased tonic inhibition facilitates post-stroke epileptic seizures. Our data imply that early and sometimes surprisingly fast recovery following stroke is supported by homeostatic, endogenous plasticity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:27188341

  6. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Jaenisch, Nadine; Liebmann, Lutz; Guenther, Madlen; Hübner, Christian A; Frahm, Christiane; Witte, Otto W

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show that stroke-induced glutamate release activates NMDA receptors, thereby reducing KCC2 transporters and down-regulates δ-GABAARs. Functionally, this is associated with improved motor performance on the RotaRod, a test in which mice are forced to move in a similar manner to rehabilitative training sessions. As an adverse side effect, decreased tonic inhibition facilitates post-stroke epileptic seizures. Our data imply that early and sometimes surprisingly fast recovery following stroke is supported by homeostatic, endogenous plasticity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:27188341

  7. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Priscila L.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Oliveira, Makson G. B.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Alves, Pericles B.; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F.; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination. PMID:26246838

  8. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila L; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Oliveira, Makson G B; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; Santos, Marcio R V; Alves, Pericles B; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination. PMID:26246838

  9. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR), the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO) and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL), fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC), and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF) were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA) was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight) as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL), analgesic (CUR and PPF), antipyretic

  10. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  11. Anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity of the ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. F.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinoriya, Pooja; Irchhaiya, R.; Sharma, Bhawna; Sahu, Gayatri; Kumar, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity. PMID:22144780

  12. Cerebellar protein expression in three different mouse strains and their relevance for motor performance.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Daniela; Weitzdoerfer, Rachel; Yang, Yae-Won; Prast, Helmut; Hoeger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2005-01-01

    The present study uses a proteomic approach to link motor function to cerebellar protein expression in 129X1/SvJ, C57BL/6J and nNOS WT mice. Poor performance on the Rota rod, the standard test for motor coordination, was detected in 129X1/SvJ mice. No gross impairments of neurological, cognitive and behavioural functions were observed. Identification and quantification of 48 proteins revealed reduced expression of calbindin, septin 5 and syntaxin binding protein 1 in 129X1/SvJ. In nNos WT glucose-6-phosphate 1 dehydrogenase X was decreased whereas dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-4 was increased. In C57BL/6J stress-70 protein, alpha enolase, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2, septin 2, dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor showed elevated levels. Neurological examination, Rota rod test, Morris Water Maze, Multiple-T-Maze, Open field and Elevated plus-maze were employed to study motor, cognitive and behavioural function. Mice were sacrificed and cerebellar tissue was homogenized. Proteins were extracted and separated on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion followed by mass spectrometrical analysis of peptides (MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF). Quantification of spots was carried out by specific software. A strong association of impaired motor function with altered cerebellar protein expression of calbindin, septin 5 and syntaxin binding protein 1in 129X1/SvJ was observed and is in agreement with previous observations of motor deficiencies in a calbindin knock-out mouse. These results have to be taken into account when using 129X1/SvJ for biochemical, toxicological or gene targeting experiments as well as when studying the above-mentioned proteins or corresponding pathways and cascades in this mouse strain. PMID:15567512

  13. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  15. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  16. Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

  17. Active control of combustion for optimal performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Combustion-zone stoichiometry and fuel-air premixing were actively controlled to optimize the combustor performance over a range of operating conditions. The objective was to maximize the combustion temperature, while maintaining NO{sub x} within a specified limit. The combustion system consisted of a premixer located coaxially near the inlet of a water-cooled shroud. The equivalence ratio was controlled by a variable-speed suction fan located downstream. The split between the premixing air and diffusion air was governed by the distance between the premixer and shroud. The combustor performance was characterized by a cost function evaluated from time-averaged measurements of NO{sub x} and oxygen concentrations in products. The cost function was minimized by downhill simplex algorithm employing closed-loop feedback. Experiments were conducted at different fuel flow rates to demonstrate that the controller optimized the performance without prior knowledge of the combustor behavior.

  18. Expression pattern of immediate early genes in the cerebellum of D1R KO, D2R KO, and wild type mice under vestibular-controlled activity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the different motor abilities of D1R knockout (KO), D2R KO and wild-type (WT) mice. To understand the interaction between the cerebellum and the striatal direct and indirect pathways, we examined the expression patterns of immediate early genes (IEG) in the cerebellum of these three genotypes of mice. In the WT naive mice, there was little IEG expression. However, we observed a robust expression of c-fos mRNA in the vermis and hemisphere after running rota-rod tasks. In the vermis, c-fos was expressed throughout the lobules except lobule 7, and also in crus 1 of the ansiform lobule (Crus1), copula of the pyramis (Cop) and most significantly in the flocculus in the hemisphere. jun-B was much less expressed but more preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells. In addition, we observed significant levels of c-fos and jun-B expressions after handling mice, and after the stationary rota-rod task in naive mice. Surprisingly, we observed significant expression of c-fos and jun-B even 30 min after single weighing. Nonetheless, certain additional c-fos and jun-B expressions were observed in three genotypes of the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks 24 h after stationary rota-rod task and on days 1 and 5 after rota-rod tasks, but no significant differences in expressions after the running rota-rod tasks were observed among the three genotypes. In addition, there may be some differences 24 h after the stationary rota-rod task between the naive mice and the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks. PMID:26137459

  19. Ranging performance of active laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huayan; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Suolin

    2006-06-01

    Ranging performance is described for photoelectric equipment reconnaissance using an active laser detection system that is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect of optical windows. Active laser detection systems have an advantage over passive systems because they can measure target velocity and spatial coordinates. However, there are several challenging problems here because of the great distances involved, the low returned power of the uncooperative target, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. In the design of this system, the principle of detection is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect according to which the optical windows of photoelectric equipments have a strong reflect character towards incident laser beam. With 'cat's eyes' effect, the detection of uncooperative target can be translated into one of a cooperative target, so the ratio of returned laser can be increased. In this paper, the ranging performance presented here takes into account all the various elements of the system, from the laser emission, target, atmospheric propagation to the detector. The characteristics of back-reflected laser and an estimate of the laser Cross Section (LCS) from 'cat's eyes target' are investigated in theory and simulation. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is calculated by combining the probability of detection of the system for given electronic characteristics of the system and for a given probability of false alarms. On the basis of analysis of SNR, minimum detectable signal power, operating distance of the system and factors affecting the ranging performance is analyzed. Results indicate that system has characters of long range, and high sensitivity. It can be used to detect the aerial targets such as reconnaissance drone, navigate missile, reconnaissance satellite etc.

  20. Performance of an active inspired hypoxic guard.

    PubMed

    Ghijselings, Idris E; De Cooman, Sofie; Carette, Rik; Peyton, Philip J; De Wolf, Andre M; Hendrickx, Jan F A

    2016-02-01

    Current hypoxic guards systems fail to maintain the inspired O2 concentration (FIO2) ≥ 21 % across the entire fresh gas flow (FGF) range when a second carrier gas is used (N2O or air). We examined the performance of the Maquet O2 Guard(®), a smart hypoxic guard that increases O2 delivery if an inspired hypoxic mixture is formed. After obtaining IRB approval and informed consent, 12 ASA I-II patients were enrolled. During anesthesia with sevoflurane in O2/air, the O2 Guard(®) was tested by administering O2/air at the following delivered hypoxic guard limits [expressed as (total FGF in L min(-1); FDO2 in %)] for 4 min each: [0.3;67], [0.4;50], [0.6;34], [0.8;25], [1.0;21], [1.2;21], [1.5;21], [2;21], [3;21], and [5;21]. The following data were collected: (1) time from FIO2 = 30 to 20 %; (2) time from FIO2 = 20 % to O2 Guard(®) activation; (3) time from O2 Guard(®) activation to FIO2 = 25 %; (4) FGF and FDO2 used by the O2 Guard. If SpO2 was <90 % for 10 s or longer at any time, the patient was excluded. Three patients were excluded for low SpO2. The incidence of FIO2 < 21 % was 100 % within the 1-2 L min(-1) FGF range. The O2 Guard(®) was activated within 20 s after FIO2 became 20 %, except in one patient where FIO2 oscillated between 20 and 21 %. FDO2 was increased to 60 % and FGF to 1 L min(-1) (the latter only if it was lower than 1 L min(-1) prior to activation of the O2 Guard). FIO2 increased to 25 % within 55 s after O2 Guard activation in all patients. The O2 Guard(®), an active inspired hypoxic guard, rapidly reverses and limits the duration of inspired hypoxic episodes when the delivered hypoxic guard fails to do so. PMID:25757405

  1. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  2. Psychopharmacological profile of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) essential oil in mice.

    PubMed

    Can, Ozgür Devrim; Demir Özkay, Umide; Kıyan, Hülya Tuba; Demirci, Betül

    2012-02-15

    In this study, the effect of Matricaria recutita L. essential oil (MEO) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice was investigated using some behavioral methods. Chemical profiling both by GC and GC-MS analyses of the hydrodistilled essential oil of M. recutita revealed α-bisabolol oxide A (28%), α-bisabolol oxide B (17.1%), (Z)-β-Farnesene (15.9%) and α-bisabolol (6.8%) as the main components. Changes induced by MEO (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and reference drug caffeine (25 mg/kg) in spontaneous locomotor activities and motor coordinations of mice were investigated by activity cage measurements and Rota-Rod tests, respectively. Open field, social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests were applied to assess the emotional state of the animals. Further, tail-suspension test was performed for evaluating the effect of MEO on depression levels of mice. As a result, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, MEO significantly increased the numbers of spontaneous locomotor activities, exhibited anxiogenic effect in the open field, elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests and decreased the immobility times of animals in tail suspension tests. The falling latencies in Rota-Rod tests did not change. This activity profile of MEO was similar to the typical psychostimulant caffeine. The exact mechanism of action underlying this stimulant-like effect should be clarified with further detailed studies. PMID:22070986

  3. Behavioral effects and neural changes induced by continuous and not continuous treadmill training, post bilateral cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kitabatake, Takae Tamy; Marini, Luana de Castro; Gonçalves, Renata Batagini; Bertolino, Guilherme; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2015-09-15

    This study aims to investigate the effects of treadmill training and the possible influences of the start, regularity, and duration after experimental ischemic stroke. We performed bilateral occlusion of both the carotid arteries for 5 min in Mongolian gerbils. The training groups were: continuous training for 5 consecutive days or not continuous training for 3 non-consecutive days. The groups remained in the treadmill for 15 min, and the training started 12 or 24h after the stroke. In the activity cage (AC), behaviors of crossing and distance traveled were registered. The forced motor behavior was analyzed by a Rota Rod test. After the experiments, the brains were perfused, and coronal sections of the striatum, motor cortex M1, and CA1 area of the hippocampus were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Behavioral and morphological data analysis was performed by an ANOVA and MANCOVA. Results showed an increased density of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, motor cortex M1, and the striatum in ischemic training groups compared to the not training ischemic groups. Animals subjected to continuous training that started 24h after ischemia showed a satisfactory behavior in the AC and a higher number of striatal neurons when compared to ischemic animals. The animals in the not continuous training started 12h after the stroke showed an unsatisfactory performance in the AC and Rota Rod. These findings suggest that early training and not continuous training are inadequate for motor behavior improvement after stroke. PMID:25975174

  4. American Literature: Performance Objectives and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Hope; And Others

    This guide is a sampler of ideas and activities based on 22 minimum objectives in speech, reading, writing, and research that have been identified for American literature study. Many of the activities involve an integration of several skills that are cross-referenced to other skills in the margins of the guide. A separate section on research…

  5. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  6. Statistical Performances of Resistive Active Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalléchère, Sébastien; Ravelo, Blaise; Thakur, Atul

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the synthesis and sensitivity analysis of an active power splitter (PWS) is proposed. It is based on the active cell composed of a Field Effect Transistor in cascade with shunted resistor at the input and the output (resistive amplifier topology). The PWS uncertainty versus resistance tolerances is suggested by using stochastic method. Furthermore, with the proposed topology, we can control easily the device gain while varying a resistance. This provides useful tool to analyse the statistical sensitivity of the system in uncertain environment.

  7. Physical Activity and Student Performance at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard

    2005-01-01

    To review the state of research on the association between physical activity among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the author reviewed published studies on this topic. A table includes brief descriptions of each study's research methodology and outcomes. A review of the research demonstrates that there may be some short-term…

  8. Performing Keypunch Activities. Student Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Pat

    Supporting performance objective 55 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on performing keypunch activities are included in this packet. (Keypunch equipment is required.) The student materials include three student activities and a…

  9. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  10. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included.

  11. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice. PMID:26944602

  12. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality and performance

    PubMed Central

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred irrespective of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark period but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern. PMID:22933795

  13. Performing Clerical Activities. Preparing Accident Reports in an Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 5 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on preparing accident reports in an office are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of three on performing clerical activities--CE 016 948-950.)…

  14. Performing Clerical Activities. Order Clerk. Student Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objectives 6 and 43 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on preparing and processing requisitions are included in this packet. (The packet is the second in a set of three on performing clerical activities--CE 016…

  15. Performing Stenographic Activities. Compose Correspondence. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 71 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on composing correspondence are included in this packet. (The packet is the fourth in a set of four on performing stenographic activities--CE 016 973-976.) The…

  16. Oklahoma Criteria for Effective Teaching and Administrative Performance. Activities Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents activities for monitoring effective teacher and administrator performance in Oklahoma. The state mandates that each board of education maintains and annually reviews a written policy of evaluation for all teachers and administrators. Section 1, "Criteria for Effective Teaching Performance," focuses on practice and…

  17. Compressor Performance Enhanced by Active Flow Control Over Stator Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2003-01-01

    The application of active flow control technology to enhance turbomachinery system performance is being investigated at the NASA Glenn Research Center through experimental studies. Active flow control involves the use of sensors and actuators embedded within engine components to dynamically alter the internal flow path during off nominal operation in order to optimize engine performance and maintain stable operation. Modern compressors are already highly optimized components that must be designed to accommodate a broad range of operating conditions in a safe and efficient manner. Since overall engine performance is driven by compressor performance, advances in compressor technology that reduce weight and parts count, reduce fuel consumption, and lower maintenance costs will have a significant impact on the cost of aircraft ownership. Active flow control holds the promise of delivering such technology advances.

  18. Active damping performance of the KAGRA seismic attenuation system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Aso, Yoichi; Barton, Mark; Erasmo Peña Arellano, Fabián; Shoda, Ayaka; Akutsu, Tomotada; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Hirata, Naoatsu; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Okutomi, Koki; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hideki; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (formerly LCGT now KAGRA) is presently under construction in Japan. This May we assembled a prototype of the seismic attenuation system (SAS) for the beam splitter and the signal recycling mirrors of KAGRA, which we call Type-B SAS, and evaluated its performance at NAOJ (Mitaka, Toyko). We investigated its frequency response, active damping performance, vibration isolation performance and long-term stability both in and out of vacuum. From the frequency response test and the active damping performance test, we confirmed that the SAS worked as we designed and that all mechanical resonances which could disturb lock acquisition and observation are damped within 1 minute, which is required for KAGRA, by the active controls.

  19. Adiposity, physical activity and neuromuscular performance in children.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Eero A; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Ekelund, Ulf; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Sääkslahti, Arja; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the associations of body fat percentage (BF%), objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and different types of physical activity assessed by a questionnaire with neuromuscular performance. The participants were 404 children aged 6-8 years. BF% was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and physical activity by combined heart rate and movement sensing and a questionnaire. The results of 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run, hand grip strength, standing long jump, sit-up, modified flamingo balance, box-and-block and sit-and-reach tests were used as measures of neuromuscular performance. Children who had a combination of higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity had the poorest performance in 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run and standing long jump tests. Higher BF% was associated with slower 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times, shorter distance jumped in standing long jump test, fewer sit-ups, more errors in balance test and less cubes moved in box-and-block test. Higher levels of physical activity and particularly MVPA assessed objectively by combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor were related to shorter 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times. In conclusion, higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity and particularly the combination of these two factors were associated with worse neuromuscular performance. PMID:26734777

  20. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  1. Numerical evaluation of the performance of active noise control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo, C. G.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized numerical technique for evaluating the optimal performance of active noise controllers. In this technique, the indirect BEM numerical procedures are used to derive the active noise controllers for optimal control of enclosed harmonic sound fields where the strength of the noise sources or the description of the enclosure boundary may not be known. The performance prediction for a single-input single-output system is presented, together with the analysis of the stability and observability of an active noise-control system employing detectors. The numerical procedures presented can be used for the design of both the physical configuration and the electronic components of the optimal active noise controller.

  2. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  3. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  4. Electroencephalogram associations to cognitive performance in clinically active nurses.

    PubMed

    Lees, Ty; Khushaba, Rami; Lal, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is traditionally identified via cognitive screening tools that have limited ability in detecting early or transitional stages of impairment. The dynamic nature of physiological variables such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) may provide alternate means for detecting these transitions. However, previous research examining EEG and cognitive performance is largely confined to samples with diagnosed cognitive impairments, and research examining non-impaired, and occupation specific samples, is limited. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between frontal pole and central EEG and cognitive performance in a sample of male and female nurses, and to determine the significance of these associations. Fifty seven nurses participated in the study, in which two lead bipolar EEG was recorded at positions Fp1 (frontal polar), Fp2, C3 (central) and C4 during a baseline and an active phase involving the common neuropsychological Stroop test. Participants' cognitive performance was assessed using the mini-mental state exam (MMSE) and Cognistat screening tools. Significant correlations between EEG beta activity and the outcome of MMSE and Cognistat were revealed, where an increased beta activity was associated to an increased global cognitive performance. Additionally, domain specific cognitive performance was also significantly associated to various EEG variables. The study identified potential EEG biomarkers for global and domain specific cognitive performance, and provides initial groundwork for the development of future EEG based biomarkers for detection of cognitive pathologies. PMID:27244262

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Principals' Activities and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Goldring, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of…

  6. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  7. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and randomly…

  8. Examining Alignment between State Performance Assessment and Mathematics Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Lane, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe research on the extent to which mathematics classroom activities in Maryland were aligned with Maryland learning outcomes and the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP; Maryland State Department of Education, 1995, 2000). The study was part of a larger research project (S. Lane, C. S. Parke, & C. A. Stone,…

  9. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  10. Spatiotemporal tuning of brain activity and force performance

    PubMed Central

    Coombes, Stephen A.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal features of visual stimuli are either processed independently or are conflated in specific cells of visual cortex. Although spatial and temporal features of visual stimuli influence motor performance, it remains unclear how spatiotemporal information is processed beyond visual cortex in brain regions that control movement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how brain activity and force control are influenced by visual gain at a high visual feedback frequency of 6.4 Hz and a low visual feedback frequency of 0.4 Hz. At 6.4 Hz, increasing visual gain led to improved force performance and increased activity in classic areas of the visuomotor system – V5, IPL, SPL, PMv, SMA-proper, and M1. At 0.4 Hz, increasing gain also lead to improved force performance. In addition to activation in M1/PMd and IPL in the visuomotor system, increasing visual gain at 0.4 Hz also corresponded with activity in the striatal-frontal circuit including DLPFC, ACC, and widespread activity in putamen, caudate, and SMA-proper. This study demonstrates that the frequency of visual feedback drives where in the brain visual gain mediated reductions in force error are regulated. PMID:20937396

  11. Active imaging system performance model for target acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Teaney, Brian; Nguyen, Quang; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Halford, Carl E.; Tofsted, David H.

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate has developed a laser-range-gated imaging system performance model for the detection, recognition, and identification of vehicle targets. The model is based on the established US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD sensor performance models of the human system response through an imaging system. The Java-based model, called NVLRG, accounts for the effect of active illumination, atmospheric attenuation, and turbulence effects relevant to LRG imagers, such as speckle and scintillation, and for the critical sensor and display components. This model can be used to assess the performance of recently proposed active SWIR systems through various trade studies. This paper will describe the NVLRG model in detail, discuss the validation of recent model components, present initial trade study results, and outline plans to validate and calibrate the end-to-end model with field data through human perception testing.

  12. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  13. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  14. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  15. APOLLO 9: Dave scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Dave Scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities around the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.

  16. Swimming and other activities: applied aspects of fish swimming performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities such as hydropower development, water withdrawals, and commercial fisheries often put fish species at risk. Engineered solutions designed to protect species or their life stages are frequently based on assumptions about swimming performance and behaviors. In many cases, however, the appropriate data to support these designs are either unavailable or misapplied. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of fish swimming performance – where the data come from and how they are applied – identifying both gaps in knowledge and common errors in application, with guidance on how to avoid repeating mistakes, as well as suggestions for further study.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in this report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjuntion with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. xcessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed l...

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  19. Cost and performance of activated carbon injection for mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one technology being developed to absorb mercury from mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants. In 2003/04, the USDOE and NETL selected 14 projects to test and evaluate mercury control technologies. While field testing is still ongoing, DOE/NETL recently completed an economic analysis of mercury control for six test sites spanning three ACI variations - conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), brominated PAC and conventional PAC combined with a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) applied to the coal. To evaluate the progress of the field testing program and discern the performance of ACI, a data adjustment methodology was developed to account for baseline methane capture. This data were used to perform economic analyses to achieve low, mid and high levels of mercury control. The costs are given in the article. Full details are available on the DOE/NETL website, www.netl.doe.gov. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  20. Modeling the target acquisition performance of active imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Espinola, Richard L; Jacobs, Eddie L; Halford, Carl E; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Tofsted, David H

    2007-04-01

    Recent development of active imaging system technology in the defense and security community have driven the need for a theoretical understanding of its operation and performance in military applications such as target acquisition. In this paper, the modeling of active imaging systems, developed at the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate, is presented with particular emphasis on the impact of coherent effects such as speckle and atmospheric scintillation. Experimental results from human perception tests are in good agreement with the model results, validating the modeling of coherent effects as additional noise sources. Example trade studies on the design of a conceptual active imaging system to mitigate deleterious coherent effects are shown. PMID:19532626

  1. Modeling the target acquisition performance of active imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Halford, Carl E.; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Tofsted, David H.

    2007-04-01

    Recent development of active imaging system technology in the defense and security community have driven the need for a theoretical understanding of its operation and performance in military applications such as target acquisition. In this paper, the modeling of active imaging systems, developed at the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate, is presented with particular emphasis on the impact of coherent effects such as speckle and atmospheric scintillation. Experimental results from human perception tests are in good agreement with the model results, validating the modeling of coherent effects as additional noise sources. Example trade studies on the design of a conceptual active imaging system to mitigate deleterious coherent effects are shown.

  2. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health. PMID:18298849

  3. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  4. Properties and Performance of Alkali-Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Robert J.

    Alkali-activated concrete (AAC) made with industrial byproducts as the sole binder is rapidly emerging as a sustainable alternative to ordinary portland cement concrete (PCC). Despite its exemplary mechanical performance and durability, there remain several barriers to widespread commercialization of AAC. This dissertation addresses several of these barriers. Mathematical models are proposed which efficiently and accurately predict the compressive strength of AAC as a function of activator composition, binder type, and curing condition. The relationships between compressive strength and other mechanical properties (i.e., tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) are discussed, as are stress-strain relationships. Several aspects related to the durability of AAC are also discussed, including dimensional stability under drying conditions, alkali-silica reactivity, and chloride permeability. The results of these experimental investigations are disseminated in the context of real-world applicability.

  5. Sentinel-3 OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, L.; Blanot, L.; Lamquin, N.; Bruniquel, V.; Meskini, N.; Nieke, J.; Bouvet, M.; Fougnie, B.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the activities to be undertaken by ACRI-ST under ESA/ESTEC coordination for the assessment of OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performances during the SENTINEL-3 Commissioning Phase. As an introduction, it briefly describes the instrument concept and available on-board calibration hardware, the context and main objective of the work. Insisting on the fact that radiometric calibration of OLCI is based on in-flight measurements, as was for MERIS, it then describes the methodology and tools to be used during Commissioning. Finally, as in-flight based radiometry implies the need for independent validation, it describes the corresponding methods and tools.

  6. Restoration algorithms and system performance evaluation for active imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Jérôme

    2007-10-01

    This paper deals with two fields related to active imaging system. First, we begin to explore image processing algorithms to restore the artefacts like speckle, scintillation and image dancing caused by atmospheric turbulence. Next, we examine how to evaluate the performance of this kind of systems. To do this task, we propose a modified version of the german TRM3 metric which permits to get MTF-like measures. We use the database acquired during NATO-TG40 field trials to make our tests.

  7. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2012-01-23

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford.

  8. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  9. Functional improvement after motor training is correlated with synaptic plasticity in rat thalamus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchuan; Li, Jie; Lai, Qin; Azam, Salman; Rafols, José A; Diaz, Fernando G

    2002-12-01

    The goals of this study were to determine whether functional outcome after motor training in rats was linked to synaptic plasticity in thalamus, and whether the Rota-rod apparatus, widely used to test motor function, could be used as an easy and quantitative motor skill training procedure. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 39) were evaluated under three training conditions: 1. Movement requiring balance and coordination skills on Rota-rod; 2. simple exercise on treadmill; 3. nontrained controls. Motor function was evaluated by a series of motor tests (foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing) before and 14 or 28 days after training procedure. Synaptic strength in brain was assessed by synaptophysin immunocytochemistry. After 14 days of training, Rota-rod-trained animals significantly (p < 0.01) improved motor performance, compared to treadmill and nontrained animals. Animals with up to 28 days of simple exercises on the treadmill did not show a significantly improved performance on most motor tasks, except for an improvement in foot fault placing. Intensive synaptophysin immunoreactivity was present in the right but not the left mediodorsal and ventromedial nuclei of thalamus in Rota-rod-trained rats at 14 and 28 days, and in treadmill-trained rats at 28 days. The data suggested that functional outcome is effectively improved by motor skill training rather than by simple exercises, and this may be related, at least partially, to uniquely lateralized synaptogenesis in the thalamus. Both Rota-rod and treadmill could be quantitatively used in rats for motor training of different complexity. PMID:12500709

  10. Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by curcumin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rajesh S.; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Pant, Aditya B.; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2009-11-01

    In view of continued exposure to arsenic and associated human health risk including neurotoxicity, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been investigated in rats. A significant decrease in locomotor activity, grip strength (26%) and rota-rod performance (82%) was observed in rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) as compared to controls. The arsenic treated rats also exhibited a decrease in the binding of striatal dopamine receptors (32%) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (19%) in striatum. Increased arsenic levels in corpus striatum (6.5 fold), frontal cortex (6.3 fold) and hippocampus (7.0 fold) associated with enhanced oxidative stress in these brain regions, as evident by an increase in lipid perioxidation, protein carbonyl and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase with differential effects were observed in arsenic treated rats compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) caused an increase in locomotor activity and grip strength and improved the rota-rod performance in comparison to arsenic treated rats. Binding of striatal dopamine receptors and TH expression increased while arsenic levels and oxidative stress decreased in these brain regions in co-treated rats as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. No significant effect on any of these parameters was observed in rats treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) alone compared to controls. A significant protection in behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  11. Performance Assessment Assistance Activities in the DOE Complex - 12325

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Letourneau, Martin J.

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford. DOE-EM established the PA CoP to help improve the consistency and quality of implementation of modelling activities around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP has sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from ongoing

  12. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  13. Actuation performance of cellulose based electro-active papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Song, Chunseok; Bae, Seung-Hun

    2005-05-01

    Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) is attractive as an EAP actuator material due to its merits in terms of lightweight, dry condition, large displacement output, low actuation voltage and low power consumption. This paper presents the fabrication and performance test of EAPap actuators. EAPap material has been made from cellulose materials. Cellulose fiber is dissolved into a solution and made into a sheet by using a spin coater. Thin electrodes are deposited on the cellophane sheet to comprise an EAPap. Next the EAPap is made into plate or beam specimens cut along a specific orientation to enhance the actuator performance. The EAPap is clamped on electric power connector and placed in an environmental chamber and the tip displacement of EAPap is measured with laser sensor. Also the blocking force of EAPap sample is measured. The measured force is compared with a theoretical beam model. These measurements are performed under a variety of environmental and input factors including frequency, actuation voltage, temperature and humidity. Characteristics of EAPap in terms of fibrous nature, their crystallinity, and mechanical, physical and electrochemical characteristics are presented.

  14. Concurrent activities and instructed human fixed-interval performance.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D; Keenan, M

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments explored the effects of two types of concurrent activity on human fixed-interval performance. Eight adult subjects were given access to either reading material or a working television set across three fixed-interval values (60 s, 300 s, and 600 s). During Experiment 1, 2 subjects produced "scalloped" patterns and reported no verbal regulation (e.g., counting) in the presence of the reading material, but shifted to low-rate patterns and reported verbal regulation when the reading material was withdrawn. The 2 other subjects in Experiment 1 produced consistent low-rate performances and reported verbal regulation during access to reading material. However, when these subjects were given access to a working television set, they produced scalloped patterns and reported no verbal regulation. During Experiment 2, 4 experimentally naive subjects showed consistent scalloped patterning and no verbal regulation across fixed-interval values when they were allowed to watch television. When access to the television was denied, subjects reliably reported verbal regulation, and low-rate patterns emerged. These behavioral effects focus our attention on the contingencies that control human performance on fixed-interval schedules. PMID:8315367

  15. Respirator Performance against Nanoparticles under Simulated Workplace Activities.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing; Horvatin, Matthew; Liu, Yuewei; He, Xinjian; Rengasamy, Samy

    2015-10-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) are commonly used by workers for protection against potentially hazardous particles, including engineered nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of these types of respirators against 10-400 nm particles using human subjects exposed to NaCl aerosols under simulated workplace activities. Simulated workplace protection factors (SWPFs) were measured for eight combinations of respirator models (2 N95 FFRs, 2 P100 FFRs, 2 N95 EHRs, and 2 P100 EHRs) worn by 25 healthy test subjects (13 females and 12 males) with varying face sizes. Before beginning a SWPF test for a given respirator model, each subject had to pass a quantitative fit test. Each SWPF test was performed using a protocol of six exercises for 3 min each: (i) normal breathing, (ii) deep breathing, (iii) moving head side to side, (iv) moving head up and down, (v) bending at the waist, and (vi) a simulated laboratory-vessel cleaning motion. Two scanning mobility particle sizers were used simultaneously to measure the upstream (outside the respirator) and downstream (inside the respirator) test aerosol; SWPF was then calculated as a ratio of the upstream and downstream particle concentrations. In general, geometric mean SWPF (GM-SWPF) was highest for the P100 EHRs, followed by P100 FFRs, N95 EHRs, and N95 FFRs. This trend holds true for nanoparticles (10-100 nm), larger size particles (100-400 nm), and the 'all size' range (10-400 nm). All respirators provided better or similar performance levels for 10-100 nm particles as compared to larger 100-400 nm particles. This study found that class P100 respirators provided higher SWPFs compared to class N95 respirators (P < 0.05) for both FFR and EHR types. All respirators provided expected performance (i.e. fifth percentile SWPF > 10) against all particle size ranges tested. PMID:26180261

  16. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  17. Antipyretic and antinociceptive effects of Nauclea latifolia root decoction and possible mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bum, Elisabeth Ngo; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile; Weiss, Norbert; Sidiki, Neteydji; Dawe, Amadou; Okomolo Moto, Fleur Clarisse; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré; Waard, Michel De

    2011-01-01

    Context Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiacea) is a small tree, found in tropical areas in Africa. It is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, fever etc. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction on the peripheral and central nervous systems and its possible mechanisms of action. Materials and methods The analgesic investigation was carried out against acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain, hot-plate and tail immersion tests. The antipyretic activity was studied in Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Rota-rod test and bicuculline-induced hyperactivity were used for the assessment of locomotor activity. Results Nauclea latifolia induced hypothermia and had antipyretic effects in mice. The plant decoction produced significant antinociceptive activity in all analgesia animal models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by the decoction in the formalin test was reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, Nω-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester or glibenclamide. In contrast, theophylline did not reverse this effect. Nauclea latifolia (antinociceptive doses) did not exhibit significant effect on motor coordination of the mice in rota-rod performance. Nauclea latifolia protected mice against bicuculline-induced behavioural excitation. Discussion and conclusion Overall, these results demonstrate that the central and peripheral effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction might partially or wholly be due to the stimulation of peripheric opioid receptors through the action of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K+ (NO/cGMP/ATP)-channel pathway and/or facilitation of the GABAergic transmission. PMID:20822326

  18. Active charge/passive discharge solar heating systems: Thermal analysis and performance comparisons and performance comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, J.

    1981-06-01

    This type of system combines liquid-cooled solar collector panels with a massive integral storage component that passively heats the building interior by radiation and free convection. The TRNSYS simulation program is used to evaluate system performance and to provide input for the development of a simplified analysis method. This method, which provides monthly calculations of delivered solar energy, is based on Klein's Phi-bar procedure and data from hourly TRNSYS simulations. The method can be applied to systems using a floor slab, a structural wall, or a water tank as the storage component. Important design parameters include collector area and orientation, building heat loss, collector and heat exchanger efficiencies, storage capacity, and storage to room coupling. Performance simulation results are used for comparisons with active and passive solar designs.

  19. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  20. Activated sludge process performance using a multistage tower aeration tank

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Tatsuo; Kudo, Kenzo; Nasu, Yoshikazu )

    1993-07-01

    This study's objective was to clarify both experimentally and theoretically whether a vertical multistage tower aeration tank system is advantageous as compared with a completely mixed system, particularly with respect to purification efficiency, sludge settleability, and excess sludge production. In comparing the two systems: (1) purification efficiency in the multistage tower aeration system with partial fluid mixing with a large Peclet number was higher than in a corresponding completely mixed system for all applied organic loadings; (2) the multistage tower aeration system had some definite advantages with respect to sludge settleability and excess sludge production; and (3) the activated sludge system's higher performance with partial fluid mixing was shown quantitatively with the axial dispersion model in conjunction with growth kinetics which involved rapid uptake such as biosorption and subsequent oxidative biodegradation processes of organic substances.

  1. SOFIA Telescope Functional Integration and Performance Test Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, P.; Haas, M. R.; Dunham, E. W.; Bremers, E.; Harms, F.; Keas, P. J.; Lattner, K.; Lillienthal, D.; Meyer, A. W.; Wolf, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.7-m telescope installed in a Boeing 747SP. Collaborators developing the SOFIA telescope and observatory completed an intense period of activation between mid-June and mid-August, 2004. The integration activities included a preliminary modal survey; alignment of the Wide Field, Fine Field, and Focal Plane Imagers; installation of the secondary and tertiary mirrors; and their alignment relative to the primary mirror. Once these preliminaries were completed, SOFIA was rolled out of its hangar for a series of ground-based, on-sky tests using HIPO, the first science instrument to be installed on the telescope. First light was achieved observing Polaris on August 18, 2004. The on-sky test period encompassed 12 nights in late August and early September and included telescope step function response and first-order pointing control, image quality and optical tracking stability measurements, evaluation of the tracking imagers, gravity deformation studies, gyro alignment and bias rate measurement and correction, and performance tests of the secondary mirror Focus Centering Mechanism and Tilt Chopping Mechanism. It also included tests of the complete telescope command set, including Image Quality Compensation (IQC), quasi-static Flexible Body Compensation (FBC), reference frame transformations and trajectory estimation algorithms. This poster summarizes the results and describes the expected performance of SOFIA at the start of science observations. SOFIA is jointly funded by NASA and DLR and is managed by USRA and DSI. The successful, on-schedule completion of these tests involved close coordination by these three parties, CSA Engineering, CSEM, Kayser-Threde, L-3 Communications, Lowell Observatory, MAN-Technologies, Orbital Sciences, and others.

  2. Performance and biofilm activity of nitrifying biofilters removing trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-02-01

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources removed trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) with removals reaching 18% for TCM and 75% for DBCM. In addition, resuspended biofilm removed TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests, demonstrating that the biofilters contained organisms capable of biotransforming the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) commonly found in treated drinking water. Upon the initial and subsequent increased TCM addition, total ammonia nitrogen (TOTNH(3)) removal decreased and then reestablished, indicating an adjustment by the biofilm bacteria. In addition, changes in DBCM removal indicated a change in activity related to DBCM. The backwash batch kinetic tests provided a useful tool to evaluate the biofilm's bacteria. Based on these experiments, the biofilters contained bacteria with similar THM removal kinetics to those seen in previous batch kinetic experiments. Overall, performance or selection does not seem based specifically on nutrients, source water, or source cultures and most likely results from THM product toxicity, and the use of GAC media appeared to offer benefits over anthracite for biofilter stability and long-term performance, although the reasons for this advantage are not apparent based on research to date. PMID:21195446

  3. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Prescribed Active Learning Increases Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875

  5. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  6. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  7. An Examination of Implicitly Activated, Explicitly Activated, and Nullified Stereotypes on Mathematical Performance: It's Not Just a Woman's Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jessi L.; White, Paul H.

    2002-01-01

    Examined how stereotypes might become activated in testing situations, noting the effects of this activation on task performance. Data collected on college students suggested that explicitly and implicitly activated stereotypes were equally detrimental to student performance. Members of a traditional nonstigmatized group (white men) were affected…

  8. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  9. Algorithms for Performance, Dependability, and Performability Evaluation using Stochastic Activity Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deavours, Daniel D.; Qureshi, M. Akber; Sanders, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Modeling tools and technologies are important for aerospace development. At the University of Illinois, we have worked on advancing the state of the art in modeling by Markov reward models in two important areas: reducing the memory necessary to numerically solve systems represented as stochastic activity networks and other stochastic Petri net extensions while still obtaining solutions in a reasonable amount of time, and finding numerically stable and memory-efficient methods to solve for the reward accumulated during a finite mission time. A long standing problem when modeling with high level formalisms such as stochastic activity networks is the so-called state space explosion, where the number of states increases exponentially with size of the high level model. Thus, the corresponding Markov model becomes prohibitively large and solution is constrained by the the size of primary memory. To reduce the memory necessary to numerically solve complex systems, we propose new methods that can tolerate such large state spaces that do not require any special structure in the model (as many other techniques do). First, we develop methods that generate row and columns of the state transition-rate-matrix on-the-fly, eliminating the need to explicitly store the matrix at all. Next, we introduce a new iterative solution method, called modified adaptive Gauss-Seidel, that exhibits locality in its use of data from the state transition-rate-matrix, permitting us to cache portions of the matrix and hence reduce the solution time. Finally, we develop a new memory and computationally efficient technique for Gauss-Seidel based solvers that avoids the need for generating rows of A in order to solve Ax = b. This is a significant performance improvement for on-the-fly methods as well as other recent solution techniques based on Kronecker operators. Taken together, these new results show that one can solve very large models without any special structure.

  10. The Impact of Employment and Physical Activity on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Antoniou, Eliana; Panayides, Alexandros; Vassiliou, Evros

    2008-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, many contributions appeared on the relationship between working during school and academic performance using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The obvious assumption is that a full time working student will show a lower academic performance relatively to a part time working student or a full time…

  11. An Activity for Predicting Performances in the 1984 Summer Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Jacqueline

    1984-01-01

    Techniques that students can use to make predictions about performances in the Olympics include point estimation. This is used to estimate a single value using a set of data. A worksheet for students is included. (MNS)

  12. Final Report: Performance Modeling Activities in PERC2

    SciTech Connect

    Allan Snavely

    2007-02-25

    Progress in Performance Modeling for PERC2 resulted in: • Automated modeling tools that are robust, able to characterize large applications running at scale while simultaneously simulating the memory hierarchies of mul-tiple machines in parallel. • Porting of the requisite tracer tools to multiple platforms. • Improved performance models by using higher resolution memory models that ever before. • Adding control-flow and data dependency analysis to the tracers used in perform-ance tools. • Exploring and developing several new modeling methodologies. • Using modeling tools to develop performance models for strategic codes. • Application of modeling methodology to make a large number of “blind” per-formance predictions on certain mission partner applications, targeting most cur-rently available system architectures. • Error analysis to correct some systematic biases encountered as part of the large-scale blind prediction exercises. • Addition of instrumentation capabilities for communication libraries other than MPI. • Dissemination the tools and modeling methods to several mission partners, in-cluding DoD HPCMO and two DARPA HPCS vendors (Cray and IBM), as well as to the wider HPC community via a series of tutorials.

  13. Activity composition relationships in silicate melts: Annual performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Glazner, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Work performed during the first two years of this project includes construction of furnace laboratory and calibration of instruments, installation of an electron microprobe, and determination of phase equilibria along a basalt-rhyolite mixing line. This latter study comprises the bulk of work performed to date. We completed approximately 100 experiments on the one-atmosphere phase equilibria of balalt-rhyolite mixtures. Starting materials were an alkali basalt from Pisgah Crater, California, and a high-silica rhyolite from the Bishop Tuff, Owens Valley, California. These materials were chosen because the compositional trend of the mixtures mimics many continental calc-alkaline suites. 5 figs.

  14. Examination of Chinese Homeroom Teachers' Performance of Professional School Counselors' Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Qi; Leuwerke, Wade C.

    2010-01-01

    Chinese homeroom teachers' performance of professional school counselor activities was explored. A total of 109 homeroom teachers in Beijing and Harbin, China reported their performance of 68 different school counseling activities as part of their regular actions as a homeroom teacher. Results found that on average homeroom teachers performed a…

  15. Factor- and Item-Level Analyses of the 38-Item Activities Scale for Kids-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M.; Gorton, George E.; Bjornson, Kristie; Bevans, Katherine; Stout, Jean L.; Narayanan, Unni; Tucker, Carole A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children and adolescents highly value their ability to participate in relevant daily life and recreational activities. The Activities Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp) instrument measures the frequency of performance of 30 common childhood activities, and has been shown to be valid and reliable. A revised and expanded 38-item ASKp (ASKp38)…

  16. Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samaras, George M.

    1988-01-01

    The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.

  17. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  18. Contextualizing Performances: Comparing Performances during TOEFL iBT™ and Real-Life Academic Speaking Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking…

  19. Performing Citizenship Down Under: Educating the Active Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Bronwyn; Black, Rosalyn

    2014-01-01

    In democracies such as Australia and New Zealand, education policy increasingly seeks to foster active citizens who are committed to social justice and change. Whilst many aspects of these initiatives are to be applauded for their commitment to empowering young people, in this paper we describe some of the ambiguities that attend young people's…

  20. Report of activities performed, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Numerical Data Advisory Board (NDAB) is a body within the National Research Council composed of a general board with specialized committees and panels. The objective of NDAB and its committees and panels is the improvement in quality, reliability, availability, accessibility, dissemination, utilization, and management of data. NDAB seeks to promote an appreciation of the importance of evaluated data to scientists, engineers, regulators, and others who require reliable numerical data for research and for decision making. NDAB is an interdisciplinary body with representation from physical, chemical, engineering, biological, and geological sciences. Selected sociotechnical, socioeconomic, and transient, or soft data topics are also covered. An effective path of communication with international data activities is maintained by scheduling NDAB meetings jointly with the US National Committee for CODATA, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology of the International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU). An active government liaison relationship is maintained to facilitate input from, and discussion with branches of agencies that deal with technical data and information programs. NDAB has addressed both broad, generic cross-cutting data problems pertinent to all agencies that support R and D programs, as well as specific issues. For some of the specific topics, ad hoc meetings with subgroups of NDAB and the specific agencies requesting such discussions were held. Meetings held by NDAB for the time period covered by this report, as well as other activities, are summarized in Attachment A.

  1. Muscular activity and its relationship to biomechanics and human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariel, Gideon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to address the issue of muscular activity, human motion, fitness, and exercise. Human activity is reviewed from the historical perspective as well as from the basics of muscular contraction, nervous system controls, mechanics, and biomechanical considerations. In addition, attention has been given to some of the principles involved in developing muscular adaptations through strength development. Brief descriptions and findings from a few studies are included. These experiments were conducted in order to investigate muscular adaptation to various exercise regimens. Different theories of strength development were studied and correlated to daily human movements. All measurement tools used represent state of the art exercise equipment and movement analysis. The information presented here is only a small attempt to understand the effects of exercise and conditioning on Earth with the objective of leading to greater knowledge concerning human responses during spaceflight. What makes life from nonliving objects is movement which is generated and controlled by biochemical substances. In mammals. the controlled activators are skeletal muscles and this muscular action is an integral process composed of mechanical, chemical, and neurological processes resulting in voluntary and involuntary motions. The scope of this discussion is limited to voluntary motion.

  2. 78 FR 22251 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR). OMB Control Number: 1820-0624. Type of Review: a... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR) AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...

  3. 78 FR 22253 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR). OMB Control Number: 1820-0578. Type of Review: a... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR) AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...

  4. Physical Activity throughout Adolescence and Cognitive Performance at 18 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Hallal, Pedro C; Mielke, Grégore I; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Ekelund, Ulf; Rombaldi, Airton J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prospective associations of physical activity at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with cognitive performance in young adulthood in a large birth cohort study from Brazil. Methods Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3235 participants). Physical activity was self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years and also was objectively measured at 18 years. Cognitive performance was assessed using an adapted Brazilian version of the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) at 18 years. Results At 11 years, participants in the middle tertile of self-reported physical activity presented a significantly higher cognitive performance score as compared to the lowest tertile. Physical activity at 15 years of age was unrelated to cognitive performance at 18 years. Self-reported physical activity was cross-sectionally positively associated with cognitive performance at 18 years (p<0.001). Data from objectively measured physical activity at 18 years showed that those in the highest moderate to vigorous physical activity tertile presented lower cognitive performance scores at 18 years as compared to those in the lowest tertile (−2.59; 95%CI: −3.41; −1.48). Analyses on changes in tertiles of physical activity showed that maintaining an intermediate physical activity level from 11 to 18 years and from 15 to 18 years was associated with higher cognitive performance score of 2.31 (95%CI: 0.71; 3.91) and 1.84 score (95%CI: 0.25; 3.42), respectively. Conclusion Physical activity throughout adolescence is associated with cognitive performance before adulthood. Adolescents who are active at moderate levels, specifically those who maintain these levels of physical activity, tend to show higher cognitive performance. However, high levels of physical activity might impair cognitive performance. PMID:25973558

  5. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation.

    PubMed

    Phelps, E A; O'Connor, K J; Cunningham, W A; Funayama, E S; Gatenby, J C; Gore, J C; Banaji, M R

    2000-09-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. PMID:11054916

  6. The Performance of Geopolymers Activated by Sodium Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeontaek; Kang, Seunggu

    2015-08-01

    Geopolymers, a group of promising environmentally friendly materials that can work as cement substitutes, should be fabricated from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO mixtures containing large amounts of amorphous phases to ensure optimal chemical and physical properties. In this study, it was shown that geopolymers with enhanced mechanical strengths, as high as 115 MPa, could be obtained from perfectly amorphous slag from spent catalyst (SSC) discharged during automobile catalyst recycling. Geopolymer processing involved alkali-activation using a 16 M NaOH solution of pH13. The varying SSC grain size was the main experimental factor of interest, in combination with curing temperature and aging time. Variations in the mechanical strengths of the resulting geopolymers are explained by the occurrence of 10-50 nm-sized crystals and the presence of voids and pores dozens to hundreds of micrometers in size. PMID:26369225

  7. Performance Benchmarking Tsunami Models for NTHMP's Inundation Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrillo, Juan; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Roeber, Volker; Zhang, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    The coastal states and territories of the United States (US) are vulnerable to devastating tsunamis from near-field or far-field coseismic and underwater/subaerial landslide sources. Following the catastrophic 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) accelerated the development of public safety products for the mitigation of these hazards. In response to this initiative, US coastal states and territories speeded up the process of developing/enhancing/adopting tsunami models that can be used for developing inundation maps and evacuation plans. One of NTHMP's requirements is that all operational and inundation-based numerical (O&I) models used for such purposes be properly validated against established standards to ensure the reliability of tsunami inundation maps as well as to achieve a basic level of consistency between parallel efforts. The validation of several O&I models was considered during a workshop held in 2011 at Texas A&M University (Galveston). This validation was performed based on the existing standard (OAR-PMEL-135), which provides a list of benchmark problems (BPs) covering various tsunami processes that models must meet to be deemed acceptable. Here, we summarize key approaches followed, results, and conclusions of the workshop. Eight distinct tsunami models were validated and cross-compared by using a subset of the BPs listed in the OAR-PMEL-135 standard. Of the several BPs available, only two based on laboratory experiments are detailed here for sake of brevity; since they are considered as sufficiently comprehensive. Average relative errors associated with expected parameters values such as maximum surface amplitude/runup are estimated. The level of agreement with the reference data, reasons for discrepancies between model results, and some of the limitations are discussed. In general, dispersive models were found to perform better than nondispersive models, but differences were relatively small, in part

  8. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  9. Visual observations of glottic activity during didgeridoo performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Hyde, Lydia; Ward, Ronald R.; Ross, Joel C.

    2012-02-01

    Australian didgeridoo is a reed-less hollow conically shape wooden tubular wind instrument typically measuring up to 150 cm in length, with distal and proximal diameters ranging from 150 to 30 mm. This tube allows a player to produce only a narrow variety of sound and sounds effects because it is coupled directly to the player's vocal tract. The typical frequency of the tube typically called the drone, is approximately within 60 to 100 Hz range. This tone generation modulated by lip vibration is supported by circular breathing, allowing for an uninterrupted (indefinite) length of sound generation. Inhalation introduces sound pulsation, while specific tonal effects can be consciously created by manipulation of the player's lips and/or the vocal tract, including conscious phonation using vocal folds vibration, all used to enrich both the sound and the artistic meaning of the played sequence. Though the results of the research on the acoustics of this instrument are often reported in the literature, physiologic data regarding vocal tract configurations, and especially on the behavior of the vocal folds in regulation of ventilation and in phonation, remain less than underreported. The data presented here comprises (as far as we were able to determine) the first ever physiologic account of vocal fold activity in a didgeridoo player observed with help of trans-nasal endoscopy. Our focus was to reveal the work of t

  10. Characterization of cytidylyltransferase enzyme activity through high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brault, James P; Friesen, Jon A

    2016-10-01

    The cytidylyltransferases are a family of enzymes that utilize cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) to synthesize molecules that are typically precursors to membrane phospholipids. The most extensively studied cytidylyltransferase is CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT), which catalyzes conversion of phosphocholine and CTP to cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP-choline), a step critical for synthesis of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). The current method used to determine catalytic activity of CCT measures production of radiolabeled CDP-choline from (14)C-labeled phosphocholine. The goal of this research was to develop a CCT enzyme assay that employed separation of non-radioactive CDP-choline from CTP. A C18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of 0.1 M ammonium bicarbonate (98%) and acetonitrile (2%) (pH 7.4) resulted in separation of solutions of the substrate CTP from the product CDP-choline. A previously characterized truncated version of rat CCTα (denoted CCTα236) was used to test the HPLC enzyme assay by measuring CDP-choline product formation. The Vmax for CCTα236 was 3850 nmol/min/mg and K0.5 values for CTP and phosphocholine were 4.07 mM and 2.49 mM, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to glycerol 3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (GCT) and CTP:2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase synthetase (CMS), members of the cytidylyltransferase family that produce CDP-glycerol and CDP-methylerythritol, respectively. PMID:27443959

  11. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  12. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  13. Involvement in Extracurricular Activities as Related to Academic Performance, Personality, and Peer Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Yee-wang; Wong, Ngai-ying

    1991-01-01

    Reveals findings of a survey of 294 Hong Kong secondary school students. Evaluates relationships among involvement in extracurricular activities, academic performance, personality, and peer acceptance. Concludes that activity involvement is positively related to academic performance, personality, and peer acceptance. Suggests that further research…

  14. Active member control of a precision structure with an H(infinity) performance objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J. L.; Chu, C.-C.; Smith, R. S.; Anderson, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the noncollocated control of active structures using active structural elements. A top level architecture for active structures is presented, and issues pertaining to robust control of structures are discussed. Controllers optimized for an H sub inf performance specification are implemented on a test structure and the results are compared with analytical predictions. Directions for further research are identified.

  15. Anticonvulsant activity and toxicity of essential oil and methanolic extract of Zhumeria majdae Rech, a unique Iranian plant in mice.

    PubMed

    Mandegary, Ali; Sharififar, Fariba; Abdar, Maryam; Arab-Nozari, Milad

    2012-12-01

    Drug-resistance and adverse effects of current drugs are the most obstacles in the treatment of epilepsy. In a plan for finding new natural anticonvulsant agents, we studied the anticonvulsant effects of essential oil (ZMEO) and methanolic extract (ZMME) of Zhumeria majdae in pentylene tetrazol (PTZ) and maximal electro-shock (MES) models in mice. Mice received different doses of ZMEO and ZMME, 30 min before induction of chemical and electrical convulsions. Neurotoxicity (movement toxicity and sedation) was evaluated using rota-rod test. The mortality was determined after 24 h following injection of different doses of the ZMEO and ZMME. The obtained results show that ZMEO dose-dependently protected mice from tonic convulsions induced by PTZ and MES with effective doses (ED(50)) of 0.26 (0.13-0.39) and 0.27 (0.17-0.37) ml/kg respectively. Toxic doses (TD(50)) in rota-rod test for ZMEO was 0.55 (0.42-0.70) ml/kg. ZMME at dose of 2 g/kg decreased tonic convulsions as much as 40 %. For ZMEO, TD(50) of 0.55 (0.45-0.69) ml/kg was obtained. ZMME significantly decreased the walking time in rota-rod test at dose of 2 g/kg. Lethal dose (LD(50)) of ZMEO was determined as 2.35 (1.98-2.65) ml/kg. ZMME showed about 34 % death of the animals at dose 5 g/kg. The essential oil of Z. majdae could be a good candidate for further anticonvulsive studies. PMID:22890979

  16. Part A: Assessing the performance of the COMFA outdoor thermal comfort model on subjects performing physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Natasha A.; Warland, Jon S.; Brown, Robert D.; Gillespie, Terry G.

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the performance of the COMFA outdoor thermal comfort model on subjects performing moderate to vigorous physical activity. Field tests were conducted on 27 subjects performing 30 min of steady-state activity (walking, running, and cycling) in an outdoor environment. The predicted COMFA budgets were compared to the actual thermal sensation (ATS) votes provided by participants during each 5-min interval. The results revealed a normal distribution in the subjects’ ATS votes, with 82% of votes received in categories 0 (neutral) to +2 (warm). The ATS votes were significantly dependent upon sex, air temperature, short and long-wave radiation, wind speed, and metabolic activity rate. There was a significant positive correlation between the ATS and predicted budgets (Spearman’s rho = 0.574, P < 0.01). However, the predicted budgets did not display a normal distribution, and the model produced erroneous estimates of the heat and moisture exchange between the human body and the ambient environment in 6% of the cases.

  17. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... on the following collection of information was published on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 21716). DATES... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology...

  18. Effects of Color Stimulation on Performance and Activity of Hyperactive and Nonhyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretically based investigation of color stimulation effects on hyperactivity was conducted. Findings were that stimulation added early or late to a sustained attention task can normalize the performance of hyperactive children and reduce their activity. (Author/LMO)

  19. The relationships among sprint performance, voluntary swimming activity, and social dominance in juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    McDonald, D G; Keeler, R A; McFarlane, W J

    2007-01-01

    The specific objectives of this study were to determine whether sprint performance in juvenile rainbow trout is correlated with either voluntary swimming activity or aggressive behaviors and to determine the reciprocal: the effect of swimming activity and aggression on sprint performance. Sprint performance was assessed by rapidly accelerating trout (5-7-cm fork length) to a fixed velocity (40, 42, or 45 cm s(-1)) and then holding them at that velocity until fatigue. There was considerable interindividual variation in sprint performance not explained by variations in body size, but intraindividual performance was highly repeatable over at least 2 mo. Voluntary swimming was measured as the frequency of transits (voluntary transit activity, VTA) between two identical tanks via a connecting channel with two different flow regimes: zero or minimum velocity (0 or 2.5 cm s(-1)) and high velocity (84 cm s(-1)). There was a strong correlation between sprint performance and VTA in minimal current but no correlation in high current. Furthermore, sprint performance did not predict the outcome of dominance encounters. Experience with rapid acceleration, especially when voluntary, led to a pronounced improvement in sprint performance in proportion to the number of acceleration events. Social dominance encounters had a more complex effect: a significant reduction in sprint performance in previously high-performance sprinters and the reverse for low performers. We propose that there are four independent axes of interindividual variation in juvenile rainbow trout: spontaneous and rheotaxis-stimulated locomotor activity, aggressive activity, and the trainability of sprint performance. The independence of these axes has the potential to produce a much larger diversity in behavioral and ultimately physiological phenotypes than would be produced if the axes were linked. PMID:17909998

  20. Cerebral Activations Related to Audition-Driven Performance Imagery in Professional Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the melody with the right hand. Both tasks activated ventral premotor and auditory cortices, bilaterally, and the right anterior parietal cortex, when contrasted to 12 musically unskilled controls. Although left ventral premotor activation was increased during imagery (compared to judgment), bilateral dorsal premotor and right posterior-superior parietal activations were quite unique to motor imagery. The latter suggests that musicians not only recruited their manual motor repertoire but also performed a spatial transformation from the vertically perceived pitch axis (high and low sound) to the horizontal axis of the keyboard. Imagery-specific activations in controls were seen in left dorsal parietal-premotor and supplementary motor cortices. Although these activations were less strong compared to musicians, this overlapping distribution indicated the recruitment of a general ‘mirror-neuron’ circuitry. These two levels of sensori-motor transformations point towards common principles by which the brain organizes audition-driven music performance and visually guided task performance. PMID:24714661

  1. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  2. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.816 Performance...

  3. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.816 Performance...

  4. Performing Receptionist Activities. Greet Callers and Visitors. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 67 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on greeting callers and visitors are included in this packet. (The packet is the fourth in a set of four on performing receptionist activities--CE 016 935-937.) The…

  5. Performing Receptionist Activities. Answer the Telephone. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 68 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on answering the telephone are included in this packet. (The packet is the first in a set of four on performing receptionist activities--CE 016 936-938.) The student…

  6. Performing Stenographic Activities. Transcribe from Recorded Media. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 74 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on transcribing from recorded media are included in this packet. (The packet is the first in a set of four on performing stenographic activities--CE 016 974-976.)…

  7. Performing Receptionist Activities. Send Telegrams and Cablegrams. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 70 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on sending telegrams and cablegrams are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on performing receptionist activities--CE 016 935-938.)…

  8. Performing Stenographic Activities. Take and Prepare Minutes of Meetings. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 72 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on taking and preparing minutes of meetings are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on performing stenographic activities--CE 016…

  9. Performing Stenographic Activities. Take and Transcribe Shorthand Dictation. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 73 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on taking and transcribing shorthand dictation are included in this packet. (The packet is the second in a set of four on performing stenographic activities--CE 016…

  10. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Preparing Employer Itineraries, Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 12 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on scheduling employer's trips are included in this packet. (The packet is the second in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for the employer--CE…

  11. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Using Other Reference Materials. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 45 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on using reference books are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for employers--CE 016…

  12. Performances of Student Activism: Sound, Silence, Gender, and Dis/ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.

  13. A longitudinal study of poor performance and subclinical respiratory viral activity in Standardbred trotters

    PubMed Central

    Back, Helena; Penell, Johanna; Pringle, John; Isaksson, Mats; Ronéus, Nils; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Ståhl, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While clinical respiratory disease is considered a main cause of poor performance in horses, the role of subclinical respiratory virus infections is less clear and needs further investigation. Aims and objectives In this descriptive longitudinal study the relationship of markers of subclinical respiratory viral activity to occurrence of poor performance in racing Standardbred trotters was investigated. Material and methods 66 elite Standardbred trotters were followed for 13 months by nasal swabs analysed with qPCR for equine influenza virus, equine arteritis virus, equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV), equine herpesvirus type 1(EHV-1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) and serology to equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV), ERBV, EHV-1 and EHV-4, as well as the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). Findings on lab analyses were subsequently assessed for possible correlations to workload performance and trainer opinion measures of poor performance. Results Despite occurrence of poor performance and subclinical viral activity the authors were unable to detect association neither between subclinical viral activity and poor performance, nor between SAA elevations and either viral activity or poor performance. Conclusions Consistent with earlier study results, antibody titres to ERBV remained high for at least a year and few horses two years or older were seronegative to either ERAV or ERBV. In absence of clinical signs, serology to common respiratory viruses appears to have little diagnostic benefit in evaluation of poor performance in young athletic horses. PMID:26392904

  14. 78 FR 64929 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Reports for Title...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Reports for Title III and Title V Grantees AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), Department of Education (ED). ACTION... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Annual Performance Reports...

  15. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.816 Performance...

  16. CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement: High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, S. E.; Fasching, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    An active clearance control system was developed which reduces fuel consumption and performance degradation. This system utilizes compressor discharge air during takeoff and fan discharge air during cruise to impinge on the shroud structure to improve the thermal response. The system was evaluated in component and engine tests. The test results demonstrated a performance improvement of 0.7 percent in cruise SFC.

  17. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Gerardo; Mangione, Carol M; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Trejo, Laura; Butch, Anthony; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos-a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein) and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose), physical activity (Yale physical activity survey), and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery) were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P < 0.05). In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β = -0.05; P = 0.03) and change in waist circumference (β = -0.16; P = 0.02). Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health. PMID:25136359

  18. Distributed Collaboration Activities in a Blended Learning Scenario and the Effects on Learning Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, M.; Grund, S.; Grote, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of tutor and student online communication and collaboration activities in a blended learning course. The hypothesis that these activities are related to student learning performance (exam results) was tested based on the number of messages posted, as well as the nature of these messages (type of…

  19. Relation between Academic Performance and Students' Engagement in Digital Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertheussen, Bernt Arne; Myrland, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of student engagement in digital learning activities on academic performance for 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate finance course. Interactive practice and exam problem files were available to each student, and individual download activity was automatically recorded during the first 50 days of the course.…

  20. The Relationship between Engagement in Cocurricular Activities and Academic Performance: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacherman, Avi; Foubert, John

    2014-01-01

    The effects of time spent in cocurricular activities on academic performance was tested. A curvilinear relationship between hours per week spent involved in cocurricular activities and grade point average was discovered such that a low amount of cocurricular involvement was beneficial to grades, while a high amount can potentially hurt academic…

  1. Relationships between Writing Motivation, Writing Activity, and Writing Performance: Effects of Grade, Sex, and Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.; Harbaugh, Allen G.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Lawrence, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    A convenience sample of 618 children and adolescents in grades 4 through 10, excluding grade 8, were asked to complete a writing motivation and activity scale and to provide a timed narrative writing sample to permit an examination of the relationships between writing motivation, writing activity, writing performance, and the student…

  2. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  3. Leisure Activities during School Break among Children with Learning Disabilities: Preference vs. Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Mano, Tali; Jarus, Tal; Weinblatt, Nurit

    2006-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities may contribute to the development of social, motor, and language skills, and is therefore especially important for children with learning disabilities. Leisure activities of students in educational settings are performed mostly during breaks. While there have been some studies of the effect of breaks on…

  4. The Effect of CO2 Activation on the Electrochemical Performance of Coke-Based Activated Carbons for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Hong-Gun; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2015-11-01

    The present study developed electrode materials for supercapacitors by activating coke-based activated carbons with CO2. For the activation reaction, after setting the temperature at 1,000 degrees C, four types of activated carbons were produced, over an activation time of 0-90 minutes and with an interval of 30 minutes as the unit. The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons produced was evaluated to examine the effect of CO2 activation. The surface structure of the porous carbons activated through CO2 activation was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To determine the N2/77 K isothermal adsorption characteristics, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) equation were used to analyze the pore characteristics. In addition, charge and discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to analyze the electrochemical characteristics of the changed pore structure. According to the results of the experiments, the N2 adsorption isotherm curves of the porous carbons produced belonged to Type IV in the International Union of Pore and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification and consisted of micropores and mesopores, and, as the activation of CO2 progressed, micropores decreased and mesopores developed. The specific surface area of the porous carbons activated by CO2 was 1,090-1,180 m2/g and thus showed little change, but those of mesopores were 0.43-0.85 cm3/g, thus increasing considerably. In addition, when the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed, the specific capacity was confirmed to have increased from 13.9 F/g to 18.3 F/g. From these results, the pore characteristics of coke-based activated carbons changed considerably because of CO2 activation, and it was therefore possible to increase the electrochemical characteristics. PMID:26726596

  5. Association between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and physical activity level in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ickmans, Kelly; Clarys, Peter; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Aelbrecht, Senne; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Limited scientific evidence suggests that physical activity is directly related to cognitive performance in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To date, no other study has examined the direct relationship between cognitive performance and physical fitness in these patients. This study examined whether cognitive performance and physical fitness are associated in female patients with CFS and investigated the association between cognitive performance and physical activity level (PAL) in the same study sample. We hypothesized that patients who performed better on cognitive tasks would show increased PALs and better performance on physical tests. The study included 31 women with CFS and 13 healthy inactive women. Participants first completed three cognitive tests. Afterward, they undertook a test to determine their maximal handgrip strength, performed a bicycle ergometer test, and were provided with an activity monitor. In patients with CFS, lower peak oxygen uptake and peak heart rate were associated with slower psychomotor speed (p < 0.05). Maximal handgrip strength was correlated with working memory performance (p < 0.05). Both choice and simple reaction time were lower in patients with CFS relative to healthy controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, physical fitness, but not PAL, is associated with cognitive performance in female patients with CFS. PMID:24203542

  6. Structure-activity relationship in high-performance iron-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ping; Wang, Ying; Pan, Jing; Xu, Weilin; Zhuang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    A sustainable Iron (Fe), Nitrogen (N) co-doped high performance Fe-Nx/C electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is synthesized simply based on nitric acid oxidation of cheap carbon black. The obtained optimal nonprecious metal electrocatalyst shows high ORR performance in both alkaline and acidic conditions and possesses appreciable performance/price ratio due to its low cost. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationship of different active sites on Fe-Nx/C is revealed systematically: Fe-N4/2-C > Fe4-N-C > N-C >> Fe4-C ≥ C, from both experimental and theoretical points of view.

  7. Short-term effects of integrated motor imagery practice on muscle activation and force performance.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, F; Blache, Y; Kanthack, T F D; Monteil, K; Collet, C; Guillot, A

    2015-10-01

    The effect of motor imagery (MI) practice on isometric force development is well-documented. However, whether practicing MI during rest periods of physical training improves the forthcoming performance remains unexplored. We involved 18 athletes in a counterbalanced design including three physical training sessions scheduled over five consecutive days. Training involved 10 maximal isometric contractions against a force plate, with the elbow at 90°. During two sessions, we integrated MI practice (focusing on either muscle activation or relaxation) during the inter-trial rest periods. We measured muscle performance from force plate and electromyograms of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoideus. We continuously monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) to control sympathetic nervous system activity. MI of muscle activation resulted in higher isometric force as compared to both MI of muscle relaxation and passive recovery (respectively +2.1% and +3.5%). MI practice of muscle relaxation also outperformed the control condition (+1.9%). Increased activation of the biceps brachii was recorded under both MI practice conditions compared to control. Biceps brachii activation was similar between the two MI practice conditions, but electromyography revealed a marginal trend toward greater activation of the anterior deltoideus during MI practice of muscle activation. EDA and self-reports indicated that these effects were independent from physiological arousal and motivation. These results might account for priming effects of MI practice yielding to higher muscle activation and force performance. Present findings may be of interest for applications in sports training and neurologic rehabilitation. PMID:26241339

  8. Investigating the correlation between the neural activity and task performance in a psychomotor vigilance test.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongze; Sun, Yu; Lim, Julian; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity is known to correlate with decrements in task performance as individuals enter the state of mental fatigue which might lead to lowered productivity and increased safety risks. Incorporating a passive brain computer interface (BCI) technique that detects changes in subject's neural activity and predicts the behavioral performance when the subject is underperforming might be a promising approach to reduce human error in real-world situations. Here, we developed a reliable model using EEG power spectrum to estimate time-on-task performance in a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) which can fit across individuals. High correlation between the estimated and actual reaction time was achieved. Hence, our results illustrate the feasibility for modeling time-on-task decrements in performance among different individuals from their brainwave activity, with potential applications in several domains, including traffic and industrial safety. PMID:26737349

  9. Learning Activity Packages for the V-TECS Secretarial Catalog of Performance Objectives, Criterion-Referenced Measures and Performance Guides for Stenographic, Typing, and Related Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This booklet describes the thirteen sets of learning activity packages developed around the performance objectives specified in the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog. The thirteen sets provide information and learning activities for the following duties: (1) performing mail activities; (2)…

  10. Age and physical activity effects on reaction time and digit symbol substitution performance in cognitively active adults.

    PubMed

    Lupinacci, N S; Rikli, R E; Jones, C J; Ross, D

    1993-06-01

    University professors (N = 56), divided into two age groups (< 50 years and > 50 years) and two physical activity level groups (high and low), were tested on three tasks requiring increasingly complex cognitive processing--simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), and on a digit symbol substitution test (DSST). A significant main effect for exercise, with high active subjects performing better than low active subjects, was found for SRT (p < .001) and CRT (p < .01) but not for DSST (p < .09). Significant main effects for age, with younger subjects performing better than older subjects, were found on DSST (p < .01) and CRT (p < .05) but not for SRT (p < .09). The observation that the effect of age was more pronounced with increasing task complexity is consistent with previous research. However, the tendency for exercise effects to decrease with increasing task complexity is not consistent with former findings, suggesting that perhaps the controlled high level of cognitive activity of subjects in this study may have offset the usual effects of exercise on information processing speed. No significant Age x Activity Level interactions were found on any of the dependent raw score data. However, compared to normative scores of the population at large, there was a slight increase in DSST percentile ranks with age for the older aerobically active professors, whereas a decrease occurred for the inactive subjects. PMID:8341837

  11. Encouraging overweight students with intellectual disability to actively perform walking activity using an air mouse combined with preferred stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    This study continues the research on using an air mouse as a physical activity detector. An air mouse is embedded with a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) gyro sensor, which can measure even the slightest movement in the air. The air mouse was strapped to one of each participant's calves to detect walking activity. This study was conducted to evaluate whether four students with intellectual disability who were overweight and disliked exercising could be motivated to engage in walking actively by linking the target response with preferred stimulation. Single-subject research with ABAB design was adopted in this study. The experimental data showed substantial increases in the participants' target responses (i.e. the performance of the activity of walking) during the intervention phases compared to the baseline phases. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27037988

  12. Physical activity levels and functional performance in the Osteoarthritis Initiative: a graded relationship

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Physical activity improves function for adults with arthritis, but it is unknown if there is a graded relationship with functional benefit. We examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between self-reported physical activity and observed functional performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort included 2589 persons with knee osteoarthritis (2301 having longitudinal follow-up) aged 45 to 79 years at baseline. Two years of prospective annual functional performance was assessed from timed 20 meter walk tests. We used linear regression to estimate differences across physical activity quartiles in subsequent function (baseline and 1-year activity predicts 1- and 2-year function, respectively) adjusted for demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status) and health factors (osteoarthritis severity, knee symptoms, knee pain, knee injury, body mass index, comorbidity, depression, smoking, alcohol use, other joint pain). Results Increasing physical activity levels had a significant graded relationship with functional performance. Adults in physical activity quartile groups, from least to most active, had average gait speed of 4.0, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second respectively at baseline (p-value for trend <.001) and 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second after one year (p-value for trend <.001); increasing trends remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Findings were similar within gender and age groups. Conclusion These prospective data showed a consistent graded relationship between physical activity level and better performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. These findings support guidelines that encourage persons with arthritis who cannot attain minimum recommended physical activity to be as active as possible. PMID:20862681

  13. Handgrip strength deficits best explain limitations in performing bimanual activities after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Basílio, Marluce Lopes; de Faria-Fortini, Iza; Polese, Janaine Cunha; Scianni, Aline A.; Faria, Christina DCM; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the relationships between residual strength deficits (RSD) of the upper limb muscles and the performance in bimanual activities and to determine which muscular group would best explain the performance in bimanual activities of chronic stroke individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Strength measures of handgrip, wrist extensor, elbow flexor/extensor, and shoulder flexor muscles of 107 subjects were obtained and expressed as RSD. The performance in bimanual activities was assessed by the ABILHAND questionnaire. [Results] The correlations between the RSD of handgrip and wrist extensor muscles with the ABILHAND scores were negative and moderate, whereas those with the elbow flexor/extensor and shoulder flexor muscles were negative and low. Regression analysis showed that the RSD of handgrip and wrist extensor muscles explained 38% of the variance in the ABILHAND scores. Handgrip RSD alone explained 33% of the variance. [Conclusion] The RSD of the upper limb muscles were negatively associated with the performance in bimanual activities and the RSD of handgrip muscles were the most relevant variable. It is possible that stroke subjects would benefit from interventions aiming at improving handgrip strength, when the goal is to increase the performance in bimanual activities. PMID:27190447

  14. Dynamic peripheral visual performance relates to alpha activity in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Nan, Wenya; Migotina, Daria; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Rodrigues, João; Semedo, João; Vai, Mang I; Pereira, Jose Gomes; Melicio, Fernando; Da Rosa, Agostinho C

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the relationship between the alpha activity and the central visual ability, in which the visual ability is usually assessed through static stimuli. Besides static circumstance, however in the real environment there are often dynamic changes and the peripheral visual ability in a dynamic environment (i.e., dynamic peripheral visual ability) is important for all people. So far, no work has reported whether there is a relationship between the dynamic peripheral visual ability and the alpha activity. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate their relationship. Sixty-two soccer players performed a newly designed peripheral vision task in which the visual stimuli were dynamic, while their EEG signals were recorded from Cz, O1, and O2 locations. The relationship between the dynamic peripheral visual performance and the alpha activity was examined by the percentage-bend correlation test. The results indicated no significant correlation between the dynamic peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitudes in the eyes-open and eyes-closed resting condition. However, it was not the case for the alpha activity during the peripheral vision task: the dynamic peripheral visual performance showed significant positive inter-individual correlations with the amplitudes in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) and the individual alpha band (IAB) during the peripheral vision task. A potential application of this finding is to improve the dynamic peripheral visual performance by up-regulating alpha activity using neuromodulation techniques. PMID:25426058

  15. Annual Summary of Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F M

    2000-05-01

    As required by the Department of Energy (DOE) order on radioactive waste management (DOE 1999a) as implemented by the Maintenance Plan for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (Mann 2000a), an annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) must be submitted to DOE headquarters each year that a performance assessment is not submitted. Considering the results of data collection and analysis, the conclusions of the 1998 version of the ILAW PA (Mann 1998) as conditionally approved (DOE 1999b) remain valid, but new information indicates more conservatism in the results than previously estimated. A white paper (Mann 2000b) is attached as Appendix A to justify this statement. Recent ILAW performance estimates used on the waste form and geochemical data have resulted in increased confidence that the disposal of ILAW will meet performance objectives. The ILAW performance assessment program will continue to interact with science and technology activities, disposal facility design staff, and operations, as well as to continue to collect new waste form and disposal system data to further increase the understanding of the impacts of the disposal of ILAW. The next full performance assessment should be issued in the spring of 2001.

  16. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Client-centered home modifications improve daily activity performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Susan; Landsbaum, Amanda; Palmer, Janice; Somerville, Emily K.; Morris, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Remaining at home is a high priority for many older adults, but the capacity to “age in place” often is threatened by environmental barriers. Purpose To describe a client-centered occupational therapy, home modification intervention program and examine the impact of the intervention on daily activity performance over time. Methods Using a competence-environmental press framework, a client-centered home modification program for older adults was implemented. In this quasi-experimental, single group prospective study, participants’ subjective ratings of daily activity performance were evaluated before and after the intervention (baseline/post/post). Findings After home modification, participants’ perception of their daily activity performance at home improved significantly and was maintained 2 years post-modification. Implications Home modification may benefit older adults attempting to age in place. PMID:19757729

  18. Determination of human plasma xanthine oxidase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Takahashi, S; Tsutsumi, Z; Yamakita, J; Nasako, Y; Hiroishi, K; Higashino, K

    1996-06-01

    An assay for human plasma xanthine oxidase activity was developed with pterin as the substrate and the separation of product (isoxanthopterin) by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The reaction mixture consists of 60 microliters of plasma and 240 microliters of 0.2 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) containing 113 microM pterin. With this assay, the activity of plasma xanthine oxidase could be easily determined despite its low activity. As a result, it could be demonstrated that the intravenous administration of heparin or the oral administration of ethanol did not increase plasma xanthine oxidase activity in normal subjects, and also that plasma xanthine oxidase activity was higher in patients with hepatitis C virus infection than in healthy subjects or patients with gout. In addition, a single patient with von Gierke's disease showed a marked increase in the plasma activity of this enzyme, relative to that apparent in normal subjects. PMID:8811453

  19. Muscle activity and hand motion in veterinarians performing laparoscopic training tasks with a box trainer.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Araya, Angelo E; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Pérez-Duarte, Francisco J; Martin-Portugués, Idoia Díaz-Güemes; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate muscle activity and hand motion in veterinarians performing a standard set of laparoscopic training tasks. SAMPLE 12 veterinarians with experience performing laparoscopic procedures. PROCEDURES Participants were asked to perform peg transfer, coordination, precision cutting, and suturing tasks in a laparoscopic box trainer. Activity of the right biceps brachii, triceps brachii, forearm flexor, forearm extensor, and trapezius muscles was analyzed by means of surface electromyography. Right hand movements and wrist angle data were registered through the use of a data glove, and risk levels for the wrist joint were determined by use of a modified rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) method. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to compare values between tasks. RESULTS Activity in the biceps muscle did not differ significantly among the 4 tasks. Activity in the triceps, forearm flexor, and forearm extensor muscles was significantly higher during precision cutting than during the coordination task. Activity in the trapezius muscle was highest during the suturing task and did not differ significantly among the other 3 tasks. The RULA score was unacceptable (score, 3) for the coordination, peg transfer, and precision cutting tasks but was acceptable (score, 2) for the suturing task. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the ergonomics of laparoscopic training depended on the tasks performed and the design of the instruments used. Precision cutting and suturing tasks were associated with the highest muscle activity. Acceptable wrist position, as determined with the RULA method, was found with the suturing task, which was performed with an axial-handled instrument. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:186-193). PMID:27027713

  20. Treadmill Workstations: The Effects of Walking while Working on Physical Activity and Work Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J.; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U.; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees’ physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0–2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations. PMID:24586359

  1. Effect of type 3 (oversize) tennis ball on serve performance and upper extremity muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, John; Knudson, Duane

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of the larger diameter (Type 3) tennis ball on performance and muscle activation in the serve. Sixteen male advanced tennis players performed serves using regular size and Type 3 tennis balls. Ball speed, surface electromyography, and serve accuracy were measured. There were no significant differences in mean initial serve speeds between balls, but accuracy was significantly greater (19.3%) with the Type 3 ball than with the regular ball. A consistent temporal sequence of muscle activation and significant differences in mean activation of different muscles were observed. However, ball type had no effect on mean arm muscle activation. These data, combined with a previous study, suggest that play with the larger ball is not likely to increase the risk of overuse injury, but serving accuracy may increase compared to play with the regular ball. PMID:14658375

  2. Performance improvement and characterization activities for an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Cook, William B.; Flood, Michael A.; Campbell, Joel F.; Boyer, Charles M.

    2008-10-01

    Risk mitigation activities for a prototype imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) system, development originating within NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) for enabling future space-based atmospheric composition missions, are continuing at NASA Langley Research Center. The system concept and technology are focused on observing tropospheric ozone around 9.6 micron, but also have applicability toward measurement of other trace species in different spectral regions and other applications. The latest results from performance improvement and laboratory characterization activities will be reported, with an emphasis placed on testing performed to evaluate system-level radiometric, spatial, and spectral measurement fidelity.

  3. Effect of vertical active vibration isolation on tracking performance and on ride qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimasi, F. P.; Allen, R. E.; Calcaterra, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect on pilot performance and comfort of an active vibration isolation system for a commercial transport pilot seat is reported. The test setup consisted of: a hydraulic shaker which produced random vertical vibration inputs; the active vibration isolation system; the pilot seat; the pilot control wheel and column; the side-arm controller; and a two-axis compensatory tracking task. The effects of various degrees of pilot isolation on short-term (two-minute) tracking performance and comfort were determined.

  4. Memory recuperative potential of rifampicin in aluminum chloride-induced dementia: role of pregnane X receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P; Sodhi, R K

    2015-03-12

    The present study has been designed to investigate the potential of rifampicin [Pregnane X receptors (PXR) agonist] in experimental dementia. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) [100mg/kg, p.o. for 42days] was administered to Wistar rats (n=6) to induce dementia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess learning and memory and rota rod test was used to assess locomotor activity of the animals. A battery of biochemical tests and histopathological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Congo Red stains were performed at the end of the study. AlCl3-treated rats demonstrated impaired cognition and locomotor activity on MWM apparatus and rota rod test, respectively. These animals exhibited a significant rise in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (138±3.6), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) level (15±1.6), nitrite (56±2.4) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (4.1±0.9) along with decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) level (22±1.3) in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Further the H&E and Congo Red-stained cerebral cortex sections of AlCl3-treated rats indicated severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Rifampicin-treated AlCl3-rats exhibited significant attenuation in memory deficits, biochemical parameters like AChE activity (33±1.4), TBARS level (4.1±1.0), nitrite level (64±2.6), MPO activity (3.6±1.0) and GSH level (53±2.4) along with improved histopathological alterations and locomotor activity when compared with AlCl3-treated rats (p<0.05). Combined administration of ketoconazole (a PXR antagonist) and rifampicin to AlCl3-treated animals reversed the rifampicin-induced protective effects. Therefore the results obtained from the study indicate a defensive role of rifampicin in memory dysfunction which may probably be due to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and amyloid lowering effects. Moreover the study speculates the potential of PXR in the pathophysiology of dementia which is subject

  5. Brain activity during a visuospatial working memory task predicts arithmetical performance 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Klingberg, Torkel

    2012-05-01

    Visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity is highly correlated with mathematical reasoning abilities and can predict future development of arithmetical performance. Activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) during visuospatial WM tasks correlates with interindividual differences in WM capacity. This region has also been implicated in numerical representation, and its structure and activity reflect arithmetical performance impairments (e.g., dyscalculia). We collected behavioral (N = 246) and neuroimaging data (N = 46) in a longitudinal sample to test whether IPS activity during a visuospatial WM task could provide more information than psychological testing alone and predict arithmetical performance 2 years later in healthy participants aged 6-16 years. Nonverbal reasoning and verbal and visuospatial WM measures were found to be independent predictors of arithmetical outcome. In addition, WM activation in the left IPS predicted arithmetical outcome independently of behavioral measures. A logistic model including both behavioral and imaging data showed improved sensitivity by correctly classifying more than twice as many children as poor arithmetical performers after 2 years than a model with behavioral measures only. These results demonstrate that neuroimaging data can provide useful information in addition to behavioral assessments and be used to improve the identification of individuals at risk of future low academic performance. PMID:21768226

  6. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  7. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  8. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  9. CF6 jet engine performance improvement: low pressure turbine active clearance control

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B.D.; Fasching, W.A.

    1982-06-01

    A low pressure turbine (LPT) active clearance control (ACC) cooling system was developed to reduce the fuel consumption of current CF6-50 turbofan engines for wide bodied commercial aircraft. The program performance improvement goal of 0.3% delta sfc was determined to be achievable with an improved impingement cooling system. The technology enables the design of an optimized manifold and piping system which is capable of a performance gain of 0.45% delta sfc.

  10. The CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement - Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B. D.; Fasching, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A low pressure turbine (LPT) active clearance control (ACC) cooling system was developed to reduce the fuel consumption of current CF6-50 turbofan engines for wide bodied commercial aircraft. The program performance improvement goal of 0.3% delta sfc was determined to be achievable with an improved impingement cooling system. The technology enables the design of an optimized manifold and piping system which is capable of a performance gain of 0.45% delta sfc.

  11. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). PMID:25844573

  12. Performance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    High performance is difficult to maintain because it is dynamic and not well understood. Based on a synthesis of many sources, a model is proposed where performance is a function of the balance between capacity and challenge. Too much challenge produces coping (or a crash); excess capacity results in boredom. Over time, peak performance drifts toward boredom. Performance can be managed by adjusting our level of ability, our effort, the opportunity to perform, and the challenge we agree to take on. Coping, substandard but acceptable performance, is common among professionals and its long-term side effects can be debilitating. A crash occurs when coping mechanisms fail. PMID:17020177

  13. Flight tests for the assessment of task performance and control activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausder, H. J.; Hummes, D.

    1982-01-01

    The tests were performed with the helicopters BO 105 and UH-1D. Closely connected with tactical demands the six test pilots' task was to minimize the time and the altitude over the obstacles. The data reduction yields statistical evaluation parameters describing the control activity of the pilots and the achieved task performance. The results are shown in form of evaluation diagrams. Additionally dolphin tests with varied control strategy were performed to get more insight into the influence of control techniques. From these test results recommendations can be derived to emphasize the direct force control and to reduce the collective to pitch crosscoupling for the dolphin.

  14. Off-road motorbike performance analysis using a rear semi-active suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozoya-Santos, Jorge de J.; Cervantes-Muñoz, Damián.; Ramírez Mendoza, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The topic of this paper is the analysis of a control system for a semi active rear suspension in an off-road 2-wheel vehicle. Several control methods are studied, as well as the recently proposed Frequency Estimation Based (FEB) algorithm. The test motorcycle dynamics, as well as the passive, semi active, and the algorithm controlled shock absorber models are loaded into BikeSim, a professional two-wheeled vehicle simulation software, and tested in several road conditions. The results show a detailed comparison of the theoretical performance of the different control approaches in a novel environment for semi active dampers.

  15. The effect of 6 h of running on brain activity, mood, and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Wollseiffen, Petra; Schneider, Stefan; Martin, Lisa Anne; Kerhervé, Hugo A; Klein, Timo; Solomon, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Long-duration exercise has been linked with the psychological model of flow. It is expected that the flow experience is characterized by specific changes in cortical activity, especially a transient hypofrontality, which has recently been connected with an increase in cognitive performance post-exercise. Nevertheless, data on neuro-affective and neuro-cognitive effects during prolonged exercise are rare. The cognitive performance, mental state, flow experience, and brain cortical activity of 11 ultramarathon runners (6 female, 5 male) were assessed before, several times during, and after a 6-h run. A decrease in cortical activity (beta activity) was measured in the frontal cortex, whereas no changes were measured for global beta, frontal or global alpha activity. Perceived physical relaxation and flow state increased significantly after 1 h of running but decreased during the following 5 h. Perceived physical state and motivational state remained stable during the first hour of running but then decreased significantly. Cognitive performance as well as the underlying neurophysiological events (recorded as event-related potentials) remained stable across the 6-h run. Despite the fact that women reported significant higher levels of flow, no further gender effects were noticeable. Supporting the theory of a transient hypofrontality, a clear decrease in frontal cortex activity was noticeable. Interestingly, this had no effect on cognitive performance. The fact that self-reported flow experience only increased during the first hour of running before decreasing, leads us to assume that changes in cortical activity, and the experience of flow may not be linked as previously supposed. PMID:26892883

  16. Lifetime physical activity, neuromuscular performance and body composition in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Weeda, J; Horan, S; Beck, B; Weeks, B K

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the relationships between lifetime physical activity participation, neuromuscular performance and body composition in men at musculoskeletal maturity. 50 healthy men (age 25.2±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. Lifetime physical activity was determined from the Bone-specific Physical Activity Questionnaire. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was calculated as an index of neuromuscular performance. Bone mineral density (BMD), lean and fat mass were determined from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR800, Norland). A subsample of participants (n=13) additionally underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, XCT3000, Stratec) measures. Results demonstrated that those in the highest tertile for lifetime physical activity exhibited the greatest lumbar spine BMD (µdiff=0.12 g/cm2, p=0.005) and lean body mass index (LBMI) (p=0.04). Those in the highest tertile for impulse also exhibited the highest whole body (µdiff=0.08 g/cm2), lumbar spine (µdiff=0.14 g/cm2), and femoral neck BMD (µdiff=0.15 g/cm2) (p≤0.05). All BMD differences exceeded the least significant change. Childhood physical activity was positively related to LBMI (r=0.28, p=0.05), whereas sedentary activity was inversely related to femoral neck BMD (r=-0.33, p=0.02). Results support recommendations for sustained physical activity participation during the growing years. PMID:24886922

  17. CO2 Activated Carbon Aerogel with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance as a Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eo Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jeong Kwon; Hong, Ung Gi; Yi, Jongheop; Yoon, Jung Rag; Song, In Kyu

    2015-11-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in ambient conditions. A series of activated carbon aerogels (ACA-X, X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h) were then prepared by CO2 activation of CA with a variation of activation time (X) for use as an electrode material for supercapacitor. Specific capacitances of CA and ACA-X electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Among the samples, ACA-5 h showed the highest BET surface area (2574 m2/g) and the highest specific capacitance (100 F/g). It was found that CO2 activation was a very efficient method for enhancing physicochemical property and supercapacitive electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel. PMID:26726618

  18. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  19. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  20. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  1. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  5. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  9. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  1. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  5. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  11. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  14. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  3. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  13. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 905.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 905.817 Section 905.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.817...

  20. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.817...

  1. Engineering Students' Perceptions of Academic Activities and Support Services: Factors that Influence Their Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenkhienan, Charlotte A.; Kogan, Lori R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study, through the use of focus groups, identified the academic activities and support services perceived by engineering students as having a positive impact on their academic performance. The results suggest three primary factors: (a) individual effort and involvement, (b) peer interaction, and (c) faculty contact. Differences in…

  2. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  3. Student Teaching Performance in English as Measured with Checklist of High School Class Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, L. Ramon; Scott, Owen

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the performance of University of Georgia student teachers in English on the six dimensions of the Checklist of High School Class Activities and to compare this evaluation with student teaching grades, academic grades, and scores on the National Teacher Examinations. The 74-item checklist was…

  4. An Action Research Study on the Effect of Interactive Technology and Active Learning on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Teresa J.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative action science research study utilized a causal-comparative experimental research design in order to determine if the use of student response systems (clickers), as an active learning strategy in a community college course, improved student performance in the course. Students in the experimental group (n = 26) used clickers to…

  5. Physics Students' Performance Using Computational Modelling Activities to Improve Kinematics Graphs Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Ives Solano; Veit, Eliane Angela; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' performance while exposed to complementary computational modelling activities to improve physics learning, using the software "Modellus." Interpretation of kinematics graphs was the physics topic chosen for investigation. The theoretical framework adopted was based on Halloun's…

  6. Important Physiological Parameters and Physical Activity Data for Evaluating Exposure Modeling Performance: a Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to develop a database of physiological parameters needed for understanding and evaluating performance of the APEX and SHEDS exposure/intake dose rate model used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its regulatory activities. The A...

  7. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities. 460.136 Section 460.136 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE...

  8. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  9. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  10. 21 CFR 212.20 - What activities must I perform to ensure drug quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What activities must I perform to ensure drug quality? 212.20 Section 212.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR POSITRON EMISSION...

  11. The Effect of Glycerol Ingestion on Performance during Simulated Multisport Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Christopher; Braakhuis, Andrea; Paton, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol-induced hyperhydration has been applied to endurance sport with limited success as a performance enhancement strategy. Glycerol has been used as a hyperhydrating agent, because it has been shown to be rapidly absorbed and osmotically active; therefore, the fluid intake with glycerol is distributed throughout the body. Hyperhydration with…

  12. Marketing Education Assessment Guide. Performance-Based Activities with Authentic Assessments Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This guide presents performance-based authentic assessment ideas, samples, and suggestions to help marketing teachers and students respond to changes and pressures from outside the classroom. It contains 21 activities, each accompanied by a method of authentic assessment. In most cases, the authentic assessment method is a scoring device. The…

  13. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  14. The Impact of Participating in a Peer Assessment Activity on Subsequent Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jhangiani, Rajiv S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of participation in a peer assessment activity on subsequent academic performance. Students in two sections of an introductory psychology course completed a practice quiz 1 week prior to each of three course exams. Students in the experimental group participated in a five-step double-blind peer assessment…

  15. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  16. Physical Activity, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, Maternal Education and Self-Reported Educational Performance of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantomaa, M. T.; Tammelin, T. H.; Demakakos, P.; Ebeling, H. E.; Taanila, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02.…

  17. 45 CFR 2520.25 - What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform? 2520.25 Section 2520.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GENERAL PROVISIONS: AMERICORPS SUBTITLE C PROGRAMS §...

  18. 45 CFR 2520.25 - What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform? 2520.25 Section 2520.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GENERAL PROVISIONS: AMERICORPS SUBTITLE C PROGRAMS §...

  19. 45 CFR 2520.25 - What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform? 2520.25 Section 2520.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GENERAL PROVISIONS: AMERICORPS SUBTITLE C PROGRAMS §...

  20. 45 CFR 2520.25 - What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What direct service activities may AmeriCorps members perform? 2520.25 Section 2520.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GENERAL PROVISIONS: AMERICORPS SUBTITLE C PROGRAMS §...

  1. 45 CFR 2520.30 - What capacity-building activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What capacity-building activities may AmeriCorps members perform? 2520.30 Section 2520.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GENERAL PROVISIONS: AMERICORPS SUBTITLE C PROGRAMS §...

  2. The Effect of Activating Metacognitive Strategies on the Listening Performance and Metacognitive Awareness of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimirad, Maryam; Shams, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of activating metacognitive strategies on the listening performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) university students and explores the impact of such strategies on their metacognitive awareness of the listening task. The participants were N = 50 students of English literature at the state university of…

  3. Using Clickers to Facilitate Interactive Engagement Activities in a Lecture Room for Improved Performance by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Naidoo, Ari; Winnips, Koos

    2014-01-01

    What impact can interactive engagement (IE) activities using clickers have on students' motivation and academic performance during lectures as compared to attending traditional types of lectures? This article positions the research on IE within the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness and Gagné's instructional events model.…

  4. 30 CFR 942.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 942.817 Section 942.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.817...

  5. 30 CFR 942.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 942.817 Section 942.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.817...

  6. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, June J.; Baker, Victoria C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  7. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Baker, Victoria C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  8. Spatiotemporal dissociation of brain activity underlying subjective awareness, objective performance and confidence.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Hill, Zachary; He, Biyu J

    2014-03-19

    Despite intense recent research, the neural correlates of conscious visual perception remain elusive. The most established paradigm for studying brain mechanisms underlying conscious perception is to keep the physical sensory inputs constant and identify brain activities that correlate with the changing content of conscious awareness. However, such a contrast based on conscious content alone would not only reveal brain activities directly contributing to conscious perception, but also include brain activities that precede or follow it. To address this issue, we devised a paradigm whereby we collected, trial-by-trial, measures of objective performance, subjective awareness, and the confidence level of subjective awareness. Using magnetoencephalography recordings in healthy human volunteers, we dissociated brain activities underlying these different cognitive phenomena. Our results provide strong evidence that widely distributed slow cortical potentials (SCPs) correlate with subjective awareness, even after the effects of objective performance and confidence were both removed. The SCP correlate of conscious perception manifests strongly in its waveform, phase, and power. In contrast, objective performance and confidence were both contributed by relatively transient brain activity. These results shed new light on the brain mechanisms of conscious, unconscious, and metacognitive processing. PMID:24647958

  9. Development and performance test of the analysis software for the CRIB active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pilsoo; Lee, Chun Sik; Moon, Jun Young; Chae, Kyung Yuk; Cha, Soo Mi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Nakao, Taro; Kahl, David M.; Kubono, Shigeru; Cherubini, Silvio; Hayakawa, Seiya; Signorini, Cosimo

    2015-02-01

    Software for genuinely event-by-event analysis and event reconstruction of data obtained by using an active target has been developed in the graphical user interface under the CERN ROOT framework. The primary motivation for developing the software was to provide physicists who perform experiments using an active target a more user-friendly environment for the purpose of investigating the performance of detection systems and obtaining ideas about physics from a large amount of experimental data. To test the performance of the software, we analyzed experimental data from a 16N radioactive ion beam experiment for α-decay measurements. As a result of the analysis, we observed the Bragg curve and measured the range of the 16N RI beam in the detector. Data were calibrated against the calculation after comparing the Bragg curve to the one obtained from an energy loss calculation in P-10 gas. We present a detailed description of the analysis software and its test results.

  10. Error-related electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii is associated with neural performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Elkins-Brown, Nathaniel; Saunders, Blair; Inzlicht, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Emerging research in social and affective neuroscience has implicated a role for affect and motivation in performance monitoring and cognitive control. No study, however, has investigated whether facial electromyography (EMG) over the corrugator supercilii-a measure associated with negative affect and the exertion of effort-is related to neural performance monitoring. Here, we explored these potential relationships by simultaneously measuring the error-related negativity, error positivity (Pe), and facial EMG over the corrugator supercilii muscle during a punished, inhibitory control task. We found evidence for increased facial EMG activity over the corrugator immediately following error responses, and this activity was related to the Pe for both between- and within-subject analyses. These results are consistent with the idea that early, avoidance-motivated processes are associated with performance monitoring, and that such processes may also be related to orienting toward errors, the emergence of error awareness, or both. PMID:26470645

  11. Activities in connection with quality assurance in radiation therapy performed in Argentina: physical aspects.

    PubMed

    González, R O

    1984-06-01

    Quality assurance in radiotherapy is performed in different ways in Argentina than in other countries. A part of this program is carried out by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL-WHO/IAEA), which is a part of the Atomic Energy Commission. This laboratory organizes TLD postal intercomparison; calibrates and checks radiotherapy units and dosimeters; gives education in the physics of radiotherapy; has collaborated in the production of rules for the operation of radiation therapy units and maintains the application of these rules. Other activities in connection with quality assurance, such as personnel, dosimetry, radiation surveys or those related to treatment planning are performed by other groups of the Atomic Energy Commission, by other institutions or by people working in radiotherapy centers. A description of the activities of the SSDL and a brief explanation about the other activities, the present situation and future plans are discussed. PMID:6735801

  12. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF. PMID:25595622

  13. DRD2/ANKK1 Polymorphism Modulates the Effect of Ventral Striatal Activation on Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun LW; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, P; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Klingberg, Torkel; Reed, L; Williams, S; Lourdusamy, A; Costafreda, S; Cattrell, A; Nymberg, C; Topper, L; Smith, L; Havatzias, S; Stueber, K; Mallik, C; Clarke, T-K; Stacey, D; Wong, C Peng; Werts, H; Williams, S; Andrew, C; Desrivieres, S; Zewdie, S; Heinz, A; Häke, I; Ivanov, N; Klär, A; Reuter, J; Palafox, C; Hohmann, C; Schilling, C; Lüdemann, K; Romanowski, A; Ströhle, A; Wolff, E; Rapp, M; Ittermann, B; Brühl, R; Ihlenfeld, A; Walaszek, B; Schubert, F; Connolly, C; Jones, J; Lalor, E; McCabe, E; Ní, A; Spanagel, R; Leonardi-Essmann, F; Sommer, W; Vollstaedt-Klein, S; Poustka, L; Steiner, S; Buehler, M; Vollstedt-Klein, S; Stolzenburg, E; Schmal, C; Schirmbeck, F; Gowland, P; Heym, N; Lawrence, C; Newman, C; Huebner, T; Ripke, S; Mennigen, E; Muller, K U; Ziesch, V; Bromberg, U; Fadai, T; Lueken, L; Yacubian, J; Finsterbusch, J; Martinot, J-L; Artiges, E; Bordas, N; de Bournonville, S; Bricaud, Z; Gollier Briand, F; Lemaitre, H; Massicotte, J; Miranda, R; Penttilä, J; Barbot, A; Schwartz, Y; Lalanne, C; Frouin, V; Thyreau, B; Dalley, J; Mar, A; Subramaniam, N; Theobald, D; Richmond, N; de Rover, M; Molander, A; Jordan, E; Robinson, E; Hipolata, L; Moreno, M; Stephens, D; Ripley, T; Crombag, H; Pena, Y; Zelenika, D; Heath, S; Lanzerath, D; Heinrichs, B; Spranger, T; Fuchs, B; Speiser, C; Resch, F; Haffner, J; Parzer, P; Brunner, R; Klaassen, A; Klaassen, I; Constant, P; Mignon, X; Thomsen, T; Zysset, S; Vestboe, A; Ireland, J; Rogers, J

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is important for learning and cognition. Although dopaminergic (D2) transmission in the ventral striatum (VS) is associated with motivation, learning, and cognition are more strongly associated with function of the dorsal striatum, including activation in the caudate nucleus. A recent study found an interaction between intrinsic motivation and the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism (rs1800497), suggesting that A-carriers of rs1800497 are significantly more sensitive to motivation in order to improve during working memory (WM) training. Using data from the two large-scale imaging genetic data sets, IMAGEN (n=1080, age 13–15 years) and BrainChild (n∼300, age 6–27), we investigated whether rs1800497 is associated with WM. In the IMAGEN data set, we tested whether VS/caudate activation during reward anticipation was associated with WM performance and whether rs1800497 and VS/caudate activation interact to affect WM performance. We found that rs1800497 was associated with WM performance in IMAGEN and BrainChild. Higher VS and caudate activation during reward processing were significantly associated with higher WM performance (p<0.0001). An interaction was found between the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism rs1800497 and VS activation during reward anticipation on WM (p<0.01), such that carriers of the minor allele (A) showed a significant correlation between VS activation and WM, whereas the GG-homozygotes did not, suggesting that the effect of VS BOLD on WM is modified by inter-individual genetic differences related to D2 dopaminergic transmission. PMID:24713612

  14. DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism modulates the effect of ventral striatal activation on working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, P; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-09-01

    Motivation is important for learning and cognition. Although dopaminergic (D2) transmission in the ventral striatum (VS) is associated with motivation, learning, and cognition are more strongly associated with function of the dorsal striatum, including activation in the caudate nucleus. A recent study found an interaction between intrinsic motivation and the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism (rs1800497), suggesting that A-carriers of rs1800497 are significantly more sensitive to motivation in order to improve during working memory (WM) training. Using data from the two large-scale imaging genetic data sets, IMAGEN (n=1080, age 13-15 years) and BrainChild (n∼300, age 6-27), we investigated whether rs1800497 is associated with WM. In the IMAGEN data set, we tested whether VS/caudate activation during reward anticipation was associated with WM performance and whether rs1800497 and VS/caudate activation interact to affect WM performance. We found that rs1800497 was associated with WM performance in IMAGEN and BrainChild. Higher VS and caudate activation during reward processing were significantly associated with higher WM performance (p<0.0001). An interaction was found between the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism rs1800497 and VS activation during reward anticipation on WM (p<0.01), such that carriers of the minor allele (A) showed a significant correlation between VS activation and WM, whereas the GG-homozygotes did not, suggesting that the effect of VS BOLD on WM is modified by inter-individual genetic differences related to D2 dopaminergic transmission. PMID:24713612

  15. CENTRAL ACTIVATION, MUSCLE PERFORMANCE, AND PHYSICAL FUNCTION IN MEN INFECTED WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Wayne B.; Oursler, Krisann K.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Ryan, Alice S.; Russ, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass and limitations in activity have been reported in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), even those who are otherwise asymptomatic. The extent to which factors other than muscle atrophy impair muscle performance has not been addressed in depth. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of neuromuscular activation of the knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors of 27 men infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy and its relationship to muscle performance. The central activation ratio (CAR) was determined using superimposed electrical stimulation during maximum voluntary contractions. In addition to force and power measurements, muscle cross-sectional area and composition was evaluated using computed tomography. Aerobic capacity was determined from treadmill exercise testing. Eleven of the subjects had an impaired ability to activate the knee extensors (CAR = 0.72 ± 0.12) that was associated with weakness and decreased specific force. The reduced central activation was not associated with muscle area, body composition, aerobic capacity, CD4 count, or medication regimen. Those individuals with low central activation had higher HIV-1 viral loads and were more likely to have a history of AIDS-defining illness. These results suggest the possibility of a different mechanism contributing to muscle impairment in the current treatment era that is associated with impairment of central motor function rather than atrophy. Further investigation is warranted in a larger, more diverse population before more definitive claims are made. PMID:17554797

  16. Fatigue effects on quadriceps and hamstrings activation in dancers performing drop landings.

    PubMed

    McEldowney, Kasey M; Hopper, Luke S; Etlin-Stein, Hannah; Redding, Emma

    2013-09-01

    Fatigue may reduce a dancer's ability to maintain the muscle synergies required for stable human movement. Therefore, fatigue presents as a potential risk factor for injury in dancers. Activation patterns of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups in athletic populations have been consistently reported to alter in response to fatigue during landing tasks. It is unknown whether dancers demonstrate similar muscle activation patterns, nor if dancers respond to fatiguing protocols, with regard to muscle activation, in the same manner as their athletic counter-parts. The purpose of this study was to assess quadriceps and hamstrings activation levels in a cohort of dancers performing drop landings before and after completion of a dance-specific fatigue protocol, the High Intensity Dance Performance Fitness Test. Quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction ratios significantly increased between pre- and post-fatigue conditions in a similar fashion to that reported in the literature. Therefore, the neuromuscular activation of the knee extensors and flexors in dancers changed in response to the dance-specific fatiguing protocol. Furthermore, quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction ratios were substantially greater than previously reported in other athletic populations, due to low hamstrings activation levels. Future investigation of dancer biomechanical adaptations to fatigue would be beneficial to further examine the potential implications for injury risk. PMID:24069945

  17. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    PubMed

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  18. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers

    PubMed Central

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J.; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers – seven with sleep bruxism and seven without – randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  19. Influence of the activation temperature on the SO2 removal capacity and mechanical performance of pelletized activated chars.

    PubMed

    Rubio, B; Izquierdo, M T; Mayoral, M C; Andrés, J M

    2001-09-01

    The influence of steam activation temperature on the SO2 removal capability of subbituminous coal char pellets (SCCP) as well as the changes in their mechanical properties, were studied. The SCCP were prepared by pressing at 125 MPa a blend of a char, obtained by carbonization at 850 degrees C, and a commercial coal tar pitch. After a curing stage in air at 200 degrees C and a heat treatment at 900 degrees C in nitrogen, the SCCP were activated with steam (10g H2O min(-1)) for two hours at several temperatures: 600, 700, 750 and 800 degrees C. The SO2 adsorption capacity tests carried out at simulated flue gas conditions (100 degrees C, 10% H2O, 6% O2, 1s space velocity) show an important increase in the amount of adsorbed SO2 of the activated SCCP with respect to parent ones, whereas their mechanical performance decreases in the same proportion, mainly in the interval 700-750 degrees C. Increasing the temperature of activation, the SCCP undergo significant changes in textural features (total surface area measured in N2 and CO2, pore volume) as well as in surface oxygenated groups, as shown by TPD experiments. There is an optimum ratio between both parameters (around 8 micromol g(-1)) for the SO2 conversion at the studied conditions. PMID:11816769

  20. Performance of integrated active fiber composites in fiber reinforced epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnykowycz, M.; Kornmann, X.; Huber, C.; Barbezat, M.; Brunner, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    Active fiber composite (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) has been integrated into orthotropic glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates to characterize the performance of AFC as a smart material component in laminated materials. Monotonic cyclic tensile loading was performed on integrated specimens at different strain levels. The AFC output was monitored to determine the effect of applied strain level on the AFC performance. It was found that the AFC sensitivity degraded beyond strains of 0.20% and approached a minimum at 0.50% strain. The degradation in the AFC performance appears to be attributed to the dominating effect of PZT fiber fragmentation during testing, as opposed to depolarization. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to detect damage in laminates during testing and was correlated with crack evidence from microscopy observations during testing to characterize damage evolution in response to strain levels.

  1. Performance of magnetic activated carbon composite as peroxymonosulfate activator and regenerable adsorbent via sulfate radical-mediated oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Wen-Da; Lua, Shun-Kuang; Dong, Zhili; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic activated carbon composite (CuFe2O4/AC, MACC) was prepared by a co-precipitation-calcination method. The MACC consisted of porous micro-particle morphology with homogeneously distributed CuFe2O4 and possessed high magnetic saturation moment (8.1 emu g(-1)). The performance of MACC was evaluated as catalyst and regenerable adsorbent via peroxymonosulfate (PMS, Oxone(®)) activation for methylene blue (MB) removal. Optimum CuFe2O4/AC w/w ratio was 1:1.5 giving excellent performance and can be reused for at least 3 cycles. The presence of common inorganic ions, namely Cl(-) and NO3(-) did not exert significant influence on MB degradation but humic acid decreased the MB degradation rate. As a regenerable adsorbent, negligible difference in regeneration efficiency was observed when a higher Oxone(®) dosage was employed but a better efficiency was obtained at a lower MACC loading. The factors hindering complete MACC regeneration are MB adsorption irreversibility and AC surface modification by PMS making it less favorable for subsequent MB adsorption. With an additional mild heat treatment (150 °C) after regeneration, 82% of the active sites were successfully regenerated. A kinetic model incorporating simultaneous first-order desorption, second-order adsorption and pseudo-first order degradation processes was numerically-solved to describe the rate of regeneration. The regeneration rate increased linearly with increasing Oxone(®):MACC ratio. The MACC could potentially serve as a catalyst for PMS activation and regenerable adsorbent. PMID:25463211

  2. Performance of an active paper based on cinnamon essential oil in mushrooms quality.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Y; Nerín, C

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity of two active papers (based on solid and emulsion paraffin) with cinnamon essential oil was studied. Mushroom samples were introduced in macroperforated PET trays covered with the active papers, and weight loss and browning monitored for 9 days. The antioxidant capacity of the different papers was evaluated based on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and tyrosinase inhibition kinetics, and the release of aromatic volatile oils was determined by HSPME-GC-MS. Differences in performance were observed: the active papers were more efficient at avoiding weight loss and mushroom browning when compared to the non-active paraffin-based papers. The efficiency increased when the bottom and walls of the trays were covered rather than the bottom alone. Better results were observed when cinnamon was incorporated as emulsion paraffin instead of a solid. PMID:25306314

  3. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  4. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects. PMID:27124457

  5. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Willem-Jan; Besselink, Igo; Teerhuis, Arjan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-10-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to quantify the level of performance improvement that can theoretically be obtained by replacing a conventional air sprung cabin suspension design with a variable geometry active suspension. Furthermore, the difference between the use of a linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller and a classic skyhook controller is investigated. Hereto, an elementary variable geometry actuator model and experimentally validated four degrees of freedom quarter truck model are adopted. The results show that the classic skyhook controller gives a relatively poor performance while a comfort increase of 17-28% can be obtained with the LQ optimal controller, depending on the chosen energy weighting. Furthermore, an additional 75% comfort increase and 77% energy cost reduction can be obtained, with respect to the fixed gain energy optimal controller, using condition-dependent control gains. So, it is concluded that the performance potential using condition-dependent controllers is huge, and that the use of the classic skyhook control strategy should, in general, be avoided when designing active secondary suspensions for commercial vehicles.

  6. Look who's judging-Feedback source modulates brain activation to performance feedback in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Peterburs, Jutta; Sandrock, Carolin; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    It is as yet unknown if behavioral and neural correlates of performance monitoring in socially anxious individuals are affected by whether feedback is provided by a person or a computer. This fMRI study investigated modulation of feedback processing by feedback source (person vs. computer) in participants with high (HSA) (N=16) and low social anxiety (LSA) (N=16). Subjects performed a choice task in which they were informed that they would receive positive or negative feedback from a person or the computer. Subjective ratings indicated increased arousal and anxiety in HSA versus LSA, most pronounced for social and negative feedback. FMRI analyses yielded hyperactivation in ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula for social relative to computer feedback, and in mPFC/ventral ACC for positive relative to negative feedback in HSA as compared to LSA. These activation patterns are consistent with increased interoception and self-referential processing in social anxiety, especially during processing of positive feedback. Increased ACC activation in HSA to positive feedback may link to unexpectedness of (social) praise as posited in social anxiety disorder (SAD) psychopathology. Activation in rostral ACC showed a reversed pattern, with decreased activation to positive feedback in HSA, possibly indicating altered action values depending on feedback source and valence. The present findings corroborate a crucial role of mPFC for performance monitoring in social anxiety. PMID:27033687

  7. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B.; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteban; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects. PMID:26266268

  8. Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Hourtoule, Claire; Singer, Christian; Devilliers, Christophe; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    The need for both high quality images and lightweight structures is one of the main drivers in space telescope design. An efficient wavefront control system will become mandatory in future large observatories, retaining performance while relaxing specifications in the global system's stability. We present the mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space project, which aims to demonstrate the applicability of active optics for future space instrumentation. It has led to the development of a 24-actuator, 90-mm-diameter active mirror, able to compensate for large lightweight primary mirror deformations in the telescope's exit pupil. The correcting system has been designed for expected wavefront errors from 3-m-class lightweight primary mirrors, while also taking into account constraints for space use. Finite element analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to achieve a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated testbed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated system performance in representative operating conditions. It is composed of: a telescope simulator, an active correction loop, a point spread function imager, and a Fizeau interferometer. All conducted tests demonstrated the correcting mirror performance and has improved this technology maturity to a TRL4.

  9. Influence of reactivation on the electrochemical performances of activated carbon based on coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xin; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Meiling; An, Baigang; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2013-12-01

    Coconut shell-based activated carbon (AC) were prepared by CO2 activation, and then the ACs with higher mesopore ratio were obtained by steam activation and by impregnating iron catalyst followed by steam activation, respectively. The AC with the highest mesopore ratio (AChmr) shows superior capacitive behavior, power output and high-frequency performance in supercapacitors. The results should attribute to the connection of its wide micropores and mesopores larger than 3 nm, which is more favorable for fast ionic transportation. The pore size distribution exhibits that the mesopore ratios of the ACs are significantly increased by reactivation of steam or catalyst up to 75% and 78%, respectively. As evidenced by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic measurements, the AChmr shows superior capacitive behaviors, conductivity and performance of electrolytic ionic transportation. The response current densities are evidently enhanced through the cyclic voltammery test at 50 mV/sec scan rate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrates that the conductivity and ion transport performance of the ACs are improved. The specific capacitances of the ACs were increased from 140 to 240 F/g at 500 mA/g current density. The AChmr can provide much higher power density while still maintaining good energy density, and demonstrate excellent high-frequency performances. The pore structure and conductivity of the AChmr also improve the cycleability and self-discharge of supercapacitors. Such AChmr exhibits a great potential in supercapacitors, particularly for applications where high power output and good high-frequency capacitive performances are required. PMID:25078811

  10. Performance and Limitations of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanners for Imaging Very Low Activity Sources

    PubMed Central

    Freedenberg, Melissa; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging applications for positron emission tomography (PET) may require the ability to image very low activity source distributions in the body. The performance of clinical PET scanners in the regime where activity in the field of view is <1 MBq has not previously been explored. In this study, we compared the counting rate performance of two clinical PET/CT scanners, the Siemens Biograph Reveal 16 scanner which is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detectors and the GE Discovery-ST scanner which is based on bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using a modified National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 protocol. Across the activity range studied (2-100 kBq/mL in a 5.5 mL line source in the NEMA scatter phantom), the BGO-based scanner significantly outperformed the LSO-based scanner. This was largely due to the effect of background counts emanating from naturally occurring but radioactive 176Lu within the LSO detector material, which dominates the observed counting rate at the lowest activities. Increasing the lower energy threshold from 350 keV to 425 keV in an attempt to reduce this background did not significantly improve the measured NECR performance. The measured singles rate due to 176Lu emissions within the scanner energy window was also found to be dependent on temperature, and to be affected by the operation of CT component, making approaches to correct or compensate for the background more challenging. We conclude that for PET studies in a very low activity range, BGO-based scanners are likely to have better performance because of the lack of significant background. PMID:23680361

  11. Shared dimensions of performance and activation dysfunction in cognitive control in females with mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Erica L.; Kassel, Michelle T.; Weldon, Anne L.; Marshall, David F.; Meyers, Kortni K.; Gabriel, Laura B.; Vederman, Aaron C.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder share symptoms that may reflect core mood disorder features. This has led to the pursuit of intermediate phenotypes and a dimensional approach to understand neurobiological disruptions in mood disorders. Executive dysfunction, including cognitive control, may represent a promising intermediate phenotype across major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. This study examined dimensions of cognitive control in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in comparison to healthy control subjects using two separate, consecutive experiments. For Experiment 1, participants completed a behavioural cognitive control task (healthy controls = 150, major depressive disorder = 260, bipolar disorder = 202; age range 17–84 years). A sample of those participants (healthy controls = 17, major depressive disorder = 19, and bipolar disorder = 16) completed a similar cognitive control task in an event-related design functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for Experiment 2. Results for Experiment 1 showed greater impairments on the cognitive control task in patients with mood disorders relative to healthy controls (P < 0.001), with more of those in the mood disorder group falling into the ‘impaired’ range when using clinical cut-offs (<5th percentile). Experiment 2 revealed only a few areas of shared activation differences in mood disorder greater than healthy controls. Activation analyses using performance as a regressor, irrespective of diagnosis, revealed within and extra-network areas that were more active in poor performers. In summary, performance and activation during cognitive control tasks may represent an intermediate phenotype for mood disorders. However, cognitive control dysfunction is not uniform across women with mood disorders, and activation is linked to performance more so than disease. These findings support subtype and dimensional approaches to understanding risk and expression of mood

  12. Is there any relationship between physical activity level and patterns, and physical performance in children?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is often assumed that physical activity (PA) and physical performance during childhood and adolescence are beneficial for health during adulthood, but a positive relationship between PA and physical performance has not been precisely clarified in children. The lack or the weakness of the relationships between PA and physical performance could be due to the measure of PA. If the use of accelerometry is considered as an objective and common measure of PA, the real patterns of children's habitual PA must be reflected. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the levels and patterns of PA assessed with high frequency accelerometry and physical performance in young children. Methods Eighty-six boys and 101 girls aged 6-12 years participated in this study. Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period, using a 5-s epoch. Physical performance was assessed by means of EUROFIT tests (anthropometrics, standing broad jump, the 10 × 5 meter shuttle run, the sit-and-reach, the handgrip, the number of sit-ups in 30 seconds, the 20-meter shuttle run). Results No relationship was found between PA and physical performance. In boys only, body fatness was negatively associated with vigorous PA (r = -0.38, p < 0.001) and very high PA (r = -0.35, p < 0.01), in contrast to light PA (r = 0.28, p < 0.01), which was positively related to body fatness. Conclusion In 6- to- 12 year- old children, the more active children were not the fittest. Our results also underline the need for uniformity in approach to measurement of PA, body composition and health-related fitness between studies. PMID:22053790

  13. Predicting variations of perceptual performance across individuals from neural activity using pattern classifiers.

    PubMed

    Das, Koel; Giesbrecht, Barry; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2010-07-15

    Within the past decade computational approaches adopted from the field of machine learning have provided neuroscientists with powerful new tools for analyzing neural data. For instance, previous studies have applied pattern classification algorithms to electroencephalography data to predict the category of presented visual stimuli, human observer decision choices and task difficulty. Here, we quantitatively compare the ability of pattern classifiers and three ERP metrics (peak amplitude, mean amplitude, and onset latency of the face-selective N170) to predict variations across individuals' behavioral performance in a difficult perceptual task identifying images of faces and cars embedded in noise. We investigate three different pattern classifiers (Classwise Principal Component Analysis, CPCA; Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA; and Support Vector Machine, SVM), five training methods differing in the selection of training data sets and three analyses procedures for the ERP measures. We show that all three pattern classifier algorithms surpass traditional ERP measurements in their ability to predict individual differences in performance. Although the differences across pattern classifiers were not large, the CPCA method with training data sets restricted to EEG activity for trials in which observers expressed high confidence about their decisions performed the highest at predicting perceptual performance of observers. We also show that the neural activity predicting the performance across individuals was distributed through time starting at 120ms, and unlike the face-selective ERP response, sustained for more than 400ms after stimulus presentation, indicating that both early and late components contain information correlated with observers' behavioral performance. Together, our results further demonstrate the potential of pattern classifiers compared to more traditional ERP techniques as an analysis tool for modeling spatiotemporal dynamics of the human brain and

  14. Dorsal premotor activity and connectivity relate to action selection performance after stroke.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jill Campbell; Dewanjee, Pritha; Shariff, Umar; Cramer, Steven C

    2016-05-01

    Compensatory activation in dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during movement execution has often been reported after stroke. However, the role of PMd in the planning of skilled movement after stroke has not been well studied. The current study investigated the behavioral and neural response to the addition of action selection (AS) demands, a motor planning process that engages PMd in controls, to movement after stroke. Ten individuals with chronic, left hemisphere stroke and 16 age-matched controls made a joystick movement with the right hand under two conditions. In the AS condition, participants moved right or left based on an abstract, visual rule; in the execution only condition, participants moved in the same direction on every trial. Despite a similar behavioral response to the AS condition (increase in reaction time), brain activation differed between the two groups: the control group showed increased activation in left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) while the stroke group showed increased activation in several right/contralesional regions including right IPL. Variability in behavioral performance between participants was significantly related to variability in brain activation. Individuals post-stroke with relatively poorer AS task performance showed greater magnitude of activation in left PMd and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), increased left primary motor cortex-PMd connectivity, and decreased left PMd-DLPFC connectivity. Changes in the premotor-prefrontal component of the motor network during complex movement conditions may negatively impact the performance and learning of skilled movement and may be a prime target for rehabilitation protocols aimed at improving the function of residual brain circuits after stroke. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1816-1830, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876608

  15. Inferior frontal cortex activity is modulated by reward sensitivity and performance variability.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Costumero, Víctor; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    High reward sensitivity has been linked with motivational and cognitive disorders related with prefrontal and striatal brain function during inhibitory control. However, few studies have analyzed the interaction among reward sensitivity, task performance and neural activity. Participants (N=57) underwent fMRI while performing a Go/No-go task with Frequent-go (77.5%), Infrequent-go (11.25%) and No-go (11.25%) stimuli. Task-associated activity was found in inhibition-related brain regions, with different activity patterns for right and left inferior frontal gyri (IFG): right IFG responded more strongly to No-go stimuli, while left IFG responded similarly to all infrequent stimuli. Reward sensitivity correlated with omission errors in Go trials and reaction time (RT) variability, and with increased activity in right and left IFG for No-go and Infrequent-go stimuli compared with Frequent-go. Bilateral IFG activity was associated with RT variability, with reward sensitivity mediating this association. These results suggest that reward sensitivity modulates behavior and brain function during executive control. PMID:26772873

  16. The effects of electrolyte on the supercapacitive performance of activated calcium carbide-derived carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Xianyou; Jiang, Lanlan; Wu, Chun; Zhao, Qinglan; Liu, Xue; Hu, Ben'an; Yi, Lanhua

    2013-03-01

    Porous calcium carbide-derived carbon (CCDC) has been prepared by one-step route from CaC2 in a freshly prepared chlorine environment at lower temperature, and following activated by ZnCl2 to get activated CCDC. The performances of the supercapacitors based on activated CCDC as electrode active material in aqueous KOH, K2SO4, KCl and KNO3 electrolytes are studied by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charged/discharged, cyclic life and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It has been found that the supercapacitor using 6 M KOH as electrolyte shows an energy density of 8.3 Wh kg-1 and a power density of 1992 W kg-1 based on the total weight of the electrode active materials with a voltage range 0 V-1 V. Meanwhile, the specific capacitance of the supercapacitor in 6 M KOH electrolyte is 68 F g-1 at the scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the voltage range of 0 V-1 V, the charge-transfer resistance is extremely low and the relaxation time is the least of all. The supercapacitor also exhibits a good cycling performance and keeps 95% of initial capacity over 5000 cycles.

  17. Ambulatory Physical Activity Performance in Youth With Cerebral Palsy and Youth Who Are Developing Typically

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, Kristie F; Belza, Basia; Kartin, Deborah; Logsdon, Rebecca; McLaughlin, John F

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose Assessment of walking activity in youth with cerebral palsy (CP) has traditionally been “capacity-based.” The purpose of this study was to describe the day-to-day ambulatory activity “performance” of youth with CP compared with youth who were developing typically. Subjects Eighty-one youth with CP, aged 10 to 13 years, who were categorized as being in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III and 30 age-matched youth who were developing typically were recruited. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, participants wore the StepWatch monitor for 7 days while documenting average daily total step counts, percentage of all time active, ratio of medium to low activity levels, and percentage of time at high activity levels. Results The youth with CP demonstrated significantly lower levels of all outcomes than the comparison group. Discussion and Conclusion Daily walking activity and variability decreased as functional walking level (GMFCS level) decreased. Ambulatory activity performance within the context of the daily life for youth with CP appears valid and feasible as an outcome for mobility interventions in CP. PMID:17244693

  18. Performance characteristics of the simplified version of ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (SASDAS).

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Dilek; Yildirim, Tulay; Avci, Okan; Tomas, Nazmiye; Akar, Servet

    2016-07-01

    Various types of disease activity measures are available for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and there is no gold standard for all individual patients. The ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS) is highly discriminatory, sensitive to change, and associated with structural progression. A simplified version of the ASDAS (SASDAS) was proposed and found to be a simple and practical tool to assess disease activity. Our aim was to test the performance characteristics of the SASDAS and compare it with validated tools. In total, 97 consecutive ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients were included in the study. Disease activity was assessed by the ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP), bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), and SASDAS. The relationship among these activity indices and the level of agreement of various activity categories were tested. There was a strong correlation between the SASDAS and other activity indices, including the BASDAI (r = 0.916, p < 0.001), ASDAS-CRP (r = 0.847, p < 0.001), and ASDAS-ESR (r = 0.942, p < 0.001). Although the agreement between the ASDAS-ESR and SASDAS was good (weighted kappa of 0.744 and total agreement of 77 %), there was moderate agreement between the ASDAS-CRP and SASDAS (weighted kappa of 0.579 and total agreement of 66 %). The disagreement was particularly striking in "moderate" and "high disease activity" states. Approximately 40 % of patients classified as moderate activity according to the ASDAS-ESR and 45 % according to the ASDAS-CRP were differentially categorized by the SASDAS. The results of the present analysis suggest that the simplified version of the ASDAS-ESR should be further validated in various settings and populations due to a questionable level of agreement between the ASDAS-CRP and SASDAS. PMID:26670454

  19. Effect of Two Types of Active Recovery on Fatigue and Climbing Performance.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Pedro L; de la Villa, Pedro; Ferragut, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Performing intra-session recovery is important in rock climbing due to the multiple efforts that climbers are required to make in competitions, as well as repeated climbing trials that they carry out during training sessions. Active recovery has been shown to be a better option than passive recovery. However, the type of active recovery that should be done and the influence of the type and quantity of muscle mass activated are not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of recovering with easy climbing (CR) or walking (WR) on markers of fatigue and climbing performance. For this purpose, 14 subjects participated in this randomly assigned crossover protocol completing three two-minute climbing trials separated by two minutes of active recovery with the assigned method. Seven days later participants carried out the same protocol with the other recovery method. Blood lactate (La(-)), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were analyzed as markers of fatigue and recovery, while meters climbed (MC) and handgrip force (HF) were analyzed for performance. La- values before the last climbing trial (p < 0.05; d = 0.69) and Peak La- values (p < 0.05; d = 0.77) were lower for CR than for WR. Climbers were able to ascend more meters in the set time when following the CR protocol (p < 0.01; d = 0.6), which shows the important role of the active recovery method carried out on climbing performance. There were no differences in HR, HF or RPE between protocols. A more sport-specific recovery protocol, in addition to moving great muscle mass (e.g. lower limbs), seems to enhance recovery and to facilitate lactate removal. For this reason, CR appears to be a more effective active recovery method than WR in sport rock climbing. Key pointsClimbing recovery improved lactate removal in comparison with walking recovery.Subjects were able to climb more meters in a determined time when easy climbing instead of walking during recoveries.Activating both great

  20. Effect of Two Types of Active Recovery on Fatigue and Climbing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Pedro L.; de la Villa, Pedro; Ferragut, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Performing intra-session recovery is important in rock climbing due to the multiple efforts that climbers are required to make in competitions, as well as repeated climbing trials that they carry out during training sessions. Active recovery has been shown to be a better option than passive recovery. However, the type of active recovery that should be done and the influence of the type and quantity of muscle mass activated are not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of recovering with easy climbing (CR) or walking (WR) on markers of fatigue and climbing performance. For this purpose, 14 subjects participated in this randomly assigned crossover protocol completing three two-minute climbing trials separated by two minutes of active recovery with the assigned method. Seven days later participants carried out the same protocol with the other recovery method. Blood lactate (La-), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were analyzed as markers of fatigue and recovery, while meters climbed (MC) and handgrip force (HF) were analyzed for performance. La- values before the last climbing trial (p < 0.05; d = 0.69) and Peak La- values (p < 0.05; d = 0.77) were lower for CR than for WR. Climbers were able to ascend more meters in the set time when following the CR protocol (p < 0.01; d = 0.6), which shows the important role of the active recovery method carried out on climbing performance. There were no differences in HR, HF or RPE between protocols. A more sport-specific recovery protocol, in addition to moving great muscle mass (e.g. lower limbs), seems to enhance recovery and to facilitate lactate removal. For this reason, CR appears to be a more effective active recovery method than WR in sport rock climbing. Key points Climbing recovery improved lactate removal in comparison with walking recovery. Subjects were able to climb more meters in a determined time when easy climbing instead of walking during recoveries. Activating both great

  1. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel 1-(1,4-Alkylaryldisubstituted-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo)-3-substituted Urea Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Szacoń, Elżbieta; Rządkowska, Marzena; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kędzierska, Ewa; Orzelska-Górka, Jolanta; Fidecka, Sylwia; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Novel 1-(1,4-alkylaryldisubstituted-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo)-3-substituted urea derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their central nervous system activity. Compounds 3a-m were prepared in the reaction between the respective 1-alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amines 1a-c and appropriate isocyanates 2 in dichloromethane. The compounds were subjected to in silico ADMET studies in order to select best candidates for in vivo experiments. The effects of the compounds on the spontaneous locomotor activity and amphetamine-evoked hyperactivity were estimated. Analgesic activity, without or in the presence of naloxone, was assessed in the writhing test. The tendency to change the HTR, evoked by l-5-HTP and the involvement in alteration in body temperature in mice was studied. Additionally, to check possible occurrence of drug-induced changes in the muscle relaxant activity of mice, which may have contributed to their behaviour in other tests, the rota-rod and chimney tests were performed. The new urea derivatives exerted significant activities in the performed pharmacological tests, although the presented results show a preliminary estimation, and thus, need to be extended for identification and understanding the complete pharmacological profile of the examined compounds. PMID:27144554

  2. Endogenous hypothermic response to hypoxia reduces brain injury: Implications for modeling hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Reinboth, Barbara S; Köster, Christian; Abberger, Hanna; Prager, Sebastian; Bendix, Ivo; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Herz, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    onset of therapy on short- and long-term histological outcome demonstrated by reduced neuropathological injury scores and preservation of hippocampal structures. However, depending on the brain region analyzed neuroprotective effects were similar or even reduced compared to protection by endogenous cooling during HIE modeling. Moreover, long-term neurobehavioral outcome was only partially improved for motoric function (i.e. Rota Rod performance and rearing activity) while cognitive deficits (i.e. novel object recognition) remained unchanged. These findings emphasize the need to maintain the nesting temperature during the initiation of the pathological insult and highlight the urgency to develop and assess new adjuvant therapies for HT in well-defined experimental models. PMID:27349408

  3. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation. PMID:26995121

  4. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity and solid oxide fuel cell performance with a nanoparticles-loaded cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cui, Daan; Wei, Xuming; Chen, Xiaobo; Cheng, Mojie

    2015-03-11

    Reluctant oxygen-reduction-reaction (ORR) activity has been a long-standing challenge limiting cell performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in both centralized and distributed power applications. We report here that this challenge has been tackled with coloading of (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles within a porous YSZ framework. This design dramatically improves ORR activity, enhances fuel cell output (200-300% power improvement), and enables superior stability (no observed degradation within 500 h of operation) from 600 to 800 °C. The improved performance is attributed to the intimate contacts between nanoparticulate YSZ and LSM particles in the three-phase boundaries in the cathode. PMID:25686380

  5. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  6. Early psychosis, activity performance and social participation: a conceptual model to guide rehabilitation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Harriet; Krupa, Terry; Pocock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a conceptual model focusing on activity performance and social participation of individuals in the period prior to their first acute episodes of psychosis. The model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory method. Data from interviews and documents was collected from 25 primary participants. Interviews were also conducted with 15 members of the participants' support networks and six experts in the field of early psychosis and rehabilitation. The model illustrates how the core constructs of activity performance and social participation are set against the natural context and influenced by shifts in three determinants: faltering personal capacities, negotiating for success and risk factors. The model suggests rehabilitation and recovery practices in early intervention work. PMID:18018956

  7. Effects of self-regulatory strength depletion on muscular performance and EMG activation.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Hicks, Audrey L; Woodgate, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a self-regulatory strength depletion manipulation on performance of a physical endurance (isometric handgrip) task. In addition, the effect of depletion on EMG activity in the working forearm muscles during the endurance task was explored. Sedentary undergraduates (N=49) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive depletion condition (modified Stroop task) or a control (color word) group and completed two maximal isometric exercise endurance trials separated by the cognitive task. Participants in the depletion group showed significant (p<.05) degradations in performance and exhibited higher EMG activation on the second endurance trial (p<.05) compared to controls. Results are consistent with the limited strength model of self-regulation and are interpreted in light of the central fatigue hypothesis. PMID:17995906

  8. The Self-Pleasantness Judgment Modulates the Encoding Performance and the Default Mode Network Activity.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Cerles, Melanie; Ramdeen, Kylee T; Boudiaf, Naila; Pichat, Cedric; Hot, Pascal; Baciu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated the effect of self-relevance on cerebral activity and behavioral performance during an incidental encoding task. Recent findings suggest that pleasantness judgments reliably induce self-oriented (internal) thoughts and increase default mode network (DMN) activity. We hypothesized that this increase in DMN activity would relate to increased memory recognition for pleasantly-judged stimuli (which depend on internally-oriented attention) but decreased recognition for unpleasantly-judged items (which depend on externally-oriented attention). To test this hypothesis, brain activity was recorded from 21 healthy participants while they performed a pleasantness judgment requiring them to rate visual stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. One hour later, participants performed a surprise memory recognition test outside of the scanner. Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding. The behavioral results showed that memory recognition was better for items rated as pleasant than items rated as unpleasant. The whole brain analysis indicated that successful encoding (SE) activates the inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices, whereas unsuccessful encoding (UE) recruits two key medial posterior DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PCU). A region of interest (ROI) analysis including classic DMN areas, revealed significantly greater involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in pleasant compared to unpleasant judgments, suggesting this region's involvement in self-referential (i.e., internal) processing. This area may be responsible for the greater recognition performance seen for pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, a significant interaction between the encoding performance (successful vs. unsuccessful) and pleasantness was observed for the PCC, PCU and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Overall, our

  9. The Self-Pleasantness Judgment Modulates the Encoding Performance and the Default Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Cerles, Melanie; Ramdeen, Kylee T.; Boudiaf, Naila; Pichat, Cedric; Hot, Pascal; Baciu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated the effect of self-relevance on cerebral activity and behavioral performance during an incidental encoding task. Recent findings suggest that pleasantness judgments reliably induce self-oriented (internal) thoughts and increase default mode network (DMN) activity. We hypothesized that this increase in DMN activity would relate to increased memory recognition for pleasantly-judged stimuli (which depend on internally-oriented attention) but decreased recognition for unpleasantly-judged items (which depend on externally-oriented attention). To test this hypothesis, brain activity was recorded from 21 healthy participants while they performed a pleasantness judgment requiring them to rate visual stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. One hour later, participants performed a surprise memory recognition test outside of the scanner. Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding. The behavioral results showed that memory recognition was better for items rated as pleasant than items rated as unpleasant. The whole brain analysis indicated that successful encoding (SE) activates the inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices, whereas unsuccessful encoding (UE) recruits two key medial posterior DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PCU). A region of interest (ROI) analysis including classic DMN areas, revealed significantly greater involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in pleasant compared to unpleasant judgments, suggesting this region’s involvement in self-referential (i.e., internal) processing. This area may be responsible for the greater recognition performance seen for pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, a significant interaction between the encoding performance (successful vs. unsuccessful) and pleasantness was observed for the PCC, PCU and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Overall, our

  10. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  11. Surface-Active and Performance Properties of Cationic Imidazolinium Surfactants Based on Different Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Divya; Tyagi, V. K.

    Imidazoline surfactants belong to the category of cationic surfactants. Cationic surfactants are often quaternary nitrogen salts and are widely used both in nonaqueous systems and in applications such as textile softeners, dispersants, and emulsifiers. This study describes the surface-active properties of cationic imidazolinium surfactants synthesized from different fatty acids. Their laundry performance in combination with nonionic surfactants like detergency, foaming property, softening property, rewettability etc., is also emphasized.

  12. [Standardization of pathoanatomic activities in performing specialized and high-tech morphological studies].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, S L; Chibisov, V N; Krivolapov, Iu A

    2006-01-01

    The study reports the standard for the activity of an immunohistochemical laboratory. The standard includes a staff list, objective calculation, and planning the salary in accordance with a real amount of work. On performing the high-tech and labor-intensive morphological studies, the actual spent time essentially differs from the current standards, which requires implementation of organizational, financial, economic, and methodological measures at the federal level. PMID:17290899

  13. Acute moderate exercise elicits increased dorsolateral prefrontal activation and improves cognitive performance with Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kato, Morimasa; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Soya, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    A growing number of human studies have reported the beneficial influences of acute as well as chronic exercise on cognitive functions. However, neuroimaging investigations into the neural substrates of the effects of acute exercise have yet to be performed. Using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we sought cortical activation related to changes in the Stroop interference test, elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise, in healthy volunteers (N=20). The compactness and portability of fNIRS allowed on-site cortical examination in a laboratory with a cycle ergometer, enabling strict control of the exercise intensity of each subject by assessing their peak oxygen intake (VO2peak). We defined moderate exercise intensity as 50% of a subject's peak oxygen uptake (50%VO2peak). An acute bout of moderate exercise caused significant improvement of cognitive performance reflecting Stroop interference as measured by reaction time. Consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies, we detected brain activation due to Stroop interference (incongruent minus neutral) in the lateral prefrontal cortices in both hemispheres. This Stroop-interference-related activation was significantly enhanced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex due to the acute bout of moderate exercise. The enhanced activation significantly coincided with the improved cognitive performance. This suggests that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is likely the neural substrate for the improved Stroop performance elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise. fNIRS, which allows physiological monitoring and functional neuroimaging to be combined, proved to be an effective tool for examining the cognitive effects of exercise. PMID:20006719

  14. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  15. The improvement of exercise performance by physical training is related to increased hypothalamic neuronal activation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Henrique P; Leite, Laura H R; Lima, Paulo Marcelo A; Rodovalho, Gisele V; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2016-01-01

    The effects of physical training on hypothalamic activation after exercise and their relationship with heat dissipation were investigated. Following 8 weeks of physical training, trained (TR, n = 9) and untrained (UN, n = 8) Wistar rats were submitted to a regimen of incremental running until fatigue while body and tail temperatures were recorded. After exercise, hypothalamic c-Fos immunohistochemistry analysis was performed. The workload, body-heating rate, heat storage and body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation were calculated. Physical training increased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular, medial preoptic and median preoptic nucleus by 112%, 90% and 65% (P < 0.01) after exercise, respectively. In these hypothalamic regions, increased neuronal activation was directly associated with the increased workload performed by TR animals (P < 0.01). Moreover, a reduction of 0.6°C in the body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was shown by TR animals (P < 0.01). This reduction was possibly responsible for the lower body-heating rate (0.019 ± 0.002°C/min, TR vs 0.030 ± 0.005°C/min, UN, P < 0.05) and the decreased ratio between heat storage and the workload performed by TR animals (18.18 ± 1.65 cal/kg, TR vs 31.38 ± 5.35 cal/kg, UN, P < 0.05). The data indicate that physical training enhances hypothalamic neuronal activation during exercise. This enhancement is the central adaptation relating to better physical performance, characterized by a lower ratio of heat stored to workload performed, due to improved heat dissipation. PMID:26475529

  16. Performance of active feedforward control systems in non-ideal, synthesized diffuse sound fields.

    PubMed

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic performance of passive or active panel structures is usually tested in sound transmission loss facilities. A reverberant sending room, equipped with one or a number of independent sound sources, is used to generate a diffuse sound field excitation which acts as a disturbance source on the structure under investigation. The spatial correlation and coherence of such a synthesized non-ideal diffuse-sound-field excitation, however, might deviate significantly from the ideal case. This has consequences for the operation of an active feedforward control system which heavily relies on the acquisition of coherent disturbance source information. This work, therefore, evaluates the spatial correlation and coherence of ideal and non-ideal diffuse sound fields and considers the implications on the performance of a feedforward control system. The system under consideration is an aircraft-typical double panel system, equipped with an active sidewall panel (lining), which is realized in a transmission loss facility. Experimental results for different numbers of sound sources in the reverberation room are compared to simulation results of a comparable generic double panel system excited by an ideal diffuse sound field. It is shown that the number of statistically independent noise sources acting on the primary structure of the double panel system depends not only on the type of diffuse sound field but also on the sample lengths of the processed signals. The experimental results show that the number of reference sensors required for a defined control performance exhibits an inverse relationship to control filter length. PMID:25234987

  17. Performance characterization of active fiber-composite actuators for helicopter rotor blade applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    2002-07-01

    The primary objective of this work was to characterize the performance of the Active Fiber Composite (AFC) actuator material system for the Boeing Active Material Rotor (AMR) blade application. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to orient the driving electric field in the fiber direction to use the primary piezoelectric effect. These actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural actuation for vibration control in helicopters. Therefore, it was necessary to conduct extensive electromechanical material characterization to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the rotor blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included stress-strain tests, free strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing process developed to evaluate the relevant AFC material properties. The results from this comprehensive performance characterization of the AFC material system supported the design and operation of the Boeing AMR blade scheduled for hover and forward flight wind tunnel tests.

  18. Psychophysiological activation during preparation, performance, and recovery in high- and low-anxious music students.

    PubMed

    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA. PMID:24477850

  19. Performance analysis of a semi-active mount made by a new variable stiffness spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Mojtaba; Behzadipour, Saeed; Faulkner, Garry

    2011-06-01

    A new variable stiffness mount (VSM), is created and its performance is experimentally measured and analyzed. VSMs have extensive applications in the vibration control of machineries including automotive industry. The variable stiffness in this design is realized by the prestress stiffness of a cable-based mechanism at a singular configuration. Changing the prestress, through a piezo actuator and a simple on-off controller, results in significant stiffness change in short time and at low energy costs. The stiffness of the VSM is characterized through static and dynamic tests. The performance of the VSM is then evaluated and compared with an equivalent passive mount in two main areas of transmissibility and shock absorption. The response time of the semi-active VSM is also measured in a realistic scenario. A summary of the performance tests are presented at the end.

  20. Performance analysis of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension featuring MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Gyu-Seop; An, Chae-Hun; You, Won-Hee

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using MR damper. In order to achieve this goal, a mathematical dynamic model of railway vehicle is derived by integrating car body, bogie frame and wheel-set which can be able to represent lateral, yaw and roll motion. Based on this model, the dynamic range of MR damper at the railway secondary suspension system and design parameters of MR damper are calculated. Subsequently, control performances of railway vehicle including car body lateral motion and acceleration of MR damper are evaluated through computer simulations. Then, the MR damper is manufactured to be retrofitted with the real railway vehicle and its characteristics are experimentally measured. Experimental performance of MR damper is assessed using test rig which is composed of a car body and two bogies.

  1. Performance of an improved thermal neutron activation detector for buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, J. E.; Faust, A. A.; Andrews, H. R.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Mosquera, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    First generation thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on multi-sensor landmine detection systems. The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. The sensor is described, with emphasis on the improvements. Experiments to characterize the performance of the second generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) hidden in culverts are described. Performance results, including comparisons between the performance of the first and second generation systems are presented.

  2. Physical characterization and performance comparison of active- and passive-pixel CMOS detectors for mammography.

    PubMed

    Elbakri, I A; McIntosh, B J; Rickey, D W

    2009-03-21

    We investigated the physical characteristics of two complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) mammography detectors. The detectors featured 14-bit image acquisition, 50 microm detector element (del) size and an active area of 5 cm x 5 cm. One detector was a passive-pixel sensor (PPS) with signal amplification performed by an array of amplifiers connected to dels via data lines. The other detector was an active-pixel sensor (APS) with signal amplification performed at each del. Passive-pixel designs have higher read noise due to data line capacitance, and the APS represents an attempt to improve the noise performance of this technology. We evaluated the detectors' resolution by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) using a tilted edge. We measured the noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) using mammographic beam conditions specified by the IEC 62220-1-2 standard. Our measurements showed the APS to have much higher gain, slightly higher MTF, and higher NPS. The MTF of both sensors approached 10% near the Nyquist limit. DQE values near dc frequency were in the range of 55-67%, with the APS sensor DQE lower than the PPS DQE for all frequencies. Our results show that lower read noise specifications in this case do not translate into gains in the imaging performance of the sensor. We postulate that the lower fill factor of the APS is a possible cause for this result. PMID:19242050

  3. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning. PMID:25676856

  4. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  5. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations. PMID:25347682

  6. Effect of petroleum coke expanding by perchloric acid on the performance of the resulted activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Mei-Gen; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum coke (PC) was expanded by using KMnO4 as oxidant and HClO4 as intercalator so as to decrease the amount of KOH needed for the successive activation. Activated carbon (AC) was prepared by activation of the expanded PC (EPC) at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1 (denoted as EAC-3). As a comparison, AC was also made by activation of PC at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 (denoted as AC-3, AC-4 and AC-5). Influence of expanding modification on the structure and performance of PC and AC was investigated. The results revealed that the expanding treatment increased the interplanar distance of PC microcrystalline from 0.344 to 0.362 nm and decreased the microcrystalline thickness from 2.34 to 1.57 nm. The specific surface area of EAC-3 and AC-5 was 3461 and 3291 m2ṡg-1, respectively. The average pore size of EAC-3 was 2.19 nm, which is 0.11 nm larger than that of AC-5. At a scan rate of 0.5 mVṡs-1, EAC-3 and AC-5 achieved a specific gravimetric capacitance of 486 and 429 Fṡg-1, respectively. Supercapacitor based on EAC-3 possessed lower resistance and better power performance.

  7. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  8. Annual summary of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment for 2003 Incorporating the Integrated Disposal Facility Concept

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F M

    2003-09-01

    To Erik Olds 09/30/03 - An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) is necessary in each year in which a full performance assessment is not issued.

  9. Large-scale performance and design for construction activity erosion control best management practices.

    PubMed

    Faucette, L B; Scholl, B; Beighley, R E; Governo, J

    2009-01-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II requires construction activities to have erosion and sediment control best management practices (BMPs) designed and installed for site storm water management. Although BMPs are specified on storm water pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) as part of the construction general permit (GP), there is little evidence in the research literature as to how BMPs perform or should be designed. The objectives of this study were to: (i) comparatively evaluate the performance of common construction activity erosion control BMPs under a standardized test method, (ii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blanket thickness, (iii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blankets (CECBs) on a variety of slope angles, and (iv) determine Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover management factors (C factors) for these BMPs to assist site designers and engineers. Twenty-three erosion control BMPs were evaluated using American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-6459, standard test method for determination of ECB performance in protecting hill slopes from rainfall induced erosion, on 4:1 (H:V), 3:1, and 2:1 slopes. Soil loss reduction for treatments exposed to 5 cm of rainfall on a 2:1 slope ranged from-7 to 99%. For rainfall exposure of 10 cm, treatment soil loss reduction ranged from 8 to 99%. The 2.5 and 5 cm CECBs significantly reduced erosion on slopes up to 2:1, while CECBs < 2.5 cm are not recommended on slopes >or= 4:1 when rainfall totals reach 5 cm. Based on the soil loss results, USLE C factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.9. These performance and design criteria should aid site planners and designers in decision-making processes. PMID:19398523

  10. Adolescents at Risk for Alcohol Abuse Demonstrate Altered Frontal Lobe Activation during Stroop Performance

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McCaffrey, Alexandra; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents, family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism, exhibit differences in brain structure and functional activation when compared to family history negative (FH-) counterparts. Given that frontal brain regions, and associated reciprocal connections with limbic structures, undergo the most dramatic maturational changes during adolescence, the objective of this study was to compare functional brain activation during a frontally-mediated test of response inhibition in 32 adolescents separated into low-risk (FH-) and high-risk (FH+) groups. Methods Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) data were acquired at 1.5 Tesla during performance of Stroop Color Naming, Word Reading and Interference. Preprocessing and statistical analyses, covaried for age, were conducted in SPM99 using a search territory that included superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri (trigone region), anterior cingulate gyrus, and left and right amygdala. Results Significantly greater activation in the fronto-limbic search territory was observed in FH+ relative to FH- subjects during Stroop Interference. In addition, a significant regression between brain activation and family history density was observed, with a greater density being associated with increased activation in regions including middle frontal gyrus (BA9) and cingulate gyrus (BA24). Conclusions These data demonstrate a significant influence of FH status on brain activation during the performance of a response inhibition task, perhaps reflecting a neurobiological vulnerability associated with FH status that may include reduced neuronal efficiency and/or recruitment of additional neuronal resources. These findings are important given that the adolescent developmental period is already associated with reduced inhibitory capacity, even prior to the onset of alcohol use. PMID:21073483

  11. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Follow Simple Instructions and Perform Designated Physical Activities According to Simple Instructions with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chen, Ling-Che

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance standing location detector. This study extended Wii Balance Board functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated physical activities according to simple…

  12. Performance Based Assessment and Instructional Activities in Communication Arts for Marketing Education. Application Activities for Communications in Marketing, Employment and Advancement, and Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeker, Arlene M.

    This document contains performance-based assessment and instructional activities for Missouri high school teachers to use in teaching the communications arts needed by marketing education students. The activities included were developed to reflect Missouri's new Show-Me Standards, which are knowledge (content) and performance (process) standards…

  13. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  14. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  15. Suppressing Emotions Impairs Subsequent Stroop Performance and Reduces Prefrontal Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Abundant behavioral evidence suggests that the ability to self-control is limited, and that any exertion of self-control will increase the likelihood of subsequent self-control failures. Here we investigated the neural correlates underlying the aftereffects of self-control on future control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An initial act of self-control (suppressing emotions) impaired subsequent performance in a second task requiring control (Stroop task). On the neural level, increased activity during emotion suppression was followed by a relative decrease in activity during the Stroop task in a cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area engaged in the effortful implementation of control. There was no reliable evidence for reduced activity in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is involved in conflict detection processes and has previously also been implicated in self-control. Follow-up analyses showed that the detected cluster in the right lateral PFC and an area in the MFC were involved in both the emotion suppression task and the Stroop task, but only the cluster in the right lateral PFC showed reduced activation after emotion suppression during the Stroop task. Reduced activity in lateral prefrontal areas relevant for the implementation of control may be a critical consequence of prior self-control exertion if the respective areas are involved in both self-control tasks. PMID:23565239

  16. Change in performance in response to training load adjustment based on autonomic activity.

    PubMed

    Botek, M; McKune, A J; Krejci, J; Stejskal, P; Gaba, A

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess performance (Perf) changes in response to a new training strategy. Specifically, based on spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV) to determine autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, training doses were adjusted to maintain vagal activity at a high and relatively stable level during training preparation. Trained athletes (5 male and 5 female) aged 23.2±4.2 years voluntarily participated in the study. ANS activity was assessed during an orthoclinostatic test, and was represented by calculating HRV variables and a total score index. Over 17 weeks, improvement (1.4-8.5%) and deterioration (0.1-8.8%) in Perf were detected in 7 and 3 athletes, respectively. A relationship (rs=0.684; P<0.05) between the change in Perf (ΔPerf) and supine PHF during season was found. Supine HRV indices (PHF, PT, and MSSD) for the last 3 weeks of the HRV-adjusting period correlated (rs=0.636; 0.648; 0.648, P<0.05) with ΔPerf. Based on the results, a high and relative stable vagal activity during preparation may indicate a readiness to train or appropriate recovery that positively affects Perf. In conclusion, daily quantification of ANS activity by SA HRV seems to be a promising tool for the enhancement of Perf. PMID:24129989

  17. Biobased Nano Porous Active Carbon Fibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiang; Peng, Lele; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Guangjie; Chen, Jonathan Y; Yu, Guihua

    2016-06-22

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with different pore structure have been prepared from wood sawdust using the KOH activation method. A study was conducted to examine the influence of the activation parameters (temperature, alkali/carbon ratio, and time) on the morphology and structure of the as-prepared ACFs developed in the process of pore generation and evolution. Activation temperature was very essential for the formation of utramicropores (<0.6 nm), which greatly contributed to the electric double layer capacitance. The significance of metallic potassium vapor evolved when the temperature was above 800 °C, since the generation of 0.8- and 1.1 nm micropores cannot be ignored. When the the KOH/fiber ratio was increased and the activation time was prolonged, to some extent, the micropores were enlarged to small mesopores within 2-5 nm. The sample with the optimal condition exhibited the highest specific capacitance (225 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1)). Its ability to retain capacitance corresponding to 10 A g(-1) and 6 M KOH was 85.3%, demonstrating a good rate capability. With 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at 3 A g(-1), the supercapacitor kept 94.2% capacity, showing outstanding electrochemical performance as promising electrode material. PMID:27220422

  18. Right Occipital Cortex Activation Correlates with Superior Odor Processing Performance in the Early Blind

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Cécile B.; Dricot, Laurence; Plaza, Paula; Lerens, Elodie; Rombaux, Philippe; De Volder, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten early blind humans, we found robust occipital activation during two odor-processing tasks (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower odors), as well as during control auditory-verbal conditions (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower names). We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the ventral part of the occipital cortex, with dissociation according to stimulus modality: the right fusiform gyrus was most activated during olfactory conditions while part of the left ventral lateral occipital complex showed a preference for auditory-verbal processing. Only little occipital activation was found in sighted subjects, but the same right-olfactory/left-auditory-verbal hemispheric lateralization was found overall in their brain. This difference between the groups was mirrored by superior performance of the blind in various odor-processing tasks. Moreover, the level of right fusiform gyrus activation during the olfactory conditions was highly correlated with individual scores in a variety of odor recognition tests, indicating that the additional occipital activation may play a functional role in odor processing. PMID:23967263

  19. Evaluation of upper body muscle activity during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance in simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waye, A. B.; Krygiel, R. G.; Susin, T. B.; Baptista, R.; Rehnberg, L.; Heidner, G. S.; de Campos, F.; Falcão, F. P.; Russomano, T.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of efficient single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital to maintain cardiac and cerebral perfusion during the 2-4 min it takes for deployment of advanced life support during a space mission. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in upper body muscle activity during CPR performance at terrestrial gravity (+1Gz) and in simulated microgravity (μG). Muscle activity of the triceps brachii, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and pectoralis major was measured via superficial electromyography in 20 healthy male volunteers. Four sets of 30 external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed on a mannequin. Microgravity was simulated using a body suspension device and harness; the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method was adopted for CPR performance in simulated microgravity. Heart rate and perceived exertion via Borg scores were also measured. While a significantly lower depth of ECCs was observed in simulated microgravity, compared with +1Gz, it was still within the target range of 40-50 mm. There was a 7.7% decrease of the mean (±SEM) ECC depth from 48 ± 0.3 mm at +1Gz, to 44.3 ± 0.5 mm during microgravity simulation (p < 0.001). No significant difference in number or rate of compressions was found between the two conditions. Heart rate displayed a significantly larger increase during CPR in simulated microgravity than at +1Gz, the former presenting a mean (±SEM) of 23.6 ± 2.91 bpm and the latter, 76.6 ± 3.8 bpm (p < 0.001). Borg scores were 70% higher post-microgravity compressions (17 ± 1) than post +1Gz compressions (10 ± 1) (p < 0.001). Intermuscular comparisons showed the triceps brachii to have significantly lower muscle activity than each of the other three tested muscles, in both +1Gz and microgravity. As shown by greater Borg scores and heart rate increases, CPR performance in simulated microgravity is more fatiguing than at +1Gz. Nevertheless, no significant difference in muscle activity between conditions

  20. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, E S; Bridge, M W; Jones, D A

    2009-01-01

    Exercise studies have suggested that the presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth activates regions of the brain that can enhance exercise performance but direct evidence of such a mechanism is limited. The first aim of the present study was to observe how rinsing the mouth with solutions containing glucose and maltodextrin, disguised with artificial sweetener, would affect exercise performance. The second aim was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the brain regions activated by these substances. In Study 1A, eight endurance-trained cyclists ( 60.8 ± 4.1 ml kg−1 min−1) completed a cycle time trial (total work = 914 ± 29 kJ) significantly faster when rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% glucose solution compared with a placebo containing saccharin (60.4 ± 3.7 and 61.6 ± 3.8 min, respectively, P= 0.007). The corresponding fMRI study (Study 1B) revealed that oral exposure to glucose activated reward-related brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum, which were unresponsive to saccharin. In Study 2A, eight endurance-trained cyclists ( 57.8 ± 3.2 ml kg−1 min−1) tested the effect of rinsing with a 6.4% maltodextrin solution on exercise performance, showing it to significantly reduce the time to complete the cycle time trial (total work = 837 ± 68 kJ) compared to an artificially sweetened placebo (62.6 ± 4.7 and 64.6 ± 4.9 min, respectively, P= 0.012). The second neuroimaging study (Study 2B) compared the cortical response to oral maltodextrin and glucose, revealing a similar pattern of brain activation in response to the two carbohydrate solutions, including areas of the insula/frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. The results suggest that the improvement in exercise performance that is observed when carbohydrate is present in the mouth may be due to the activation of brain regions believed to be involved in reward and motor control. The findings also suggest that there may be a class

  1. Desulphurization performance of TiO2-modified activated carbon by a one-step carbonization-activation method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanjun; Yang, Danni; Jiang, Xia; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-08-01

    In this study, TiO2 powder was used as the additive to directly blend with raw bituminous coal and coking coal for preparing modified activated carbon (Ti/AC) by one-step carbonization-activation method. The Ti/AC samples were prepared through blending with different ratios of TiO2 (0-12 wt%) and their desulphurization performance was evaluated. The results show that the desulphurization activity of all Ti/AC samples was higher than that of the blank one, and the highest breakthrough sulphur capacity was obtained at 200.55 mg/g C when the blending ratio of TiO2 was 6 wt%. The Brunauer-Emmett-Temer results show that the micropores were dominant in the Ti/AC samples, and their textual properties did not change evidently compared with the blank one. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the loaded TiO2 could influence the relative content of surface functional groups, with slightly higher content of π-π* transitions groups on the Ti/AC samples, and the relative contents of C=O and π-π* transitions groups decreased evidently after the desulphurization process. The X-ray diffraction results show that the anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2 co-existed on the surface of the Ti/AC samples. After the desulphurization process, TiO2 phases did not change and Ti(SO4)2 was not observed on the Ti/AC samples, while sulphate was the main desulphurization product. It can be assumed that SO2 could be catalytically oxidized into SO3 by TiO2 indirectly, rather than TiO2 directly reacted with SO2 to Ti(SO4)2. PMID:26695433

  2. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation.

    PubMed

    Sagar, K A; Dahlgren, M K; Gönenç, A; Racine, M T; Dreman, M W; Gruber, S A

    2015-12-01

    Marijuana (MJ) use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n=24) and late onset (age 16 or later; n=26), and 34 healthy control participants (HCs). All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week) of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth. PMID:25936584

  3. The effects of a unilateral gluteal activation protocol on single leg drop jump performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Robin; Harrison, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up protocols are commonly used to acutely enhance the performance of dynamic activities. This study examined the acute effect of low-load gluteal exercises on the biomechanics of single-leg drop jumps. Eight men and seven women (18-22 years old) performed 10 single-leg drop jumps on three separate days. The gluteal exercises were performed within the warm-up on day 2. Contact time, flight time, peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development, vertical leg-spring stiffness, and reactive strength index were determined. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences on all variables across days. Significant differences were found for contact time, peak GRF, and flight time between days 1 and 2 and for flight time between days 1 and 3 (p < or = 0.05) with no significant difference in any variables between days 2 and 3. This suggested that the improvements in day 2 were due to practice effects rather than the gluteal activation exercises. In addition, a typical error analysis was used to determine individual responses to the gluteal exercises. The results using this analysis showed no discernible response pattern of enhancement or fatigue for any participant. PMID:24968509

  4. Development and performance of the EAGLE active optics LGS WFS refocusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, Fabrice; Le Mignant, David; Chardin, Elodie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Mazzanti, Silvio; Gimenez, Jean-Luc; Ferrari, Marc; Moreaux, Gabriel; Vives, Sébastien; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    We designed, developed, and tested a Variable Curvature Mirror (VCM) as an active refocusing system for the Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave Front Sensor (WFS) of the E-ELT EAGLE instrument [1]. This paper is the second of two from our team on this R&D activity: Hugot et al. this conf. [2] presented the mirror design and performance simulations. Here, we report on the fabrication integration, testing and performance of the VCM system. During this activity, we developed all necessary parts for the VCM system: a metallic mirror, its housing and mounts, a computer-controlled pressure system, an internal metrology, a testbench etc. The functional testing of the VCM system is successful: we can control the internal pressure to less than 1 mBar, and measure the mirror displacement with a 100 nm accuracy. The mirror displacement is a near-linear and well-simulated function of internal pressure for the desired range of focus. The intrinsic optical quality of the mirror meniscus is well within the specifications. Once mounted in its housing, we observe additional mechanical constraints for the current design that generate optical aberrations. We measured the amplitude of the Zernike modes, and we showed that the axisymetric terms display a variation trend very similar to simulations, with amplitude close to simulations. All these results are very promising for a design of focus compensation without any moving part.

  5. Temporal evolution of oscillatory activity predicts performance in a choice-reaction time reaching task.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Moisello, Clara; Landsness, Eric C; Kvint, Svetlana; Pruski, April; Onofrj, Marco; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the patterns and timing of cortical activation of visually guided movements in a task with critical temporal demands. In particular, we investigated the neural correlates of motor planning and on-line adjustments of reaching movements in a choice-reaction time task. High-density electroencephalography (EEG, 256 electrodes) was recorded in 13 subjects performing reaching movements. The topography of the movement-related spectral perturbation was established across five 250-ms temporal windows (from prestimulus to postmovement) and five frequency bands (from theta to beta). Nine regions of interest were then identified on the scalp, and their activity was correlated with specific behavioral outcomes reflecting motor planning and on-line adjustments. Phase coherence analysis was performed between selected sites. We found that motor planning and on-line adjustments share similar topography in a fronto-parietal network, involving mostly low frequency bands. In addition, activities in the high and low frequency ranges have differential function in the modulation of attention with the former reflecting the prestimulus, top-down processes needed to promote timely responses, and the latter the planning and control of sensory-motor processes. PMID:21047934

  6. Effect of nano-scale characteristics of graphene on electrochemical performance of activated carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasni, M. R. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Nor, N. S. M.; Shamsudin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene with its typical nano-scale characteristic properties has been widely used as an additive in activated carbon electrodes in order to enhance the performance of the electrodes for their use in high performance supercapacitors. Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes have been prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths (GMs) of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) and SACGs added with 6 wt% of KOH-treated multi-layer graphene. ACMs electrodes have been assembled in symmetrical supercapacitor cells that employed aqueous KOH electrolyte (6 M). The cells have been tested with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge discharge methods to investigate the effect of graphene addition on the specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E), specific power (P), equivalent series resistance (ESR) and response time (τo) of the supercapacitor cells. The results show that the addition of graphene in the GMs change the values of Csp, Emax, Pmax, ESR and τo from (61-96) F/g, 2 Wh/kg, 104 W/kg, 2.6 Ω and 38 s, to the respective values of (110-124) F/g, 3 Wh/kg, 156 W/kg, 3.4 Ω and 63 s. This study demonstrates that the graphene addition in the GMs has a significant effect on the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes.

  7. Brain Activity in Cigarette Smokers Performing a Working Memory Task: Effect of Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Mendrek, Adrianna; Cohen, Mark S.; Monterosso, John; Rodriguez, Paul; Simon, Sara L.; Brody, Arthur; Jarvik, Murray; Domier, Catherine P.; Olmstead, Richard; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    Background When nicotine-dependent human subjects abstain from cigarette smoking, they exhibit deficits in working memory. An understanding of the neural substrates of such impairments may help to understand how nicotine affects cognition. Our aim, therefore, was to identify abnormalities in the circuitry that mediates working memory in nicotine-dependent subjects after they initiate abstinence from smoking. Methods We used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study eight smokers while they performed a letter version of the N-Back working memory task under satiety (≤1.5 hours abstinence) and abstinence (≥14 hours abstinence) conditions. Results Task-related activity in the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed a significant interaction between test session (satiety, abstinence) and task load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back). This interaction reflected the fact that task-related activity in the satiety condition was relatively low during performance of the 1-back task but greater at the more difficult task levels, whereas task-related activity in the abstinence condition was relatively high at the 1-back level and did not increase at the more difficult task levels. Conclusions We conclude that neural processing related to working memory in the left DLPFC is less efficient during acute abstinence from smoking than at smoking satiety. PMID:16038685

  8. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration.

    PubMed

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation. PMID:26697408

  9. Active load control during rolling maneuvers. [performed in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.

    1994-01-01

    A rolling maneuver load alleviation (RMLA) system has been demonstrated on the active flexible wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The objective was to develop a systematic approach for designing active control laws to alleviate wing loads during rolling maneuvers. Two RMLA control laws were developed that utilized outboard control-surface pairs (leading and trailing edge) to counteract the loads and that used inboard trailing-edge control-surface pairs to maintain roll performance. Rolling maneuver load tests were performed in the TDT at several dynamic pressures that included two below and one 11 percent above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The RMLA system was operated simultaneously with an active flutter suppression system above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. At all dynamic pressures for which baseline results were obtained, torsion-moment loads were reduced for both RMLA control laws. Results for bending-moment load reductions were mixed; however, design equations developed in this study provided conservative estimates of load reduction in all cases.

  10. Experimental determination of detection limits for performing neutron activation analysis for gold in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzemba, M.S.; Weldy, J.; Pearcy, E.; Prikryl, J.; Pickett, D.

    1999-11-01

    Measurements are presented of gold concentration in rock/soil samples by delayed neutron activation analysis using a device and method that are potentially field portable. The device consists of a polyethylene moderator and {sup 252}Cf as the source of neutrons for activating the samples and a high-purity germanium detector to measure the 412-keV gamma-ray emissions from activated gold. This information is used to extract the gold concentration in the sample. Two types of samples were investigated: (1) pure SiO{sub 2} doped with a known amount of gold chloride and (2) US Geological Survey standards. The former types were used to evaluate optimum device performance and to calibrate the device and method. The latter types were used to show typical system performance for the intended application (field exploration for gold deposits). It was found that the device was capable of determining gold concentrations to {approximately}10 ppb with a turnaround time (the sum of irradiation, decay, and counting times) of {approximately}10 days. For samples where the gold concentration was much higher (i.e., gold ore), turnaround times are {approximately}2 days and could be shortened further by sacrificing accuracy (e.g., lessening irradiation, decay, and counting times) or by augmenting source strength.

  11. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation. PMID:26697408

  12. Electrochemical activation of carbon cloth in aqueous inorganic salt solution for superior capacitive performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Tang, Jie; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as an electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. However, pristine CC has such a low surface area and poor electrochemical activity that the energy storage capability is usually very poor. Herein, we report a green method, two-step electrochemical activation in an aqueous solution of inorganic salts, to significantly enhance the capacitance of CC for supercapacitor application. Micro-cracks, exfoliated carbon fiber shells, and oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) were introduced onto the surface of the carbon filament. This resulted in an enhancement of over two orders of magnitude in capacitance compared to that of the bare CC electrode, reaching up to a maximum areal capacitance of 505.5 mF cm-2 at the current density of 6 mA cm-2 in aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte. Electrochemical reduction of CC electrodes led to the removal of most electrochemically unstable surface OFGs, resulting in superior charging/discharging rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Although the activated CC electrode contained a high-level of surface oxygen functional groups (~15 at%), it still exhibited a remarkable charging-discharging rate capability, retaining ~88% of the capacitance when the charging rate increased from 6 to 48 mA cm-2. Moreover, the activated CC electrode exhibited excellent cycling stability with ~97% capacitance remaining after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 24 mA cm-2. A symmetrical supercapacitor based on the activated CC exhibited an ideal capacitive behavior and fast charge-discharge properties. Such a simple, environment-friendly, and cost-effective strategy to activate CC shows great potential in the fabrication of high-performance flexible supercapacitors.Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as

  13. Metabolic brain activity underlying behavioral performance and spatial strategy choice in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Zancada-Menendez, C; Cuesta, M; Arias, J L; Begega, A

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the performance of a spatial reference memory task, the navigation strategy and the changes in the cytochrome c oxidase activity (COx) in different brain regions in exercised (forced exercise, 10 consecutive days, 15min/day) and non-exercised adult Wistar rats. The spatial learning task was carried out in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) for four days with six daily trials, and on the fifth day, a probe session was run, in which we rotated the position of the distal cues 90° in a clockwise direction. During the four days of training, the exercised group showed shorter latency and distance traveled to find the platform, as well as fewer memory errors and reduced use of non-appropriate navigation strategies according to the protocol of the task (egocentric). Interestingly, the rotation of the cues did not affect the performance of the exercised group, in contrast to the non-exercised group, which spent more time in the center of the maze and traveled longer distance to find the platform. Finally, higher COx activity in the cingulate and the retrosplenial cortices, as well as in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 was found in the exercised group. All in all, it seems that the exercise favored the configuration of an efficient and accurate cognitive map of the environment, which was supported by our finding that the rotation of the cues, without altering their overall configuration, did not affect performance. The brain regions with higher COx activity in the exercised group seem to be involved in this function. PMID:25281878

  14. Cortical activity of skilled performance in a complex sports related motor task.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Jochen; Reinecke, Kirsten; Liesen, Heinz; Weiss, Michael

    2008-11-01

    A skilled player in goal-directed sports performance has the ability to process internal and external information in an effective manner and decide which pieces of information are important and which are irrelevant. Focused attention and somatosensory information processing play a crucial role in this process. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are able to demonstrate cortical changes in conjunction with this concept and were examined during a golf putting performance in an expert-novice paradigm. The success in putting (score) and performance-related cortical activity were recorded with an EEG during a 5 x 4 min putting series. Subjects were asked to putt balls for four min at their own pace. The EEG data was divided into different frequencies: Theta (4.75-6.75 Hz), Alpha-1 (7-9.5 Hz), Alpha-2 (9.75-12.5 Hz) and Beta-1 (12.75-18.5 Hz) and performance related power values were calculated. Statistical analysis shows significant better performance in the expert golfers (P < 0.001). This was associated with higher fronto-midline Theta power (P < 0.05) and higher parietal Alpha-2 power values (P < 0.05) compared to the novices in golf putting. Frontal Theta and parietal Alpha-2 spectral power in the ongoing EEG demonstrate differences due to skill level. Furthermore the findings suggest that with increasing skill level, golfers have developed task solving strategies including focussed attention and an economy in parietal sensory information processing which lead to more successful performance. In a theoretical framework both cortical parameters may play a role in the concept of the working memory. PMID:18607621

  15. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  16. Electrospun nanofibers: a prospective electro-active material for constructing high performance Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman; Suresh Kumar, Palaniswamy; Lee, Yun-Sung; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2015-02-11

    In the present review, we describe the development of a high energy density LIB fabricated with all 1D nanofibers as the anode and cathode, as well as a separator-cum-electrolyte prepared by an electrospinning technique without compromising the power capability and cycle life. Such a unique assembly certainly enables realizing the advantages of using 1D nanostructures in practical LIBs, irrespective of the anode or cathode in the presence of gelled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene as the separator-cum-electrolyte. Outstanding cycling profiles with high power densities were noted for all the configurations evaluated. This excellent performance opens up new avenues for the development of high performance Li-ion power packs with a long cycle life and high energy and power densities to drive zero emission transportation applications in the near future, and opens up new research activities in this field as well. PMID:25493289

  17. Preparatory EMG activity reveals a rapid adaptation pattern in humans performing landing movements in blindfolded condition.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    The main questions addressed in this work were whether and how adaptation to suppression of visual information occurs in a free-fall paradigm, and the extent to which vision availability influences the control of landing movements. The prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude of four lower-limb muscles was investigated. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights in two experimental conditions: with and without vision. Experimental design precluded participants from estimating the height of the drop. Since cues provided by proprioceptive and vestibular information acquired during the first trials were processed, the nervous system rapidly adapted to the lack of visual information, and hence produced a motor output (i.e., prelanding EMG modulation) similar to that observed when performing the activity with vision available. PMID:20038004

  18. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  19. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  20. Prototype test article verification of the Space Station Freedom active thermal control system microgravity performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, I. Y.; Ungar, E. K.; Lee, D. Y.; Beckstrom, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    To verify the on-orbit operation of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) two-phase external Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), a test and verification program will be performed prior to flight. The first system level test of the ATCS is the Prototype Test Article (PTA) test that will be performed in early 1994. All ATCS loops will be represented by prototypical components and the line sizes and lengths will be representative of the flight system. In this paper, the SSF ATCS and a portion of its verification process are described. The PTA design and the analytical methods that were used to quantify the gravity effects on PTA operation are detailed. Finally, the gravity effects are listed, and the applicability of the 1-g PTA test results to the validation of on-orbit ATCS operation is discussed.

  1. Excelling at selling: The charming personality style predicts occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Boermans, Sylvie; Koole, Sander L

    2013-08-01

    The present research investigates how individual differences in charming personality are related to occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence. Study 1 showed that sales representatives had higher scores on the charming personality style than executive managers. Study 2 showed that the charming personality style predicted actual sales performance among branch managers of a large German insurance company over a period of 2 years; the explicit power motivation served as a mediator in this relation. Finally, Study 3, carried out in a laboratory setting, confirmed the hypothesis that a charming personality is associated with persuasive competence, which suggests that this style is more relevant for sales representatives than for executive managers. The authors conclude that the charming personality style represents an important psychological resource for organizations. PMID:26271180

  2. Curvature wavefront sensing performance evaluation for active correction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Anastacia M; Phillion, Donald W; Olivier, Scot S; Baker, Kevin L; Cannon, Brice

    2010-01-18

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design, with an 8.4-meter primary mirror, a 3.4-m secondary, and a 5.0-m tertiary, along with three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat focal plane with a field of view of 9.6 square degrees. In order to maintain image quality during operation, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations, which arise primarily from forces due to gravity and thermal expansion. We describe the methodology for measuring the telescope aberrations using a set of curvature wavefront sensors located in the four corners of the LSST camera focal plane. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wavefront sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, demonstrating that this system will perform to the specifications required to meet the LSST performance goals. PMID:20173981

  3. Performance of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Active Microsurgical Manipulator in Handheld Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; Wells, Trent S.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental results from human users of a new 6-degree-of-freedom handheld micromanipulator. This is the latest prototype of a fully-handheld system, known as “Micron,” which performs active compensation of hand tremor for microsurgery. The manipulator is a miniature Gough-Stewart platform incorporating linear ultrasonic motors that provide a cylindrical workspace 4 mm long and 4 mm wide. In addition, the platform allows the possibility of imposing a remote center of motion for controlling motion not only at the tip but also at the entry point in the sclera of the eye. We demonstrate hand tremor reduction in both static and dynamic micromanipulation tasks on a rubber pad. The handheld performance is also evaluated in an artificial eye model while imposing a remote center of motion. In all cases, hand tremor is significantly reduced. PMID:24111024

  4. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 Active Axisymmetric Thrust-vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  5. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  6. Significantly enhancing supercapacitive performance of nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet electrodes by phosphoric acid activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2014-02-12

    In this work, we present a new method to synthesize the phosphorus, nitrogen contained graphene nanosheets, which uses dicyandiamide to prevent the aggregation of graphene oxide and act as the nitrogen precursor, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) as the activation reagent. We have found that through the H3PO4 activation, the samples exhibit the remarkably enhanced supercapacitive performance, and depending on the amount of H3PO4 introduced, the specific capacitance of the samples is gradually increased from 7.6 to 244.6 F g(-1). Meanwhile, the samples also exhibit the good rate capability and excellent stability (up to 10 000 cycles). Through the transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses, H3PO4 treatment induced large pore volume and phosphorus related function groups in the product are assumed to response for the enhancement. PMID:24456232

  7. Performances of toluene removal by activated carbon derived from durian shell.

    PubMed

    Tham, Y J; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Abdullah, A M; Shamala-Devi, A; Taufiq-Yap, Y H

    2011-01-01

    In the effort to find alternative low cost adsorbent for volatile organic vapors has prompted this research in assessing the effectiveness of activated carbon produced from durian shell in removing toluene vapors. Durian shells were impregnated with different concentrations of H3PO4 followed by carbonization at 500 °C for 20 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared durian shell activated carbon (DSAC) was characterized for its physical and chemical properties. The removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC was performed using different toluene concentrations. Results showed that the highest BET surface area of the produced DSAC was 1404 m2/g. Highest removal efficiency of toluene vapors was achieved by using DSAC impregnated with 30% of acid concentration heated at 500 °C for 20 min heating duration. However, there is insignificant difference between removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC and different toluene concentrations. The toluene adsorption by DSAC was better fitted into Freundlich model. PMID:20884200

  8. Identification of prefrontal cortex (BA10) activation while performing Stroop test using diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Sabin; Chityala, Srujan R.; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2011-03-01

    Stroop test is commonly used as a behavior-testing tool for psychological examinations that are related to attention and cognitive control of the human brain. Studies have shown activations in Broadmann area 10 (BA10) of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during attention and cognitive process. The use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for human brain mapping is becoming more prevalent. In this study we expect to find neural correlates between the performed cognitive tasks and hemodynamic signals detected by a DOT system. Our initial observation showed activation of oxy-hemoglobin concentration in BA 10, which is consistent with some results seen by positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our study demonstrates the possibility of combining DOT with Stroop test to quantitatively investigate cognitive functions of the human brain at the prefrontal cortex.

  9. Effect of bonding on the performance of a piezoactuator-based active control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is studied. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to select the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The presented method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators and the bonding layers have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the MIMSC method and to demonstrate the effect of the physical and geometrical properties of the bonding layer on the dynamic performance of the actively controlled beams. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  10. Initial Flight Test Evaluation of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Vectoring Nozzle Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Hathaway, Ross; Ferguson, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A full envelope database of a thrust-vectoring axisymmetric nozzle performance for the Pratt & Whitney Pitch/Yaw Balance Beam Nozzle (P/YBBN) is being developed using the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) aircraft. At this time, flight research has been completed for steady-state pitch vector angles up to 20' at an altitude of 30,000 ft from low power settings to maximum afterburner power. The nozzle performance database includes vector forces, internal nozzle pressures, and temperatures all of which can be used for regression analysis modeling. The database was used to substantiate a set of nozzle performance data from wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Findings from initial flight research at Mach 0.9 and 1.2 are presented in this paper. The results show that vector efficiency is strongly influenced by power setting. A significant discrepancy in nozzle performance has been discovered between predicted and measured results during vectoring.

  11. Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with activity performance in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Fogel, Yael

    2013-04-01

    Deterioration in the frontal and prefrontal cortex associated with executive functions (EF) occurs with age and may be associated with changes in daily performance. The aim of the present study was to describe changes occurring with age in Executive Functions (EF) and handwriting activity, as well as to analyze relationships between age, EF and handwriting performance. The study population included 80 healthy participants (aged 31 to 76+) living in the community. After answering five questions about their writing habits, the participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). In addition, they performed a handwriting task on a digitizer included in the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET), which provides kinematic measures of the handwriting process. Significant differences were found between the four age groups for both EF and temporal and spatial handwriting measures. A series of regressions indicated that age predicted 35% of the variance of the BADS profile score (EF control) and 32% of the variance of in-air time while writing. The results of this study indicated age effect on both EF control and handwriting performance. Possible implications for further research and clinical evaluation and intervention are discussed. PMID:23558056

  12. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45–54; 55–64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36–80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  13. Electrochemical activation of carbon cloth in aqueous inorganic salt solution for superior capacitive performance.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Tang, Jie; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2016-05-21

    Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as an electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. However, pristine CC has such a low surface area and poor electrochemical activity that the energy storage capability is usually very poor. Herein, we report a green method, two-step electrochemical activation in an aqueous solution of inorganic salts, to significantly enhance the capacitance of CC for supercapacitor application. Micro-cracks, exfoliated carbon fiber shells, and oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) were introduced onto the surface of the carbon filament. This resulted in an enhancement of over two orders of magnitude in capacitance compared to that of the bare CC electrode, reaching up to a maximum areal capacitance of 505.5 mF cm(-2) at the current density of 6 mA cm(-2) in aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte. Electrochemical reduction of CC electrodes led to the removal of most electrochemically unstable surface OFGs, resulting in superior charging/discharging rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Although the activated CC electrode contained a high-level of surface oxygen functional groups (∼15 at%), it still exhibited a remarkable charging-discharging rate capability, retaining ∼88% of the capacitance when the charging rate increased from 6 to 48 mA cm(-2). Moreover, the activated CC electrode exhibited excellent cycling stability with ∼97% capacitance remaining after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 24 mA cm(-2). A symmetrical supercapacitor based on the activated CC exhibited an ideal capacitive behavior and fast charge-discharge properties. Such a simple, environment-friendly, and cost-effective strategy to activate CC shows great potential in the fabrication of high-performance flexible supercapacitors. PMID:27141910

  14. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  15. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  16. Differential effects of bupropion on acquisition and performance of an active avoidance task in male mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M C; Redolat, R; Carrasco, M C

    2016-03-01

    Bupropion is an antidepressant drug that is known to aid smoking cessation, although little experimental evidence exists about its actions on active avoidance learning tasks. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of this drug on two-way active avoidance conditioning. In this study, NMRI mice received bupropion (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or saline before a daily training session (learning phase, days 1-4) in the active avoidance task. Performance was evaluated on the fifth day (retention phase): in each bupropion-treated group half of the mice continued with the same dose of bupropion, and the other half received saline. Among the vehicle-treated mice, different sub-groups were challenged with different doses of bupropion. Results indicated that mice treated with 10 and 20mg/kg bupropion exhibited more number of avoidances during acquisition. The response latency confirmed this learning improvement, since this parameter decreased after bupropion administration. No differences between groups were observed in the retention phase. In conclusion, our data show that bupropion influences the learning process during active avoidance conditioning, suggesting that this drug can improve the control of emotional responses. PMID:26688488

  17. [Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased. PMID:24066559

  18. Superior Sensory, Motor, and Cognitive Performance in Elderly Individuals with Multi-Year Dancing Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kolankowska, Izabella; Kalisch, Tobias; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years) amateur dancing (AD) in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65–84 years) as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG) having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals. PMID:20725636

  19. Maintaining Gait Performance by Cortical Activation during Dual-Task Interference: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yea-Ru; Wu, Yu-Te; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, mobility requires walking while performing a cognitive or upper-extremity motor task. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of dual tasks on gait performance, few studies have evaluated cortical activation and its association with gait disturbance during dual tasks. In this study, we simultaneously assessed gait performance and cerebral oxygenation in the bilateral prefrontal cortices (PFC), premotor cortices (PMC), and supplemental motor areas (SMA), using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, in 17 young adults performing dual tasks. Each participant was evaluated while performing normal-pace walking (NW), walking while performing a cognitive task (WCT), and walking while performing a motor task (WMT). Our results indicated that the left PFC exhibited the strongest and most sustained activation during WCT, and that NW and WMT were associated with minor increases in oxygenation levels during their initial phases. We observed increased activation in channels in the SMA and PMC during WCT and WMT. Gait data indicated that WCT and WMT both caused reductions in walking speed, but these reductions resulted from differing alterations in gait properties. WCT was associated with significant changes in cadence, stride time, and stride length, whereas WMT was associated with reductions in stride length only. During dual-task activities, increased activation of the PMC and SMA correlated with declines in gait performance, indicating a control mechanism for maintaining gait performance during dual tasks. Thus, the regulatory effects of cortical activation on gait behavior enable a second task to be performed while walking. PMID:26079605

  20. Altered left ventricular performance in aging physically active mice with an ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Guderian, Sophie; Wikstrom, Erik A; Huot, Joshua R; Peck, Bailey D; Arthur, Susan T; Marino, Joseph S; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the impact of differing physical activity levels throughout the lifespan, using a musculoskeletal injury model, on the age-related changes in left ventricular (LV) parameters in active mice. Forty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three running wheel groups (transected CFL group, transected ATFL/CFL group, SHAM group) or a SHAM Sedentary group (SHAMSED). Before surgery and every 6 weeks after surgery, LV parameters were measured under 2.5 % isoflurane inhalation. Group effects for daily distance run was significantly greater for the SHAM and lesser for the ATLF/CFL mice (p = 0.013) with distance run decreasing with age for all mice (p < 0.0001). Beginning at 6 months of age, interaction (group × age) was noted with LV posterior wall thickness-to-radius ratios (h/r) where h/r increased with age in the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice while the SHAM and CFL mice exhibited decreased h/r with age (p = 0.0002). Passive filling velocity (E wave) was significantly greater in the SHAM mice and lowest for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice (p < 0.0001) beginning at 9 months of age. Active filling velocity (A wave) was not different between groups (p = 0.10). Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio (E/A ratio) was different between groups (p < 0.0001), with higher ratios for the SHAM mice and lower ratios for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice in response to physical activity beginning at 9 months of age. Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio decreased with age (p < 0.0001). Regular physical activity throughout the lifespan improved LV structure, passive filling velocity, and E/A ratio by 6 to 9 months of age and attenuated any negative alterations throughout the second half of life. The diastolic filling differences were found to be significantly related to the amount of activity performed by 9 months and at the end of the lifespan. PMID:26803818

  1. Memory Performance, Health Literacy, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Community Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Methods Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Results Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. Discussion The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others. PMID:22166912

  2. Performance Prediction of Active Piezo Fiber Rackets in Terms of Tennis Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Masamichi

    Several former top players sent a letter to the International Tennis Federation (ITF) encouraging the governing body to revisit the question of rackets. In the letter, the players wrote that racket technology has led to major changes in how the game is played at the top level. This paper investigated the physical properties of a new type of racket with active piezoelectric fibers appeared recently in the market, and predicted the various factors associated with the frontal impact, such as impact force, contact time, deformation of ball and strings, and also estimated the racket performance such as the coefficient of restitution, the rebound power coefficient, the post-impact ball velocity and the sweet areas relevant to the power in tennis. It is based on the experimental identification of the dynamics of the ball-racket-arm system and the approximate nonlinear impact analysis with a simple swing model. The predicted results with forehand stroke model can explain the difference in mechanism of performance between the new type racket with active piezoelectric fibers and the conventional passive representative rackets. It showed that this new type racket provides higher coefficient of restitution on the whole area of string face and also gives larger rebound power coefficients particularly at the topside and bigger powers on the whole area of string face but the difference was not so large. It seems that the racket-related improvements in play are relatively small and the players themselves continue to improve, accordingly there is a gap between a perception and reality.

  3. Cerebral cortical activity associated with non-experts' most accurate motor performance.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Ford; Godwin, Maurice M; Goel, Paras; Rehm, Jared; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Hunt, Carly A; Miller, Matthew W

    2014-10-01

    This study's specific aim was to determine if non-experts' most accurate motor performance is associated with verbal-analytic- and working memory-related cerebral cortical activity during motor preparation. To assess this, EEG was recorded from non-expert golfers executing putts; EEG spectral power and coherence were calculated for the epoch preceding putt execution; and spectral power and coherence for the five most accurate putts were contrasted with that for the five least accurate. Results revealed marked power in the theta frequency bandwidth at all cerebral cortical regions for the most accurate putts relative to the least accurate, and considerable power in the low-beta frequency bandwidth at the left temporal region for the most accurate compared to the least. As theta power is associated with working memory and low-beta power at the left temporal region with verbal analysis, results suggest non-experts' most accurate motor performance is associated with verbal-analytic- and working memory-related cerebral cortical activity during motor preparation. PMID:25058623

  4. Effect of Fatigue Upon Performance and Electromyographic Activity in 6-RM Bench Press

    PubMed Central

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Saeterbakken, Atle

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue during one set of 6-RM bench pressing upon the muscle patterning and performance. Fourteen resistance-trained males (age 22.5±2.0 years, stature 1.82±0.07 m, body mass 82.0±7.8 kg) conducted a 6-RM bench press protocol. Barbell kinematics and EMG activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were measured in each repetition during the 6-RM bench press. Total lifting time increased and the velocity in the ascending movement decreased (p≤0.001). However, the kinematics in the descending phase deferred: the time decreased and velocity increased during the 6-RM (p≤0.001). Generally, muscles increased their EMG amplitude during the six repetitions in the ascending movement, while only three of the seven measured muscles showed an increase over the six repetitions in the descending part in 6-RM bench pressing. It was concluded that the bench pressing performance decreased (lower barbell velocities and longer lifting times) with increasing fatigue in the 6-RM execution. Furthermore EMG increased in the prime movers and the trunk stabilizers (abdominal and spine), while the antagonist muscle (biceps) activity was not affected by fatigue during the lifting phase in a single set of 6-RM bench pressing PMID:25031673

  5. Neural activation during imitation with or without performance feedback: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihua; Wang, Hui; Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Zhang, Hui; Meng, Weixia; Du, Xiaoxia

    2016-08-26

    In our daily lives, we often receive performance feedback (PF) during imitative learning, and we adjust our behaviors accordingly to improve performance. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying this learning process. We hypothesized that appropriate PF would enhance neural activation or recruit additional brain areas during subsequent action imitation. Pictures of 20 different finger gestures without any social meaning were shown to participants from the first-person perspective. Imitation with or without PF was investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 30 healthy subjects. The PF was given by a real person or by a computer. PF from a real person induced hyperactivation of the parietal lobe (precuneus and cuneus), cingulate cortex (posterior and anterior), temporal lobe (superior and transverse temporal gyri), and cerebellum (posterior and anterior lobes) during subsequent imitation. The positive PF and negative PF from a real person, induced the activation of more brain areas during the following imitation. The hyperactivation of the cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and cuneus suggests that the subjects exhibited enhanced motor control and visual attention during imitation after PF. Additionally, random PF from a computer had a small effect on the next imitation. We suggest that positive and accurate PF may be helpful for imitation learning. PMID:27422729

  6. Active Learning and Student-centered Pedagogy Improve Student Attitudes and Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maya; Johnson, Erika; Weiss, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of an instructional design that focused on bringing multiple forms of active learning and student-centered pedagogies to a one-semester, undergraduate introductory biology course for both majors and nonmajors. Our course redesign consisted of three major elements: 1) reordering the presentation of the course content in an attempt to teach specific content within the context of broad conceptual themes, 2) incorporating active and problem-based learning into every lecture, and 3) adopting strategies to create a more student-centered learning environment. Assessment of our instructional design consisted of a student survey and comparison of final exam performance across 3 years—1 year before our course redesign was implemented (2006) and during two successive years of implementation (2007 and 2008). The course restructuring led to significant improvement of self-reported student engagement and satisfaction and increased academic performance. We discuss the successes and ongoing challenges of our course restructuring and consider issues relevant to institutional change. PMID:19723815

  7. Active learning and student-centered pedagogy improve student attitudes and performance in introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Peter; Patel, Maya; Johnson, Erika; Weiss, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of an instructional design that focused on bringing multiple forms of active learning and student-centered pedagogies to a one-semester, undergraduate introductory biology course for both majors and nonmajors. Our course redesign consisted of three major elements: 1) reordering the presentation of the course content in an attempt to teach specific content within the context of broad conceptual themes, 2) incorporating active and problem-based learning into every lecture, and 3) adopting strategies to create a more student-centered learning environment. Assessment of our instructional design consisted of a student survey and comparison of final exam performance across 3 years-1 year before our course redesign was implemented (2006) and during two successive years of implementation (2007 and 2008). The course restructuring led to significant improvement of self-reported student engagement and satisfaction and increased academic performance. We discuss the successes and ongoing challenges of our course restructuring and consider issues relevant to institutional change. PMID:19723815

  8. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and

  9. Performance Measures for Evaluating Public Participation Activities in the Office of Environmental Management (DOE)

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    2001-02-15

    Public participation in Office of Environmental Management (EM) activities throughout the DOE complex is a critical component of the overall success of remediation and waste management efforts. The challenges facing EM and its stakeholders over the next decade or more are daunting (Nuclear Waste News 1996). Achieving a mission composed of such challenges will require innovation, dedication, and a significant degree of good will among all stakeholders. EM's efforts to date, including obtaining and using inputs offered by EM stakeholders, have been notable. Public participation specialists have accepted and met challenges and have consistently tried to improve their performance. They have reported their experiences both formally and informally (e.g., at professional conferences and EM Public Participation Network Workshops, other internal meetings of DOE and contractor public participation specialists, and one-on-one consultations) in order to advance the state of their practice. Our research, and our field research in particular (including our interactions with many representatives of numerous stakeholder groups at nine DOE sites with diverse EM problems), have shown that it, is possible to develop coherent results even in a problem domain as complex as that of EM. We conclude that performance-based evaluations of public participation appear possible, and we have recommended an approach, based on combined and integrated multi-stakeholder views on the attributes of successful public participation and associated performance indicators, that seems workable and should be acceptable to diverse stakeholders. Of course, as an untested recommendation, our approach needs the validation that can only be achieved by application (perhaps at a few DOE sites with ongoing EM activities). Such an application would serve to refine the proposed approach in terms of its clarity, its workability, and its potential for full-scale use by EM and, potentially, other government agencies and

  10. Is Participation in Organized Leisure-Time Activities Associated with School Performance in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family. Methods The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys) aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes. Results Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.54) for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73–2.25) for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds. Conclusion Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance. PMID:27073841

  11. Resting spontaneous activity in the default mode network predicts performance decline during prolonged attention workload.

    PubMed

    Gui, Danyang; Xu, Sihua; Zhu, Senhua; Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M; Xin, Yuanyuan; Feng, Tingyong; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-10-15

    After continuous and prolonged cognitive workload, people typically show reduced behavioral performance and increased feelings of fatigue, which are known as "time-on-task (TOT) effects". Although TOT effects are pervasive in modern life, their underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we induced TOT effects by administering a 20-min continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to a group of 16 healthy adults and used resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine spontaneous brain activity changes associated with fatigue and performance. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust TOT effects, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction times as the test progressed and higher self-reported mental fatigue ratings after the 20-min PVT. Compared to pre-test measurements, subjects exhibited reduced amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the default mode network (DMN) and increased ALFF in the thalamus after the test. Subjects also exhibited reduced anti-correlations between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right middle prefrontal cortex after the test. Moreover, pre-test resting ALFF in the PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (MePFC) predicted subjects' subsequent performance decline; individuals with higher ALFF in these regions exhibited more stable reaction times throughout the 20-min PVT. These results support the important role of both task-positive and task-negative networks in mediating TOT effects and suggest that spontaneous activity measured by resting-state BOLD fMRI may be a marker of mental fatigue. PMID:26196666

  12. Association between Physical Activity and Teacher-Reported Academic Performance among Fifth-Graders in Shanghai: A Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunting; Zhang, Donglan; Jiang, Yanrui; Sun, Wanqi; Wang, Yan; Chen, Wenjuan; Li, Shenghui; Shi, Lu; Shen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of literature reveals the causal pathways between physical activity and brain function, indicating that increasing physical activity among children could improve rather than undermine their scholastic performance. However, past studies of physical activity and scholastic performance among students often relied on parent-reported grade information, and did not explore whether the association varied among different levels of scholastic performance. Our study among fifth-grade students in Shanghai sought to determine the association between regular physical activity and teacher-reported academic performance scores (APS), with special attention to the differential associational patterns across different strata of scholastic performance. Method A total of 2,225 students were chosen through a stratified random sampling, and a complete sample of 1470 observations were used for analysis. We used a quantile regression analysis to explore whether the association between physical activity and teacher-reported APS differs by distribution of APS. Results Minimal-intensity physical activity such as walking was positively associated with academic performance scores (β = 0.13, SE = 0.04). The magnitude of the association tends to be larger at the lower end of the APS distribution (β = 0.24, SE = 0.08) than in the higher end of the distribution (β = 0.00, SE = 0.07). Conclusion Based upon teacher-reported student academic performance, there is no evidence that spending time on frequent physical activity would undermine student’s APS. Those students who are below the average in their academic performance could be worse off in academic performance if they give up minimal-intensity physical activity. Therefore, cutting physical activity time in schools could hurt the scholastic performance among those students who were already at higher risk for dropping out due to inadequate APS. PMID:25774525

  13. Improved capacitive deionization performance of mixed hydrophobic/hydrophilic activated carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Aslan, M; Zeiger, M; Jäckel, N; Grobelsek, I; Weingarth, D; Presser, V

    2016-03-23

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising salt removal technology with high energy efficiency when applied to low molar concentration aqueous electrolytes. As an interfacial process, ion electrosorption during CDI operation is sensitive to the pore structure and the total pore volume of carbon electrodes limits the maximum salt adsorption capacity (SAC). Thus, activation of carbons as a widely used method to enhance the porosity of a material should also be highly attractive for improving SAC values. In our study, we use easy-to-scale and facile-to-apply CO2-activation at temperatures between 950 °C and 1020 °C to increase the porosity of commercially available activated carbon. While the pore volume and surface area can be significantly increased up to 1.51 cm(3) g(-1) and 2113 m(2) g(-1), this comes at the expense of making the carbon more hydrophobic. We present a novel strategy to capitalize on the improved pore structure by admixing as received (more hydrophilic) carbon with CO2-treated (more hydrophobic) carbon for CDI electrodes without using membranes. This translates into an enhanced charge storage ability in high and low molar concentrations (1 M and 5 mM NaCl) and significantly improved CDI performance (at 5 mM NaCl). In particular, we obtain stable CDI performance at 0.86 charge efficiency with 13.1 mg g(-1) SAC for an optimized 2:1 mixture (by mass). PMID:26902896

  14. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  15. Effect of the Kinesio tape to muscle activity and vertical jump performance in healthy inactive people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elastic taping applied on the triceps surae has been commonly used to improve the performance of lower extremities. However, little objective evidence has been documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elastic taping on the triceps surae during a maximal vertical jump. It was hypothesized that elastic taping to the triceps surae would increase muscle activity and cause positive effect to jump height. Methods Thirty-one healthy adults (19 males and 12 females with mean age, body weight and height for 25.3 ± 3.8 years old, 64.1 ± 6.2 kg, and 169.4 ± 7.3 cm, respectively) were recruited. All participants performed vertical jump tests prior to (without taping) and during elastic taping. Two elastic tapes, Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape from two different manufacturers, were applied to the participants, respectively. Results The results showed that the vertical ground reaction force increased when Kinesio tape was applied even when the height of jump remained about constant. However, the height of the jump decreased, and there was no difference on the vertical ground reaction force in Mplacebo taping group. Although the EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius tended to increase in Kinesio taping group, we did not see differences in EMG activity for the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and soleus muscles in either group. Conclusions Based on the varied effects of Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape, different intervention technique was suggested for specific purpose during vertical jump movement. Mplacebo tape was demanded for the benefits of stabilization, protection, and the restriction of motion at the ankle joint. On the other hand, the findings may implicate benefits for medial gastrocnemius muscle strength and push-off force when using Kinesio tape. PMID:21831321

  16. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  17. Striatal Volume Increases in Active Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals and Correlation with Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Reem K.; Lin, Joanne C.; Miles, Sylvester W.; Kydd, Rob R.; Russell, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of methamphetamine (MA) dependence on the structure of the human brain has not been extensively studied, especially in active users. Previous studies reported cortical deficits and striatal gains in grey matter (GM) volume of abstinent MA abusers compared with control participants. This study aimed to investigate structural GM changes in the brains of 17 active MA-dependent participants compared with 20 control participants aged 18–46 years using voxel-based morphometry and region of interest volumetric analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging data, and whether these changes might be associated with cognitive performance. Significant volume increases were observed in the right and left putamen and left nucleus accumbens of MA-dependent compared to control participants. The volumetric gain in the right putamen remained significant after Bonferroni correction, and was inversely correlated with the number of errors (standardised z-scores) on the Go/No-go task. MA-dependent participants exhibited cortical GM deficits in the left superior frontal and precentral gyri in comparison to control participants, although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, consistent with findings from previous studies of abstinent users, active chronic MA-dependent participants showed significant striatal enlargement which was associated with improved performance on the Go/No-go, a cognitive task of response inhibition and impulsivity. Striatal enlargement may reflect the involvement of neurotrophic effects, inflammation or microgliosis. However, since it was associated with improved cognitive function, it is likely to reflect a compensatory response to MA-induced neurotoxicity in the striatum, in order to maintain cognitive function. Follow-up studies are recommended to ascertain whether this effect continues to be present following abstinence. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of more substantial cortical and

  18. Improved capacitive deionization performance of mixed hydrophobic/hydrophilic activated carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, M.; Zeiger, M.; Jäckel, N.; Grobelsek, I.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising salt removal technology with high energy efficiency when applied to low molar concentration aqueous electrolytes. As an interfacial process, ion electrosorption during CDI operation is sensitive to the pore structure and the total pore volume of carbon electrodes limits the maximum salt adsorption capacity (SAC). Thus, activation of carbons as a widely used method to enhance the porosity of a material should also be highly attractive for improving SAC values. In our study, we use easy-to-scale and facile-to-apply CO2-activation at temperatures between 950 °C and 1020 °C to increase the porosity of commercially available activated carbon. While the pore volume and surface area can be significantly increased up to 1.51 cm3 g-1 and 2113 m2 g-1, this comes at the expense of making the carbon more hydrophobic. We present a novel strategy to capitalize on the improved pore structure by admixing as received (more hydrophilic) carbon with CO2-treated (more hydrophobic) carbon for CDI electrodes without using membranes. This translates into an enhanced charge storage ability in high and low molar concentrations (1 M and 5 mM NaCl) and significantly improved CDI performance (at 5 mM NaCl). In particular, we obtain stable CDI performance at 0.86 charge efficiency with 13.1 mg g-1 SAC for an optimized 2:1 mixture (by mass).

  19. Walking while Performing Working Memory Tasks Changes the Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Activations and Gait Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-I B.; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. Methods: Twenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles) with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back). Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. Results: In comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on the narrow

  20. Effects of Slackline Training on Postural Control, Jump Performance, and Myoelectrical Activity in Female Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luis; Fernández-Río, Javier; Fernández-García, Benjamín; Jakobsen, Markus D; González-Gómez, Lucía; Suman, Oscar E

    2016-03-01

    Santos, L, Fernández-Río, J, Fernández-García, B, Jakobsen, MD, González-Gómez, L, and Suman, OE. Effects of slackline training on postural control, jump performance, and myoelectrical activity in female basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 653-664, 2016-The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of slackline training on the postural control system and jump performance of athletes. Twenty-five female basketball players were randomized into 2 groups: control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 13). The latter experienced a 6-week supervised slackline training (3 sessions per week, 5-9 minutes per session). Participants underwent center of pressure (CoP) testing through three 10-second tasks (bipedal, left leg, and right leg support) over firm and compliant surfaces with eyes open. Several CoP parameters were assessed: length, area, length/area, speed, Ymean, Xmean, deltaY, deltaX, RMS (root-mean-squared amplitude of the CoP), RMSY, and RMSX. Surface electromyography recordings were obtained too. Participants were also tested on jump performance, provided perceived exertion (6-20 Borg scale) and local muscle perceived exertion. Center of pressure parameters significantly differed before and after training only in the experimental group and only on the compliant surface (left leg: length, area, speed, deltaY, and deltaX; right leg: length, speed, Ymean, deltaY, and RMSY). Surface electromyography recordings were comparable before and after training in both groups. Performance on a countermovement jump test significantly improved only in the experimental group (effect side was 3.21 and 1.36 [flight time and jump height, respectively], which is described as a large effect). Mechanical power of the legs, as measured through the 30-second maximal performance jump test, did not improve in either group. The slackline training was rated as "somewhat hard" with the quadriceps, soleus, and gastrocnemius being rated as the most engaged muscles. Data

  1. Electromyographic activity while performing the anti-G straining maneuver during high sustained acceleration.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, M W; Krock, L P

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the muscle activity during performance of the anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM) at high sustained acceleration stress (+Gz = head-to-foot inertial loading). Ten males were exposed on three separation occasions to a rapid onset rate of 6 + Gz. Subjects wore standard United States Air Force (USAF) anti-G trousers and performed the AGSM until perceived fatigue or until achieving light loss criteria. During each exposure, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the erector spinae, external oblique, bicep femoris, vastus lateralis, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. The normalized root-mean squares (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) for each muscle were calculated and tested for significant differences with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. The results of this study showed that mean amplitude decreased during the AGSM (35.40%) while MPF showed no significant change. The EMG amplitude of lower extremity muscles decreased (61.45%) while the amplitude of trunk muscles decreased slightly (3.45%). These results indicate that during the performance of the AGSM, motor unit recruitment in lower extremity muscles decrease without evidence of fatigue. PMID:1445161

  2. The influence of short-term firefighting activity on information processing performance.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Tina A; Horn, Gavin; Smith, Denise L; Fahey, George; Goldstein, Eric; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the following: effects of simulated firefighting (FF) activities under heat stress on sustained attention; whether incident rehabilitation (IR) influences performance; and relationships between performance, affect and personality. Firefighters performed ~18 min of FF. Attention, physiological, perceptual and psychological assessments were made before and after FF, IR and recovery. IR had no effects. Self-rated Energy increased, Tiredness decreased and Anxiety increased immediately post-FF; all returned to baseline 120 min post. The immediate effect of FF was faster reaction time (RT) followed by slowing after recovery. Perceived Energy at baseline was associated (p-values < 0.05) with faster and Tiredness with slower post-FF RTs; Accuracy was unaffected. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with RT before and 120 min following FF. RTs were faster following FF, accuracy was unchanged. Higher baseline Energy/lower Tiredness were associated with faster, less variable RTs at baseline and post-FF. Those with higher Conscientiousness had faster RTs. Research should further investigate higher-level cognitive processing following, or ideally during, FF. PMID:24670047

  3. Adaptive control of nonlinear uncertain active suspension systems with prescribed performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingbo; Na, Jing; Wu, Xing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes adaptive control designs for vehicle active suspension systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics (e.g., nonlinear spring and piece-wise linear damper dynamics). An adaptive control is first proposed to stabilize the vertical vehicle displacement and thus to improve the ride comfort and to guarantee other suspension requirements (e.g., road holding and suspension space limitation) concerning the vehicle safety and mechanical constraints. An augmented neural network is developed to online compensate for the unknown nonlinearities, and a novel adaptive law is developed to estimate both NN weights and uncertain model parameters (e.g., sprung mass), where the parameter estimation error is used as a leakage term superimposed on the classical adaptations. To further improve the control performance and simplify the parameter tuning, a prescribed performance function (PPF) characterizing the error convergence rate, maximum overshoot and steady-state error is used to propose another adaptive control. The stability for the closed-loop system is proved and particular performance requirements are analyzed. Simulations are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes. PMID:25034649

  4. Chapter 9: Performance-Limiting MHD Activity and Possibilities for Its Stabilization in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Guenter, Sibylle; Zohm, Hartmut

    2003-11-15

    Performance-limiting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on ASDEX Upgrade are discussed. In the conventional H-mode scenario, the main MHD performance limitation is found to be the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The onset {beta} of NTMs in ASDEX Upgrade scales with the poloidal ion gyroradius, in agreement with theoretical expectations. At higher {beta} values, NTMs occur in a more benign form, the frequently-interrupted-regime NTMs, which lead to a smaller confinement degradation than normal NTMs. Active control of NTMs by electron cyclotron current drive in the island has been demonstrated on ASDEX Upgrade. In advanced tokamak regimes with reversed shear, a variety of performance-limiting instabilities has been observed. The shear reversal zone can be unstable to double tearing modes or to infernal modes; both have been identified in ASDEX Upgrade. Due to the broad current profile in advanced tokamak discharges, the ideal external kink mode can be unstable at relatively low {beta}{sub N} {<=} 2; this is a main limitation to strongly reversed shear discharges with peaked pressure profiles. Finally, it is shown that fast-particle-driven modes such as fishbones can also have beneficial effects, such as providing stationary current profiles or triggering internal transport barriers.

  5. Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Liangtao; Li, Kexun; Chen, Zhihao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Fu, Zhou

    2014-12-01

    The present work was to study silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon (AC) air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The treated cathodes were proved to be effective to enhance the performance of MFCs. The maximum power density of MFC with silver electrodeposition time of 50 s (Ag-50) cathode was 1080 ± 60 mW m-2, 69% higher than the bare AC air cathode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that zero-valent, monovalent and divalent silver were present to transform mutually, which illustrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode took place through four-electron pathway. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the electrodeposition method made the total resistance of the electrodes largely reduced. Meanwhile the deposited silver had no toxic effects on anode culture but inhibited the biofilm growth of the cathodes. This kind of antimicrobial efficient cathode, prepared with a simple, fast and economical method, was of good benefit to the performance improvement of MFCs.

  6. Effects of pore structure on the high-performance capacitive deionization using chemically activated carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Im, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Gu; Lee, Young-Seak

    2014-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) electrodes were constructed from activated carbon fibers prepared using electrospinning and chemical activation. The CDI efficiencies of these electrodes were studied as a function of their specific surface areas, pore volumes and pore sizes via salt ion adsorption. The specific surface areas increased approximately 90 fold and the pore volume also increased approximately 26 fold with the use of greater amounts of the chemical activation agent. There was a relative increase in the mesopore fraction with higher porosity. A NaCI solution was passed through a prepared CDI system, and the salt removal efficiency of the CDI system was determined by the separation of the Na+ and Cl- ions toward the anode and cathode. The CDI efficiency increased with greater specific surface areas and pore volumes. In addition, the efficiency per unit pore volume increased with a reduction in the micropore fraction, resulting in the suppressed overlapping effect. In conclusion, the obtained improvements in CDI efficiency were mainly attributed to mesopores, but the micropores also played an important role in the high-performance CDI under conditions of high applied potential and high ion concentrations. PMID:24745222

  7. Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.

    PubMed

    Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam

    2005-06-01

    Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals. PMID:15959999

  8. Performance and stability of electrochemical capacitor based on anthraquinone modified activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pognon, Grégory; Brousse, Thierry; Demarconnay, Laurent; Bélanger, Daniel

    A series of high surface area activated carbon powders modified with various loadings of electroactive anthraquinone groups was obtained by the spontaneous reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium derivative on activated carbon. The diazotation and grafting reactions are fast and efficient and by varying the stoichiometry of these reactions the grafting amount can be controlled. With appropriate reaction conditions, the attachment of anthraquinone groups allows to double the capacitance of the modified carbonaceous material (195 F g -1) compared to the unmodified carbon (100 F g -1) due to the contribution of the redox reaction of grafted anthraquinone molecules. Long time galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling experiments were performed for composite electrodes prepared using modified carbons having two different AQ loadings (e.g. 6.7 and 11.1 wt.%). Following 10 000 charge/discharge cycles, only a 17% loss of the faradaic capacitance was observed for these two carbons. Thus, this hybrid bifunctional material appears to be an excellent candidate for application as active electrode in electrochemical capacitors.

  9. Enhancing the performance of BHJ solar cell via self-assembly templates in active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Hongfei; Yang, Zhenhua; Nam, Chang-Yong; Satija, Sushil; Rafailovich, Miriam

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell is an important example of a polymer solar cell technology that has been proposed in recent years. However, due to the disordered inner structures in the active layer, control of the inner structure within the active layer is required to enhance the efficiency. In our approach, a self-assembly of tertiary polymer blend film is confined between the air and solid interfaces. The principal has been proved using a blend of PMMA: P3HT: PCBM where we showed that the PMMA phase formed a column structure in the P3HT, which template the PCBM phase between the electrodes. Neutron reflectometry was used to demonstrate the confinement of PCBM at the interface between P3HT and PMMA in the active layer. The columnar structured template is investigated under atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SCLC mobility measurement indicated an obvious improvement on both hole and electron mobility. The different morphological structures formed via phase segregation are correlated with the performance of the PEV cells fabricated at the BNL-CFN and significant enhancement for the efficiency is observed.

  10. Performance monitoring and empathy during active and observational learning in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Norra, Christine; Juckel, Georg; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Previous literature established a link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and altered reward processing as well as between empathy and (observational) reward learning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of MDD on the electrophysiological correlates - the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 - of active and observational reward processing and to relate them to trait cognitive and affective empathy. Eighteen patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-learning task while event- related potentials were recorded. Also, participants were assessed with regard to self-reported cognitive and affective trait empathy. Relative to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed overall impaired learning and attenuated FRN amplitudes, irrespective of feedback valence and learning type (active vs. observational), but comparable P300 amplitudes. In the patient group, but not in controls, higher trait perspective taking scores were significantly correlated with reduced FRN amplitudes. The pattern of results suggests impaired prediction error processing and a negative effect of higher trait empathy on feedback-based learning in patients with MDD. PMID:26057196

  11. Performance of phenol-acclimated activated sludge in the presence of various phenolic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Tan, Je-Zhen; Seng, Chye-Eng

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of phenol-acclimated activated sludge in the presence of various phenolic compounds in the separated batch reactors. The phenol-acclimated activated sludge was observed to be capable of completely removing phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol. Nevertheless, in the presence of 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol merely at 50 mg/L, incomplete removal of these phenolic compounds were noticed. The specific oxygen uptake rate patterns obtained for phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol could be used to approximate the end point of these phenolic compounds removal as well as to monitor the growth of biomass. As the 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol were only partially removed in the mixed liquor, the patterns of specific oxygen uptake rate attained for these phenolic compounds were not feasible for the similar estimation. The calculated toxicity percentages show the toxicity effects of phenolic compounds on the phenol-acclimated activated sludge followed the order of 2-chlorophenol ≈ 3-chlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol > o-cresol ≈ m-cresol > phenol.

  12. Neural activity in monkey amygdala during performance of a multisensory operant task.

    PubMed

    Montes-Lourido, Pilar; Vicente, Ana F; Bermudez, Maria A; Gonzalez, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the potential involvement of monkey amygdala in the evaluation of value encoding of visual and auditive stimuli associated with reward or no reward. We recorded the activity of 93 extracellular neurons from the monkey right amygdala, while performing a multisensory operant task. The activity of 78 task-related neurons was studied. Of these, 13 neurons (16%) responded to the value of visual stimuli, 22 neurons (28%) responded after the presentation of visual stimuli, 22 neurons (28%) showed an inhibition around the lever-pressing and were classified as action related neurons and 22 neurons (28%) responded after reward delivery. These findings suggest that neurons in the amygdala play a role in encoding value and processing visual information, participate in motor regulation and are sensitive to reward. The activity of these neurons did not change in the evaluation of auditive stimuli. These data support the hypothesis that amygdala neurons are specific to each sensory modality and that different groups of amygdala neurons process visual and auditive information. PMID:26246438

  13. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  14. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  15. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  16. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  17. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  18. Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Plisky, Phillip J; Kiesel, Kyle B

    2012-11-01

    The inclusion of movement tests before performance training and sport participation is gaining popularity as part of musculoskeletal screening for injury. The identification of an athlete's asymmetries and poor performance in the preseason allows coaches and sports medicine clinicians the opportunity to proactively address these deficits to reduce the potential for injury. Currently, there are no tests reported in the literature that simultaneously require shoulder and core stability while taking the subjects through a large range of motion at the end range of their stability. Thus, the purpose of this article was to describe the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test and report the gender differences in the performance of the test. Upper extremity reach distances were measured in 95 active adults using a standardized upper extremity balance-and-reach protocol. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability, and gender differences were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, whereas bilateral differences were analyzed using a dependent samples t-test for the normalized composite reach scores. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.80 to 0.99. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for interrater reliability was 1.00. Average composite scores (right/left) reported as a percentage of limb length were 81.7/82.3% for men and 80.7/80.7% for women. The results of the study suggest that the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test is a reliable test for measuring upper extremity reach distance while in a closed-chain position. It was further determined that there was no significant difference in performance between genders or between sides on the test when normalized to limb length. Coaches and sports medicine professionals may consider incorporating the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test as part of their preprogram testing to identify movement limitations and asymmetries in athletes and thereby may reduce injury. PMID:22228174

  19. The effects of inhaled isoparaffins on locomotor activity and operant performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Bowen, S E; Balster, R L

    1998-11-01

    Very little is known qualitatively or quantitatively about the acute central nervous system effects of isoparaffin solvents that are widely used in household and commercial applications. Four isoparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent products differing in predominant carbon number and volatility (ISOPAR-C, -E -G, -H) were tested for their acute effects on locomotor activity and operant performance after inhalation exposure in mice. For both measures, concentration-effect curves were obtained for 30-min exposures using a within-subject design. The more volatile products, ISOPAR-C and -E, were as easily vaporized under our conditions as vapors such as toluene and TCE, which have acute effects on human behavior and are abused. ISOPAR-G was slowly volatilized and ISOPAR-H could not be completely volatilized within our 30-min exposures, suggesting that acute human exposures may be less likely and that it may be more difficult to abuse them. ISOPAR-C, -E, and -G produced reversible increases in locomotor activity of mice at 4000 and 6000 ppm while ISOPAR-C and -E produced reversible concentration-dependent decreases in rates of schedule-controlled operant behavior in approximately the same concentration range as they affected locomotor activity. The fact that only locomotor activity increases were observed with these isoparaffins provides evidence that they produce a different pattern of effects than those reported for abused solvents such as toluene and TCE. Further research will be needed to determine if this different pattern of effects on animal behavior between isoparaffins and abused solvents is correlated with a different pattern of acute intoxication and abuse potential in humans. PMID:9768561

  20. Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding

  1. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons. Key words:Institutionalized elderly

  2. A qualitative study of the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support: recommended practices for success

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Wasserman, Joe; Bunce, Arwen; Stanescu, Ana; St Hilaire, Daniel; Panzenhagen, Morgan; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support (CDS) at leading sites. Materials and methods We conducted ethnographic observations at seven diverse sites with a history of excellence in CDS using the Rapid Assessment Process and analyzed the data using a series of card sorts, informed by Linstone's Multiple Perspectives Model. Results We identified 18 activities and grouped them into four areas. Area 1: Fostering relationships across the organization, with activities (a) training and support, (b) visibility/presence on the floor, (c) liaising between people, (d) administration and leadership, (e) project management, (f) cheerleading/buy-in/sponsorship, (g) preparing for CDS implementation. Area 2: Assembling the system with activities (a) providing technical support, (b) CDS content development, (c) purchasing products from vendors (d) knowledge management, (e) system integration. Area 3: Using CDS to achieve the organization's goals with activities (a) reporting, (b) requirements-gathering/specifications, (c) monitoring CDS, (d) linking CDS to goals, (e) managing data. Area 4: Participation in external policy and standards activities (this area consists of only a single activity). We also identified a set of recommendations associated with these 18 activities. Discussion All 18 activities we identified were performed at all sites, although the way they were organized into roles differed substantially. We consider these activities critical to the success of a CDS program. Conclusions A series of activities are performed by sites strong in CDS, and sites adopting CDS should ensure they incorporate these activities into their efforts. PMID:23999670

  3. Measuring localization performance of super-resolution algorithms on very active samples.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Steve; Endesfelder, Ulrike; van de Linde, Sebastian; Heilemann, Mike; Sauer, Markus

    2011-04-11

    Super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on single-molecule localization relies critically on the availability of efficient processing algorithms to distinguish, identify, and localize emissions of single fluorophores. In multiple current applications, such as three-dimensional, time-resolved or cluster imaging, high densities of fluorophore emissions are common. Here, we provide an analytic tool to test the performance and quality of localization microscopy algorithms and demonstrate that common algorithms encounter difficulties for samples with high fluorophore density. We demonstrate that, for typical single-molecule localization microscopy methods such as dSTORM and the commonly used rapidSTORM scheme, computational precision limits the acceptable density of concurrently active fluorophores to 0.6 per square micrometer and that the number of successfully localized fluorophores per frame is limited to 0.2 per square micrometer. PMID:21503016

  4. Improved performance of cylindrical hybrid supercapacitor using activated carbon/ niobium doped hydrogen titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Hong-Ki; Baek, Esther; Pecht, Michael; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Young-Hie

    2016-01-01

    A cylindrical hybrid supercapacitor is fabricated using activated carbon positive electrode and H2Ti12-xNbxO25 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) negative electrode materials. The hybrid supercapacitor using H2Ti11.85Nb0.15O25 exhibits the best electrochemical performance. It has a capacitance of 78.4 F g-1, charge transfer resistance (Rct) of 0.03 Ω, capacitance retention of 91.4% after 1000 cycles at 3.0 A g-1 and energy density of 24.3 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1794.6 W kg-1. Therefore, the Nb doped HTO negative electrode material is a promising candidate as an energy storage system for electric vehicles (EVs).

  5. ACTIVE FILTER HARDWARE DESIGN & PERFORMANCE FOR THE DIII-D PLASMA CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    SELLERS,D; FERRON,J.R; WALKER,M.L; BROESCH,J.D

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The digital plasma control system (PCS), currently in operation on the DIII-D tokamak, requires inputs from a large number of sensors. Due to the nature of the digitizers and the relative noisy environment from which these signals are derived, each of the 32 signals must be conditioned via an active filter. Two different types of filters, Chebyshev and Bessel with fixed frequencies: 100 Hz Bessel was used for filtering the motional Stark effect diagnostic data. 800 Hz Bessel was designed to filter plasma control data and 1200 Hz Chebyshev is used with closed loop control of choppers. The performance of the plasma control system is greatly influenced by how well the actual filter responses match the software model used in the control system algorithms. This paper addresses the various issues facing the designer in matching the electrical design with the theoretical.

  6. The Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity on Impaired Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lafenetre, Pauline; Leske, Oliver; Wahle, Petra; Heumann, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in two neurogenic zones in the adult brain: new neurons are born at the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and then migrate to the olfactory bulb, and at the subgranular zone to integrate the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory and the generation of new hippocampal neurons has been suggested to be a new form of plasticity implicated in these processes. In the last decades, diverse intrinsic and epigenetic factors have been identified to influence adult neurogenesis but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a recent study, Lafenetre et al. (2010) showed the beneficial influence of physical voluntary activity on adult neurogenesis and cognitive performance in a transgenic mouse, the synRas mouse via brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Here we review how hippocampal neurogenesis can be regulated by environmental factors and the possible role of the newly generated cells in learning and memory. PMID:21559064

  7. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-12-21

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites.

  8. High performance electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries through oxygen-enriched thermal activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Clement, Jason T.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2015-10-01

    The roundtrip electrochemical energy efficiency is improved from 63% to 76% at a current density of 200 mA cm-2 in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) by utilizing modified carbon paper electrodes in the high-performance no-gap design. Heat treatment of the carbon paper electrodes in a 42% oxygen/58% nitrogen atmosphere increases the electrochemically wetted surface area from 0.24 to 51.22 m2 g-1, resulting in a 100-140 mV decrease in activation overpotential at operationally relevant current densities. An enriched oxygen environment decreases the amount of treatment time required to achieve high surface area. The increased efficiency and greater depth of discharge doubles the total usable energy stored in a fixed amount of electrolyte during operation at 200 mA cm-2.

  9. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  10. High performance organic ultraviolet photodetector with efficient electroluminescence realized by a thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Dianli; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-07-01

    A high performance organic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector with efficient electroluminescence (EL) was obtained by using a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter of (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN). An exciton adjusting layer (EAL) was delicately designed to construct an energy-level-aligned heterojunction with 4CzIPN. As a result, the bi-functional device exhibited a high detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones under 350 nm UV light. Moreover, our device exhibited efficient EL emission utilizing the merit of reverse intersystem crossing process from triplet to singlet excitons of 4CzIPN, showing a maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency of 26370 cd/m2, 8.2 cd/A, and 4.9 lm/W, respectively. This work arouses widespread interest in constructing efficient bi-functional device based on TADF emitter and EAL structure.

  11. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Perform Designated Occupational Activities according to Simple Instructions with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology, turning the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high performance three-dimensional object orientation detector. This study extended Wii Remote Controller functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated simple…

  12. Central as well as Peripheral Attentional Bottlenecks in Dual-Task Performance Activate Lateral Prefrontal Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Szameitat, André J.; Vanloo, Azonya; Müller, Hermann J.

    2016-01-01

    Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage) as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation) both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analyzed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In one study (N = 17), the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group). In the other study (N = 16), the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group). Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect). Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices (LPFC). Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns

  13. Lead Toxicity to the Performance, Viability, And Community Composition of Activated Sludge Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, L; Zhi, W; Liu, YS; Karyala, S; Vikesland, PJ; Chen, X; Zhang, HS

    2015-01-20

    Lead (Pb) is a prominent toxic metal in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge on Pb toxicity to the activated sludge has been limited to short-term (<= 24 h) toxicity. The effect of extended Pb exposure on process performance, bacterial viability, and community compositions remains unknown. We quantified the 24-h and 7-day Pb toxicity to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal, bacterial viability, and community compositions using lab-scale experiments. Our results showed that 7-day toxicity was significantly higher than the short-term 24-h toxicity. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more susceptible than the heterotrophs to Pb toxicity. The specific oxygen uptake rate responded quickly to Pb addition and could serve as a rapid indicator for detecting Pb pollutions. Microbial viability decreased linearly with the amount of added Pb at extended exposure. The bacterial community diversity was markedly reduced with elevated Pb concentrations. Surface analysis suggested that the adsorbed form of Pb could have contributed to its toxicity along with the dissolved form. Our study provides for the first time a systematic investigation of the effect of extended exposure of Pb on the performance and microbiology of aerobic treatment processes, and it indicates that long-term Pb toxicity has been underappreciated by previous studies.

  14. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  15. Performance of Optimized Actuator and Sensor Arrays in an Active Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, D. L.; Padula, S. L.; Lyle, K. H.; Cline, J. H.; Cabell, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in NASA Langley's Acoustics and Dynamics Laboratory to determine the effectiveness of optimized actuator/sensor architectures and controller algorithms for active control of harmonic interior noise. Tests were conducted in a large scale fuselage model - a composite cylinder which simulates a commuter class aircraft fuselage with three sections of trim panel and a floor. Using an optimization technique based on the component transfer functions, combinations of 4 out of 8 piezoceramic actuators and 8 out of 462 microphone locations were evaluated against predicted performance. A combinatorial optimization technique called tabu search was employed to select the optimum transducer arrays. Three test frequencies represent the cases of a strong acoustic and strong structural response, a weak acoustic and strong structural response and a strong acoustic and weak structural response. Noise reduction was obtained using a Time Averaged/Gradient Descent (TAGD) controller. Results indicate that the optimization technique successfully predicted best and worst case performance. An enhancement of the TAGD control algorithm was also evaluated. The principal components of the actuator/sensor transfer functions were used in the PC-TAGD controller. The principal components are shown to be independent of each other while providing control as effective as the standard TAGD.

  16. Lead toxicity to the performance, viability, and community composition of activated sludge microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Karyala, Saikumar; Vikesland, Peter J; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Husen

    2015-01-20

    Lead (Pb) is a prominent toxic metal in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge on Pb toxicity to the activated sludge has been limited to short-term (≤24 h) toxicity. The effect of extended Pb exposure on process performance, bacterial viability, and community compositions remains unknown. We quantified the 24-h and 7-day Pb toxicity to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3–N removal, bacterial viability, and community compositions using lab-scale experiments. Our results showed that 7-day toxicity was significantly higher than the short-term 24-h toxicity. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more susceptible than the heterotrophs to Pb toxicity. The specific oxygen uptake rate responded quickly to Pb addition and could serve as a rapid indicator for detecting Pb pollutions. Microbial viability decreased linearly with the amount of added Pb at extended exposure. The bacterial community diversity was markedly reduced with elevated Pb concentrations. Surface analysis suggested that the adsorbed form of Pb could have contributed to its toxicity along with the dissolved form. Our study provides for the first time a systematic investigation of the effect of extended exposure of Pb on the performance and microbiology of aerobic treatment processes, and it indicates that long-term Pb toxicity has been underappreciated by previous studies. PMID:25536278

  17. Performance evaluation of poly 3-(phenylthiophene) derivatives as active materials for electrochemical capacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, J.P.; Eissa, M.M.; Brotherston, I.D.; Loveday, D.C.

    1998-11-01

    Electroactive polymers from 3-(4-fluorophenyl)thiophene, 3-(4-cyanophenyl)thiophene, 3-(4-methylsulfonylphenyl)thiophene, and 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)thiophene were electrochemically deposited onto carbon paper electrodes from tetramethylammonium trifluoromethane-sulfonate (Me{sub 4}NCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3})/acetonitrile and/or tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate/acetonitrile electrolyte solutions. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of the films were shown to depend on both the growth and cycling electrolytes. Constant current multicycle tests were performed on model single-cell devices using the type III capacitor configuration at high voltage (2.8--2.9 V). Active material energy and power densities of up to 50 Wh/kg and 5 kW/kg were achieved at discharge rates of 50 and 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The long-term stabilities (up to 1000 cycles) of these polymers were investigated by repeated charging and discharging using cyclic voltammetry in both the p- and n-doping regimes.

  18. Performance of Optimized Actuator and Sensor Arrays in an Active Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, D. L.; Padula, S. L.; Lyle, K. H.; Cline, J. H.; Cabell, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in NASA Langley s Acoustics and Dynamics Laboratory to determine the effectiveness of optimized actuator/sensor architectures and controller algorithms for active control of harmonic interior noise. Tests were conducted in a large scale fuselage model - a composite cylinder which simulates a commuter class aircraft fuselage with three sections of trim panel and a floor. Using an optimization technique based on the component transfer functions, combinations of 4 out of 8 piezoceramic actuators and 8 out of 462 microphone locations were evaluated against predicted performance. A combinatorial optimization technique call tabu search was employed to select the optimum transducer arrays. Three test frequencies represent the cases of a strong acoustic and strong structural response, a weak acoustic and strong structural response and a strong acoustic and weak structural response. Noise reduction was obtained using a Time Averaged/Gradient Descent (TAGD) controller. Results indicate that the optimization technique successfully predicted best and worst case performance. An enhancement of the TAGD control algorithm was also evaluated. The principal components of the actuator/sensor transfer functions were used in the PC-TAGD controller. The principal components are shown to be independent of each other while providing control as effective as the standard TAGD.

  19. Aerothermal performance of radiatively and actively cooled panel at Mach 6.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, C. P.; Weinstein, I.

    1979-01-01

    A flight-weight radiative and actively cooled honeycomb sandwich panel (RACP) was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating. The 0.61 m by 1.22 m test specimen incorporated essential features of a full scale 0.61 m by 6.10 m RACP designed to withstand a heat flux of 136 kW/sq m. The panel consisted of heat shields, a thin layer of high temperature insulation, and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel with coolant tubes next to the sandwich skin. A 60/40 mass solution of ethylene glycol/water was used to cool the panel which successfully withstood a total of 3.5 hr of radiant heating and 137 sec exposure to an M = 6.6 test stream. Heat shield temperatures reached 1080 K (1945 deg R), and cooled-panel temperatures reached 382 K (687 deg R) midway between coolant tubes. Simulation of the full scale panel indicated that the full scale RACP would perform as expected. The tests revealed no evidence of coolant leakage or hot gas ingress which would seriously degrade the RACP performance.

  20. Performance prediction of circular dielectric electro-active polymers membrane actuators with various geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, Steffen; York, Alexander; Seelecke, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Circular dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) membrane actuators are easy to manufacture and therefore can be uniquely designed to perform optimally for specific applications. The performance of these actuators is naturally dependent on the materials used, and also dictated by the specific geometry of the circular design. For a given overall actuator size, changing their internal geometry will directly change the force and stroke output. In addition the DEAP technology itself is a promising technology for constructing lightweight, cost and energy efficient sensor and actuator systems. Thus, several potential applications like pressure sensors, pumps, valves, micro-positioners and loudspeakers were already proposed. The circular DEAP membrane actuators used in this study consist of a silicone based elastomer, carbon ink based electrodes, and are held together with a stiff frame. Experimentally collected force-displacement curves for these actuators can be used to determine force and stroke output of the actuators as described by Hodgins et al. in. This work presents an efficient method to predict these force-displacement plots and thus stroke and force output for different actuator geometries. These results than can be used to adapt the actuator geometry to the needs of a specific application with its particular force and stroke requirements. The prediction method is based on an average stress-stretch calculation for training samples. The calculated stress-stretch data is then geometry independent and can be used to predict desired geometry dependent force-displacement data for stroke and force output analysis.

  1. Investigation of Active Flow Control to Improve Aerodynamic Performance of Oscillating Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Bowersox, Rodney; Bussom, Richard; McVeigh, Michael; Raghu, Surya; White, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to design a promising active flow control concept on an oscillating airfoil for on-blade alleviation of dynamic stall. The concept must be designed for a range of representative Mach numbers (0.2 to 0.5) and representative reduced frequency characteristics of a full-scale rotorcraft. Specifications for a sweeping-jet actuator to mitigate the detrimental effects of retreating blade stall experienced by edgewise rotors in forward flight has been performed. Wind tunnel modifications have been designed to accommodate a 5x6 test section in the Oran W. Nicks Low Speed Wind Tunnel at Texas A&M University that will allow the tunnel to achieve Mach 0.5. The flow control design is for a two-dimensional oscillating VR-7 blade section with a 15- inch chord at rotor-relevant flow conditions covering the range of reduced frequencies from 0.0 to 0.15 and Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.5. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to influence the placement of the flow control devices for optimal effectiveness.

  2. Reduced prefrontal activation during performance of the Iowa Gambling Task in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yasuki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Hino, Shoryoku; Nagasawa, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Takanori; Munesue, Toshio; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-07-30

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a complex decision-making task in which monetary wins and losses guide the development of strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic responses of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during performance of the IGT using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants comprised 13 patients and 15 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, sex, handedness, and intelligence quotient. Relative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb) levels in the frontal region were measured using a 46-channel NIRS system. All subjects were evaluated using NIRS during a verbal fluency task (VFT) and the IGT. During performance of the IGT, BD patients showed significantly decreased oxy-Hb levels in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared with normal control subjects. However, during the VFT, patients with BD showed no significant changes in oxy-Hb levels compared with control subjects. Changes in oxy-Hb levels in the bilateral OFC and the PFC during the IGT were negatively correlated with total scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Although the IGT was useful for differentiating patients with BP from control subjects, no significant differences in autonomic activity were observed. PMID:25978934

  3. Performance validity test and neuropsychological assessment battery screening module performances in an active-duty sample with a history of concussion.

    PubMed

    Grills, Chad E; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The current retrospective investigation sought to replicate previous findings demonstrating the significant impact of performance validity test (PVT) performance and evaluation context on neuropsychological testing. We examined differences on performance validity testing between active-duty service members undergoing neurocognitive screening for concussion who were seen in a clinical context and those who were seen in a disability-seeking context, as well as the overall impact of PVT performance on a neurocognitive screening battery. Overall, 38.2% of the sample failed the Word Memory Test (WMT). Of those involved in a disability evaluation, the failure rate was 51.9%, which was significantly higher than the 36.8% failure rate among those evaluated in a clinical context. The effect size of WMT performance on a cognitive screening measure was also large. The current retrospective analysis served to replicate previous work. PMID:26943837

  4. A novel preterm respiratory mechanics active simulator to test the performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Paolo; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea; Silvestri, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A patient active simulator is proposed which is capable of reproducing values of the parameters of pulmonary mechanics of healthy newborns and preterm pathological infants. The implemented prototype is able to: (a) let the operator choose the respiratory pattern, times of apnea, episodes of cough, sobs, etc., (b) continuously regulate and control the parameters characterizing the pulmonary system; and, finally, (c) reproduce the attempt of breathing of a preterm infant. Taking into account both the limitation due to the chosen application field and the preliminary autocalibration phase automatically carried out by the proposed device, accuracy and reliability on the order of 1% is estimated. The previously indicated value has to be considered satisfactory in light of the field of application and the small values of the simulated parameters. Finally, the achieved metrological characteristics allow the described neonatal simulator to be adopted as a reference device to test performances of neonatal ventilators and, more specifically, to measure the time elapsed between the occurrence of a potentially dangerous condition to the patient and the activation of the corresponding alarm of the tested ventilator.

  5. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-01-01

    Could ‘defect-considered’ void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85–95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1 nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10 ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8 A W−1) and excellent detectivity (2 × 1013 Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of ‘defect-considered’ Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices. PMID:27151288

  6. Performance comparison of active balancing techniques for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronti, Federico; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    A simple but effective analysis to calculate the performances achievable by a balancing circuit for series-connected lithium-ion batteries (i.e., the time required to equalise the battery and the energy lost during this process) is described in this paper. Starting from the simple passive technique, in which extra energy is dissipated on a shunt resistor, active techniques, aiming at an efficient energy transfer between battery cells, are investigated. The basic idea is to consider the balancing circuit as a DC/DC converter capable of transferring energy between its input and output with a certain efficiency and speed. As the input and output of the converter can be either a single cell or the entire battery pack, four main active topologies are identified: cell to cell, cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to/from pack (i.e., the combination of the cell to pack and pack to cell topologies when the converter is bidirectional). The different topologies are compared by means of statistical simulations. They clearly show that the cell to cell topology is the quickest and most efficient one. Moreover, the pack to cell topology is the least effective one and surprisingly dissipates more energy than the passive technique, if the converter efficiency is below 50%.

  7. Performance of thermally activated dolomite for the treatment of Ni and Zn in contaminated neutral drainage.

    PubMed

    Calugaru, Iuliana Laura; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Genty, Thomas; Bussière, Bruno; Potvin, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Intensive research is ongoing for developing low-cost and highly efficient materials in metal removal from contaminated effluents. The present study evaluated dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2], both raw and modified by thermal activation (charring), for Ni and Zn treatment in contaminated neutral drainage (CND). Batch adsorption testing (equilibrium and kinetics) were conducted at pH 6, to evaluate the performance of initial vs. modified dolomite, and to assess potential mechanisms of metal removal. Charring of dolomite led to a rigid and porous material, mainly consisting of CaCO3 and MgO, which showed a sorption capacity increased sevenfold for Zn and doubled for Ni, relative to the raw material. In addition, Freundlich model best described the sorption of the both metals by dolomite, whereas the Langmuir model best described their sorption on charred dolomite. Plausible mechanisms of metal removal include cation exchange, surface precipitation and sorption processes, with carbonate ions and magnesium oxides acting as active centers. Based on these results, charred dolomite seems a promising option for the efficient treatment of Ni and Zn in CND. PMID:26897574

  8. Optimizing the electrochemical performance of aqueous symmetric supercapacitors based on an activated carbon xerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, E. G.; Lufrano, F.; Staiti, P.; Brigandì, A.; Arenillas, A.; Menéndez, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    A highly porous carbon xerogel was synthesized by means of physical activation. The activated carbon xerogel, which displayed a well-developed porous texture (micro- and meso-porosity), was employed as electrode material in different supercapacitors. In assessing the performance of the supercapacitors, special attention was paid to their dimensions and the type of electrolyte used. Both the method of electrode manufacture (rolling and punching of 1 cm2 pellets vs. casting by means of a film applicator to produce 4 cm2 electrodes) and the type of supercapacitor (Swagelok (R) system vs. cell with graphite plate current collectors) were evaluated. The results reveal that the cells with larger electrodes were able to store higher amounts of energy. In addition to the cells, the electrochemical characteristics in aqueous electrolytes with a different pH were studied (H2SO4, Na2SO4 and KOH, 1 M). The highest capacitance values were achieved with sulphuric acid (196 F g-1 as opposed to 140 and 106 F g-1 for Na2SO4 and KOH, respectively), probably due to its higher ionic conductivity and the basic nature of the oxygen functionalities found on the surface of the carbon xerogel. Nevertheless, because of the corrosive character of sulphuric acid, Na2SO4 would be a more suitable electrolyte.

  9. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-05-01

    Could ‘defect-considered’ void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85–95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1 nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10 ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8 A W‑1) and excellent detectivity (2 × 1013 Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of ‘defect-considered’ Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices.

  10. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-01-01

    Could 'defect-considered' void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85-95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1 nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10 ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8 A W(-1)) and excellent detectivity (2 × 10(13) Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of 'defect-considered' Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices. PMID:27151288

  11. Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch; Brereton, Giles

    2002-10-15

    Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.

  12. Performance of an Active Noise Control System for Fan Tones Using Vane Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Curtis, Alan R. D.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Remington, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    An Active Noise Control (ANC) system for ducted fan noise was built that uses actuators located in stator vanes. The custom designed actuators A,ere piezoelectric benders manufactured using THUNDER technology. The ANC system was tested in the NASA Active Noise Control Fan rig. A total of 168 actuators in 28 stator vanes were used (six per vane). Simultaneous inlet and exhaust acoustic power level reductions were demonstrated for a fan modal structure that contained two radial modes in each direction. Total circumferential mode power levels were reduced by up to 9 dB in the inlet and 3 dB in the exhaust. The corresponding total 2BPF tone level reductions were by 6 dB in the inlet and 2 dB in the exhaust. Farfield sound pressure level reductions of up to 17 dB were achieved at the peak mode lobe angle. The performance of the system was limited by the constraints of the power amplifiers and the presence of control spillover. Simpler control/actuator systems using carefully selected subsets of the full system and random simulated failures of up to 7% of the actuators were investigated. (The actuators were robust and none failed during the test). Useful reductions still occurred under these conditions.

  13. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C.; Coldwell, R. L.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.; Eichhorn, G.

    1990-01-01

    The GRAD (Gamma-Ray Advanced Detector) gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988, where it was used to make observations of SN 1987A. The performance of the bismuth germanate (BGO) active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined. The promised effectiveness of this shielding in the suppression of unwanted background has been demonstrated. The BGO-shielded GRAD spectrometer detected gamma-ray lines with fluxes of 0.002/sq cm sec from SN 1987A in a radiation background approximately a factor of 4 more intense than that over Alice Springs, Australia. This level of sensitivity indicates that BGO is at least as effective as CsI when used as active shielding. Isomerism is common, both in the bismuth and germanium regions of the nuclear chart, but is found to be less of a problem for background suppression in the latter region than in the former.

  14. Spectral characterisation and noise performance of Vanilla—an active pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Andrew; Bates, R.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Clark, A.; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Greenshaw, T.; Laing, A.; Maneuski, D.; Turchetta, R.; O'Shea, V.

    2008-06-01

    This work will report on the characterisation of a new active pixel sensor, Vanilla. The Vanilla comprises of 512×512 (25μm 2) pixels. The sensor has a 12 bit digital output for full-frame mode, although it can also be readout in analogue mode, whereby it can also be read in a fully programmable region-of-interest (ROI) mode. In full frame, the sensor can operate at a readout rate of more than 100 frames per second (fps), while in ROI mode, the speed depends on the size, shape and number of ROIs. For example, an ROI of 6×6 pixels can be read at 20,000 fps in analogue mode. Using photon transfer curve (PTC) measurements allowed for the calculation of the read noise, shot noise, full-well capacity and camera gain constant of the sensor. Spectral response measurements detailed the quantum efficiency (QE) of the detector through the UV and visible region. Analysis of the ROI readout mode was also performed. Such measurements suggest that the Vanilla APS (active pixel sensor) will be suitable for a wide range of applications including particle physics and medical imaging.

  15. Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women.

    PubMed

    Curry, Brad S; Chengkalath, Devendra; Crouch, Gordon J; Romance, Michelle; Manns, Patricia J

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three warm-up protocols--static stretching, dynamic stretching, and light aerobic activity--on selected measures of range of motion and power in untrained females and to investigate the sustained effects at 5 and 30 minutes after warm-up. A total of 24 healthy females (ages 23-29 years) attended one familiarization session and three test sessions on nonconsecutive days within 2 weeks. A within-subject design protocol with the testing investigators blinded to the subjects' warm-up was followed. Each session started with 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling followed by pretest baseline measures. Another 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling was completed and followed by one of the three randomly selected warm-up interventions (static stretching, dynamic stretching, or light aerobic activity). The following posttest outcome measures were collected 5 and 30 minutes following the intervention: modified Thomas test, countermovement jump, and isometric time to peak force knee extension measured by dynamometer. Analysis of the data revealed significant time effects on range of motion and countermovement jump changes. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the warm-up conditions on any of the variables. The variation in responses to warm-up conditions emphasizes the unique nature of individual reactions to different warm-ups; however, there was a tendency for warm-ups with an active component to have beneficial effects. The data suggests dynamic stretching has greater applicability to enhance performance on power outcomes compared to static stretching. PMID:19675479

  16. Effect of Mild Thyrotoxicosis on Performance and Brain Activations in a Working Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Anna; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Disturbed levels of thyroid hormones are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including memory impairments. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of mild induced thyrotoxicosis on working memory and its neural correlates. Methods Twenty-nine healthy, male subjects with normal thyroid state participated in the study. Functional MRI was acquired during a working memory task (n-back task) before and after ingesting 250 μg L-thyroxin per day for a period of eight weeks. In addition, neuropsychological tests were performed. Results In the hyperthyroid condition the subjects showed slower reaction times, but a higher accuracy in the 0-back version of the memory tasks. Fewer differences between euthyroid and hyperthyroid state were seen for the more difficult conditions of the n-back task. FMRI revealed effects of difficulty in the parahippocampal gyrus, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cerebellum, rolandic operculum and insula (p<0.05, FWE corrected). When comparing euthyroid and hyperthyroid condition in relation to task-induced activation, differences of activation were found in the right prefrontal cortex as well as in the right parahippocampal area. In the psychological assessment, the alerting effect in the Attention Network Task (ANT) and four out of five parameters of the auditory verbal learning test (AVLT) showed an increase from euthyroid to hyperthyroid state. Conclusions It can be concluded that even a short-term intake of thyroid hormones leads to an activation of brain areas associated with working memory and to an improvement of accuracy of working memory tasks. PMID:27536945

  17. Acute and chronic responses of activated sludge viability and performance to silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang

    2012-07-01

    Recently, the potential health and environmental risks of silica nanoparticles (SiO(2) NPs) are attracting great interest. However, little is known about their possible impacts on wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, the acute and chronic effects of SiO(2) NPs on activated sludge viability and biological nutrient removal performance were investigated. It was found that the presence of environmentally relevant concentration (1 mg/L) of SiO(2) NPs caused no adverse acute and chronic effects on sludge viability and wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removal. However, chronic exposure to 50 mg/L SiO(2) NPs induced the increase of effluent nitrate concentration, and thus depressed the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency from 79.6% to 51.6% after 70 days of exposure, which was due to the declined activities of denitrifying enzymes, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. Wastewater phosphorus removal was insensitive to 1 and 50 mg/L SiO(2) NPs after either the acute or chronic exposure, because the critical factors closely related to biological phosphorus removal were not significantly changed, such as the activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase and the intracellular transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the bacterial community structure was changed after long-term exposure to 50 mg/L SiO(2) NPs, and the quantitative PCR assays indicated that the abundance of denitrifying bacteria was decreased, which was consistent with the declined wastewater nitrogen removal. PMID:22697807

  18. {331}-Faceted trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals: synthesis, superior electrocatalytic performance and highly efficient SERS activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Yahui; Miao, Tingting; Zhang, Peina; Bi, Cuixia; Xia, Haibing; Wang, Dayang; Tao, Xutang

    2015-05-14

    We investigate the effect of gold (Au) seeds prepared in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC-Au seeds) on the index facets of trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals (TOH Au NCs). We demonstrate that monodisperse {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with controllable sizes (from 60 to 255 nm) can be successfully prepared in high yield by using 3.0 nm CTAC-Au seeds or as-prepared 70 nm TOH Au NCs as seeds. We find that the electrocatalytic performance on methanol oxidation and surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity of {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs is size-dependent. In comparison with well-known nanoporous gold (0.088 mA cm(-2)), {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with sizes of 110 nm exhibit fairly high catalytic activity (0.178 mA cm(-2)) on methanol oxidation (1.0 M) in alkaline media due to the presence of increasing density of atomic steps, ledges, and kinks on the NC surfaces. Their current density is reduced by less than 7% after 500 cycling tests. {331}-Faceted TOH Au NCs with sizes of 175 nm exhibit the highest SERS activity for 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules. The enhancement factors of a1 modes of 4-ATP molecules can reach the order of 10(9) when the 4-ATP concentration is 3 × 10(-6) M. Moreover, Raman signals (ag modes) of 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) molecules on TOH Au NCs are stronger than those on spherical Au NCs of comparable size due to the enhanced laser-induced transformation of 4-ATP molecules by high-index {331}-facets during SERS measurement. Furthermore, the SERS intensities of 4-methylbenzenethiol (4-MTP) molecules on TOH Au NCs are also higher than those on spherical Au NCs of comparable size due to sharp extremities. PMID:25877040

  19. Increased Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Impaired Executive Performance Capacity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Thiago T.; Silva, Rosyvaldo F.; Guerra, Renan S.; Lima, Marta F.; Barbosa, Eline R.F.; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Lobo, Denise M.L.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Busatto-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Ueno-Pardi, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response and executive performance during mental stress in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Individuals with no other comorbidities (age = 52 ± 1 y, body mass index = 29 ± 0.4, kg/m2) were divided into two groups: (1) control (n = 15) and (2) untreated OSA (n = 20) defined by polysomnography. Mini-Mental State of Examination (MMSE) and Inteligence quocient (IQ) were assessed. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and MSNA (microneurography) were measured at baseline and during 3 min of the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT). Sustained attention and inhibitory control were assessed by the number of correct answers and errors during SCWT. Results: Control and OSA groups (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI = 8 ± 1 and 47 ± 1 events/h, respectively) were similar in age, MMSE, and IQ. Baseline HR and BP were similar and increased similarly during SCWT in control and OSA groups. In contrast, baseline MSNA was higher in OSA compared to controls. Moreover, MSNA significantly increased in the third minute of SCWT in OSA, but remained unchanged in controls (P < 0.05). The number of correct answers was lower and the number of errors was significantly higher during the second and third minutes of SCWT in the OSA group (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between the number of errors in the third minute of SCWT with AHI (r = 0.59), arousal index (r = 0.55), and minimum O2 saturation (r = −0.57). Conclusions: As compared to controls, MSNA is increased in patients with OSA at rest, and further significant MSNA increments and worse executive performance are seen during mental stress. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number: NCT002289625. Citation: Goya TT, Silva RF, Guerra RS, Lima MF, Barbosa ER, Cunha PJ, Lobo DM, Buchpiguel CA, Busatto-Filho G, Negrão CE, Lorenzi-Filho G, Ueno-Pardi LM. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and

  20. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.