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Sample records for activity rota-rod performance

  1. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Atikur Rahman, Md; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  2. Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

  3. Evaluation of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of Unmadnashak Ghrita.

    PubMed

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K

    2004-09-01

    'Unmadnashak Ghrita' (UG) is a ayurvedic formulation containing Ferula narthex (6 g), Gardenia gummifera (6 g), Ellataria cardamom (6 g), Bacopa monneri (6 g), and cow's ghee (clarified butter fat) (76 g). In the present study, neuropharmacological activities of UG were evaluated for its gross behavioural effect, pentobarbitone sleeping time, spontaneous locomotor activity, antagonism to amphetamine induced hyperlocomotor activity, analgesic activity by tail flick test, rota-rod performance (motor coordination test), maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. The formulation showed CNS-depressant activity in gross behavioural test, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and there was significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor count in mice. The formulation also antagonized the behavioral effects of CNS-stimulant drug amphetamine, and showed analgesic effect in mice. UG failed to affect the motor coordination test. The formulation also protected mice from MES and PTZ induced convulsions. These results suggest that UG has CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activity in mice. PMID:15261966

  4. Antinociceptive activity of (-)-carvone: evidence of association with decreased peripheral nerve excitability.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juan Carlos Ramos; Oliveira, Fernando de Sousa; Benedito, Rubens Batista; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-05-01

    (-)-Carvone is a monoterpene ketone that is the main active component of Mentha plant species like Mentha spicata. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive activity of (-)-carvone using different experimental models of pain and to investigate whether such effects might be involved in the nervous excitability elicited by others monoterpenes. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, we observed that (-)-carvone-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the number of writhes when 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered. It was also demonstrated that (-)-carvone inhibited the licking response of the injected paw when 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered (i.p.) to mice in the first and second phases of the formalin test. Since naloxone (5 mg/kg, s.c.), an opioid antagonist, showed no influence on the antinociceptive action of (-)-carvone (100 mg/kg), this suggested nonparticipation of the opioid system in the modulation of pain induced by (-)-carvone. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality, since (-)-carvone-treated mice did not exhibit any performance alteration on the Rota-rod apparatus. Because the antinociceptive effects could be associated with neuronal excitability inhibition, we performed the single sucrose gap technique and observed that (-)-carvone (10 mM) was able to reduce the excitability of the isolated sciatic nerve through a diminution of the compound action potential amplitude by about 50% from control recordings. We conclude that (-)-carvone has antinociceptive activity associated with decreased peripheral nerve excitability.

  5. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Jaenisch, Nadine; Liebmann, Lutz; Guenther, Madlen; Hübner, Christian A; Frahm, Christiane; Witte, Otto W

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show that stroke-induced glutamate release activates NMDA receptors, thereby reducing KCC2 transporters and down-regulates δ-GABAARs. Functionally, this is associated with improved motor performance on the RotaRod, a test in which mice are forced to move in a similar manner to rehabilitative training sessions. As an adverse side effect, decreased tonic inhibition facilitates post-stroke epileptic seizures. Our data imply that early and sometimes surprisingly fast recovery following stroke is supported by homeostatic, endogenous plasticity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:27188341

  6. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Jaenisch, Nadine; Liebmann, Lutz; Guenther, Madlen; Hübner, Christian A.; Frahm, Christiane; Witte, Otto W.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show that stroke-induced glutamate release activates NMDA receptors, thereby reducing KCC2 transporters and down-regulates δ-GABAARs. Functionally, this is associated with improved motor performance on the RotaRod, a test in which mice are forced to move in a similar manner to rehabilitative training sessions. As an adverse side effect, decreased tonic inhibition facilitates post-stroke epileptic seizures. Our data imply that early and sometimes surprisingly fast recovery following stroke is supported by homeostatic, endogenous plasticity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:27188341

  7. Neuroprotective effect of gadolinium: a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Puja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of gadolinium, a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was given to induce cerebral injury in male Swiss mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was assessed using Morris water maze test and motor incoordination was evaluated using rota-rod, lateral push, and inclined beam walking tests. In addition, total calcium, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also estimated in brain tissue. I/R injury produced a significant increase in cerebral infarct size. A significant loss of memory along with impairment of motor performance was also noted. Furthermore, I/R injury also produced a significant increase in levels of TBARS, total calcium, AChE activity, and a decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment of gadolinium significantly attenuated I/R-induced infarct size, behavioral and biochemical changes. On the basis of the present findings, we can suggest that opening of stretch-activated calcium channel may play a critical role in ischemic reperfusion-induced brain injury and that gadolinium has neuroprotective potential in I/R-induced injury.

  8. Antioxidant and orofacial anti-nociceptive activities of the stem bark aqueous extract of Anadenanthera colubrina (Velloso) Brenan (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Damascena, N P; Souza, M T S; Almeida, A F; Cunha, R S; Damascena, N P; Curvello, R L; Lima, A C B; Almeida, E C V; Santos, C C S; Dias, A S; Paixão, M S; Souza, L M A; Quintans Júnior, L J; Estevam, C S; Araujo, B S

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of the Anadenantheracolubrina stem bark aqueous extract (AEAC) were investigated. AEAC (30 μg/mL) reduced 94.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and prevented 64% (200 μg/mL) of lipid peroxidation caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals. AEAC treatment (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) reduced mice orofacial nociception in the first (61.4% and 62.6%, respectively) and second (48.9% and 61.9%, respectively) phases of the formalin test. Nociception caused by glutamate was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by up to 79% at 400 mg/kg, while 56-60% of the nociceptive behaviour induced by capsaicin was significantly inhibited by AEAC (100-400 mg/kg). Mice treated with AEAC did not show changes in motor performance in the Rota-rod apparatus. It appears that AEAC is of pharmacological importance in treating pain due to its anti-nociceptive effects, which were shown to be mediated by central and peripheral mechanisms.

  9. Antinociceptive activity of atranorin in mice orofacial nociception tests.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Rosana S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Araújo, Adriano A S; Araújo, Bruno E S; Melo, Marcélia G D; Oliveira, Marília G B; Gelain, Daniel P; Silva, Francilene A; DeSantana, Josimari M; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Rocha, Ricardo F; Moreira, José C F; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of atranorin (AT) extracted from Cladina kalbii Ahti in formalin- and capsaicin-induced orofacial pain and anti-inflammatory tests in rodents were studied. Physicochemical characterization showed that AT has the general formula C19H18O8. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with AT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.p.), morphine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), or vehicle (0.9% saline with two drops of 0.2% Tween 80) before formalin (20 microl, 2%) or capsaicin (20 microl, 2.5 microg) were injected into the right vibrissa. Our results showed that i.p. treatment with AT displayed marked inhibitory effects in different orofacial pain tests in mice. AT (400 mg/kg, i.p.) was effective in reducing the nociceptive face-rubbing behavioural response in both phases of the formalin test, which was also naloxone-sensitive. Additionally, AT produced a significant antinociceptive effect at all doses in the capsaicin test. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality, since AT-treated mice exhibited no performance alteration on the rota rod apparatus. AT exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in the acute model of inflammation (leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity), carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema in rats. Additionally, AT exhibited a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in vitro, as assessed by total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter and total antioxidant reactivity assays. All these findings suggest that AT might represent an important tool for the management of orofacial pain and/or inflammatory disorders. PMID:21138055

  10. Central nervous system activity of acute administration of isopulegol in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; de Aquino Neto, Manuel Rufino; Teixeira Neto, Paulo Florentino; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; do Amaral, Jeferson Falcão; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2007-12-01

    Isopulegol is a monoterpene alcohol intermediate in the preparation of (-)-menthol and it is present in the essential oils of various plants. This work presents behavioral effects of isopulegol in animal models of open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), rota rod, hole board, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, tail suspension and forced swimming tests in mice. Isopulegol was administered intraperitoneally to male mice at single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg, while diazepam 1 or 2 mg/kg and imipramine 10 or 30 mg/kg were used as standard drugs. The results showed that, similar to diazepam (1 mg/kg), both doses of isopulegol significantly modified all the observed parameters in the EPM test, without alter the general motor activity in the open field test. In the same way, both doses of isopulegol increased the number of head dips in the hole-board test. Forced swimming and tail suspension tests showed that isopulegol (25 and 50 mg/kg) was able to induce a significant increase in the immobility time, in opposite to imipramine, a recognized antidepressant drug. There was a decrease in the sleep latency time and prolongation of the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time with both doses of Isopulegol. Different from diazepam (2 mg/kg), isopulegol (25 e 50 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor coordination of animals in the rota rod test. These results showed that isopulegol presented depressant- and anxiolytic-like effects. PMID:17716715

  11. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Priscila L.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Oliveira, Makson G. B.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Alves, Pericles B.; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F.; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination. PMID:26246838

  12. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila L; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Oliveira, Makson G B; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; Santos, Marcio R V; Alves, Pericles B; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination. PMID:26246838

  13. Determining activated carbon performance

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, W.F.; Rester, D.O.

    1995-07-01

    This article discusses the key elements involved in evaluating a system`s performance. Empty bed contact time (EBCT) is a term used to describe the length of time a liquid stream being treated is in contact with a granular activated carbon bed. The EBCT is the time required for a fluid to pass through the volume equivalent of the media bed, without the media being present. In a bed of granular activated carbon, the void volume or space between particles is usually about 45 percent. Therefore, the EBCT is about twice the true or actual time of contact between the fluid being treated and the GAC particles. The EBCT plays an important role in determining the effectiveness and longevity of granular activated carbon (GAC) used to treat liquids in a fixed-bed adsorber. Factors that influence and are influenced by EBCT, and their relationship to GAC performance in a treatment scheme include: adsorption, mass transfer zone, impurity concentration, adsorption affinity, flow rate and system design considerations.

  14. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR), the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO) and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL), fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC), and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF) were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA) was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight) as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL), analgesic (CUR and PPF), antipyretic

  15. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  16. Effects of an aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata Mart on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice and as antioxidant in vitro.

    PubMed

    Silva, A P dos S; Cerqueira, G S; Nunes, L C C; de Freitas, R M

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) of Orbignya phalerata were assessed in vitro as well as its effect on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice. AE does not possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays; it also did not present scavenger activity in vitro. Following oral administration, AE (1, 2 and 3 g/kg) did not significantly change the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to 24 h after administration and did not alter the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata widely used in Brazilian flok medicine.

  17. Performance indicators of work activity.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.

  18. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  20. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  1. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  2. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  3. Expression pattern of immediate early genes in the cerebellum of D1R KO, D2R KO, and wild type mice under vestibular-controlled activity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the different motor abilities of D1R knockout (KO), D2R KO and wild-type (WT) mice. To understand the interaction between the cerebellum and the striatal direct and indirect pathways, we examined the expression patterns of immediate early genes (IEG) in the cerebellum of these three genotypes of mice. In the WT naive mice, there was little IEG expression. However, we observed a robust expression of c-fos mRNA in the vermis and hemisphere after running rota-rod tasks. In the vermis, c-fos was expressed throughout the lobules except lobule 7, and also in crus 1 of the ansiform lobule (Crus1), copula of the pyramis (Cop) and most significantly in the flocculus in the hemisphere. jun-B was much less expressed but more preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells. In addition, we observed significant levels of c-fos and jun-B expressions after handling mice, and after the stationary rota-rod task in naive mice. Surprisingly, we observed significant expression of c-fos and jun-B even 30 min after single weighing. Nonetheless, certain additional c-fos and jun-B expressions were observed in three genotypes of the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks 24 h after stationary rota-rod task and on days 1 and 5 after rota-rod tasks, but no significant differences in expressions after the running rota-rod tasks were observed among the three genotypes. In addition, there may be some differences 24 h after the stationary rota-rod task between the naive mice and the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks.

  4. Expression pattern of immediate early genes in the cerebellum of D1R KO, D2R KO, and wild type mice under vestibular-controlled activity

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the different motor abilities of D1R knockout (KO), D2R KO and wild-type (WT) mice. To understand the interaction between the cerebellum and the striatal direct and indirect pathways, we examined the expression patterns of immediate early genes (IEG) in the cerebellum of these three genotypes of mice. In the WT naive mice, there was little IEG expression. However, we observed a robust expression of c-fos mRNA in the vermis and hemisphere after running rota-rod tasks. In the vermis, c-fos was expressed throughout the lobules except lobule 7, and also in crus 1 of the ansiform lobule (Crus1), copula of the pyramis (Cop) and most significantly in the flocculus in the hemisphere. jun-B was much less expressed but more preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells. In addition, we observed significant levels of c-fos and jun-B expressions after handling mice, and after the stationary rota-rod task in naive mice. Surprisingly, we observed significant expression of c-fos and jun-B even 30 min after single weighing. Nonetheless, certain additional c-fos and jun-B expressions were observed in three genotypes of the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks 24 h after stationary rota-rod task and on days 1 and 5 after rota-rod tasks, but no significant differences in expressions after the running rota-rod tasks were observed among the three genotypes. In addition, there may be some differences 24 h after the stationary rota-rod task between the naive mice and the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks. PMID:26137459

  5. Possible involvement of P2X7 receptor activation in microglial neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Takata, Kazuyuki; Hide, Izumi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    Microglia play important roles in the pathogenic cascade following cerebral ischemia, since they express growth factors, chemokines and regulatory cytokines as well as free radicals and other toxic mediators. P2X7 receptor, a subtype of a family of P2 purinoceptors, is primarily expressed in microglia and macrophages, suggesting that it regulates immune function and inflammatory responses. However, the involvement of ATP in such microglial responses after cerebral ischemia is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of ATP, especially through the P2X7 receptors, in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. In immunohistochemical analysis, P2X7 receptor-like immunoreactivity was predominantly detected in microglia, and then activated microglia accumulated in the ischemic region, in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. Intracerebroventricular injection with P2X7 receptor agonist 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) improved behavioral dysfunction accessed by rota-rod test and ischemic neural injury induced by MCAO. In contrast, P2X7 receptor antagonist adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde (OxATP) exacerbated ischemic brain damage. These results suggest that microglia play an important role in neuroprotection against rat cerebral ischemia, which is regulated by a P2X7 receptor-mediated ATP signal.

  6. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  7. Psychopharmacological profile of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) essential oil in mice.

    PubMed

    Can, Ozgür Devrim; Demir Özkay, Umide; Kıyan, Hülya Tuba; Demirci, Betül

    2012-02-15

    In this study, the effect of Matricaria recutita L. essential oil (MEO) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice was investigated using some behavioral methods. Chemical profiling both by GC and GC-MS analyses of the hydrodistilled essential oil of M. recutita revealed α-bisabolol oxide A (28%), α-bisabolol oxide B (17.1%), (Z)-β-Farnesene (15.9%) and α-bisabolol (6.8%) as the main components. Changes induced by MEO (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and reference drug caffeine (25 mg/kg) in spontaneous locomotor activities and motor coordinations of mice were investigated by activity cage measurements and Rota-Rod tests, respectively. Open field, social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests were applied to assess the emotional state of the animals. Further, tail-suspension test was performed for evaluating the effect of MEO on depression levels of mice. As a result, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, MEO significantly increased the numbers of spontaneous locomotor activities, exhibited anxiogenic effect in the open field, elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests and decreased the immobility times of animals in tail suspension tests. The falling latencies in Rota-Rod tests did not change. This activity profile of MEO was similar to the typical psychostimulant caffeine. The exact mechanism of action underlying this stimulant-like effect should be clarified with further detailed studies. PMID:22070986

  8. Motor performance improved by exercises in cerebral ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yea-Ru; Chang, Heng-Chih; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise may induce neuroprotective effects against brain damage after stroke. The authors aimed to investigate the effects of various exercises on motor function, striatal angiogenesis, and infarct volume in cerebral ischemic rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 groups: Rota-rod training, lower speed treadmill training, higher speed treadmill training, or no exercise control. Motor function, striatal angiogenesis, and infarct volume were evaluated before or after motor training. After training, motor function and striatal angiogenesis changed significantly in Rota-rod and higher speed treadmill training groups as compared with the control group. Improvement in motor function significantly correlated with striatal angiogenesis after motor training. Infarct volumes were significantly decreased in lower and higher speed treadmill training groups. The results indicated that both motor training procedures can be used as effective training programs in stroke rehabilitation.

  9. Rivastigmine reverses aluminum-induced behavioral changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, Raafat A; Assi, Abdel-Azim A; Kostandy, Botros B

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxin, has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Its exposure is associated with impairment in the cholinergic system in the brain. In this study we investigated the behavioral effects of aluminum in rats and the possible effect of rivastigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on the aluminum-induced behavioral changes. Rats were exposed to aluminum chloride (100 mg/kg/day i.p.) for 60 days before the start of behavioral tests. Rivastigmine was given in doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg i.p. 60 min before the behavioral tests. Five tests were investigated; open field test, Morris water maze, radial arm maze, passive avoidance test and rota-rod test. Results showed that aluminum exposure was associated with significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor and exploratory activities in open field test and significant impairments in learning and memory in Morris water maze, radial arm maze and passive avoidance tests. The behavioral impairments caused by aluminum were significantly improved by rivastigmine. Neither aluminum alone nor co-treatment with rivastigmine caused any significant alteration of the animals' performance in rota-rod test. The improvements in activity, learning and memory caused by rivastigmine were found to be dose-dependent, and the maximal improvement was encountered with its large dose (2.5 mg/kg). From these results we can conclude that rivastigmine can reverse behavioral deficits caused by aluminum intoxication.

  10. American Literature: Performance Objectives and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Hope; And Others

    This guide is a sampler of ideas and activities based on 22 minimum objectives in speech, reading, writing, and research that have been identified for American literature study. Many of the activities involve an integration of several skills that are cross-referenced to other skills in the margins of the guide. A separate section on research…

  11. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  12. Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemori, Takahiro; Kanemaru, Masashi; Takai, Noriyasu; Mizuno, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2004-10-15

    In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the salivary amylase activity have a possibility to distinguish eustress and distress. Thus, salivary amylase activity can be utilized as an excellent index for psychological stress. However, in dry chemistry system, a method for quantification of the enzymatic activity still needs to be established that can provide with sufficient substrate in a testing tape as well as can control enzymatic reaction time. Moreover, it is necessary to develop a method that has the advantages of using saliva, such as ease of collection, rapidity of response, and able to use at any time. In order to establish an easy method to monitor the salivary amylase activity, a salivary transcription device was fabricated to control the enzymatic reaction time. A fabricated salivary amylase activity monitor consisted of three devices, the salivary transcription device, a testing-strip and an optical analyzer. By adding maltose as a competitive inhibitor to a substrate Ga1-G2-CNP, a broad-range activity testing-strip was fabricated that could measure the salivary amylase activity with a range of 0-200 kU/l within 150 s. The calibration curve of the monitor for the salivary amylase activity showed R2=0.941, indicating that it was possible to use this monitor for the analysis of the salivary amylase activity without the need to determine the salivary volume quantitatively. In order to evaluate the assay variability of the monitor, salivary amylase activity was measured using Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test as a psychological stressor. A significant difference of salivary amylase activity was recognized

  13. Statistical Performances of Resistive Active Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalléchère, Sébastien; Ravelo, Blaise; Thakur, Atul

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the synthesis and sensitivity analysis of an active power splitter (PWS) is proposed. It is based on the active cell composed of a Field Effect Transistor in cascade with shunted resistor at the input and the output (resistive amplifier topology). The PWS uncertainty versus resistance tolerances is suggested by using stochastic method. Furthermore, with the proposed topology, we can control easily the device gain while varying a resistance. This provides useful tool to analyse the statistical sensitivity of the system in uncertain environment.

  14. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  15. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Ghosal, S

    1998-04-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Hindi - Brahmi) is classified in Ayurveda, the classical Indian system of medicine, as Medhyarasayana, a group of plant derived drugs used as nervine tonics to promote mental health and improve memory and intellect. Earlier experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the memory-promoting action of the plant extracts and that of its active saponins, bacoside A and B. The present study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract (bacoside A content 25.5 ± 0.8%) of B. monniera (BM), since the plant is used in Ayurveda in clinical conditions resembling the modern concept of anxiety disorders. The animal models used have been extensively validated as experimental models of anxiety and included the open-field, elevated plusmaze, social interaction and novelty-suppressed feeding latency tests in rats. BM was used at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with those elicited by lorazepam, a well known benzodiazepine anxiolytic, used at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. BM produced a dose-related anxiolytic activity, qualitatively comparable to that of lorazepam, in all the test parameters. However, statistically significant results were elicited usually by the higher two doses of BM. BM did not produce any significant motor deficit, at the doses used, as was evidenced by using the rota-rod test. The findings correlate with the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda. The advantage of B. monniera over the widely used benzodiazepine anxiolytics lies in the fact that it promotes cognition unlike the amnesic action of the latter.

  16. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality and performance

    PubMed Central

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred irrespective of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark period but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern. PMID:22933795

  17. Active damping performance of the KAGRA seismic attenuation system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Aso, Yoichi; Barton, Mark; Erasmo Peña Arellano, Fabián; Shoda, Ayaka; Akutsu, Tomotada; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Hirata, Naoatsu; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Okutomi, Koki; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hideki; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (formerly LCGT now KAGRA) is presently under construction in Japan. This May we assembled a prototype of the seismic attenuation system (SAS) for the beam splitter and the signal recycling mirrors of KAGRA, which we call Type-B SAS, and evaluated its performance at NAOJ (Mitaka, Toyko). We investigated its frequency response, active damping performance, vibration isolation performance and long-term stability both in and out of vacuum. From the frequency response test and the active damping performance test, we confirmed that the SAS worked as we designed and that all mechanical resonances which could disturb lock acquisition and observation are damped within 1 minute, which is required for KAGRA, by the active controls.

  18. Aerodynamic Performance of Electro-Active Membrane Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Ioan-Alexandru; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2014-11-01

    Electro-active polymers offer due to their multivariate compliant nature a great potential for integrating the lift producing system and the control system into one. This work presents the first step in describing both the mechanical and aerodynamic performance of such materials and focuses on both understanding their behaviour in aerodynamic applications and on analysing their aerodynamic performance. Photogrammetry and load measurements are conducted in a wind tunnel for both silicone-based and acrylic-based membranes at zero prestrain supported in a perimeter reinforced frame in electrically passive, active and pulsing conditions. A wide range of fixed voltages and pulsing frequencies are considered. Due to their hyper-viscoelastic nature, both short and long term hysteresis analysis are conducted in terms of aerodynamic performance. Along with these tests, analyses of the effects of the percentage electrode area and silicone content on aerodynamic performance are conducted.

  19. The effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan E; Bell, Martha Ann

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain-wave activity. Thirty-two 8-year-olds (16 boys) and 32 college students (16 men) had EEG recorded at baseline and while performing four computerized tasks: a two-dimensional (2D) gingerbread man mental rotation, a 2D alphanumeric mental rotation, of three-dimensional (3D) basketball player mental rotation, and lexical decision making. Additionally, participants completed a paper- and pencil water level task and an oral verbal fluency task. On the 2D alphanumeric and 3D basketball player mental rotation tasks, men performed better than boys, but the performance of women and girls did not differ. On the water level task, men performed better than women whereas there was no difference between boys and girls. No sex differences were found on the 2D gingerbread man mental rotation, lexical decision-making, and verbal fluency tasks. EEG analyses indicated that men exhibited left posterior temporal activation during the 2D alphanumeric task and that men and boys both exhibited greater left parietal activation than women and girls during the 2D gingerbread man task. On the 3D basketball player mental rotation task, all participants exhibited greater activation of the right parietal area than the left parietal area. These data give insight into the brain activity and cognitive development changes that occur between childhood and adulthood.

  20. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  1. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  2. Electroencephalogram associations to cognitive performance in clinically active nurses.

    PubMed

    Lees, Ty; Khushaba, Rami; Lal, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is traditionally identified via cognitive screening tools that have limited ability in detecting early or transitional stages of impairment. The dynamic nature of physiological variables such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) may provide alternate means for detecting these transitions. However, previous research examining EEG and cognitive performance is largely confined to samples with diagnosed cognitive impairments, and research examining non-impaired, and occupation specific samples, is limited. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between frontal pole and central EEG and cognitive performance in a sample of male and female nurses, and to determine the significance of these associations. Fifty seven nurses participated in the study, in which two lead bipolar EEG was recorded at positions Fp1 (frontal polar), Fp2, C3 (central) and C4 during a baseline and an active phase involving the common neuropsychological Stroop test. Participants' cognitive performance was assessed using the mini-mental state exam (MMSE) and Cognistat screening tools. Significant correlations between EEG beta activity and the outcome of MMSE and Cognistat were revealed, where an increased beta activity was associated to an increased global cognitive performance. Additionally, domain specific cognitive performance was also significantly associated to various EEG variables. The study identified potential EEG biomarkers for global and domain specific cognitive performance, and provides initial groundwork for the development of future EEG based biomarkers for detection of cognitive pathologies. PMID:27244262

  3. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the siaresinolic acid, a triterpene isolated from the leaves of Sabicea grisea Cham. & Schltdl. var. grisea.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Anderson Marques; de Araújo, Almair Ferreira; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; Conserva, Lucia M; de Souza Ferro, Jamylle Nunes; Barreto, Emiliano

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, siaresinolic acid (siaresinol, SA) was isolated from the leaves of Sabicea grisea and studied to evaluate its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. The antinociceptive effect of SA was investigated in mice using different animal models to study pain. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of SA (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before a pain stimulus significantly reduced the nociceptive response (by 42.3, 68.2, and 70.9 %, respectively). Pretreatment with glibenclamide, but not with yohimbine, metoclopramide, ketanserin, or naloxone, restored the antinociceptive effect induced by SA in the writhing test, suggesting that the K(+)ATP channel pathway might be involved in its mechanism of action. In the formalin test, SA (1 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased licking time in the second phase only, thereby indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. In the hot plate test, there was no significant difference in nociceptive behavior. In the rota-rod test, it was verified that a high dose of SA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the locomotor activity of mice. In the pleurisy model, induced by carrageenan, treatment with SA inhibited important events involved in inflammatory responses, namely leukocyte influx, plasma leakage, and increased inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and chemokine CXCL1), in the pleural exudate. Additionally, SA itself was not cytotoxic when evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in macrophages cultured for 24 h at concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 μg/mL. These results suggest, for the first time, that SA attenuates nociceptive behavior through mechanisms involving receptors for ATP-dependent potassium channels, in addition to suppressing acute inflammatory responses.

  4. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and randomly…

  5. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  6. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  7. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  8. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  9. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  10. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  11. Flight test and performance of a nongated active television system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John L.; Kelly, John M.; Ehlen, Jon

    1999-07-01

    A series of helicopter flight tests were conducted to test the feasibility and assess the performance of a gimbaled active television system and co-located IR system. The laser light was provided to the gimbal via a fiber optic cable from a remote semiconductor laser. A high power, divergent beam was used to illuminate a scene providing enhanced performance in poor weather, the recording of registry and augmentation to existing night vision devices. The flight tests were conducted in clear-weather conditions over land and water. Additionally, a series of ground test were conducted.

  12. Swimming and other activities: applied aspects of fish swimming performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Farrell, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities such as hydropower development, water withdrawals, and commercial fisheries often put fish species at risk. Engineered solutions designed to protect species or their life stages are frequently based on assumptions about swimming performance and behaviors. In many cases, however, the appropriate data to support these designs are either unavailable or misapplied. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of fish swimming performance – where the data come from and how they are applied – identifying both gaps in knowledge and common errors in application, with guidance on how to avoid repeating mistakes, as well as suggestions for further study.

  13. APOLLO 9: Dave scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Dave Scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities around the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  15. Cost and performance of activated carbon injection for mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one technology being developed to absorb mercury from mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants. In 2003/04, the USDOE and NETL selected 14 projects to test and evaluate mercury control technologies. While field testing is still ongoing, DOE/NETL recently completed an economic analysis of mercury control for six test sites spanning three ACI variations - conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), brominated PAC and conventional PAC combined with a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) applied to the coal. To evaluate the progress of the field testing program and discern the performance of ACI, a data adjustment methodology was developed to account for baseline methane capture. This data were used to perform economic analyses to achieve low, mid and high levels of mercury control. The costs are given in the article. Full details are available on the DOE/NETL website, www.netl.doe.gov. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  16. Background activities, induction, and behavioral allocation in operant performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In experiments on operant behavior, other activities, called "background" activities, compete with the operant activities. Herrnstein's (1970) formulation of the matching law included background reinforcers in the form of a parameter rO, but remained vague about the activities (BO) that produce rO. To gain more understanding, we analyzed data from three studies of performance with pairs of variable-interval schedules that changed frequently in the relative rate at which they produced food: Baum and Davison (2014), Belke and Heyman (1994), and Soto, McDowell, and Dallery (2005). Results sometimes deviated from the matching law, suggesting variation in rO. When rO was calculated from the matching equation, two results emerged: (a) rO is directly proportional to BO, as in a ratio schedule; and (b) rO and BO depend on the food rate, which is to say that BO consists of activities induced by food, as a phylogenetically important event. Other activities unrelated to food (BN ) correspond to Herrnstein's original conception of rO and may be included in the matching equation. A model based on Baum's (Baum, 2012) concepts of allocation, induction, and contingency explained the deviations from the matching law. In the model, operant activity B, BO, and BN competed unequally in the time allocation: B and BO both replaced BN , BO replaced lever pressing (Soto et al.), and key pecking replaced BO (Baum & Davison). Although the dependence of rO and BO on food rate changes Herrnstein's (1970) formulation, the model preserved the generalized matching law for operant activities by incorporating power-function induction.

  17. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health. PMID:18298849

  18. Synthesis and neuropharmacological evaluation of some novel quinoxaline 2, 3-dione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jubie, Selvaraj; Gayathri, Rajamanickam; Kalirajan, Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Quinoxaline-2, 3-dione obtained from cyclocondensation reaction of o-phenylene diamine with oxalic acid was reacted with three different ketones and formaldehyde to give the corresponding Mannich bases in satisfactory yield. Their structures were confirmed by using (1)H NMR, IR, and mass analysis. In pharmacological evaluation, the synthesized compounds showed its curative effect against ethidium-bromide-induced demyelination in rats. For the purpose, different screening methods such as open field exploratory behavior test, rota rod test, grip strength test, beam walk test, and photo actometer test were performed. Ethidium bromide induction showed muscle weakness; muscle discoordination; loss of locomotor activity, and so forth, the synthesized drugs reversed all the above-mentioned neuromuscular disorders caused by ethidium bromide administration. PMID:22649314

  19. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  20. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  1. Electromyographic quantification of hand performance during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranniger, Claudia Ute

    Pressure-suited humans are the most versatile work system in the space environment. Improvements in extravehicular activity (EVA) technology strive to enhance performance of manual tasks on orbit; however, methods with which to quantitatively assess these improvements are rare. This research encompasses the development of a system which can be used to quantify gloved hand performance during end-to-end EVA tasks, based both on hand motion and muscle activity. The system is unique in that it incorporates the physiological characteristics of the hand and forearm within the pressure suit glove, rather than simply evaluating the glove alone. Tracking of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the large flexor and extensor muscles of the hand, and of finger deflection within the glove, enables examination of both muscle activity levels and fatigue throughout a task. Two metrics suited to analysis of realistic, dynamic activities have been developed. A Task Intensity metric based on the amplitude distribution of the EMG signal provides a measure of the muscular effort required to complete individual activities. A mean power frequency (MPF) analysis tool derived from wavelet theory provides EMG spectral information indicative of muscle fatigue. The wavelet-based frequency analysis method is superior to traditional Fourier-based methods because it inherently provides temporal resolution of the signal, enabling decomposition of dynamic (nonstationary) and isometric (stationary) EMG signals alike. The Task Intensity and wavelet MPF analysis tools have been used to assess the gloved hand performance during representative EVA tasks completed in the suited neutral buoyancy environment, and to assess changes in muscle use during trials of a new power-assisted EVA glove. Results suggest that the metrics developed herein can be used to rank tasks based on relative muscular effort and fatigue, and that the scope of the results is naturally limited to the muscles under investigation

  2. Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by curcumin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rajesh S.; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Pant, Aditya B.; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2009-11-01

    In view of continued exposure to arsenic and associated human health risk including neurotoxicity, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been investigated in rats. A significant decrease in locomotor activity, grip strength (26%) and rota-rod performance (82%) was observed in rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) as compared to controls. The arsenic treated rats also exhibited a decrease in the binding of striatal dopamine receptors (32%) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (19%) in striatum. Increased arsenic levels in corpus striatum (6.5 fold), frontal cortex (6.3 fold) and hippocampus (7.0 fold) associated with enhanced oxidative stress in these brain regions, as evident by an increase in lipid perioxidation, protein carbonyl and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase with differential effects were observed in arsenic treated rats compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) caused an increase in locomotor activity and grip strength and improved the rota-rod performance in comparison to arsenic treated rats. Binding of striatal dopamine receptors and TH expression increased while arsenic levels and oxidative stress decreased in these brain regions in co-treated rats as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. No significant effect on any of these parameters was observed in rats treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) alone compared to controls. A significant protection in behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  3. Sentinel-3 OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, L.; Blanot, L.; Lamquin, N.; Bruniquel, V.; Meskini, N.; Nieke, J.; Bouvet, M.; Fougnie, B.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the activities to be undertaken by ACRI-ST under ESA/ESTEC coordination for the assessment of OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performances during the SENTINEL-3 Commissioning Phase. As an introduction, it briefly describes the instrument concept and available on-board calibration hardware, the context and main objective of the work. Insisting on the fact that radiometric calibration of OLCI is based on in-flight measurements, as was for MERIS, it then describes the methodology and tools to be used during Commissioning. Finally, as in-flight based radiometry implies the need for independent validation, it describes the corresponding methods and tools.

  4. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2012-01-23

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford.

  5. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  6. Performance Assessment Assistance Activities in the DOE Complex - 12325

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Letourneau, Martin J.

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford. DOE-EM established the PA CoP to help improve the consistency and quality of implementation of modelling activities around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP has sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from ongoing

  7. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  8. Pallidal spiking activity reflects learning dynamics and predicts performance

    PubMed Central

    Noblejas, Maria Imelda; Mizrahi, Aviv D.; Dauber, Omer; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) network has been divided into interacting actor and critic components, modulating the probabilities of different state–action combinations through learning. Most models of learning and decision making in the BG focus on the roles of the striatum and its dopaminergic inputs, commonly overlooking the complexities and interactions of BG downstream nuclei. In this study, we aimed to reveal the learning-related activity of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), a downstream structure whose computational role has remained relatively unexplored. Recording from monkeys engaged in a deterministic three-choice reversal learning task, we found that changes in GPe discharge rates predicted subsequent behavioral shifts on a trial-by-trial basis. Furthermore, the activity following the shift encoded whether it resulted in reward or not. The frequent changes in stimulus–outcome contingencies (i.e., reversals) allowed us to examine the learning-related neural activity and show that GPe discharge rates closely matched across-trial learning dynamics. Additionally, firing rates exhibited a linear decrease in sequences of correct responses, possibly reflecting a gradual shift from goal-directed execution to automaticity. Thus, modulations in GPe spiking activity are highest for attention-demanding aspects of behavior (i.e., switching choices) and decrease as attentional demands decline (i.e., as performance becomes automatic). These findings are contrasted with results from striatal tonically active neurons, which show none of these task-related modulations. Our results demonstrate that GPe, commonly studied in motor contexts, takes part in cognitive functions, in which movement plays a marginal role. PMID:27671661

  9. Antipyretic and antinociceptive effects of Nauclea latifolia root decoction and possible mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bum, Elisabeth Ngo; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile; Weiss, Norbert; Sidiki, Neteydji; Dawe, Amadou; Okomolo Moto, Fleur Clarisse; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré; Waard, Michel De

    2011-01-01

    Context Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiacea) is a small tree, found in tropical areas in Africa. It is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, fever etc. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction on the peripheral and central nervous systems and its possible mechanisms of action. Materials and methods The analgesic investigation was carried out against acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain, hot-plate and tail immersion tests. The antipyretic activity was studied in Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Rota-rod test and bicuculline-induced hyperactivity were used for the assessment of locomotor activity. Results Nauclea latifolia induced hypothermia and had antipyretic effects in mice. The plant decoction produced significant antinociceptive activity in all analgesia animal models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by the decoction in the formalin test was reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, Nω-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester or glibenclamide. In contrast, theophylline did not reverse this effect. Nauclea latifolia (antinociceptive doses) did not exhibit significant effect on motor coordination of the mice in rota-rod performance. Nauclea latifolia protected mice against bicuculline-induced behavioural excitation. Discussion and conclusion Overall, these results demonstrate that the central and peripheral effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction might partially or wholly be due to the stimulation of peripheric opioid receptors through the action of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K+ (NO/cGMP/ATP)-channel pathway and/or facilitation of the GABAergic transmission. PMID:20822326

  10. Actuation performance of cellulose based electro-active papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Song, Chunseok; Bae, Seung-Hun

    2005-05-01

    Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) is attractive as an EAP actuator material due to its merits in terms of lightweight, dry condition, large displacement output, low actuation voltage and low power consumption. This paper presents the fabrication and performance test of EAPap actuators. EAPap material has been made from cellulose materials. Cellulose fiber is dissolved into a solution and made into a sheet by using a spin coater. Thin electrodes are deposited on the cellophane sheet to comprise an EAPap. Next the EAPap is made into plate or beam specimens cut along a specific orientation to enhance the actuator performance. The EAPap is clamped on electric power connector and placed in an environmental chamber and the tip displacement of EAPap is measured with laser sensor. Also the blocking force of EAPap sample is measured. The measured force is compared with a theoretical beam model. These measurements are performed under a variety of environmental and input factors including frequency, actuation voltage, temperature and humidity. Characteristics of EAPap in terms of fibrous nature, their crystallinity, and mechanical, physical and electrochemical characteristics are presented.

  11. Respirator Performance against Nanoparticles under Simulated Workplace Activities.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing; Horvatin, Matthew; Liu, Yuewei; He, Xinjian; Rengasamy, Samy

    2015-10-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) are commonly used by workers for protection against potentially hazardous particles, including engineered nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of these types of respirators against 10-400 nm particles using human subjects exposed to NaCl aerosols under simulated workplace activities. Simulated workplace protection factors (SWPFs) were measured for eight combinations of respirator models (2 N95 FFRs, 2 P100 FFRs, 2 N95 EHRs, and 2 P100 EHRs) worn by 25 healthy test subjects (13 females and 12 males) with varying face sizes. Before beginning a SWPF test for a given respirator model, each subject had to pass a quantitative fit test. Each SWPF test was performed using a protocol of six exercises for 3 min each: (i) normal breathing, (ii) deep breathing, (iii) moving head side to side, (iv) moving head up and down, (v) bending at the waist, and (vi) a simulated laboratory-vessel cleaning motion. Two scanning mobility particle sizers were used simultaneously to measure the upstream (outside the respirator) and downstream (inside the respirator) test aerosol; SWPF was then calculated as a ratio of the upstream and downstream particle concentrations. In general, geometric mean SWPF (GM-SWPF) was highest for the P100 EHRs, followed by P100 FFRs, N95 EHRs, and N95 FFRs. This trend holds true for nanoparticles (10-100 nm), larger size particles (100-400 nm), and the 'all size' range (10-400 nm). All respirators provided better or similar performance levels for 10-100 nm particles as compared to larger 100-400 nm particles. This study found that class P100 respirators provided higher SWPFs compared to class N95 respirators (P < 0.05) for both FFR and EHR types. All respirators provided expected performance (i.e. fifth percentile SWPF > 10) against all particle size ranges tested.

  12. Respirator Performance against Nanoparticles under Simulated Workplace Activities.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing; Horvatin, Matthew; Liu, Yuewei; He, Xinjian; Rengasamy, Samy

    2015-10-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) are commonly used by workers for protection against potentially hazardous particles, including engineered nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of these types of respirators against 10-400 nm particles using human subjects exposed to NaCl aerosols under simulated workplace activities. Simulated workplace protection factors (SWPFs) were measured for eight combinations of respirator models (2 N95 FFRs, 2 P100 FFRs, 2 N95 EHRs, and 2 P100 EHRs) worn by 25 healthy test subjects (13 females and 12 males) with varying face sizes. Before beginning a SWPF test for a given respirator model, each subject had to pass a quantitative fit test. Each SWPF test was performed using a protocol of six exercises for 3 min each: (i) normal breathing, (ii) deep breathing, (iii) moving head side to side, (iv) moving head up and down, (v) bending at the waist, and (vi) a simulated laboratory-vessel cleaning motion. Two scanning mobility particle sizers were used simultaneously to measure the upstream (outside the respirator) and downstream (inside the respirator) test aerosol; SWPF was then calculated as a ratio of the upstream and downstream particle concentrations. In general, geometric mean SWPF (GM-SWPF) was highest for the P100 EHRs, followed by P100 FFRs, N95 EHRs, and N95 FFRs. This trend holds true for nanoparticles (10-100 nm), larger size particles (100-400 nm), and the 'all size' range (10-400 nm). All respirators provided better or similar performance levels for 10-100 nm particles as compared to larger 100-400 nm particles. This study found that class P100 respirators provided higher SWPFs compared to class N95 respirators (P < 0.05) for both FFR and EHR types. All respirators provided expected performance (i.e. fifth percentile SWPF > 10) against all particle size ranges tested. PMID:26180261

  13. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  14. Anxiolytic-like effects of phytol: possible involvement of GABAergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jéssica Pereira; de Oliveira, Guilherme Antônio L; de Almeida, Antônia Amanda C; Islam, Md Torequl; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2014-02-14

    Phytol, a branched chain unsaturated alcohol, is particularly interesting because it is an isolated compound from essential oils of different medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects of phytol in animal models to clarify their possible action mechanism. After acute intraperitoneal treatment with phytol at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg behavioral models of open-field, elevated-plus-maze, rota-rod, light-dark, marble-burying and pentobarbital sleeping time tests were utilized. In open field test, phytol (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) [p<0.01] increased the number of crossings and rearings. However, the number of groomings [p<0.01] was reduced. Likewise, the number of entries and the time spent in light space were increased [p<0.01] while the number of marble-burying was decreased [p<0.001], in elevated-plus-maze, light-dark and marble-burying tests, respectively. In motor activity test, phytol (75 mg/kg) impaired the rota-rod performance of mice [p<0.01]. In pentobarbital sleeping time test, phytol 75 mg/kg decreased for latency of sleeping and phytol (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) increased the sleep time when compared to negative control [p<0.05]. All these effects were reversed by pre-treatment with flumazenil (2.5mg/kg, i.p.), similarly to those observed with diazepam (2mg/kg, i.p.; positive control) suggesting that the phytol presents mechanism of action by interaction with the GABAergic system. These findings suggest that acute administration of phytol exerts an anxiolytic-like effect on mice. Furthermore, suppose that phytol interacts with GABAA receptor, probably at the receptor subtypes that mediate benzodiazepines effects, to produce sedative and anxiolytic activities.

  15. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  16. Performance and biofilm activity of nitrifying biofilters removing trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-02-01

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources removed trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) with removals reaching 18% for TCM and 75% for DBCM. In addition, resuspended biofilm removed TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests, demonstrating that the biofilters contained organisms capable of biotransforming the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) commonly found in treated drinking water. Upon the initial and subsequent increased TCM addition, total ammonia nitrogen (TOTNH(3)) removal decreased and then reestablished, indicating an adjustment by the biofilm bacteria. In addition, changes in DBCM removal indicated a change in activity related to DBCM. The backwash batch kinetic tests provided a useful tool to evaluate the biofilm's bacteria. Based on these experiments, the biofilters contained bacteria with similar THM removal kinetics to those seen in previous batch kinetic experiments. Overall, performance or selection does not seem based specifically on nutrients, source water, or source cultures and most likely results from THM product toxicity, and the use of GAC media appeared to offer benefits over anthracite for biofilter stability and long-term performance, although the reasons for this advantage are not apparent based on research to date.

  17. Performance and biofilm activity of nitrifying biofilters removing trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-02-01

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources removed trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) with removals reaching 18% for TCM and 75% for DBCM. In addition, resuspended biofilm removed TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests, demonstrating that the biofilters contained organisms capable of biotransforming the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) commonly found in treated drinking water. Upon the initial and subsequent increased TCM addition, total ammonia nitrogen (TOTNH(3)) removal decreased and then reestablished, indicating an adjustment by the biofilm bacteria. In addition, changes in DBCM removal indicated a change in activity related to DBCM. The backwash batch kinetic tests provided a useful tool to evaluate the biofilm's bacteria. Based on these experiments, the biofilters contained bacteria with similar THM removal kinetics to those seen in previous batch kinetic experiments. Overall, performance or selection does not seem based specifically on nutrients, source water, or source cultures and most likely results from THM product toxicity, and the use of GAC media appeared to offer benefits over anthracite for biofilter stability and long-term performance, although the reasons for this advantage are not apparent based on research to date. PMID:21195446

  18. Prescribed Active Learning Increases Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875

  19. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Performance of coarse pore filtration activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Satoh, H; Mino, T

    2002-01-01

    A coarse pore filter can be applied inside the aeration tank to facilitate the separation of sludge from liquid instead of sedimentation. This filter has pores, which are irregular in shape, and the pore size is bigger than those of MF. The objectives of the study were to maintain as much as MLSS in the activated sludge process with coarse pore filter and to investigate the performance under high MLSS condition. Small-scale reactor results so far show good quality of effluent specially after starting the sludge bulking in the system in terms of SS, TOC, DOC and turbidity. The average carbon removal for 62 days operation of this system was about 94% (based on effluent DOC) and 87% (based on effluent TOC). The average sludge yield in this system is about 0.44 kg MLSS/kg TOC which is about 0.24 kg MLSS/kg BOD. This amount is less than those of conventional activated sludge and trickling filter.

  1. Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises.

  2. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  3. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards of practice for the delivery of care and periodically track performance to ensure that any... performance improvement activities. (1) A PACE organization must ensure that all interdisciplinary...

  4. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  5. Algorithms for Performance, Dependability, and Performability Evaluation using Stochastic Activity Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deavours, Daniel D.; Qureshi, M. Akber; Sanders, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Modeling tools and technologies are important for aerospace development. At the University of Illinois, we have worked on advancing the state of the art in modeling by Markov reward models in two important areas: reducing the memory necessary to numerically solve systems represented as stochastic activity networks and other stochastic Petri net extensions while still obtaining solutions in a reasonable amount of time, and finding numerically stable and memory-efficient methods to solve for the reward accumulated during a finite mission time. A long standing problem when modeling with high level formalisms such as stochastic activity networks is the so-called state space explosion, where the number of states increases exponentially with size of the high level model. Thus, the corresponding Markov model becomes prohibitively large and solution is constrained by the the size of primary memory. To reduce the memory necessary to numerically solve complex systems, we propose new methods that can tolerate such large state spaces that do not require any special structure in the model (as many other techniques do). First, we develop methods that generate row and columns of the state transition-rate-matrix on-the-fly, eliminating the need to explicitly store the matrix at all. Next, we introduce a new iterative solution method, called modified adaptive Gauss-Seidel, that exhibits locality in its use of data from the state transition-rate-matrix, permitting us to cache portions of the matrix and hence reduce the solution time. Finally, we develop a new memory and computationally efficient technique for Gauss-Seidel based solvers that avoids the need for generating rows of A in order to solve Ax = b. This is a significant performance improvement for on-the-fly methods as well as other recent solution techniques based on Kronecker operators. Taken together, these new results show that one can solve very large models without any special structure.

  6. 75 FR 34110 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Performance Evaluation Studies on... this action are NPDES permitted facilities. Title: Performance Evaluation Studies on Wastewater... necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Agency, including whether the information...

  7. The effect of malathion on the activity, performance, and microbial ecology of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rauglas, Erik; Martin, Seth; Bailey, Kandace; Magnuson, Matthew; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 μg/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 μg O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities.

  8. The effect of malathion on the activity, performance, and microbial ecology of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rauglas, Erik; Martin, Seth; Bailey, Kandace; Magnuson, Matthew; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 μg/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 μg O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities. PMID:27594690

  9. 29 CFR 784.155 - Activities performed in wholesale establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions... making up payrolls, are not exempt unless these activities can be shown to be functionally necessary, in... activities as selling, taking, and putting up orders, recording sales, and taking cash are, however,...

  10. Final Report: Performance Modeling Activities in PERC2

    SciTech Connect

    Allan Snavely

    2007-02-25

    Progress in Performance Modeling for PERC2 resulted in: • Automated modeling tools that are robust, able to characterize large applications running at scale while simultaneously simulating the memory hierarchies of mul-tiple machines in parallel. • Porting of the requisite tracer tools to multiple platforms. • Improved performance models by using higher resolution memory models that ever before. • Adding control-flow and data dependency analysis to the tracers used in perform-ance tools. • Exploring and developing several new modeling methodologies. • Using modeling tools to develop performance models for strategic codes. • Application of modeling methodology to make a large number of “blind” per-formance predictions on certain mission partner applications, targeting most cur-rently available system architectures. • Error analysis to correct some systematic biases encountered as part of the large-scale blind prediction exercises. • Addition of instrumentation capabilities for communication libraries other than MPI. • Dissemination the tools and modeling methods to several mission partners, in-cluding DoD HPCMO and two DARPA HPCS vendors (Cray and IBM), as well as to the wider HPC community via a series of tutorials.

  11. Activity composition relationships in silicate melts: Annual performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Glazner, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Work performed during the first two years of this project includes construction of furnace laboratory and calibration of instruments, installation of an electron microprobe, and determination of phase equilibria along a basalt-rhyolite mixing line. This latter study comprises the bulk of work performed to date. We completed approximately 100 experiments on the one-atmosphere phase equilibria of balalt-rhyolite mixtures. Starting materials were an alkali basalt from Pisgah Crater, California, and a high-silica rhyolite from the Bishop Tuff, Owens Valley, California. These materials were chosen because the compositional trend of the mixtures mimics many continental calc-alkaline suites. 5 figs.

  12. Contextualizing Performances: Comparing Performances during TOEFL iBT™ and Real-Life Academic Speaking Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking…

  13. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  14. Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samaras, George M.

    1988-01-01

    The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.

  15. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  16. Factor- and Item-Level Analyses of the 38-Item Activities Scale for Kids-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M.; Gorton, George E.; Bjornson, Kristie; Bevans, Katherine; Stout, Jean L.; Narayanan, Unni; Tucker, Carole A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children and adolescents highly value their ability to participate in relevant daily life and recreational activities. The Activities Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp) instrument measures the frequency of performance of 30 common childhood activities, and has been shown to be valid and reliable. A revised and expanded 38-item ASKp (ASKp38)…

  17. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  18. Performing Citizenship Down Under: Educating the Active Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Bronwyn; Black, Rosalyn

    2014-01-01

    In democracies such as Australia and New Zealand, education policy increasingly seeks to foster active citizens who are committed to social justice and change. Whilst many aspects of these initiatives are to be applauded for their commitment to empowering young people, in this paper we describe some of the ambiguities that attend young people's…

  19. Diagnostic performance of increased prolidase activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Mehmet; Bulut, Mahmut; Demir, Süleyman; İbiloğlu, Aslıhan Okan; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Atlı, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether prolidase activity has a diagnostic test value in schizophrenia and assessed the relation between prolidase activity and sociodemographic-clinical characteristics of patients with schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia (diagnosed as schizophrenia according to DSM-V criteria) and 50 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Case and control groups had a similar distribution in age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. Serum prolidase activity was measured in both groups and was determined to be significantly higher in the patient group (509.706±41.918) compared to the control group (335.4±13.6; t=6.231; p=0.0001). A cut-off point of 392.65U/L prolidase was determined for diagnostic measures from the plotted ROC curve. The area under the ROC curve was 1.000, which was significant (p<0.0001). Higher values were assigned as the disease state. Both positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 100% at the cut-off point of 392.650U/L. The prolidase levels of the control group were all below the cut-off point. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to age, gender, or BMI (p>0.05), and no correlation was found between mean prolidase activity and age of onset of the disease, family history, disease duration, number of hospitalizations, subtypes of schizophrenia, PANSS scores or sub-scores, CGI-S scores, S-A scale scores, and the antipsychotic treatment (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that serum prolidase activity may be a useful diagnostic test for schizophrenia; however, further studies are needed to verify this.

  20. Report of activities performed, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Numerical Data Advisory Board (NDAB) is a body within the National Research Council composed of a general board with specialized committees and panels. The objective of NDAB and its committees and panels is the improvement in quality, reliability, availability, accessibility, dissemination, utilization, and management of data. NDAB seeks to promote an appreciation of the importance of evaluated data to scientists, engineers, regulators, and others who require reliable numerical data for research and for decision making. NDAB is an interdisciplinary body with representation from physical, chemical, engineering, biological, and geological sciences. Selected sociotechnical, socioeconomic, and transient, or soft data topics are also covered. An effective path of communication with international data activities is maintained by scheduling NDAB meetings jointly with the US National Committee for CODATA, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology of the International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU). An active government liaison relationship is maintained to facilitate input from, and discussion with branches of agencies that deal with technical data and information programs. NDAB has addressed both broad, generic cross-cutting data problems pertinent to all agencies that support R and D programs, as well as specific issues. For some of the specific topics, ad hoc meetings with subgroups of NDAB and the specific agencies requesting such discussions were held. Meetings held by NDAB for the time period covered by this report, as well as other activities, are summarized in Attachment A.

  1. Muscular activity and its relationship to biomechanics and human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariel, Gideon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to address the issue of muscular activity, human motion, fitness, and exercise. Human activity is reviewed from the historical perspective as well as from the basics of muscular contraction, nervous system controls, mechanics, and biomechanical considerations. In addition, attention has been given to some of the principles involved in developing muscular adaptations through strength development. Brief descriptions and findings from a few studies are included. These experiments were conducted in order to investigate muscular adaptation to various exercise regimens. Different theories of strength development were studied and correlated to daily human movements. All measurement tools used represent state of the art exercise equipment and movement analysis. The information presented here is only a small attempt to understand the effects of exercise and conditioning on Earth with the objective of leading to greater knowledge concerning human responses during spaceflight. What makes life from nonliving objects is movement which is generated and controlled by biochemical substances. In mammals. the controlled activators are skeletal muscles and this muscular action is an integral process composed of mechanical, chemical, and neurological processes resulting in voluntary and involuntary motions. The scope of this discussion is limited to voluntary motion.

  2. 78 FR 3394 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Performance Reporting System, Management Evaluation AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS...: Performance Reporting System, Management Evaluation. OMB Number: 0584-0010. Expiration Date: 4/30/2013....

  3. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Katherine D.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria known to be associated with sludges carrying out EBPR. These organisms comprised approximately 80% of total bacteria in the sludge, as assessed by FISH. Degenerate PCR primers were designed to retrieve fragments of putative ppk genes from a pure culture of Rhodocyclus tenuis and from organisms in the sludge. Four novel ppk homologs were found in the sludge, and two of these (types I and II) shared a high degree of amino acid similarity with R. tenuis PPK (86 and 87% similarity, respectively). Dot blot analysis of total RNA extracted from sludge demonstrated that the Type I ppk mRNA was present, indicating that this gene is expressed during EBPR. Inverse PCR was used to obtain the full Type I sequence from sludge DNA, and a full-length PPK was cloned, overexpressed, and purified to near homogeneity. The purified PPK has a specific activity comparable to that of other PPKs, has a requirement for Mg2+, and does not appear to operate in reverse. PPK activity was found mainly in the particulate fraction of lysed sludge microorganisms. PMID:12324346

  4. The performance of supercapacitor electrodes developed from chemically activated carbon produced from waste tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inal, I. Isil Gurten; Holmes, Stuart M.; Banford, Anthony; Aktas, Zeki

    2015-12-01

    Highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea for application as supercapacitor electrodes, utilising a chemical activation method involving treatment with either K2CO3 or H3PO4. The area, pore structure characteristics and surface functionality of the activated carbons were evaluated to investigate the influence on electrochemical performance. The performance of the activated carbons as supercapacitor electrodes was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurements, in an aqueous electrolyte. The results showed that the pore structure and type of the activated carbon have significant impact on the supercapacitor performance. Both waste tea-based activated carbon electrodes showed good cyclic stability. However, despite its lower specific surface area the highly microporous activated carbon produced with K2CO3, exhibited much better capacitive performance than that of the mesoporous activated carbon produced with H3PO4.

  5. The Performance of Geopolymers Activated by Sodium Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeontaek; Kang, Seunggu

    2015-08-01

    Geopolymers, a group of promising environmentally friendly materials that can work as cement substitutes, should be fabricated from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO mixtures containing large amounts of amorphous phases to ensure optimal chemical and physical properties. In this study, it was shown that geopolymers with enhanced mechanical strengths, as high as 115 MPa, could be obtained from perfectly amorphous slag from spent catalyst (SSC) discharged during automobile catalyst recycling. Geopolymer processing involved alkali-activation using a 16 M NaOH solution of pH13. The varying SSC grain size was the main experimental factor of interest, in combination with curing temperature and aging time. Variations in the mechanical strengths of the resulting geopolymers are explained by the occurrence of 10-50 nm-sized crystals and the presence of voids and pores dozens to hundreds of micrometers in size.

  6. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  7. Performance Benchmarking Tsunami Models for NTHMP's Inundation Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrillo, Juan; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Roeber, Volker; Zhang, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    The coastal states and territories of the United States (US) are vulnerable to devastating tsunamis from near-field or far-field coseismic and underwater/subaerial landslide sources. Following the catastrophic 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) accelerated the development of public safety products for the mitigation of these hazards. In response to this initiative, US coastal states and territories speeded up the process of developing/enhancing/adopting tsunami models that can be used for developing inundation maps and evacuation plans. One of NTHMP's requirements is that all operational and inundation-based numerical (O&I) models used for such purposes be properly validated against established standards to ensure the reliability of tsunami inundation maps as well as to achieve a basic level of consistency between parallel efforts. The validation of several O&I models was considered during a workshop held in 2011 at Texas A&M University (Galveston). This validation was performed based on the existing standard (OAR-PMEL-135), which provides a list of benchmark problems (BPs) covering various tsunami processes that models must meet to be deemed acceptable. Here, we summarize key approaches followed, results, and conclusions of the workshop. Eight distinct tsunami models were validated and cross-compared by using a subset of the BPs listed in the OAR-PMEL-135 standard. Of the several BPs available, only two based on laboratory experiments are detailed here for sake of brevity; since they are considered as sufficiently comprehensive. Average relative errors associated with expected parameters values such as maximum surface amplitude/runup are estimated. The level of agreement with the reference data, reasons for discrepancies between model results, and some of the limitations are discussed. In general, dispersive models were found to perform better than nondispersive models, but differences were relatively small, in part

  8. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  9. Performance of an active electric bearing for rotary micromotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, F. T.; Wang, L.; Wu, Q. P.; Liu, Y. F.

    2011-08-01

    An electric bearing used to support a micromachined rotor of variable-capacitance motors was designed and tested in order to study the characteristics of this frictionless bearing. Electrostatic suspension of a ring-shaped rotor in five degrees of freedom is required to eliminate the mechanical bearing and thus the friction and wear between the rotor and the substrate. Bulk microfabrication-based glass/silicon/glass bonding is chosen for this device, allowing the fabrication of large area sense capacitors and rotor, which make the device potentially suitable for the development of an electrostatically suspended micromachined gyroscope. The device and its basic operating principle are described, as well as the dynamics of the rotor and basic design considerations of the electric bearing system. A theoretical relationship to relate the characteristics of a classical lag-lead compensator to the stiffness properties of the electric bearing is developed to explain the experimental bearing measurements. The experimental results of closed-loop frequency response, suspension stiffness and drive voltage effects are presented and discussed for the bearing operated initially in the atmospheric environment. The performance of a tri-axial electrostatic accelerometer has also been experimentally investigated on the prototype of the electric bearing system.

  10. Characterization of cytidylyltransferase enzyme activity through high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brault, James P; Friesen, Jon A

    2016-10-01

    The cytidylyltransferases are a family of enzymes that utilize cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) to synthesize molecules that are typically precursors to membrane phospholipids. The most extensively studied cytidylyltransferase is CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT), which catalyzes conversion of phosphocholine and CTP to cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP-choline), a step critical for synthesis of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). The current method used to determine catalytic activity of CCT measures production of radiolabeled CDP-choline from (14)C-labeled phosphocholine. The goal of this research was to develop a CCT enzyme assay that employed separation of non-radioactive CDP-choline from CTP. A C18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of 0.1 M ammonium bicarbonate (98%) and acetonitrile (2%) (pH 7.4) resulted in separation of solutions of the substrate CTP from the product CDP-choline. A previously characterized truncated version of rat CCTα (denoted CCTα236) was used to test the HPLC enzyme assay by measuring CDP-choline product formation. The Vmax for CCTα236 was 3850 nmol/min/mg and K0.5 values for CTP and phosphocholine were 4.07 mM and 2.49 mM, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to glycerol 3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (GCT) and CTP:2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase synthetase (CMS), members of the cytidylyltransferase family that produce CDP-glycerol and CDP-methylerythritol, respectively. PMID:27443959

  11. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  12. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  13. Investigating the muscle activities of performing surgical training tasks using a virtual simulator.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Suh, Irene H; Chien, Jung Hung; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the muscle activities of upper extremities while performing fundamental surgical training tasks using a virtual simulator. Six subjects performed virtual cutting tasks and their muscle activities of upper extremities were measured. The results demonstrated a significant increase in muscle activities in both proximal and distal upper extremities, which are the common areas of occurrence of injury after prolonged practice. This study suggests that the upper trapezius and the extensor digitorum are essential prime movers to perform surgical training tasks. These muscles should be monitored for performance assessment in future studies.

  14. Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as defined by ability tests. Structural regression models suggested that prediction of cognition by activity level was partially mediated by memory beliefs, controlling for age, education, health, and depressive affect. Models adding paths from general and specific activities to aspects of crystallized intelligence suggested additional unique predictive effects for some activities. In alternative models, nonsignificant effects of beliefs on activities were detected when cognition predicted both variables, consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs derive from monitoring cognition and have no influence on activity patterns. PMID:18179299

  15. The association between work performance and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Martinson, Brian; Kessler, Ronald C; Beck, Arne L; Simon, Gregory E; Wang, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between lifestyle-related modifiable health risks (physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity) and work performance. Data were obtained from 683 workers. Dependent variables included number of work loss days, quantity and quality of work performed, overall job performance, extra effort exerted, and interpersonal relationships. Results indicated that higher levels of physical activity related to reduced decrements in quality of work performed and overall job performance; higher cardiorespiratory fitness related to reduced decrements in quantity of work performed, and a reduction in extra effort exerted to perform the work; obesity related to more difficulty in getting along with coworkers; severe obesity related to a higher number of work loss days. It is concluded that lifestyle-related modifiable health risk factors significantly impact employee work performance.

  16. Prefrontal set activity predicts rule-specific neural processing during subsequent cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Katsuyuki; Passingham, Richard E

    2006-01-25

    Prefrontal neurons have been shown to represent task rules. Here we show the mechanisms by which the rule-selective activity in the prefrontal cortex influences subsequent cognitive performance based on that rule. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the frontopolar cortex interacted with posterior areas differently depending on whether subjects were going to perform a phonological or semantic task. Moreover, we found that the sustained "set" activity in this region predicted the activity that could be recorded in the posterior areas during the performance, as well as the speed of that performance. We argue that the prefrontal set activity does not reflect simple maintenance of the task rules but the process of implementing the rule for subsequent cognitive performance and that this is done through rule-selective interactions with areas involved in execution of the tasks.

  17. 78 FR 37531 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Reporting (APR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Reporting (APR) System for..., traumatic brain injury, and burn centers); Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects...

  18. The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed.

  19. Cerebral Activations Related to Audition-Driven Performance Imagery in Professional Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the melody with the right hand. Both tasks activated ventral premotor and auditory cortices, bilaterally, and the right anterior parietal cortex, when contrasted to 12 musically unskilled controls. Although left ventral premotor activation was increased during imagery (compared to judgment), bilateral dorsal premotor and right posterior-superior parietal activations were quite unique to motor imagery. The latter suggests that musicians not only recruited their manual motor repertoire but also performed a spatial transformation from the vertically perceived pitch axis (high and low sound) to the horizontal axis of the keyboard. Imagery-specific activations in controls were seen in left dorsal parietal-premotor and supplementary motor cortices. Although these activations were less strong compared to musicians, this overlapping distribution indicated the recruitment of a general ‘mirror-neuron’ circuitry. These two levels of sensori-motor transformations point towards common principles by which the brain organizes audition-driven music performance and visually guided task performance. PMID:24714661

  20. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  1. Cerebral activations related to audition-driven performance imagery in professional musicians.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the melody with the right hand. Both tasks activated ventral premotor and auditory cortices, bilaterally, and the right anterior parietal cortex, when contrasted to 12 musically unskilled controls. Although left ventral premotor activation was increased during imagery (compared to judgment), bilateral dorsal premotor and right posterior-superior parietal activations were quite unique to motor imagery. The latter suggests that musicians not only recruited their manual motor repertoire but also performed a spatial transformation from the vertically perceived pitch axis (high and low sound) to the horizontal axis of the keyboard. Imagery-specific activations in controls were seen in left dorsal parietal-premotor and supplementary motor cortices. Although these activations were less strong compared to musicians, this overlapping distribution indicated the recruitment of a general 'mirror-neuron' circuitry. These two levels of sensori-motor transformations point towards common principles by which the brain organizes audition-driven music performance and visually guided task performance.

  2. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... performance improvement activities. (1) A PACE organization must ensure that all interdisciplinary team... performance improvement requirements. A PACE organization must do the following: (1) Use a set of outcome... coordinator. A PACE organization must designate an individual to coordinate and oversee implementation...

  3. Performing Receptionist Activities. Send Telegrams and Cablegrams. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 70 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on sending telegrams and cablegrams are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on performing receptionist activities--CE 016 935-938.)…

  4. 78 FR 64929 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Reports for Title...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Reports for Title III and Title V Grantees AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), Department of Education (ED). ACTION... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Annual Performance Reports...

  5. Performances of Student Activism: Sound, Silence, Gender, and Dis/ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.

  6. CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement: High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, S. E.; Fasching, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    An active clearance control system was developed which reduces fuel consumption and performance degradation. This system utilizes compressor discharge air during takeoff and fan discharge air during cruise to impinge on the shroud structure to improve the thermal response. The system was evaluated in component and engine tests. The test results demonstrated a performance improvement of 0.7 percent in cruise SFC.

  7. Performance degradation and altered cerebral activation during dual performance: Evidence for a bottom-up attentional system

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Subjects performed a continuous tracking concurrently with an intermittent visual detection task to investigate the existence of competition for a capacity-limited stage (a bottleneck stage). Both perceptual and response-related processes between the two tasks were examined behaviorally and the changes in brain activity during dual-tasking relative to single-task were also assessed. Tracking error and joystick speed were analyzed for changes that were time-locked to visual detection stimuli. The associated brain activations were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These were analyzed using mixed block and event-related models to tease apart sustained neural activity and activations associated with individual events. Increased tracking error and decreased joystick speed were observed relative to the target stimuli in the dual-task condition only, which supports the existence of a bottleneck stage in response-related processes. Neuroimaging data show decreased activation to target relative to non-target stimuli in the dual-task condition in the left primary motor and somatosensory cortices controlling right-hand tracking, consistent with the tracking interference observed in behavioral data. Furthermore, the ventral attention system, rather than the dorsal attention system, was found to mediate task coordination between tracking and visual detection. PMID:20188768

  8. Relationships between Writing Motivation, Writing Activity, and Writing Performance: Effects of Grade, Sex, and Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.; Harbaugh, Allen G.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Lawrence, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    A convenience sample of 618 children and adolescents in grades 4 through 10, excluding grade 8, were asked to complete a writing motivation and activity scale and to provide a timed narrative writing sample to permit an examination of the relationships between writing motivation, writing activity, writing performance, and the student…

  9. Relation between Academic Performance and Students' Engagement in Digital Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertheussen, Bernt Arne; Myrland, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of student engagement in digital learning activities on academic performance for 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate finance course. Interactive practice and exam problem files were available to each student, and individual download activity was automatically recorded during the first 50 days of the course.…

  10. The Relationship between Engagement in Cocurricular Activities and Academic Performance: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacherman, Avi; Foubert, John

    2014-01-01

    The effects of time spent in cocurricular activities on academic performance was tested. A curvilinear relationship between hours per week spent involved in cocurricular activities and grade point average was discovered such that a low amount of cocurricular involvement was beneficial to grades, while a high amount can potentially hurt academic…

  11. Leisure Activities during School Break among Children with Learning Disabilities: Preference vs. Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Mano, Tali; Jarus, Tal; Weinblatt, Nurit

    2006-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities may contribute to the development of social, motor, and language skills, and is therefore especially important for children with learning disabilities. Leisure activities of students in educational settings are performed mostly during breaks. While there have been some studies of the effect of breaks on…

  12. Patterns of Brain-Electrical Activity during Declarative Memory Performance in 10-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study of infant declarative memory concurrently examined brain-electrical activity and deferred imitation performance in 10-month-old infants. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were collected throughout the activity-matched baseline, encoding (modeling) and retrieval (delayed test) phases of a within-subjects deferred imitation…

  13. The Effect of CO2 Activation on the Electrochemical Performance of Coke-Based Activated Carbons for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Hong-Gun; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2015-11-01

    The present study developed electrode materials for supercapacitors by activating coke-based activated carbons with CO2. For the activation reaction, after setting the temperature at 1,000 degrees C, four types of activated carbons were produced, over an activation time of 0-90 minutes and with an interval of 30 minutes as the unit. The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons produced was evaluated to examine the effect of CO2 activation. The surface structure of the porous carbons activated through CO2 activation was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To determine the N2/77 K isothermal adsorption characteristics, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) equation were used to analyze the pore characteristics. In addition, charge and discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to analyze the electrochemical characteristics of the changed pore structure. According to the results of the experiments, the N2 adsorption isotherm curves of the porous carbons produced belonged to Type IV in the International Union of Pore and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification and consisted of micropores and mesopores, and, as the activation of CO2 progressed, micropores decreased and mesopores developed. The specific surface area of the porous carbons activated by CO2 was 1,090-1,180 m2/g and thus showed little change, but those of mesopores were 0.43-0.85 cm3/g, thus increasing considerably. In addition, when the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed, the specific capacity was confirmed to have increased from 13.9 F/g to 18.3 F/g. From these results, the pore characteristics of coke-based activated carbons changed considerably because of CO2 activation, and it was therefore possible to increase the electrochemical characteristics. PMID:26726596

  14. Short-term effects of integrated motor imagery practice on muscle activation and force performance.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, F; Blache, Y; Kanthack, T F D; Monteil, K; Collet, C; Guillot, A

    2015-10-01

    The effect of motor imagery (MI) practice on isometric force development is well-documented. However, whether practicing MI during rest periods of physical training improves the forthcoming performance remains unexplored. We involved 18 athletes in a counterbalanced design including three physical training sessions scheduled over five consecutive days. Training involved 10 maximal isometric contractions against a force plate, with the elbow at 90°. During two sessions, we integrated MI practice (focusing on either muscle activation or relaxation) during the inter-trial rest periods. We measured muscle performance from force plate and electromyograms of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoideus. We continuously monitored electrodermal activity (EDA) to control sympathetic nervous system activity. MI of muscle activation resulted in higher isometric force as compared to both MI of muscle relaxation and passive recovery (respectively +2.1% and +3.5%). MI practice of muscle relaxation also outperformed the control condition (+1.9%). Increased activation of the biceps brachii was recorded under both MI practice conditions compared to control. Biceps brachii activation was similar between the two MI practice conditions, but electromyography revealed a marginal trend toward greater activation of the anterior deltoideus during MI practice of muscle activation. EDA and self-reports indicated that these effects were independent from physiological arousal and motivation. These results might account for priming effects of MI practice yielding to higher muscle activation and force performance. Present findings may be of interest for applications in sports training and neurologic rehabilitation. PMID:26241339

  15. Cognitive activity relates to cognitive performance but not to Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Gidicsin, Christopher M.; Maye, Jacqueline E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Pepin, Lesley C.; Philiossaint, Marlie; Becker, J. Alex; Younger, Alayna P.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Marshall, Gad A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Hedden, Trey; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between lifestyle factors and Alzheimer disease biomarkers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated self-reported histories of recent and past cognitive activity, self-reported history of recent physical activity, and objective recent walking activity in 186 clinically normal individuals with mean age of 74 ± 6 years. Using backward elimination general linear models, we tested the hypotheses that greater cognitive or physical activity would be associated with lower Pittsburgh compound B–PET retention, greater 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET metabolism, and larger hippocampal volume, as well as better cognitive performance on neuropsychological testing. Results: Linear regression demonstrated that history of greater cognitive activity was correlated with greater estimated IQ and education, as well as better neuropsychological testing performance. Self-reported recent physical activity was related to objective exercise monitoring. However, contrary to hypotheses, we did not find evidence of an association of Pittsburgh compound B retention, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or hippocampal volume with past or current levels of cognitive activity, or with current physical activity. Conclusions: We conclude that a history of lifelong cognitive activity may support better cognitive performance by a mechanism that is independent of brain β-amyloid burden, brain glucose metabolism, or hippocampal volume. PMID:26062627

  16. Investigating the correlation between the neural activity and task performance in a psychomotor vigilance test.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongze; Sun, Yu; Lim, Julian; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity is known to correlate with decrements in task performance as individuals enter the state of mental fatigue which might lead to lowered productivity and increased safety risks. Incorporating a passive brain computer interface (BCI) technique that detects changes in subject's neural activity and predicts the behavioral performance when the subject is underperforming might be a promising approach to reduce human error in real-world situations. Here, we developed a reliable model using EEG power spectrum to estimate time-on-task performance in a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) which can fit across individuals. High correlation between the estimated and actual reaction time was achieved. Hence, our results illustrate the feasibility for modeling time-on-task decrements in performance among different individuals from their brainwave activity, with potential applications in several domains, including traffic and industrial safety. PMID:26737349

  17. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  18. The multifaceted nature of the relationship between performance and brain activity in motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Orban, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Breton, Estelle; Laberenne, Frédéric; Benali, Habib; Maquet, Pierre; Doyon, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The 'learning and performance' conundrum has for a long time puzzled the field of cognitive neuroscience. Deciphering the genuine functional neuroanatomy of motor sequence learning, among that of other skills, has thereby been hampered. The main caveat is that changes in neural activity that inherently accompany task practice may not only reflect the learning process per se, but also the basic motor implementation of improved performance. Previous research has attempted to control for a performance confound in brain activity by adopting methodologies that prevent changes in performance. However, blocking the expression of performance is likely to distort the very nature of the motor sequence learning process, and may thus represent a major confound in itself. In the present study, we postulated that both learning-dependent plasticity mechanisms and learning-independent implementation processes are nested within the relationship that exists between performance and brain activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to map brain responses in healthy volunteers while they either (a) learned a novel sequence, (b) produced a highly automatized sequence or (c) executed non-sequential movements matched for speed frequency. In order to dissociate between qualitatively distinct, but intertwined, relationships between performance and neural activity, our analyses focused on correlations between variations in performance and brain activity, and how this relationship differs or shares commonalities between conditions. Results revealed that activity in the putamen and contralateral lobule VI of the cerebellum most strongly correlated with performance during learning per se, suggesting their key role in this process. By contrast, activity in a parallel cerebellar network, as well as in motor and premotor cortical areas, was modulated by performance during learning and during one or both control condition(s), suggesting the primary contribution of these areas in

  19. The role of pleasantness and activation-based well-being in performance prediction.

    PubMed

    Wright, T A; Bonett, D G

    1997-07-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 measures of psychological well-being and work performance using the circumplex model of emotion as the theoretical framework. Although the pleasantness-based measure of well-being predicted subsequent work performance, the results failed to establish a relationship between the activation-based measure of well-being and work performance. Future directions and implications of the findings regarding the further refinement of the role of psychological well-being in performance prediction are introduced. PMID:9552291

  20. Encouraging overweight students with intellectual disability to actively perform walking activity using an air mouse combined with preferred stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    This study continues the research on using an air mouse as a physical activity detector. An air mouse is embedded with a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) gyro sensor, which can measure even the slightest movement in the air. The air mouse was strapped to one of each participant's calves to detect walking activity. This study was conducted to evaluate whether four students with intellectual disability who were overweight and disliked exercising could be motivated to engage in walking actively by linking the target response with preferred stimulation. Single-subject research with ABAB design was adopted in this study. The experimental data showed substantial increases in the participants' target responses (i.e. the performance of the activity of walking) during the intervention phases compared to the baseline phases. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27037988

  1. Handgrip strength deficits best explain limitations in performing bimanual activities after stroke.

    PubMed

    Basílio, Marluce Lopes; de Faria-Fortini, Iza; Polese, Janaine Cunha; Scianni, Aline A; Faria, Christina Dcm; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the relationships between residual strength deficits (RSD) of the upper limb muscles and the performance in bimanual activities and to determine which muscular group would best explain the performance in bimanual activities of chronic stroke individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Strength measures of handgrip, wrist extensor, elbow flexor/extensor, and shoulder flexor muscles of 107 subjects were obtained and expressed as RSD. The performance in bimanual activities was assessed by the ABILHAND questionnaire. [Results] The correlations between the RSD of handgrip and wrist extensor muscles with the ABILHAND scores were negative and moderate, whereas those with the elbow flexor/extensor and shoulder flexor muscles were negative and low. Regression analysis showed that the RSD of handgrip and wrist extensor muscles explained 38% of the variance in the ABILHAND scores. Handgrip RSD alone explained 33% of the variance. [Conclusion] The RSD of the upper limb muscles were negatively associated with the performance in bimanual activities and the RSD of handgrip muscles were the most relevant variable. It is possible that stroke subjects would benefit from interventions aiming at improving handgrip strength, when the goal is to increase the performance in bimanual activities.

  2. The Effects of Eight-Month Physical Activity Intervention on Vigilance Performance in Adult Obese Population.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Cristina; Ballester, Rafael; Sanchis, Carlos; Llorens, Francesc; Martín, Marta; Pablos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We aim to analyze the effects of an 8-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI), and vigilance performance in an adult obese population. We conducted an 8-month physical activity intervention based on dance and rhythmic activities. The weekly frequency was 2 sessions of 1 hr per day. Training sessions were divided into 3 phases: a 10-min warm-up, 40 min of dance and rhythmic activities, and 10 min to cool-down. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness, participants performed a modified version of the 6-min walk test from the Senior Fitness Test battery (Larsson & Mattsson, 2001; Rikli & Jones, 1999). Vigilance performance was measured by means of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Two measurements were performed immediately before and after the intervention. The results revealed that participants improved their cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and vigilance performance after the intervention. All in all, findings contribute new empirical evidence to the field that investigates the benefits of physical activity intervention on cognitive processes in obese population.

  3. Hand function and performance of daily activities in systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Malcus Johnsson, P; Sandqvist, G; Nilsson, J-Å; Bengtsson, A A; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O

    2015-07-01

    This clinical study was performed to investigate hand problems in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in comparison with healthy controls, and to explore problems in the performance of daily activities related to these hand problems, in order to objectify findings from a previous mail survey. We also investigated whether a simple hand test could detect hand problems in SLE. All individuals, 71 with SLE and 71 healthy controls, were examined for manifestations in body structures and body functions of the hands with a study-specific protocol. The simple hand test was performed by all the individuals and the arthritis impact measurement scale (AIMS 2) questionnaire was completed by the SLE individuals. In the SLE group, 58% had some kind of difficulty in the simple hand test, compared with 8% in the control group. Fifty percent of the SLE individuals experienced problems in performing daily activities due to hand deficits. Pain in the hands, reduced strength and dexterity, Raynaud's phenomenon and trigger finger were the most prominent body functions affecting the performance of daily activities. Deficits in hand function are common in SLE and affect the performance of daily activities. The simple hand test may be a useful tool in detecting hand problems.

  4. Fluoxetine modulates motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke.

    PubMed

    Pariente, J; Loubinoux, I; Carel, C; Albucher, J F; Leger, A; Manelfe, C; Rascol, O; Chollet, F

    2001-12-01

    In order to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on the cerebral motor activation of lacunar stroke patients in the early phase of recovery, we conducted a prospective, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia. Each patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations: one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. The first was performed 2 weeks after stroke onset and the second a week later. During the two fMRI examinations, patients performed an active controlled motor task with the affected hand and a passive one conducted by the examiner with the same hand. Motor performance was evaluated by motor tests under placebo and under fluoxetine immediately before the examinations to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on motor function. Under fluoxetine, during the active motor task, hyperactivation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex was found. Moreover, fluoxetine significantly improved motor skills of the affected side. We found that a single dose of fluoxetine was enough to modulate cerebral sensory-motor activation in patients. This redistribution of activation toward the motor cortex output activation was associated with an enhancement of motor performance. PMID:11761469

  5. Memory recuperative potential of rifampicin in aluminum chloride-induced dementia: role of pregnane X receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P; Sodhi, R K

    2015-03-12

    The present study has been designed to investigate the potential of rifampicin [Pregnane X receptors (PXR) agonist] in experimental dementia. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) [100mg/kg, p.o. for 42days] was administered to Wistar rats (n=6) to induce dementia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess learning and memory and rota rod test was used to assess locomotor activity of the animals. A battery of biochemical tests and histopathological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Congo Red stains were performed at the end of the study. AlCl3-treated rats demonstrated impaired cognition and locomotor activity on MWM apparatus and rota rod test, respectively. These animals exhibited a significant rise in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (138±3.6), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) level (15±1.6), nitrite (56±2.4) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (4.1±0.9) along with decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) level (22±1.3) in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Further the H&E and Congo Red-stained cerebral cortex sections of AlCl3-treated rats indicated severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Rifampicin-treated AlCl3-rats exhibited significant attenuation in memory deficits, biochemical parameters like AChE activity (33±1.4), TBARS level (4.1±1.0), nitrite level (64±2.6), MPO activity (3.6±1.0) and GSH level (53±2.4) along with improved histopathological alterations and locomotor activity when compared with AlCl3-treated rats (p<0.05). Combined administration of ketoconazole (a PXR antagonist) and rifampicin to AlCl3-treated animals reversed the rifampicin-induced protective effects. Therefore the results obtained from the study indicate a defensive role of rifampicin in memory dysfunction which may probably be due to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and amyloid lowering effects. Moreover the study speculates the potential of PXR in the pathophysiology of dementia which is subject

  6. Annual Summary of Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F M

    2000-05-01

    As required by the Department of Energy (DOE) order on radioactive waste management (DOE 1999a) as implemented by the Maintenance Plan for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (Mann 2000a), an annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) must be submitted to DOE headquarters each year that a performance assessment is not submitted. Considering the results of data collection and analysis, the conclusions of the 1998 version of the ILAW PA (Mann 1998) as conditionally approved (DOE 1999b) remain valid, but new information indicates more conservatism in the results than previously estimated. A white paper (Mann 2000b) is attached as Appendix A to justify this statement. Recent ILAW performance estimates used on the waste form and geochemical data have resulted in increased confidence that the disposal of ILAW will meet performance objectives. The ILAW performance assessment program will continue to interact with science and technology activities, disposal facility design staff, and operations, as well as to continue to collect new waste form and disposal system data to further increase the understanding of the impacts of the disposal of ILAW. The next full performance assessment should be issued in the spring of 2001.

  7. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Determination of human plasma xanthine oxidase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Takahashi, S; Tsutsumi, Z; Yamakita, J; Nasako, Y; Hiroishi, K; Higashino, K

    1996-06-01

    An assay for human plasma xanthine oxidase activity was developed with pterin as the substrate and the separation of product (isoxanthopterin) by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The reaction mixture consists of 60 microliters of plasma and 240 microliters of 0.2 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) containing 113 microM pterin. With this assay, the activity of plasma xanthine oxidase could be easily determined despite its low activity. As a result, it could be demonstrated that the intravenous administration of heparin or the oral administration of ethanol did not increase plasma xanthine oxidase activity in normal subjects, and also that plasma xanthine oxidase activity was higher in patients with hepatitis C virus infection than in healthy subjects or patients with gout. In addition, a single patient with von Gierke's disease showed a marked increase in the plasma activity of this enzyme, relative to that apparent in normal subjects. PMID:8811453

  9. Effect of type 3 (oversize) tennis ball on serve performance and upper extremity muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, John; Knudson, Duane

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of the larger diameter (Type 3) tennis ball on performance and muscle activation in the serve. Sixteen male advanced tennis players performed serves using regular size and Type 3 tennis balls. Ball speed, surface electromyography, and serve accuracy were measured. There were no significant differences in mean initial serve speeds between balls, but accuracy was significantly greater (19.3%) with the Type 3 ball than with the regular ball. A consistent temporal sequence of muscle activation and significant differences in mean activation of different muscles were observed. However, ball type had no effect on mean arm muscle activation. These data, combined with a previous study, suggest that play with the larger ball is not likely to increase the risk of overuse injury, but serving accuracy may increase compared to play with the regular ball. PMID:14658375

  10. Performance of (CoPC)n catalyst in active lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted with anode limited D size cells to characterize the performance of an active lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) system using the polymeric cobalt phthalocyanine, (CoPC)n, catalyst in carbon cathodes. The author describes the results of this experiment with respect to initial voltage delays, operating voltages, and capacities. The effectiveness of the preconditioning methods evolved to alleviate passivation effects on storage are also discussed. The results clearly demonstrated the superior high rate capability of cells with the catalyst. The catalyst did not adversely impact the performance of cells after active storage for up to 6 months, while retaining its beneficial influences.

  11. The CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement - Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B. D.; Fasching, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A low pressure turbine (LPT) active clearance control (ACC) cooling system was developed to reduce the fuel consumption of current CF6-50 turbofan engines for wide bodied commercial aircraft. The program performance improvement goal of 0.3% delta sfc was determined to be achievable with an improved impingement cooling system. The technology enables the design of an optimized manifold and piping system which is capable of a performance gain of 0.45% delta sfc.

  12. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle handling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Kasać, Josip; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-11-01

    Active suspension is commonly considered under the framework of vertical vehicle dynamics control aimed at improvements in ride comfort. This paper uses a collocation-type control variable optimisation tool to investigate to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) application can be broaden to the task of vehicle handling/cornering control. The optimisation approach is firstly applied to solely FAS actuator configurations and three types of double lane-change manoeuvres. The obtained optimisation results are used to gain insights into different control mechanisms that are used by FAS to improve the handling performance in terms of path following error reduction. For the same manoeuvres the FAS performance is compared with the performance of different active steering and active differential actuators. The optimisation study is finally extended to combined FAS and active front- and/or rear-steering configurations to investigate if they can use their complementary control authorities (over the vertical and lateral vehicle dynamics, respectively) to further improve the handling performance.

  13. Mental addition in bilinguals: an FMRI study of task-related and performance-related activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2012-08-01

    Behavioral studies show that bilinguals are slower and less accurate when performing mental calculation in their nondominant (second; L2) language than in their dominant (first; L1) language. However, little is known about the neural correlates associated with the performance differences observed between bilinguals' 2 languages during arithmetic processing. To address the cortical activation differences between languages, the current study examined task-related and performance-related brain activation during mental addition when problems were presented auditorily in participants' L1 and L2. Eleven Chinese-English bilinguals heard 2-digit addition problems that required exact or approximate calculations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed that auditorily presented multidigit addition in bilinguals activates bilateral inferior parietal and inferior frontal regions in both L1 and L2. Language differences were observed in the form of greater activation for L2 exact addition in the left inferior frontal area. A negative correlation between brain activation and behavioral performance during mental addition in L2 was observed in the left inferior parietal area. Current results provide further evidence for the effects of language-specific experience on arithmetic processing in bilinguals at the cortical level.

  14. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  15. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  16. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5).

  17. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). PMID:25844573

  18. From feedback- to response-based performance monitoring in active and observational learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Colosio, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Humans can adapt their behavior by learning from the consequences of their own actions or by observing others. Gradual active learning of action-outcome contingencies is accompanied by a shift from feedback- to response-based performance monitoring. This shift is reflected by complementary learning-related changes of two ACC-driven ERP components, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN), which have both been suggested to signal events "worse than expected," that is, a negative prediction error. Although recent research has identified comparable components for observed behavior and outcomes (observational ERN and FRN), it is as yet unknown, whether these components are similarly modulated by prediction errors and thus also reflect behavioral adaptation. In this study, two groups of 15 participants learned action-outcome contingencies either actively or by observation. In active learners, FRN amplitude for negative feedback decreased and ERN amplitude in response to erroneous actions increased with learning, whereas observational ERN and FRN in observational learners did not exhibit learning-related changes. Learning performance, assessed in test trials without feedback, was comparable between groups, as was the ERN following actively performed errors during test trials. In summary, the results show that action-outcome associations can be learned similarly well actively and by observation. The mechanisms involved appear to differ, with the FRN in active learning reflecting the integration of information about own actions and the accompanying outcomes.

  19. Flight tests for the assessment of task performance and control activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausder, H. J.; Hummes, D.

    1982-01-01

    The tests were performed with the helicopters BO 105 and UH-1D. Closely connected with tactical demands the six test pilots' task was to minimize the time and the altitude over the obstacles. The data reduction yields statistical evaluation parameters describing the control activity of the pilots and the achieved task performance. The results are shown in form of evaluation diagrams. Additionally dolphin tests with varied control strategy were performed to get more insight into the influence of control techniques. From these test results recommendations can be derived to emphasize the direct force control and to reduce the collective to pitch crosscoupling for the dolphin.

  20. Brain activation during human navigation: gender-different neural networks as substrate of performance.

    PubMed

    Grön, G; Wunderlich, A P; Spitzer, M; Tomczak, R; Riepe, M W

    2000-04-01

    Visuospatial navigation in animals and human subjects is generally studied using maze exploration. We used functional MRI to observe brain activation in male and female subjects as they searched for the way out of a complex, three-dimensional, virtual-reality maze. Navigation activated the medial occipital gyri, lateral and medial parietal regions, posterior cingulate and parahippocampal gyri as well as the right hippocampus proper. Gender-specific group analysis revealed distinct activation of the left hippocampus in males, whereas females consistently recruited right parietal and right prefrontal cortex. Thus we demonstrate a neural substrate of well established human gender differences in spatial-cognition performance.

  1. Off-road motorbike performance analysis using a rear semi-active suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozoya-Santos, Jorge de J.; Cervantes-Muñoz, Damián.; Ramírez Mendoza, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The topic of this paper is the analysis of a control system for a semi active rear suspension in an off-road 2-wheel vehicle. Several control methods are studied, as well as the recently proposed Frequency Estimation Based (FEB) algorithm. The test motorcycle dynamics, as well as the passive, semi active, and the algorithm controlled shock absorber models are loaded into BikeSim, a professional two-wheeled vehicle simulation software, and tested in several road conditions. The results show a detailed comparison of the theoretical performance of the different control approaches in a novel environment for semi active dampers.

  2. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  3. CO2 Activated Carbon Aerogel with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance as a Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eo Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jeong Kwon; Hong, Ung Gi; Yi, Jongheop; Yoon, Jung Rag; Song, In Kyu

    2015-11-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in ambient conditions. A series of activated carbon aerogels (ACA-X, X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h) were then prepared by CO2 activation of CA with a variation of activation time (X) for use as an electrode material for supercapacitor. Specific capacitances of CA and ACA-X electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Among the samples, ACA-5 h showed the highest BET surface area (2574 m2/g) and the highest specific capacitance (100 F/g). It was found that CO2 activation was a very efficient method for enhancing physicochemical property and supercapacitive electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel.

  4. CO2 Activated Carbon Aerogel with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance as a Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eo Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jeong Kwon; Hong, Ung Gi; Yi, Jongheop; Yoon, Jung Rag; Song, In Kyu

    2015-11-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in ambient conditions. A series of activated carbon aerogels (ACA-X, X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h) were then prepared by CO2 activation of CA with a variation of activation time (X) for use as an electrode material for supercapacitor. Specific capacitances of CA and ACA-X electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Among the samples, ACA-5 h showed the highest BET surface area (2574 m2/g) and the highest specific capacitance (100 F/g). It was found that CO2 activation was a very efficient method for enhancing physicochemical property and supercapacitive electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel. PMID:26726618

  5. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  12. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 947.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 947.817 Section 947.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  15. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  16. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  9. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 905.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 905.817 Section 905.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 905.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 905.817 Section 905.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 905.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 905.817 Section 905.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  4. 30 CFR 939.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 939.817 Section 939.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 921.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 921.817 Section 921.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  9. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  13. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 912.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 912.817 Section 912.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 933.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 933.817 Section 933.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 941.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 941.817 Section 941.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 942.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 942.817 Section 942.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 937.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 937.817 Section 937.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 922.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 922.817 Section 922.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  11. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 942.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 942.817 Section 942.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  16. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 903.817 - Performance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Underground mining activities. 903.817 Section 903.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 78 FR 22251 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan (SPP) and... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: IDEA Part B...

  1. 78 FR 22253 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan (SPP) and... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: IDEA Part C...

  2. Physical Activity, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, Maternal Education and Self-Reported Educational Performance of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantomaa, M. T.; Tammelin, T. H.; Demakakos, P.; Ebeling, H. E.; Taanila, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02.…

  3. The Effect of Activating Metacognitive Strategies on the Listening Performance and Metacognitive Awareness of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimirad, Maryam; Shams, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of activating metacognitive strategies on the listening performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) university students and explores the impact of such strategies on their metacognitive awareness of the listening task. The participants were N = 50 students of English literature at the state university of…

  4. An Action Research Study on the Effect of Interactive Technology and Active Learning on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Teresa J.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative action science research study utilized a causal-comparative experimental research design in order to determine if the use of student response systems (clickers), as an active learning strategy in a community college course, improved student performance in the course. Students in the experimental group (n = 26) used clickers to…

  5. 75 FR 54374 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0112, Performance Measures Data, Revision of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0112, Performance Measures Data, Revision of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... information collection (1010-0112). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA),...

  6. Important Physiological Parameters and Physical Activity Data for Evaluating Exposure Modeling Performance: a Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to develop a database of physiological parameters needed for understanding and evaluating performance of the APEX and SHEDS exposure/intake dose rate model used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its regulatory activities. The A...

  7. The Effect of Glycerol Ingestion on Performance during Simulated Multisport Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Christopher; Braakhuis, Andrea; Paton, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol-induced hyperhydration has been applied to endurance sport with limited success as a performance enhancement strategy. Glycerol has been used as a hyperhydrating agent, because it has been shown to be rapidly absorbed and osmotically active; therefore, the fluid intake with glycerol is distributed throughout the body. Hyperhydration with…

  8. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  9. 45 CFR 2520.30 - What capacity-building activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AmeriCorps members perform should enhance the mission, strategy, skills, and culture, as well as systems, infrastructure, and human resources of an organization that is meeting unmet community needs. Capacity-building activities help an organization gain greater independence and sustainability. (a) The AmeriCorps members...

  10. Step-by-Step Activities to Accompany The Dale Avenue Performance Objectives Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenberg, Rhoda; And Others

    This kit contains performance objectives (stated in behavioral terms) for several areas of school-related skills and suggested activities and materials for teaching those skills to young children. The areas included are: (1) listening, (2) naming, (3) observing, (4) speaking, (5) writing and motor skills, (6) perceptual motor skills, (7)…

  11. The Impact of Participating in a Peer Assessment Activity on Subsequent Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jhangiani, Rajiv S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of participation in a peer assessment activity on subsequent academic performance. Students in two sections of an introductory psychology course completed a practice quiz 1 week prior to each of three course exams. Students in the experimental group participated in a five-step double-blind peer assessment…

  12. Student Teaching Performance in English as Measured with Checklist of High School Class Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, L. Ramon; Scott, Owen

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the performance of University of Georgia student teachers in English on the six dimensions of the Checklist of High School Class Activities and to compare this evaluation with student teaching grades, academic grades, and scores on the National Teacher Examinations. The 74-item checklist was…

  13. Brief Daily Writing Activities and Performance on Major Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Haley C.; Bliss, Stacy L.; Hautau, Briana; Carroll, Erin; Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Williams, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although past research indicates that giving brief quizzes, administered either regularly or randomly, may lead to improvement in students' performance on major exams, negligible research has targeted daily writing activities that require the processing of course information at a deeper level than might result from simply reading course materials…

  14. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  15. Engineering Students' Perceptions of Academic Activities and Support Services: Factors that Influence Their Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenkhienan, Charlotte A.; Kogan, Lori R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study, through the use of focus groups, identified the academic activities and support services perceived by engineering students as having a positive impact on their academic performance. The results suggest three primary factors: (a) individual effort and involvement, (b) peer interaction, and (c) faculty contact. Differences in…

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  17. Scenarios for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Scenarios describing representative exposure cases associated with the disposal of low activity waste from the Hanford Waste Tanks have been defined. These scenarios are based on guidance from the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and previous Hanford waste disposal performance assessments.

  18. Post-Knowledge of Results Delay: Effects of Interpolated Activity on Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Carol; McCullagh, Penny

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence strongly supports the assumption that knowledge of results (KR) is necessary for learning to occur. This study compares the effects of KR or no-KR with the effects of an interpolated verbal activity on learning and performance of a timed motor task. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  19. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  20. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  2. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  10. Using Clickers to Facilitate Interactive Engagement Activities in a Lecture Room for Improved Performance by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Naidoo, Ari; Winnips, Koos

    2014-01-01

    What impact can interactive engagement (IE) activities using clickers have on students' motivation and academic performance during lectures as compared to attending traditional types of lectures? This article positions the research on IE within the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness and Gagné's instructional events model.…

  11. Marketing Education Assessment Guide. Performance-Based Activities with Authentic Assessments Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This guide presents performance-based authentic assessment ideas, samples, and suggestions to help marketing teachers and students respond to changes and pressures from outside the classroom. It contains 21 activities, each accompanied by a method of authentic assessment. In most cases, the authentic assessment method is a scoring device. The…

  12. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, June J.; Baker, Victoria C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  13. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Baker, Victoria C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  14. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF.

  15. Effects of reaction time variability and age on brain activity during Stroop task performance.

    PubMed

    Tam, Angela; Luedke, Angela C; Walsh, Jeremy J; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Garcia, Angeles

    2015-09-01

    Variability in reaction time during task performance may reflect fluctuations in attention and cause reduced performance in goal-directed tasks, yet it is unclear whether the mechanisms behind this phenomenon change with age. Using fMRI, we tested young and cognitively healthy older adults with the Stroop task to determine whether aging affects the neural mechanisms underlying intra-individual reaction time variability. We found significant between-group differences in BOLD activity modulated by reaction time. In older adults, longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in frontoparietal attentional areas, while in younger adults longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in default mode network areas. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of reaction time variability change with healthy aging, reinforcing the concept of functional plasticity to maintain high cognitive function throughout the lifespan.

  16. DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism modulates the effect of ventral striatal activation on working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, P; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-09-01

    Motivation is important for learning and cognition. Although dopaminergic (D2) transmission in the ventral striatum (VS) is associated with motivation, learning, and cognition are more strongly associated with function of the dorsal striatum, including activation in the caudate nucleus. A recent study found an interaction between intrinsic motivation and the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism (rs1800497), suggesting that A-carriers of rs1800497 are significantly more sensitive to motivation in order to improve during working memory (WM) training. Using data from the two large-scale imaging genetic data sets, IMAGEN (n=1080, age 13-15 years) and BrainChild (n∼300, age 6-27), we investigated whether rs1800497 is associated with WM. In the IMAGEN data set, we tested whether VS/caudate activation during reward anticipation was associated with WM performance and whether rs1800497 and VS/caudate activation interact to affect WM performance. We found that rs1800497 was associated with WM performance in IMAGEN and BrainChild. Higher VS and caudate activation during reward processing were significantly associated with higher WM performance (p<0.0001). An interaction was found between the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism rs1800497 and VS activation during reward anticipation on WM (p<0.01), such that carriers of the minor allele (A) showed a significant correlation between VS activation and WM, whereas the GG-homozygotes did not, suggesting that the effect of VS BOLD on WM is modified by inter-individual genetic differences related to D2 dopaminergic transmission. PMID:24713612

  17. Effect of walking speed on typing performance using an active workstation.

    PubMed

    Funk, Rachel E; Taylor, Megan L; Creekmur, Ceith C; Ohlinger, Christine M; Cox, Ronald H; Berg, William P

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the effect of treadmill walking speed on typing performance when these tasks were performed simultaneously. 24 research participants (M age = 23.2 yr.) performed a typing test under each of four conditions including the control (seated), treadmill walking at 1.3 km/hr., 2.25 km/hr., and 3.2 km/hr. Results indicated that treadmill walking had a detrimental effect on typing performance, but that the walking speed of 2.25 km/hr. would result in better typing performance than the slower and faster speeds. Seated typing was better than typing while walking at 1.3 km/hr. and typing while walking at 3.2 km/hr. Typing performance while walking at 2.25 km/hr. was not different than seated typing performance. The results support the potential of treadmill walking at 2.25 km/hr. to provide low-intensity physical activity without compromising typing performance.

  18. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    PubMed

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted.

  19. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers

    PubMed Central

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J.; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers – seven with sleep bruxism and seven without – randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  20. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    PubMed

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  1. Effect of postural angle on back muscle activities in aging female workers performing computer tasks.

    PubMed

    Kamil, Nabilla Sofia Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of postural angle on back muscle activity during a computer task in aging women. [Subjects] Seventeen women ≥50 years old participated. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform computer-related tasks for 20 minutes on a workstation that simulated typical office working conditions. Back posture was measured from the measured trunk and pelvic angles. Electromyography activities were recorded simultaneously from the cervical erector spinae, longissimus, and multifidus muscles. [Results] The lowest mean percentages of maximum voluntary contraction for the cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscles were obtained when the upper trunk and pelvic angles were between 0° to -5° from the sagittal plane. The back muscle activities increased as the upper trunk and pelvic angles exceeded 0°. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations between upper trunk angle and cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscle activities. Similarly, pelvic angle was significantly correlated with cervical erector spinae and multifidus muscle activities. [Conclusion] A neutral back posture minimizes muscle activities in aging women performing computer tasks.

  2. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel 1-(1,4-Alkylaryldisubstituted-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo)-3-substituted Urea Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Szacoń, Elżbieta; Rządkowska, Marzena; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kędzierska, Ewa; Orzelska-Górka, Jolanta; Fidecka, Sylwia; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Novel 1-(1,4-alkylaryldisubstituted-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo)-3-substituted urea derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their central nervous system activity. Compounds 3a-m were prepared in the reaction between the respective 1-alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amines 1a-c and appropriate isocyanates 2 in dichloromethane. The compounds were subjected to in silico ADMET studies in order to select best candidates for in vivo experiments. The effects of the compounds on the spontaneous locomotor activity and amphetamine-evoked hyperactivity were estimated. Analgesic activity, without or in the presence of naloxone, was assessed in the writhing test. The tendency to change the HTR, evoked by l-5-HTP and the involvement in alteration in body temperature in mice was studied. Additionally, to check possible occurrence of drug-induced changes in the muscle relaxant activity of mice, which may have contributed to their behaviour in other tests, the rota-rod and chimney tests were performed. The new urea derivatives exerted significant activities in the performed pharmacological tests, although the presented results show a preliminary estimation, and thus, need to be extended for identification and understanding the complete pharmacological profile of the examined compounds. PMID:27144554

  3. Endogenous hypothermic response to hypoxia reduces brain injury: Implications for modeling hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Reinboth, Barbara S; Köster, Christian; Abberger, Hanna; Prager, Sebastian; Bendix, Ivo; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Herz, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    onset of therapy on short- and long-term histological outcome demonstrated by reduced neuropathological injury scores and preservation of hippocampal structures. However, depending on the brain region analyzed neuroprotective effects were similar or even reduced compared to protection by endogenous cooling during HIE modeling. Moreover, long-term neurobehavioral outcome was only partially improved for motoric function (i.e. Rota Rod performance and rearing activity) while cognitive deficits (i.e. novel object recognition) remained unchanged. These findings emphasize the need to maintain the nesting temperature during the initiation of the pathological insult and highlight the urgency to develop and assess new adjuvant therapies for HT in well-defined experimental models.

  4. Endogenous hypothermic response to hypoxia reduces brain injury: Implications for modeling hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Reinboth, Barbara S; Köster, Christian; Abberger, Hanna; Prager, Sebastian; Bendix, Ivo; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Herz, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    onset of therapy on short- and long-term histological outcome demonstrated by reduced neuropathological injury scores and preservation of hippocampal structures. However, depending on the brain region analyzed neuroprotective effects were similar or even reduced compared to protection by endogenous cooling during HIE modeling. Moreover, long-term neurobehavioral outcome was only partially improved for motoric function (i.e. Rota Rod performance and rearing activity) while cognitive deficits (i.e. novel object recognition) remained unchanged. These findings emphasize the need to maintain the nesting temperature during the initiation of the pathological insult and highlight the urgency to develop and assess new adjuvant therapies for HT in well-defined experimental models. PMID:27349408

  5. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Willem-Jan; Besselink, Igo; Teerhuis, Arjan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-10-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to quantify the level of performance improvement that can theoretically be obtained by replacing a conventional air sprung cabin suspension design with a variable geometry active suspension. Furthermore, the difference between the use of a linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller and a classic skyhook controller is investigated. Hereto, an elementary variable geometry actuator model and experimentally validated four degrees of freedom quarter truck model are adopted. The results show that the classic skyhook controller gives a relatively poor performance while a comfort increase of 17-28% can be obtained with the LQ optimal controller, depending on the chosen energy weighting. Furthermore, an additional 75% comfort increase and 77% energy cost reduction can be obtained, with respect to the fixed gain energy optimal controller, using condition-dependent control gains. So, it is concluded that the performance potential using condition-dependent controllers is huge, and that the use of the classic skyhook control strategy should, in general, be avoided when designing active secondary suspensions for commercial vehicles.

  6. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B.; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteban; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects. PMID:26266268

  7. Performance of an active paper based on cinnamon essential oil in mushrooms quality.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Y; Nerín, C

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity of two active papers (based on solid and emulsion paraffin) with cinnamon essential oil was studied. Mushroom samples were introduced in macroperforated PET trays covered with the active papers, and weight loss and browning monitored for 9 days. The antioxidant capacity of the different papers was evaluated based on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and tyrosinase inhibition kinetics, and the release of aromatic volatile oils was determined by HSPME-GC-MS. Differences in performance were observed: the active papers were more efficient at avoiding weight loss and mushroom browning when compared to the non-active paraffin-based papers. The efficiency increased when the bottom and walls of the trays were covered rather than the bottom alone. Better results were observed when cinnamon was incorporated as emulsion paraffin instead of a solid.

  8. Heterotrophic bacterial activities and treatment performance of surface flow constructed wetlands receiving woodwaste leachate.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wendong; Hall, Ken J; Duff, Sheldon J B

    2006-07-01

    Heterotrophic activities were investigated by measuring 3H-leucine incorporation to bacterial protein and 14C-glucose turnover in surface flow constructed wetlands receiving woodwaste leachate. No significant longitudinal variation was found in heterotrophic activities of bacterioplankton. An open wetland, a vegetated wetland, and a fertilized vegetated wetland were used to examine the effects of vegetation and ammonium nitrate amendment. There was not a significant difference in treatment performance among the three wetlands, except for a significant pH increase and more efficient volatile fatty acids removal in the fertilized wetland. The fertilized wetland had the highest leucine incorporation rate and shortest glucose turnover time accompanied by the lowest glucose mineralization percentage, followed by the open wetland, then the vegetated wetland. Planktonic and sedimentary bacteria contributed to the majority of the total heterotrophic activities; epiphytic bacteria played a minor role. Heterotrophic activities were influenced by the availability of nutrient, electron acceptor, and organic substrate.

  9. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  10. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects. PMID:27124457

  11. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects.

  12. Temporal modulations of agonist and antagonist muscle activities accompanying improved performance of ballistic movements.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nan; Yamashita, Takamasa; Ni, Zhen; Takahashi, Makoto; Murakami, Tsuneji; Yahagi, Susumu; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2008-02-01

    Although many studies have examined performance improvements of ballistic movement through practice, it is still unclear how performance advances while maintaining maximum velocity, and how the accompanying triphasic electromyographic (EMG) activity is modified. The present study focused on the changes in triphasic EMG activity, i.e., the first agonist burst (AG1), the second agonist burst (AG2), and the antagonist burst (ANT), that accompanied decreases in movement time and error. Twelve healthy volunteers performed 100 ballistic wrist flexion movements in ten 10-trial sessions under the instruction to "maintain maximum velocity throughout the experiment and to stop the limb at the target as fast and accurately as possible". Kinematic parameters (position and velocity) and triphasic EMG activities from the agonist (flexor carpi radialis) and antagonist (extensor carpi radialis) muscles were recorded. Comparison of the results obtained from the first and the last 10 trials, revealed that movement time, movement error, and variability of amplitudes reduced with practice, and that maximum velocity and time to maximum velocity remained constant. EMG activities showed that AG1 and AG2 durations were reduced, whereas ANT duration did not change. Additionally, ANT and AG2 latencies were reduced. Integrated EMG of AG1 was significantly reduced as well. Analysis of the alpha angle (an index of the rate of recruitment of the motoneurons) showed that there was no change in either AG1 or AG2. Correlation analysis of alpha angles between these two bursts further revealed that the close relationship of AG1 and AG2 was kept constant through practice. These findings led to the conclusion that performance improvement in ballistic movement is mainly due to the temporal modulations of agonist and antagonist muscle activities when maximum velocity is kept constant. Presumably, a specific strategy is consistently applied during practice.

  13. The Impact of Moderate Intensity Physical Activity on Cardiac Structure and Performance in Older Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Suboc, Tisha B.; Strath, Scott J.; Dharmashankar, Kodlipet; Harmann, Leanne; Couillard, Allison; Malik, Mobin; Haak, Kristoph; Knabel, Daniel; Widlansky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary aging leads to adverse changes in vascular function and cardiac performance. We published improvements in vascular function with moderate intensity physical activity (PA) in continuous bouts. Whether moderate intensity PA also impacts cardiac structure and cardiovascular performance of the aging left ventricle (LV) is unknown. Methods We recruited and analyzed results from 102 sedentary older adults ages ≥ 50 from a randomized controlled trial with 3 study groups: control (group 1), a pedometer-only intervention (group 2), or a pedometer with an interactive website employing strategies to increase habitual physical activity (PA, group 3) for 12 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiograms were performed prior to and following the 12 week intervention period to assess cardiac morphology, left ventricular (LV) systolic performance, LV diastolic function, arterial and LV ventricular elastance. Step count and PA intensity/distribution were measured by pedometer and accelerometer. Results We found no significant changes in cardiac morphology. Further, we found no improvement in the aforementioned cardiac functional parameters. Comparing those who achieved the following benchmarks to those who did not showed no significant changes in cardiac structure or performance: 1)10,000 steps/day, 2) ≥ 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity, or 3) moderate intensity PA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes for ≥ 20 minutes/day Conclusions In sedentary older adults, increasing moderate intensity PA to currently recommend levels does not result in favorable changes in LV morphology or performance over 12 weeks. More prolonged exposure, higher PA intensity, or earlier initiation of PA may be necessary to see benefits. PMID:25530947

  14. Eight Weeks of Kettlebell Swing Training Does not Improve Sprint Performance in Recreationally Active Females

    PubMed Central

    HOLMSTRUP, MICHAEL E.; JENSEN, BROCK T.; EVANS, WILLIAM S.; MARSHALL, EMILY C.

    2016-01-01

    The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts. Following familiarization with the exercises, KBS met twice weekly to perform swings using the Tabata interval (20s work, 10s rest, 8 rounds), stressing a rapid, explosive tempo. In contrast, the SDL group performed their Tabata stiff-legged deadlifts at a conventional resistance training tempo (2 seconds concentric, 2 seconds eccentric). Following eight weeks and greater than 95% training adherence, the SDL group only had a slightly greater average training volume (~3%) than KBS. No significant differences in pre-test values, or changes were noted in sprint performance from pre- to post-intervention in either group. An improvement in vertical jump performance was noted across groups. Potential explanations for the lack of sprint improvement compared to previous studies include differences between recreationally-active and athletic females, and low exercise volume (~46% of a comparable study with improvements in vertical jump). Future studies should seek to determine the appropriate volume and intensity for KBS components of sprint programming. PMID:27766131

  15. The effects of electrolyte on the supercapacitive performance of activated calcium carbide-derived carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Xianyou; Jiang, Lanlan; Wu, Chun; Zhao, Qinglan; Liu, Xue; Hu, Ben'an; Yi, Lanhua

    2013-03-01

    Porous calcium carbide-derived carbon (CCDC) has been prepared by one-step route from CaC2 in a freshly prepared chlorine environment at lower temperature, and following activated by ZnCl2 to get activated CCDC. The performances of the supercapacitors based on activated CCDC as electrode active material in aqueous KOH, K2SO4, KCl and KNO3 electrolytes are studied by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charged/discharged, cyclic life and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It has been found that the supercapacitor using 6 M KOH as electrolyte shows an energy density of 8.3 Wh kg-1 and a power density of 1992 W kg-1 based on the total weight of the electrode active materials with a voltage range 0 V-1 V. Meanwhile, the specific capacitance of the supercapacitor in 6 M KOH electrolyte is 68 F g-1 at the scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the voltage range of 0 V-1 V, the charge-transfer resistance is extremely low and the relaxation time is the least of all. The supercapacitor also exhibits a good cycling performance and keeps 95% of initial capacity over 5000 cycles.

  16. Inferior frontal cortex activity is modulated by reward sensitivity and performance variability.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Costumero, Víctor; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    High reward sensitivity has been linked with motivational and cognitive disorders related with prefrontal and striatal brain function during inhibitory control. However, few studies have analyzed the interaction among reward sensitivity, task performance and neural activity. Participants (N=57) underwent fMRI while performing a Go/No-go task with Frequent-go (77.5%), Infrequent-go (11.25%) and No-go (11.25%) stimuli. Task-associated activity was found in inhibition-related brain regions, with different activity patterns for right and left inferior frontal gyri (IFG): right IFG responded more strongly to No-go stimuli, while left IFG responded similarly to all infrequent stimuli. Reward sensitivity correlated with omission errors in Go trials and reaction time (RT) variability, and with increased activity in right and left IFG for No-go and Infrequent-go stimuli compared with Frequent-go. Bilateral IFG activity was associated with RT variability, with reward sensitivity mediating this association. These results suggest that reward sensitivity modulates behavior and brain function during executive control.

  17. Performance comparison between two axial active support schemes for 1-m thin meniscus primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, D. S.; Wang, G. M.; Gu, B. Z.; Ye, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Active support scheme may decide the deformation of the optical surface figure of the primary mirror. Two main active axial support schemes are often adopted to the thin meniscus primary mirror, one scheme is that the axial supports normal to the mirror bottom surface, and the other is that the active forces parallel to the optical axis. In order to compare the performance of the two support schemes, 1-m thin meniscus primary mirror is conducted. Finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to analyze the optical surface figures of the primary mirror, and optimizations are carried out by using ANSYS for each support scheme to obtain the locations and active forces. The axial support force sensitivities are calculated for the two support schemes in a case that a single axial support has a force error of 0.5 N. The correction ability of the active support system for both of the support schemes are analyzed when an arbitrary axial support is failure. Several low order Zernike modes are modeled with MATLAB procedure, and active optics corrections are applied to these modes for the two active supports. The extra mirror surface error due to thermal deformation is also corrected with the two support schemes.

  18. Effect of Two Types of Active Recovery on Fatigue and Climbing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Pedro L.; de la Villa, Pedro; Ferragut, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Performing intra-session recovery is important in rock climbing due to the multiple efforts that climbers are required to make in competitions, as well as repeated climbing trials that they carry out during training sessions. Active recovery has been shown to be a better option than passive recovery. However, the type of active recovery that should be done and the influence of the type and quantity of muscle mass activated are not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of recovering with easy climbing (CR) or walking (WR) on markers of fatigue and climbing performance. For this purpose, 14 subjects participated in this randomly assigned crossover protocol completing three two-minute climbing trials separated by two minutes of active recovery with the assigned method. Seven days later participants carried out the same protocol with the other recovery method. Blood lactate (La-), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were analyzed as markers of fatigue and recovery, while meters climbed (MC) and handgrip force (HF) were analyzed for performance. La- values before the last climbing trial (p < 0.05; d = 0.69) and Peak La- values (p < 0.05; d = 0.77) were lower for CR than for WR. Climbers were able to ascend more meters in the set time when following the CR protocol (p < 0.01; d = 0.6), which shows the important role of the active recovery method carried out on climbing performance. There were no differences in HR, HF or RPE between protocols. A more sport-specific recovery protocol, in addition to moving great muscle mass (e.g. lower limbs), seems to enhance recovery and to facilitate lactate removal. For this reason, CR appears to be a more effective active recovery method than WR in sport rock climbing. Key points Climbing recovery improved lactate removal in comparison with walking recovery. Subjects were able to climb more meters in a determined time when easy climbing instead of walking during recoveries. Activating both great

  19. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity and solid oxide fuel cell performance with a nanoparticles-loaded cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cui, Daan; Wei, Xuming; Chen, Xiaobo; Cheng, Mojie

    2015-03-11

    Reluctant oxygen-reduction-reaction (ORR) activity has been a long-standing challenge limiting cell performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in both centralized and distributed power applications. We report here that this challenge has been tackled with coloading of (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles within a porous YSZ framework. This design dramatically improves ORR activity, enhances fuel cell output (200-300% power improvement), and enables superior stability (no observed degradation within 500 h of operation) from 600 to 800 °C. The improved performance is attributed to the intimate contacts between nanoparticulate YSZ and LSM particles in the three-phase boundaries in the cathode.

  20. Effects of self-regulatory strength depletion on muscular performance and EMG activation.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Hicks, Audrey L; Woodgate, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a self-regulatory strength depletion manipulation on performance of a physical endurance (isometric handgrip) task. In addition, the effect of depletion on EMG activity in the working forearm muscles during the endurance task was explored. Sedentary undergraduates (N=49) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive depletion condition (modified Stroop task) or a control (color word) group and completed two maximal isometric exercise endurance trials separated by the cognitive task. Participants in the depletion group showed significant (p<.05) degradations in performance and exhibited higher EMG activation on the second endurance trial (p<.05) compared to controls. Results are consistent with the limited strength model of self-regulation and are interpreted in light of the central fatigue hypothesis. PMID:17995906

  1. Early psychosis, activity performance and social participation: a conceptual model to guide rehabilitation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Harriet; Krupa, Terry; Pocock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a conceptual model focusing on activity performance and social participation of individuals in the period prior to their first acute episodes of psychosis. The model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory method. Data from interviews and documents was collected from 25 primary participants. Interviews were also conducted with 15 members of the participants' support networks and six experts in the field of early psychosis and rehabilitation. The model illustrates how the core constructs of activity performance and social participation are set against the natural context and influenced by shifts in three determinants: faltering personal capacities, negotiating for success and risk factors. The model suggests rehabilitation and recovery practices in early intervention work. PMID:18018956

  2. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  3. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation.

  4. The Self-Pleasantness Judgment Modulates the Encoding Performance and the Default Mode Network Activity.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Cerles, Melanie; Ramdeen, Kylee T; Boudiaf, Naila; Pichat, Cedric; Hot, Pascal; Baciu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated the effect of self-relevance on cerebral activity and behavioral performance during an incidental encoding task. Recent findings suggest that pleasantness judgments reliably induce self-oriented (internal) thoughts and increase default mode network (DMN) activity. We hypothesized that this increase in DMN activity would relate to increased memory recognition for pleasantly-judged stimuli (which depend on internally-oriented attention) but decreased recognition for unpleasantly-judged items (which depend on externally-oriented attention). To test this hypothesis, brain activity was recorded from 21 healthy participants while they performed a pleasantness judgment requiring them to rate visual stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. One hour later, participants performed a surprise memory recognition test outside of the scanner. Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding. The behavioral results showed that memory recognition was better for items rated as pleasant than items rated as unpleasant. The whole brain analysis indicated that successful encoding (SE) activates the inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices, whereas unsuccessful encoding (UE) recruits two key medial posterior DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PCU). A region of interest (ROI) analysis including classic DMN areas, revealed significantly greater involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in pleasant compared to unpleasant judgments, suggesting this region's involvement in self-referential (i.e., internal) processing. This area may be responsible for the greater recognition performance seen for pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, a significant interaction between the encoding performance (successful vs. unsuccessful) and pleasantness was observed for the PCC, PCU and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Overall, our

  5. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  6. Psychophysiological activation during preparation, performance, and recovery in high- and low-anxious music students.

    PubMed

    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA. PMID:24477850

  7. Delta Activity at Sleep Onset and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Gould, Christine E.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Jordan, Josh T.; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) has long been considered to be an abnormal variant in the electroencephalogram (EEG) among older adults. Prior work also indicates a predominance of slow wave EEG activity among patients with dementia. However, instability of state control occurring with aging generally and among many neurodegenerative diseases raises the possibility that FIRDA might represent the intrusion of sleep related elements of the EEG into the waking state. We examined delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in community-dwelling, older adults without dementia, and examined whether this activity is related to poorer cognitive performance. Methods: 153 community-dwelling, older adults without dementia underwent overnight polysomnography and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, and visuospatial ability. Delta activity during sleep/wake transitions (scored either as Waking or N1) was analyzed visually. Results: Participants were 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 y. DASO was present in 30 participants (19.6%). Age, years of education, sex, and body mass index did not differ between DASO (+) and (−) groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated faster reading of the Stroop color words in DASO (+) subjects (P = 0.007). None of the other cognitive domains differed between the two groups. Conclusions: DASO was relatively common in our sample of community-dwelling, older adults without dementia. DASO was not associated with poorer performance on any cognitive domain. Instead, individuals with DASO demonstrated better performance on a simple reading task. Although these findings suggest that an abnormal EEG activity may represent normal variation, our work underscores the importance of distinguishing DASO from FIRDA when examining sleep in older adults. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 725. Citation

  8. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  9. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  10. Performance of active feedforward control systems in non-ideal, synthesized diffuse sound fields.

    PubMed

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic performance of passive or active panel structures is usually tested in sound transmission loss facilities. A reverberant sending room, equipped with one or a number of independent sound sources, is used to generate a diffuse sound field excitation which acts as a disturbance source on the structure under investigation. The spatial correlation and coherence of such a synthesized non-ideal diffuse-sound-field excitation, however, might deviate significantly from the ideal case. This has consequences for the operation of an active feedforward control system which heavily relies on the acquisition of coherent disturbance source information. This work, therefore, evaluates the spatial correlation and coherence of ideal and non-ideal diffuse sound fields and considers the implications on the performance of a feedforward control system. The system under consideration is an aircraft-typical double panel system, equipped with an active sidewall panel (lining), which is realized in a transmission loss facility. Experimental results for different numbers of sound sources in the reverberation room are compared to simulation results of a comparable generic double panel system excited by an ideal diffuse sound field. It is shown that the number of statistically independent noise sources acting on the primary structure of the double panel system depends not only on the type of diffuse sound field but also on the sample lengths of the processed signals. The experimental results show that the number of reference sensors required for a defined control performance exhibits an inverse relationship to control filter length. PMID:25234987

  11. Effects of mental practice on stroke patients’ upper extremity function and daily activity performance

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung; Lee, Nayun; Cho, Milim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mental practice on stroke patients’ upper extremity function and activities of daily living (ADL). [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 29 stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups: an experimental group (n=14) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed 10 minutes of mental practice once a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks in combination with conventional rehabilitation therapy. For the control group, general rehabilitation therapy was provided during the same sessions as the experimental group. The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Fugl-Myer assessment (FMA) were used to measure upper extremity function, and the Modified Bathel Index (MBI) was used to measure daily activity performance. [Results] After the intervention, the mental practice group showed significant improvements in upper extremity function on the affected side and ADL scores compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrate mental practice intervention is effective at improving stroke patients’ upper extremity function and daily activity performance. In follow-up studies, securing a greater number of experimental subjects, and evaluation of the intervention’s therapeutic durability are required. PMID:25995560

  12. One-leg standing performance and muscle activity: are there limb differences?

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Mettler, Claude; Roth, Ralf; Granacher, Urs

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare static balance performance and muscle activity during one-leg standing on the dominant and nondominant leg under various sensory conditions with increased levels of task difficulty. Thirty healthy young adults (age: 23 ± 2 years) performed one-leg standing tests for 30 s under three sensory conditions (ie, eyes open/firm ground; eyes open/ foam ground [elastic pad on top of the balance plate]; eyes closed/firm ground). Center of pressure displacements and activity of four lower leg muscles (ie, m. tibialis anterior [TA], m. soleus [SOL], m. gastrocnemius medialis [GAS], m. peroneus longus [PER]) were analyzed. An increase in sensory task difficulty resulted in deteriorated balance performance (P < .001, effect size [ES] = .57-2.54) and increased muscle activity (P < .001, ES = .50-1.11) for all but two muscles (ie, GAS, PER). However, regardless of the sensory condition, one-leg standing on the dominant as compared with the nondominant limb did not produce statistically significant differences in various balance (P > .05, ES = .06-.22) and electromyographic (P > .05, ES = .03-.13) measures. This indicates that the dominant and the nondominant leg can be used interchangeably during static one-leg balance testing in healthy young adults.

  13. Performance of active feedforward control systems in non-ideal, synthesized diffuse sound fields.

    PubMed

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic performance of passive or active panel structures is usually tested in sound transmission loss facilities. A reverberant sending room, equipped with one or a number of independent sound sources, is used to generate a diffuse sound field excitation which acts as a disturbance source on the structure under investigation. The spatial correlation and coherence of such a synthesized non-ideal diffuse-sound-field excitation, however, might deviate significantly from the ideal case. This has consequences for the operation of an active feedforward control system which heavily relies on the acquisition of coherent disturbance source information. This work, therefore, evaluates the spatial correlation and coherence of ideal and non-ideal diffuse sound fields and considers the implications on the performance of a feedforward control system. The system under consideration is an aircraft-typical double panel system, equipped with an active sidewall panel (lining), which is realized in a transmission loss facility. Experimental results for different numbers of sound sources in the reverberation room are compared to simulation results of a comparable generic double panel system excited by an ideal diffuse sound field. It is shown that the number of statistically independent noise sources acting on the primary structure of the double panel system depends not only on the type of diffuse sound field but also on the sample lengths of the processed signals. The experimental results show that the number of reference sensors required for a defined control performance exhibits an inverse relationship to control filter length.

  14. Performance of an improved thermal neutron activation detector for buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, J. E.; Faust, A. A.; Andrews, H. R.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Mosquera, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    First generation thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on multi-sensor landmine detection systems. The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. The sensor is described, with emphasis on the improvements. Experiments to characterize the performance of the second generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) hidden in culverts are described. Performance results, including comparisons between the performance of the first and second generation systems are presented.

  15. Choking on the money: reward-based performance decrements are associated with midbrain activity.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Dean; Hassabis, Demis; Seymour, Ben; Marchant, Jennifer L; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Dolan, Raymond J; Frith, Christopher D

    2009-08-01

    A pernicious paradox in human motivation is the occasional reduced performance associated with tasks and situations that involve larger-than-average rewards. Three broad explanations that might account for such performance decrements are attentional competition (distraction theories), inhibition by conscious processes (explicit-monitoring theories), and excessive drive and arousal (overmotivation theories). Here, we report incentive-dependent performance decrements in humans in a reward-pursuit task; subjects were less successful in capturing a more valuable reward in a computerized maze. Concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that increased activity in ventral midbrain, a brain area associated with incentive motivation and basic reward responding, correlated with both reduced number of captures and increased number of near-misses associated with imminent high rewards. These data cast light on the neurobiological basis of choking under pressure and are consistent with overmotivation accounts.

  16. Performance analysis of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension featuring MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Gyu-Seop; An, Chae-Hun; You, Won-Hee

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using MR damper. In order to achieve this goal, a mathematical dynamic model of railway vehicle is derived by integrating car body, bogie frame and wheel-set which can be able to represent lateral, yaw and roll motion. Based on this model, the dynamic range of MR damper at the railway secondary suspension system and design parameters of MR damper are calculated. Subsequently, control performances of railway vehicle including car body lateral motion and acceleration of MR damper are evaluated through computer simulations. Then, the MR damper is manufactured to be retrofitted with the real railway vehicle and its characteristics are experimentally measured. Experimental performance of MR damper is assessed using test rig which is composed of a car body and two bogies.

  17. Performance analysis of a semi-active mount made by a new variable stiffness spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Mojtaba; Behzadipour, Saeed; Faulkner, Garry

    2011-06-01

    A new variable stiffness mount (VSM), is created and its performance is experimentally measured and analyzed. VSMs have extensive applications in the vibration control of machineries including automotive industry. The variable stiffness in this design is realized by the prestress stiffness of a cable-based mechanism at a singular configuration. Changing the prestress, through a piezo actuator and a simple on-off controller, results in significant stiffness change in short time and at low energy costs. The stiffness of the VSM is characterized through static and dynamic tests. The performance of the VSM is then evaluated and compared with an equivalent passive mount in two main areas of transmissibility and shock absorption. The response time of the semi-active VSM is also measured in a realistic scenario. A summary of the performance tests are presented at the end.

  18. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning. PMID:25676856

  19. Evaluation of microbial activity for long-term performance assessments of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Wang, Yifeng

    2005-06-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments and play a major role in the biogeochemical recycling of various elements. In this paper, we have developed a general approach for a systematic evaluation of microbial impact on the long-term performance of the repository. We have demonstrated that data on microbial population alone are not sufficient for the evaluation of microbial impact on repository performance and a sensible approach for such evaluation must be based on the consideration of environmental constraints on microbial reaction pathways. We have applied our approach to both the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). We have demonstrated that the effect of microbial activity on the near-field chemistry in the Yucca Mountain repository is negligible because of limited nutrient supply and harsh environmental conditions created by waste emplacement. Whereas for the WIPP, we have shown that, due to the presence of a large quantity of organic materials and nutrients in the wastes, a significant microbial activity can potentially be stimulated and its impact on repository performance can be evaluated with carefully designed incubation experiments coupled with performance assessment calculations. The impact of microbial gas generation on disposal room chemistry in the WIPP can be mitigated by introducing MgO as a backfill material.

  20. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  1. Out of control: Diminished prefrontal activity coincides with impaired motor performance due to choking under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taraz G.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    There are three non-exclusive theoretical explanations for the paradoxical collapse of performance due to large financial incentives. It has been proposed that “choking under pressure” is either due to distraction, interference via an increase in top-down control and performance monitoring, or excessive levels of arousal in the face of large losses. Given the known neural architecture involved in executive control and reward, we used fMRI of human participants during incentivized motor performance to provide evidence to support and/or reconcile these competing models in a visuomotor task. We show that the execution of a pre-trained motor task during neuroimaging is impaired by high rewards. BOLD activity occurring prior to movement onset is increased in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between this region and motor cortex is likewise increased just prior to choking. However, the extent of this increase in functional connectivity is inversely related to a participant's propensity to choke, suggesting that a failure in exerting top-down influence on motor control underlies choking under pressure due to large incentives. These results are consistent with a distraction account of choking and suggest that frontal influences on motor activity are necessary to protect performance from vulnerability under pressure. PMID:25449744

  2. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  3. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  4. Annual summary of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment for 2003 Incorporating the Integrated Disposal Facility Concept

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F M

    2003-09-01

    To Erik Olds 09/30/03 - An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) is necessary in each year in which a full performance assessment is not issued.

  5. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations. PMID:25347682

  6. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations.

  7. Large-scale performance and design for construction activity erosion control best management practices.

    PubMed

    Faucette, L B; Scholl, B; Beighley, R E; Governo, J

    2009-01-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II requires construction activities to have erosion and sediment control best management practices (BMPs) designed and installed for site storm water management. Although BMPs are specified on storm water pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) as part of the construction general permit (GP), there is little evidence in the research literature as to how BMPs perform or should be designed. The objectives of this study were to: (i) comparatively evaluate the performance of common construction activity erosion control BMPs under a standardized test method, (ii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blanket thickness, (iii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blankets (CECBs) on a variety of slope angles, and (iv) determine Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover management factors (C factors) for these BMPs to assist site designers and engineers. Twenty-three erosion control BMPs were evaluated using American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-6459, standard test method for determination of ECB performance in protecting hill slopes from rainfall induced erosion, on 4:1 (H:V), 3:1, and 2:1 slopes. Soil loss reduction for treatments exposed to 5 cm of rainfall on a 2:1 slope ranged from-7 to 99%. For rainfall exposure of 10 cm, treatment soil loss reduction ranged from 8 to 99%. The 2.5 and 5 cm CECBs significantly reduced erosion on slopes up to 2:1, while CECBs < 2.5 cm are not recommended on slopes >or= 4:1 when rainfall totals reach 5 cm. Based on the soil loss results, USLE C factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.9. These performance and design criteria should aid site planners and designers in decision-making processes. PMID:19398523

  8. Large-scale performance and design for construction activity erosion control best management practices.

    PubMed

    Faucette, L B; Scholl, B; Beighley, R E; Governo, J

    2009-01-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II requires construction activities to have erosion and sediment control best management practices (BMPs) designed and installed for site storm water management. Although BMPs are specified on storm water pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) as part of the construction general permit (GP), there is little evidence in the research literature as to how BMPs perform or should be designed. The objectives of this study were to: (i) comparatively evaluate the performance of common construction activity erosion control BMPs under a standardized test method, (ii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blanket thickness, (iii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blankets (CECBs) on a variety of slope angles, and (iv) determine Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover management factors (C factors) for these BMPs to assist site designers and engineers. Twenty-three erosion control BMPs were evaluated using American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-6459, standard test method for determination of ECB performance in protecting hill slopes from rainfall induced erosion, on 4:1 (H:V), 3:1, and 2:1 slopes. Soil loss reduction for treatments exposed to 5 cm of rainfall on a 2:1 slope ranged from-7 to 99%. For rainfall exposure of 10 cm, treatment soil loss reduction ranged from 8 to 99%. The 2.5 and 5 cm CECBs significantly reduced erosion on slopes up to 2:1, while CECBs < 2.5 cm are not recommended on slopes >or= 4:1 when rainfall totals reach 5 cm. Based on the soil loss results, USLE C factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.9. These performance and design criteria should aid site planners and designers in decision-making processes.

  9. Silica decorated on porous activated carbon nanofiber composites for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Yeun; Kim, Bo-Hye

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid of silica decorated on porous activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) is fabricated in the form of a web via electrospinning and an activation process as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitors in an organic electrolyte. The introduction of PhSiH3 (PS) into the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution induces a porous ACNF structure containing silica nanoparticles (NPs) via the spontaneous sol-gel process of PS by steam in the subsequent physical activation process. These inorganic-organic hybrid composites of porous ACNF containing silica NPs show superior specific capacitance and energy density in electrochemical tests, along with good rate capability and excellent cycle life in an organic electrolyte, which is attributed to the combination of ACNF's high surface area and silica's hydrophilicity. The electrochemical performance decreases with increasing PS concentration, and this trend is consistent with the specific surface area results, which reveal the rapid formation of a double layer.

  10. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  11. Improving hospital performance: issues in assessing the impact of TQM activities.

    PubMed

    Counte, M A; Glandon, G L; Oleske, D M; Hill, J P

    1995-01-01

    Despite numerous published reports of the need for TQM activities in health care organizations and their widespread diffusion within the health care industry, whether they make a difference remains an unresolved issue. In this article, we discuss the major reasons why the impacts of TQM should be assessed, what needs to be measured during assessment activities, and significant methodological issues that can confound the evaluation of TQM effects. An audit framework is described that can be used to depict the types of effects that TQM may have on the performance of health care organizations. Assessment guidelines are offered that will hopefully benefit the future efforts of institutional managers and health services researchers in their attempts to determine whether TQM activities do in fact make a significant difference.

  12. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Follow Simple Instructions and Perform Designated Physical Activities According to Simple Instructions with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chen, Ling-Che

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance standing location detector. This study extended Wii Balance Board functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated physical activities according to simple…

  13. Performance Based Assessment and Instructional Activities in Communication Arts for Marketing Education. Application Activities for Communications in Marketing, Employment and Advancement, and Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeker, Arlene M.

    This document contains performance-based assessment and instructional activities for Missouri high school teachers to use in teaching the communications arts needed by marketing education students. The activities included were developed to reflect Missouri's new Show-Me Standards, which are knowledge (content) and performance (process) standards…

  14. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  15. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  16. Activity of neurons of the subthalamic nucleus in relation to motor performance in the cat.

    PubMed

    Cheruel, F; Dormont, J F; Farin, D

    1996-03-01

    The activity of subthalamic nucleus neurons related to motor performance was studied in three unrestrained cats operantly conditioned to perform a lever-release movement. The movement was initiated either rapidly after the trigger stimulus (a brief sound) in a simple reaction-time paradigm or after a delay in trials identified by a tone cue. These paradigms were randomly presented. The activity of 171 neurons was recorded in the contralateral and in the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus, with respect to the performing limb. The mean spontaneous activity of cells in the ipsilateral side (18.5 +/- 13.8 imp/s, mean +/- SD) was higher than that in the contralateral side (8.5 +/- 8.1 imp/s). A total of 145 cells (85%) presented significant changes in activity in relation to the lever-release movement (task-related cells). The remaining 26 cells were either related to other events of the task (n = 15; lever-press or reinforcement occurrence) or not related at all to the task performance (n = 11). The majority of changes of activity of task-related cells were initial increases in discharge, which started on average, 127 ms before movement onset and lasted several hundreds of milliseconds. These increases in discharge were more frequent in the contralateral side (75 of 80 task-related cells, 94%) than in the ipsilateral side (43 of 65 task-related cells, 66%). The changes in activity, either increases or decreases, occurred early after the trigger stimulus, since 62% of them had a latency of less than 100 ms. Although the mean latency of initial increases was rather similar in both sides (97 ms contralateral versus 104 ms ipsilateral), the contralateral side was characterized by a high proportion of very early responses (less than 20 ms). For most neurons, the early changes in activity described above were absent after the trigger stimulus in the delayed condition. For certain neurons, the changes in activity prior to movement were different in reaction-time condition and in

  17. Performance comparison between two active support schemes for 1-m primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Dongsheng; Wang, Guomin; Gu, Bozhong

    2012-09-01

    Active support scheme may decide the deformation of the optical surface figure of the primary mirror. Two active support schemes have been designed for 1-m primary mirror, and the performance of each support scheme is conducted. Finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to analyze the optical surface figures of the primary mirror, and optimizations are carried out by using ANSYS for each support scheme to obtain the locations of the axial support. When the locations are determined, axial support force sensitivities are calculated for the two support schemes in a case that a single axial support has a force error of 0.5N. The correction ability of the active support system for both of support schemes are analyzed when an arbitrary axial support is failure. Several low order Zernike modes are modeled with MATLAB procedure, and active optics corrections are applied to these modes for the two active supports. Thermal deformation of the mirror is also corrected for the two schemes.

  18. Change in performance in response to training load adjustment based on autonomic activity.

    PubMed

    Botek, M; McKune, A J; Krejci, J; Stejskal, P; Gaba, A

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess performance (Perf) changes in response to a new training strategy. Specifically, based on spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV) to determine autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, training doses were adjusted to maintain vagal activity at a high and relatively stable level during training preparation. Trained athletes (5 male and 5 female) aged 23.2±4.2 years voluntarily participated in the study. ANS activity was assessed during an orthoclinostatic test, and was represented by calculating HRV variables and a total score index. Over 17 weeks, improvement (1.4-8.5%) and deterioration (0.1-8.8%) in Perf were detected in 7 and 3 athletes, respectively. A relationship (rs=0.684; P<0.05) between the change in Perf (ΔPerf) and supine PHF during season was found. Supine HRV indices (PHF, PT, and MSSD) for the last 3 weeks of the HRV-adjusting period correlated (rs=0.636; 0.648; 0.648, P<0.05) with ΔPerf. Based on the results, a high and relative stable vagal activity during preparation may indicate a readiness to train or appropriate recovery that positively affects Perf. In conclusion, daily quantification of ANS activity by SA HRV seems to be a promising tool for the enhancement of Perf.

  19. Biobased Nano Porous Active Carbon Fibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiang; Peng, Lele; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Guangjie; Chen, Jonathan Y; Yu, Guihua

    2016-06-22

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with different pore structure have been prepared from wood sawdust using the KOH activation method. A study was conducted to examine the influence of the activation parameters (temperature, alkali/carbon ratio, and time) on the morphology and structure of the as-prepared ACFs developed in the process of pore generation and evolution. Activation temperature was very essential for the formation of utramicropores (<0.6 nm), which greatly contributed to the electric double layer capacitance. The significance of metallic potassium vapor evolved when the temperature was above 800 °C, since the generation of 0.8- and 1.1 nm micropores cannot be ignored. When the the KOH/fiber ratio was increased and the activation time was prolonged, to some extent, the micropores were enlarged to small mesopores within 2-5 nm. The sample with the optimal condition exhibited the highest specific capacitance (225 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1)). Its ability to retain capacitance corresponding to 10 A g(-1) and 6 M KOH was 85.3%, demonstrating a good rate capability. With 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at 3 A g(-1), the supercapacitor kept 94.2% capacity, showing outstanding electrochemical performance as promising electrode material.

  20. Right Occipital Cortex Activation Correlates with Superior Odor Processing Performance in the Early Blind

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Cécile B.; Dricot, Laurence; Plaza, Paula; Lerens, Elodie; Rombaux, Philippe; De Volder, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten early blind humans, we found robust occipital activation during two odor-processing tasks (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower odors), as well as during control auditory-verbal conditions (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower names). We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the ventral part of the occipital cortex, with dissociation according to stimulus modality: the right fusiform gyrus was most activated during olfactory conditions while part of the left ventral lateral occipital complex showed a preference for auditory-verbal processing. Only little occipital activation was found in sighted subjects, but the same right-olfactory/left-auditory-verbal hemispheric lateralization was found overall in their brain. This difference between the groups was mirrored by superior performance of the blind in various odor-processing tasks. Moreover, the level of right fusiform gyrus activation during the olfactory conditions was highly correlated with individual scores in a variety of odor recognition tests, indicating that the additional occipital activation may play a functional role in odor processing. PMID:23967263

  1. Evaluation of upper body muscle activity during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance in simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waye, A. B.; Krygiel, R. G.; Susin, T. B.; Baptista, R.; Rehnberg, L.; Heidner, G. S.; de Campos, F.; Falcão, F. P.; Russomano, T.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of efficient single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital to maintain cardiac and cerebral perfusion during the 2-4 min it takes for deployment of advanced life support during a space mission. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in upper body muscle activity during CPR performance at terrestrial gravity (+1Gz) and in simulated microgravity (μG). Muscle activity of the triceps brachii, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and pectoralis major was measured via superficial electromyography in 20 healthy male volunteers. Four sets of 30 external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed on a mannequin. Microgravity was simulated using a body suspension device and harness; the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method was adopted for CPR performance in simulated microgravity. Heart rate and perceived exertion via Borg scores were also measured. While a significantly lower depth of ECCs was observed in simulated microgravity, compared with +1Gz, it was still within the target range of 40-50 mm. There was a 7.7% decrease of the mean (±SEM) ECC depth from 48 ± 0.3 mm at +1Gz, to 44.3 ± 0.5 mm during microgravity simulation (p < 0.001). No significant difference in number or rate of compressions was found between the two conditions. Heart rate displayed a significantly larger increase during CPR in simulated microgravity than at +1Gz, the former presenting a mean (±SEM) of 23.6 ± 2.91 bpm and the latter, 76.6 ± 3.8 bpm (p < 0.001). Borg scores were 70% higher post-microgravity compressions (17 ± 1) than post +1Gz compressions (10 ± 1) (p < 0.001). Intermuscular comparisons showed the triceps brachii to have significantly lower muscle activity than each of the other three tested muscles, in both +1Gz and microgravity. As shown by greater Borg scores and heart rate increases, CPR performance in simulated microgravity is more fatiguing than at +1Gz. Nevertheless, no significant difference in muscle activity between conditions

  2. Assessing Skills and Capacity for Informatics: Activities Most Commonly Performed by or for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Design: Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: 324 local health departments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. Results: A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as “super users” for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Conclusion: Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to

  3. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Chambers, E S; Bridge, M W; Jones, D A

    2009-04-15

    Exercise studies have suggested that the presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth activates regions of the brain that can enhance exercise performance but direct evidence of such a mechanism is limited. The first aim of the present study was to observe how rinsing the mouth with solutions containing glucose and maltodextrin, disguised with artificial sweetener, would affect exercise performance. The second aim was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the brain regions activated by these substances. In Study 1A, eight endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max 60.8 +/- 4.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a cycle time trial (total work = 914 +/- 29 kJ) significantly faster when rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% glucose solution compared with a placebo containing saccharin (60.4 +/- 3.7 and 61.6 +/- 3.8 min, respectively, P = 0.007). The corresponding fMRI study (Study 1B) revealed that oral exposure to glucose activated reward-related brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum, which were unresponsive to saccharin. In Study 2A, eight endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max 57.8 +/- 3.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) tested the effect of rinsing with a 6.4% maltodextrin solution on exercise performance, showing it to significantly reduce the time to complete the cycle time trial (total work = 837 +/- 68 kJ) compared to an artificially sweetened placebo (62.6 +/- 4.7 and 64.6 +/- 4.9 min, respectively, P = 0.012). The second neuroimaging study (Study 2B) compared the cortical response to oral maltodextrin and glucose, revealing a similar pattern of brain activation in response to the two carbohydrate solutions, including areas of the insula/frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. The results suggest that the improvement in exercise performance that is observed when carbohydrate is present in the mouth may be due to the activation of brain regions believed to be involved in reward and motor control. The findings also suggest that

  4. What clinical activities do advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists perform? Results of a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.

  5. Meteorological conditions are associated with physical activities performed in open-air settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker C.; Market, Patrick; Hyder, Melissa; Sara, Pyle A.

    2008-01-01

    Meteorological conditions (MC) are believed to modify physical activity. However, studies in this area are limited and none have looked at the associations between MC and physical activity in open-air settings. Therefore, we examined the relationships between MC and physical activities performed on sidewalks/streets and outdoor oval tracks. Observation techniques were used to count individuals walking to school, exercising on oval tracks and walking/jogging/biking on sidewalks/streets. Meteorological conditions were obtained from an Automated Surface Observing System located at a nearby airport for the same time periods physical activities were observed. On weekdays, fewer children were seen walking to school and more bicyclists were observed on sidewalks/streets as wind speed increased ( p < 0.05). Ambient and apparent temperatures were positively ( p < 0.05) and humidity and barometric pressure negatively ( p < 0.005) related to the number of individuals walking on the track. Meteorological conditions were not significantly associated with physical activities observed on weekends. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that apparent temperature (+), barometric pressure (-) and dew point (-) accounted for 58.0% of the variance in the number of walkers on the track. A significant proportion of the variance (>30%) in the number of joggers and the length of time they jogged was accounted for by apparent temperature (+) and dew point (-). We found that meteorological conditions are related to physical activity in open-air settings. The results embellish the context in which environmental-physical activity relationships should be interpreted and provide important information for researchers applying the observation method in open-air settings.

  6. Resting spontaneous activity in the default mode network predicts performance decline during prolonged attention workload.

    PubMed

    Gui, Danyang; Xu, Sihua; Zhu, Senhua; Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M; Xin, Yuanyuan; Feng, Tingyong; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-10-15

    After continuous and prolonged cognitive workload, people typically show reduced behavioral performance and increased feelings of fatigue, which are known as "time-on-task (TOT) effects". Although TOT effects are pervasive in modern life, their underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we induced TOT effects by administering a 20-min continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to a group of 16 healthy adults and used resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine spontaneous brain activity changes associated with fatigue and performance. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust TOT effects, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction times as the test progressed and higher self-reported mental fatigue ratings after the 20-min PVT. Compared to pre-test measurements, subjects exhibited reduced amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the default mode network (DMN) and increased ALFF in the thalamus after the test. Subjects also exhibited reduced anti-correlations between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right middle prefrontal cortex after the test. Moreover, pre-test resting ALFF in the PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (MePFC) predicted subjects' subsequent performance decline; individuals with higher ALFF in these regions exhibited more stable reaction times throughout the 20-min PVT. These results support the important role of both task-positive and task-negative networks in mediating TOT effects and suggest that spontaneous activity measured by resting-state BOLD fMRI may be a marker of mental fatigue.

  7. The effects of a unilateral gluteal activation protocol on single leg drop jump performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Robin; Harrison, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up protocols are commonly used to acutely enhance the performance of dynamic activities. This study examined the acute effect of low-load gluteal exercises on the biomechanics of single-leg drop jumps. Eight men and seven women (18-22 years old) performed 10 single-leg drop jumps on three separate days. The gluteal exercises were performed within the warm-up on day 2. Contact time, flight time, peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development, vertical leg-spring stiffness, and reactive strength index were determined. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences on all variables across days. Significant differences were found for contact time, peak GRF, and flight time between days 1 and 2 and for flight time between days 1 and 3 (p < or = 0.05) with no significant difference in any variables between days 2 and 3. This suggested that the improvements in day 2 were due to practice effects rather than the gluteal activation exercises. In addition, a typical error analysis was used to determine individual responses to the gluteal exercises. The results using this analysis showed no discernible response pattern of enhancement or fatigue for any participant. PMID:24968509

  8. Relation between measures of speech-in-noise performance and measures of efferent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brad; Harkrider, Ashley; Burchfield, Samuel; Nabelek, Anna

    2003-04-01

    Individual differences in auditory perceptual abilities in noise are well documented but the factors causing such variability are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if individual differences in responses measured from the auditory efferent system were correlated to individual variations in speech-in-noise performance. The relation between behavioral performance on three speech-in-noise tasks and two objective measures of the efferent auditory system were examined in thirty normal-hearing, young adults. Two of the speech-in-noise tasks measured an acceptable noise level, the maximum level of speech-babble noise that a subject is willing to accept while listening to a story. For these, the acceptable noise level was evaluated using both an ipsilateral (story and noise in same ear) and a contralateral (story and noise in opposite ears) paradigm. The third speech-in-noise task evaluated speech recognition using monosyllabic words presented in competing speech babble. Auditory efferent activity was assessed by examining the resulting suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions following the introduction of a contralateral, broad-band stimulus and the activity of the ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflex arc was evaluated using tones and broad-band noise. Results will be discussed relative to current theories of speech in noise performance and auditory inhibitory processes.

  9. OSCE and Case Presentations As Active Assessments of Dental Student Performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang E; Anderson, Nina K; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and case presentation (CP) as forms of active assessment were effective measures of overall didactic knowledge and clinical performance in a predoctoral dental curriculum. This evaluation was conducted by statistical analysis of quality points (QP) awarded for didactic and clinical performance, CP grades, and OSCE scores for 185 students at Harvard School of Dental Medicine who graduated during the period 2010-14. As part of the requirements for graduation, each student takes three OSCEs and presents two patient cases. Data for the study were obtained from the Office of the Registrar. The results showed no direct correlation between QP and CP grades and no correlation between CP grades and OSCE scores. However, there was a correlation between OSCE scores and QP. Students with honors-level scores on any of the three OSCEs received significantly more QP than students who did not receive honors. In addition, students with passing scores on OSCEs 2 and 3 received significantly more QP than students with failing or marginal OSCE scores. Innovative formats of active assessment such as OSCEs and CPs can promote a student-centered learning environment. These data indicated that, within this study population, there was a positive association between OSCE scores and clinical and didactic performance, supporting the value of OSCEs as a means of assessment. PMID:26933109

  10. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation. PMID:26697408

  11. Development and performance of the EAGLE active optics LGS WFS refocusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, Fabrice; Le Mignant, David; Chardin, Elodie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Mazzanti, Silvio; Gimenez, Jean-Luc; Ferrari, Marc; Moreaux, Gabriel; Vives, Sébastien; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    We designed, developed, and tested a Variable Curvature Mirror (VCM) as an active refocusing system for the Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave Front Sensor (WFS) of the E-ELT EAGLE instrument [1]. This paper is the second of two from our team on this R&D activity: Hugot et al. this conf. [2] presented the mirror design and performance simulations. Here, we report on the fabrication integration, testing and performance of the VCM system. During this activity, we developed all necessary parts for the VCM system: a metallic mirror, its housing and mounts, a computer-controlled pressure system, an internal metrology, a testbench etc. The functional testing of the VCM system is successful: we can control the internal pressure to less than 1 mBar, and measure the mirror displacement with a 100 nm accuracy. The mirror displacement is a near-linear and well-simulated function of internal pressure for the desired range of focus. The intrinsic optical quality of the mirror meniscus is well within the specifications. Once mounted in its housing, we observe additional mechanical constraints for the current design that generate optical aberrations. We measured the amplitude of the Zernike modes, and we showed that the axisymetric terms display a variation trend very similar to simulations, with amplitude close to simulations. All these results are very promising for a design of focus compensation without any moving part.

  12. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration.

    PubMed

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation.

  13. Active load control during rolling maneuvers. [performed in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.

    1994-01-01

    A rolling maneuver load alleviation (RMLA) system has been demonstrated on the active flexible wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The objective was to develop a systematic approach for designing active control laws to alleviate wing loads during rolling maneuvers. Two RMLA control laws were developed that utilized outboard control-surface pairs (leading and trailing edge) to counteract the loads and that used inboard trailing-edge control-surface pairs to maintain roll performance. Rolling maneuver load tests were performed in the TDT at several dynamic pressures that included two below and one 11 percent above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The RMLA system was operated simultaneously with an active flutter suppression system above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. At all dynamic pressures for which baseline results were obtained, torsion-moment loads were reduced for both RMLA control laws. Results for bending-moment load reductions were mixed; however, design equations developed in this study provided conservative estimates of load reduction in all cases.

  14. Effect of nano-scale characteristics of graphene on electrochemical performance of activated carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasni, M. R. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Nor, N. S. M.; Shamsudin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene with its typical nano-scale characteristic properties has been widely used as an additive in activated carbon electrodes in order to enhance the performance of the electrodes for their use in high performance supercapacitors. Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes have been prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths (GMs) of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) and SACGs added with 6 wt% of KOH-treated multi-layer graphene. ACMs electrodes have been assembled in symmetrical supercapacitor cells that employed aqueous KOH electrolyte (6 M). The cells have been tested with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge discharge methods to investigate the effect of graphene addition on the specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E), specific power (P), equivalent series resistance (ESR) and response time (τo) of the supercapacitor cells. The results show that the addition of graphene in the GMs change the values of Csp, Emax, Pmax, ESR and τo from (61-96) F/g, 2 Wh/kg, 104 W/kg, 2.6 Ω and 38 s, to the respective values of (110-124) F/g, 3 Wh/kg, 156 W/kg, 3.4 Ω and 63 s. This study demonstrates that the graphene addition in the GMs has a significant effect on the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes.

  15. Performance evaluation of polyaniline as an active material for electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Rudge, A.; Davey, J.; Uribe, F.; Landeros, J. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes experiments which evaluate the performance of polyaniline (PAni) as an active material in electrochemical capacitors. We have performed constant current multicycle tests on prototype symmetric devices where the same conducting polymer serves as the active material on both electrodes. When electropolymerized at high current density in aqueous acid solution, PAni exhibits a micro-morphology consisting of a network of interwoven fibrils with high porosity. Thick PAni layers (>250 {mu}m) of the material can thus be electropolymerized onto a planar metal substrate without affecting the fast dynamics of the charge-discharge process. The aqueous PAni electrochemical capacitors exhibit rather low energy content because of limitations on the maximum applied voltage. However, due to their optimized morphology and the high conductivity of the aqueous acid solution, they exhibit relatively high power density. The PAni capacitor exhibits excellent cycle life (more than 25,000 cycles), provided the requirements on restricted cell voltage are met. This is a key result in the evaluation of conducting polymers as active materials in electrochemical capacitors. Scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy are used to provide information on this system.

  16. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration.

    PubMed

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation. PMID:26697408

  17. Cortical activity of skilled performance in a complex sports related motor task.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Jochen; Reinecke, Kirsten; Liesen, Heinz; Weiss, Michael

    2008-11-01

    A skilled player in goal-directed sports performance has the ability to process internal and external information in an effective manner and decide which pieces of information are important and which are irrelevant. Focused attention and somatosensory information processing play a crucial role in this process. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are able to demonstrate cortical changes in conjunction with this concept and were examined during a golf putting performance in an expert-novice paradigm. The success in putting (score) and performance-related cortical activity were recorded with an EEG during a 5 x 4 min putting series. Subjects were asked to putt balls for four min at their own pace. The EEG data was divided into different frequencies: Theta (4.75-6.75 Hz), Alpha-1 (7-9.5 Hz), Alpha-2 (9.75-12.5 Hz) and Beta-1 (12.75-18.5 Hz) and performance related power values were calculated. Statistical analysis shows significant better performance in the expert golfers (P < 0.001). This was associated with higher fronto-midline Theta power (P < 0.05) and higher parietal Alpha-2 power values (P < 0.05) compared to the novices in golf putting. Frontal Theta and parietal Alpha-2 spectral power in the ongoing EEG demonstrate differences due to skill level. Furthermore the findings suggest that with increasing skill level, golfers have developed task solving strategies including focussed attention and an economy in parietal sensory information processing which lead to more successful performance. In a theoretical framework both cortical parameters may play a role in the concept of the working memory. PMID:18607621

  18. Depressive symptoms and inductive reasoning performance: findings from the ACTIVE reasoning training intervention.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Franchetti, Mary Kathryn; Rebok, George W; Spira, Adam P; Carlson, Michelle C; Willis, Sherry L; Gross, Alden L

    2014-12-01

    Within the context of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study (ACTIVE; Ball et al., 2002; Jobe et al., 2001; Willis et al., 2006), we examined the longitudinal association of baseline depressive symptoms on inductive reasoning performance over a 10-year period between the reasoning training and control conditions (N = 1,375). At baseline, 322 participants (23%) reported elevated depressive symptoms, defined by a score ≥9 on the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Mirowsky & Ross, 2003; Radloff, 1977). Differences in baseline depressive status were not associated with immediate posttraining gains or with subsequent annual change in reasoning performance, suggesting that the presence of elevated baseline depressive symptoms does not impact the ability to benefit from reasoning training.

  19. Sensing performance of electrically conductive fabrics and dielectric electro active polymers for parachutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favini, Eric; Niezrecki, Christopher; Manohar, Sanjeev K.; Willis, David; Chen, Julie; Niemi, Eugene; Desabrais, Kenneth; Charette, Christine

    2011-04-01

    This paper quantifies the sensing capabilities of novel smart materials in an effort to improve the performance, better understand the physics, and enhance the safety of parachutes. Based upon a recent review of actuation technologies for parachute applications, it was surmised that the actuators reviewed could not be used to effectively alter the drag or lift (i.e. geometry, porosity, or air vent openings) of a parachute during flight. However, several materials showed potential for sensing applications within a parachute, specifically electrically conductive fabrics and dielectric electro-active polymers. This paper introduces several new conductive fabrics and provides an evaluation of the sensing performance of these smart materials based upon test results using mechanical testing and digital image correlation for comparison.

  20. Structural and preliminary thermal performance testing of a pressure activated contact heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. Y.; Christian, E. L.; Wohlwend, J. W.; Parish, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    A contact heat exchanger concept is being developed for use onboard Space Station as an interface device between external thermal bus and pressurized modules. The concept relies on mechanical contact activated by the fluid pressure inside thin-walled tubes. Structural testings were carried out to confirm the technology feasibility of using such thin-walled tubes. The test results also verified the linear elastic stress analysis which was used to predict the tube mechanical behaviors. A preliminary thermal testing was also performed with liquid Freon-11 flowing inside tubes and heat being supplied by electrical heating from the bottom of the contact heat exchanger baseplate. The test results showed excellent agreement of test data with analytical prediction for all thermal resistances except for the two-phase flow characteristics. Testing with two-phase flow inside tubes will, however, be performed on the NASA-JSC test bed.

  1. Performance of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Active Microsurgical Manipulator in Handheld Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; Wells, Trent S.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental results from human users of a new 6-degree-of-freedom handheld micromanipulator. This is the latest prototype of a fully-handheld system, known as “Micron,” which performs active compensation of hand tremor for microsurgery. The manipulator is a miniature Gough-Stewart platform incorporating linear ultrasonic motors that provide a cylindrical workspace 4 mm long and 4 mm wide. In addition, the platform allows the possibility of imposing a remote center of motion for controlling motion not only at the tip but also at the entry point in the sclera of the eye. We demonstrate hand tremor reduction in both static and dynamic micromanipulation tasks on a rubber pad. The handheld performance is also evaluated in an artificial eye model while imposing a remote center of motion. In all cases, hand tremor is significantly reduced. PMID:24111024

  2. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  3. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 Active Axisymmetric Thrust-vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  4. Implementation of the 2011 Therapeutic Activity Act: will commercialization improve the financial performance of Polish hospitals?

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Sobczak, Alicja

    2014-11-01

    The Therapeutic Activity Act that came into force on 1 July 2011 was aimed at achieving a large-scale transformation of public hospitals into Commercial Code companies. The change of the legal form, from a public entity to a for-profit company, was expected to improve the poor economic efficiency of the public hospital sector. However, the mere change of the legal form does not guarantee a better financial performance of hospitals and thus the success of the Act. In many cases, deep internal changes are needed to achieve improvements in the financial performance of particular hospitals. In addition, a set of other measures at the national and regional levels, such as the mapping of health needs of the population, have to accompany the legal transformations in order to improve the efficiency of the hospital sector. The recent slowdown in the rate of the transformations is another factor that renders the success of the Act uncertain.

  5. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  6. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  7. Electrochemical activation of carbon cloth in aqueous inorganic salt solution for superior capacitive performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Tang, Jie; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as an electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. However, pristine CC has such a low surface area and poor electrochemical activity that the energy storage capability is usually very poor. Herein, we report a green method, two-step electrochemical activation in an aqueous solution of inorganic salts, to significantly enhance the capacitance of CC for supercapacitor application. Micro-cracks, exfoliated carbon fiber shells, and oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) were introduced onto the surface of the carbon filament. This resulted in an enhancement of over two orders of magnitude in capacitance compared to that of the bare CC electrode, reaching up to a maximum areal capacitance of 505.5 mF cm-2 at the current density of 6 mA cm-2 in aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte. Electrochemical reduction of CC electrodes led to the removal of most electrochemically unstable surface OFGs, resulting in superior charging/discharging rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Although the activated CC electrode contained a high-level of surface oxygen functional groups (~15 at%), it still exhibited a remarkable charging-discharging rate capability, retaining ~88% of the capacitance when the charging rate increased from 6 to 48 mA cm-2. Moreover, the activated CC electrode exhibited excellent cycling stability with ~97% capacitance remaining after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 24 mA cm-2. A symmetrical supercapacitor based on the activated CC exhibited an ideal capacitive behavior and fast charge-discharge properties. Such a simple, environment-friendly, and cost-effective strategy to activate CC shows great potential in the fabrication of high-performance flexible supercapacitors.Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as

  8. Performance of Density Functionals for Activation Energies of Zr-Mediated Reactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-12

    Coupled cluster CCSD(T) calculations with core-valence correlation and complete basis set (CBS) limit extrapolation are used to benchmark the performance of commonly used density functionals in computing energy barriers for Zr-mediated reactions involving zirconocene species. These reactions include (a) insertions of the Zr-H bond of Cp2Zr(H)Cl into C═C, C≡C, and C═O bonds and (b) C-H activations by Zr═N bond in Cp2Zr═NH. The best performing functionals are M06-L, M06, and M06-2X in the M06 series, all having mean unsigned deviations (MUD) less than 2 kcal/mol. The worst performing functional is OLYP, with a distinctly large MUD of more than 10 kcal/mol. Considering also the trends in barrier heights and the systematic barrier height deviation, our best recommended functional is M06-2X. In this work, DFT empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D3) is found to improve the performance of barrier height values for most functionals (especially of OLYP and B3LYP). With DFT empirical dispersion correction, we also recommend M06-2X for reaction barrier calculations of Zr-mediated reactions.

  9. Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with activity performance in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Fogel, Yael

    2013-04-01

    Deterioration in the frontal and prefrontal cortex associated with executive functions (EF) occurs with age and may be associated with changes in daily performance. The aim of the present study was to describe changes occurring with age in Executive Functions (EF) and handwriting activity, as well as to analyze relationships between age, EF and handwriting performance. The study population included 80 healthy participants (aged 31 to 76+) living in the community. After answering five questions about their writing habits, the participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). In addition, they performed a handwriting task on a digitizer included in the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET), which provides kinematic measures of the handwriting process. Significant differences were found between the four age groups for both EF and temporal and spatial handwriting measures. A series of regressions indicated that age predicted 35% of the variance of the BADS profile score (EF control) and 32% of the variance of in-air time while writing. The results of this study indicated age effect on both EF control and handwriting performance. Possible implications for further research and clinical evaluation and intervention are discussed. PMID:23558056

  10. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  11. Activation energy study of electron transport in high performance short wavelengths quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Lyakh, Arkadiy; Wang, Qi Jie; Maulini, Richard; Tsekoun, Alexei; Patel, C Kumar N; Wang, Xiaojun; Capasso, Federico

    2010-01-18

    We present a method to study current paths through quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The temperature dependence of the current is measured at a fixed voltage. At low temperatures we find activation energies that correspond to the energy difference between the injector ground state and the upper laser level. At higher temperatures additional paths with larger activation energies are found. Application of this method to high performance QCLs based on strained InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells and barriers with different band-offsets allows us to identify individual parasitic current paths through the devices. The results give insight into the transport properties of quantum cascade lasers thus providing a useful tool for device optimization.

  12. Identification of prefrontal cortex (BA10) activation while performing Stroop test using diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Sabin; Chityala, Srujan R.; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2011-03-01

    Stroop test is commonly used as a behavior-testing tool for psychological examinations that are related to attention and cognitive control of the human brain. Studies have shown activations in Broadmann area 10 (BA10) of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during attention and cognitive process. The use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for human brain mapping is becoming more prevalent. In this study we expect to find neural correlates between the performed cognitive tasks and hemodynamic signals detected by a DOT system. Our initial observation showed activation of oxy-hemoglobin concentration in BA 10, which is consistent with some results seen by positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our study demonstrates the possibility of combining DOT with Stroop test to quantitatively investigate cognitive functions of the human brain at the prefrontal cortex.

  13. Effect of bonding on the performance of a piezoactuator-based active control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is studied. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to select the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The presented method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators and the bonding layers have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the MIMSC method and to demonstrate the effect of the physical and geometrical properties of the bonding layer on the dynamic performance of the actively controlled beams. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  14. Modeling Change in Memory Performance and Memory Perceptions: Findings from the ACTIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Crowe, Michael; Cook, Sarah E.; Langbaum, Jessica B. S.; Sartori, Andrea; Unverzagt, Fredrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of the ACTIVE study, the current investigation explored the relationships between objective memory and two components of subjective memory (frequency of forgetting and use of external aids) over a five-year period. Relationships were assessed using parallel process latent growth curve models. Results indicated that changes in objective memory were associated with changes in perceived frequency of forgetting, but not with use of external aids (calendars, reminder notes) over time. Findings suggest that memory complaints may accurately reflect decline in objective memory performance, but that these memory changes are not necessarily related to compensatory behaviors. PMID:21463064

  15. Performance of an active/passive hybrid solar system utilizing vapor transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Vapor-phase heat-transport systems are being tested in two of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The systems consist of an active fin-and-tube collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector with a pump or with a self-pumping scheme. A computer model was developed to predict the behavior of the system, after which the computer was used to predict the annual performance of these systems in five cities. The report compares the measured and the predicted results as well as the system's sensitivity to several parameters.

  16. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45–54; 55–64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36–80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  17. Associations of Monitor-Assessed Activity with Performance-Based Physical Function.

    PubMed

    Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Gardiner, Paul A; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [<3 METs] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA; ≥3 METs]), and number of sit-stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (<45; 45-54; 55-64; ≥65 years) were tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (p<0.05) associated with stepping and MVPA stepping only; none of the activity measures were associated with TUG-8. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in older adults (≥65 years), TUG-8 was associated with stepping and MVPA stepping (both p<0.05). All associations with sitting time, standing, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36-80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888

  18. Maintaining Gait Performance by Cortical Activation during Dual-Task Interference: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Feng; Liu, Yan-Ci; Yang, Yea-Ru; Wu, Yu-Te; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, mobility requires walking while performing a cognitive or upper-extremity motor task. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of dual tasks on gait performance, few studies have evaluated cortical activation and its association with gait disturbance during dual tasks. In this study, we simultaneously assessed gait performance and cerebral oxygenation in the bilateral prefrontal cortices (PFC), premotor cortices (PMC), and supplemental motor areas (SMA), using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, in 17 young adults performing dual tasks. Each participant was evaluated while performing normal-pace walking (NW), walking while performing a cognitive task (WCT), and walking while performing a motor task (WMT). Our results indicated that the left PFC exhibited the strongest and most sustained activation during WCT, and that NW and WMT were associated with minor increases in oxygenation levels during their initial phases. We observed increased activation in channels in the SMA and PMC during WCT and WMT. Gait data indicated that WCT and WMT both caused reductions in walking speed, but these reductions resulted from differing alterations in gait properties. WCT was associated with significant changes in cadence, stride time, and stride length, whereas WMT was associated with reductions in stride length only. During dual-task activities, increased activation of the PMC and SMA correlated with declines in gait performance, indicating a control mechanism for maintaining gait performance during dual tasks. Thus, the regulatory effects of cortical activation on gait behavior enable a second task to be performed while walking.

  19. Maintaining Gait Performance by Cortical Activation during Dual-Task Interference: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yea-Ru; Wu, Yu-Te; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, mobility requires walking while performing a cognitive or upper-extremity motor task. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of dual tasks on gait performance, few studies have evaluated cortical activation and its association with gait disturbance during dual tasks. In this study, we simultaneously assessed gait performance and cerebral oxygenation in the bilateral prefrontal cortices (PFC), premotor cortices (PMC), and supplemental motor areas (SMA), using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, in 17 young adults performing dual tasks. Each participant was evaluated while performing normal-pace walking (NW), walking while performing a cognitive task (WCT), and walking while performing a motor task (WMT). Our results indicated that the left PFC exhibited the strongest and most sustained activation during WCT, and that NW and WMT were associated with minor increases in oxygenation levels during their initial phases. We observed increased activation in channels in the SMA and PMC during WCT and WMT. Gait data indicated that WCT and WMT both caused reductions in walking speed, but these reductions resulted from differing alterations in gait properties. WCT was associated with significant changes in cadence, stride time, and stride length, whereas WMT was associated with reductions in stride length only. During dual-task activities, increased activation of the PMC and SMA correlated with declines in gait performance, indicating a control mechanism for maintaining gait performance during dual tasks. Thus, the regulatory effects of cortical activation on gait behavior enable a second task to be performed while walking. PMID:26079605

  20. Robust active combustion control for the optimization of environmental performance and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demayo, Trevor Nat

    Criteria pollutant regulations, climate change concerns, and energy conservation efforts are placing strict constraints in the design and operation of advanced, stationary combustion systems. To ensure minimal pollutant emissions and maximal efficiency at every instant of operation while preventing reaction blowout, combustion systems need to react and adapt in real-time to external changes. This study describes the development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multivariable feedback control system, designed to maximize the performance of natural gas-fired combustion systems. A feedback sensor array was developed to monitor reaction stability and measure combustion performance as a function of NOx, CO, and O, emissions. Acoustic and UV chemiluminescent emissions were investigated for use as stability indicators. Modulated signals of CH* and CO2* chemiluminescence were found to correlate well with the onset of lean blowout. A variety of emissions sensors were tested and evaluated, including conventional CEMS', micro-fuel cells, a zirconia NOx transducer, and a rapid response predictive NOx sensor based on UV flame chemiluminescence. A dual time-scale controller was designed to actively optimize operating conditions by maximizing a multivariable performance function J using a linear direction set search algorithm. The controller evaluated J under slow, quasi steady-state conditions, while dynamically monitoring the reaction zone at high speed for pre-blowout instabilities or boundary condition violations. To establish the input control parameters, two burner systems were selected: a 30 kW air-swirl, generic research burner, and a 120 kW scaled, fuel-staged, industrial boiler burner. The parameters, chosen to most affect burner performance, consisted of air swirl intensity and excess air for the generic burner, and fuel-staging and excess air for the boiler burner. A set of optimization parameters was also established to ensure efficient and deterministic

  1. [Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased. PMID:24066559

  2. [Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased.

  3. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  4. Using Plasma-Activated High Performance Fibers with Nanocrystalline Structure in Producing New Reinforced Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, V.; Korneeva, N.

    2008-08-01

    A wet-pull-out method for investigation of interaction between the high performance polyethylene (HPPE) fiber and polymer matrix is discussed. The paper concerns a cold plasma technique for improving the bond of the HPPE fibers to the matrices and the fibers impregnation with the matrix. Controlled parameters are pull-out force and the height of the matrix capillary lifting along the fiber both in air and in vacuum, in combination with plasma activation of the fibers. The method allows one to estimate the wetting and impregnation of multi-filament fiber with the matrix and simultaneously measure the joint strength. Coupled action of plasma treatment and vacuum impregnation of the fibers improves the joint strength by a factor of 3. Plasma activated HPPE fibers impregnated in air show the value of shear strength τ of 4 Kg/mm2. To understand the effect of treatment initial and plasma-activated fibers were used to fabricate composite materials (CM). The properties and failure modes were compared to those of CM reinforced with untreated fibers. The failure mode of CM reinforced with plasma-activated fibers points to a high strength of the bond between the fibers and the matrix.

  5. Transplantation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restores the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Rats With Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dongsun; Lee, Sun Hee; Bae, Dae Kwon; Yang, Yun-Hui; Yang, Goeun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Hong, Jin Tae; Shin, Il Seob; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-01-01

    Improving the effects of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on the demyelination and neurobehavioral function was investigated in an experimental model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Seven-day-old male rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia-lipopolysaccharide and intracerebroventricularly transplanted with human ASCs (4 × 105 cells/rat) once at postnatal day 10 (PND10) or repeatedly at PND10, 17, 27, and 37. Neurobehavioral abnormalities (at PND20, 30, and 40) and cognitive functions (at PND41–44) were evaluated using multiple test systems. Human ASCs recovered the using ratio of forelimb contralateral to the injured brain, improved locomotor activity, and restored rota-rod performance of HIE animals, in addition to showing a marked improvement of cognitive functions. It was confirmed that transplanted human ASCs migrated to injured areas and differentiated into oligodendrocytes expressing myelin basic protein (MBP). Moreover, transplanted ASCs restored production of growth and neurotrophic factors and expression of decreased inflammatory cytokines, leading to attenuation of host MBP loss. The results indicate that transplanted ASCs restored neurobehavioral functions by producing MBP as well as by preserving host myelins, which might be mediated by ASCs’ anti-inflammatory activity and release of growth and neurotrophic factors. PMID:26858861

  6. Neural activation during imitation with or without performance feedback: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihua; Wang, Hui; Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Zhang, Hui; Meng, Weixia; Du, Xiaoxia

    2016-08-26

    In our daily lives, we often receive performance feedback (PF) during imitative learning, and we adjust our behaviors accordingly to improve performance. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying this learning process. We hypothesized that appropriate PF would enhance neural activation or recruit additional brain areas during subsequent action imitation. Pictures of 20 different finger gestures without any social meaning were shown to participants from the first-person perspective. Imitation with or without PF was investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 30 healthy subjects. The PF was given by a real person or by a computer. PF from a real person induced hyperactivation of the parietal lobe (precuneus and cuneus), cingulate cortex (posterior and anterior), temporal lobe (superior and transverse temporal gyri), and cerebellum (posterior and anterior lobes) during subsequent imitation. The positive PF and negative PF from a real person, induced the activation of more brain areas during the following imitation. The hyperactivation of the cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and cuneus suggests that the subjects exhibited enhanced motor control and visual attention during imitation after PF. Additionally, random PF from a computer had a small effect on the next imitation. We suggest that positive and accurate PF may be helpful for imitation learning. PMID:27422729

  7. Cerebral cortical activity associated with non-experts' most accurate motor performance.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Ford; Godwin, Maurice M; Goel, Paras; Rehm, Jared; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Hunt, Carly A; Miller, Matthew W

    2014-10-01

    This study's specific aim was to determine if non-experts' most accurate motor performance is associated with verbal-analytic- and working memory-related cerebral cortical activity during motor preparation. To assess this, EEG was recorded from non-expert golfers executing putts; EEG spectral power and coherence were calculated for the epoch preceding putt execution; and spectral power and coherence for the five most accurate putts were contrasted with that for the five least accurate. Results revealed marked power in the theta frequency bandwidth at all cerebral cortical regions for the most accurate putts relative to the least accurate, and considerable power in the low-beta frequency bandwidth at the left temporal region for the most accurate compared to the least. As theta power is associated with working memory and low-beta power at the left temporal region with verbal analysis, results suggest non-experts' most accurate motor performance is associated with verbal-analytic- and working memory-related cerebral cortical activity during motor preparation. PMID:25058623

  8. Relationship between simulated extravehicular activity tasks and measurements of physical performance.

    PubMed

    Ade, C J; Broxterman, R M; Craig, J C; Schlup, S J; Wilcox, S L; Barstow, T J

    2014-11-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the relationships between tests of fitness and two activities that simulate components of Lunar- and Martian-based extravehicular activities (EVA). Seventy-one subjects completed two field tests: a physical abilities test and a 10km Walkback test. The relationships between test times and the following parameters were determined: running V˙O2max, gas exchange threshold (GET), speed at V˙O2max (s-V˙O2max), highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism [critical speed (CS)], and the finite distance that could be covered above CS (D'): arm cranking V˙O2peak, GET, critical power (CP), and the finite work that can be performed above CP (W'). CS, running V˙O2max, s-V˙O2max, and arm cranking V˙O2peak had the highest correlations with the physical abilities field test (r=0.66-0.82, P<0.001). For the 10km Walkback, CS, s-V˙O2max, and running V˙O2max were significant predictors (r=0.64-0.85, P<0.001). CS and to a lesser extent V˙O2max are most strongly associated with tasks that simulate aspects of EVA performance, highlighting CS as a method for evaluating astronaut physical capacity.

  9. Active learning and student-centered pedagogy improve student attitudes and performance in introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Peter; Patel, Maya; Johnson, Erika; Weiss, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of an instructional design that focused on bringing multiple forms of active learning and student-centered pedagogies to a one-semester, undergraduate introductory biology course for both majors and nonmajors. Our course redesign consisted of three major elements: 1) reordering the presentation of the course content in an attempt to teach specific content within the context of broad conceptual themes, 2) incorporating active and problem-based learning into every lecture, and 3) adopting strategies to create a more student-centered learning environment. Assessment of our instructional design consisted of a student survey and comparison of final exam performance across 3 years-1 year before our course redesign was implemented (2006) and during two successive years of implementation (2007 and 2008). The course restructuring led to significant improvement of self-reported student engagement and satisfaction and increased academic performance. We discuss the successes and ongoing challenges of our course restructuring and consider issues relevant to institutional change.

  10. Active Learning and Student-centered Pedagogy Improve Student Attitudes and Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maya; Johnson, Erika; Weiss, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of an instructional design that focused on bringing multiple forms of active learning and student-centered pedagogies to a one-semester, undergraduate introductory biology course for both majors and nonmajors. Our course redesign consisted of three major elements: 1) reordering the presentation of the course content in an attempt to teach specific content within the context of broad conceptual themes, 2) incorporating active and problem-based learning into every lecture, and 3) adopting strategies to create a more student-centered learning environment. Assessment of our instructional design consisted of a student survey and comparison of final exam performance across 3 years—1 year before our course redesign was implemented (2006) and during two successive years of implementation (2007 and 2008). The course restructuring led to significant improvement of self-reported student engagement and satisfaction and increased academic performance. We discuss the successes and ongoing challenges of our course restructuring and consider issues relevant to institutional change. PMID:19723815

  11. Performance Prediction of Active Piezo Fiber Rackets in Terms of Tennis Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Masamichi

    Several former top players sent a letter to the International Tennis Federation (ITF) encouraging the governing body to revisit the question of rackets. In the letter, the players wrote that racket technology has led to major changes in how the game is played at the top level. This paper investigated the physical properties of a new type of racket with active piezoelectric fibers appeared recently in the market, and predicted the various factors associated with the frontal impact, such as impact force, contact time, deformation of ball and strings, and also estimated the racket performance such as the coefficient of restitution, the rebound power coefficient, the post-impact ball velocity and the sweet areas relevant to the power in tennis. It is based on the experimental identification of the dynamics of the ball-racket-arm system and the approximate nonlinear impact analysis with a simple swing model. The predicted results with forehand stroke model can explain the difference in mechanism of performance between the new type racket with active piezoelectric fibers and the conventional passive representative rackets. It showed that this new type racket provides higher coefficient of restitution on the whole area of string face and also gives larger rebound power coefficients particularly at the topside and bigger powers on the whole area of string face but the difference was not so large. It seems that the racket-related improvements in play are relatively small and the players themselves continue to improve, accordingly there is a gap between a perception and reality.

  12. Association between physical activity and academic performance in Korean adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, physical activity (PA) was found to improve cognitive and memory functions in the brain; however, no epidemiological studies have specifically investigated this phenomenon in the Korean adolescent student population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various types of PA undertaken at various frequencies, on the academic performance of Korean adolescent students. Methods A total of 75,066 adolescent students (39,612 males and 35,454 females) from the 7th to the 12th grades took part in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) project, conducted in 2009. Using data acquired by that survey, potential relations between PA and academic performance were explored in this current study through multivariate logistic regression analysis incorporating adjustment for covariate variables including age, body mass index, the parents’ education level, and the income status of the family. Results Compared with boys who did not regularly participate in any vigorous PA, those who did so 2, 3, or 4 times a week had greater odds of reporting an average or above-average academic performance. Compared with boys who did not participate in any moderate PA, those who did so 1, 2, 3, 4, or ≥5 times a week also had greater odds of reporting an average or above-average academic performance. Interestingly, when compared with boys who did not participate in any strengthening exercises, those undertaking strengthening exercises ≥5 times a week had lesser odds of reporting a below-average academic performance. Compared with girls who did not regularly participate in any vigorous PA, those who did so ≥5 times a week had greater odds of reporting an average or above-average academic performance. Compared with girls who did not participate in any moderate PA, those that did so 2 or 3 times a week had greater odds of reporting an average or above-average academic performance. Interestingly, when compared with girls who did not

  13. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and

  14. Performance Measures for Evaluating Public Participation Activities in the Office of Environmental Management (DOE)

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    2001-02-15

    Public participation in Office of Environmental Management (EM) activities throughout the DOE complex is a critical component of the overall success of remediation and waste management efforts. The challenges facing EM and its stakeholders over the next decade or more are daunting (Nuclear Waste News 1996). Achieving a mission composed of such challenges will require innovation, dedication, and a significant degree of good will among all stakeholders. EM's efforts to date, including obtaining and using inputs offered by EM stakeholders, have been notable. Public participation specialists have accepted and met challenges and have consistently tried to improve their performance. They have reported their experiences both formally and informally (e.g., at professional conferences and EM Public Participation Network Workshops, other internal meetings of DOE and contractor public participation specialists, and one-on-one consultations) in order to advance the state of their practice. Our research, and our field research in particular (including our interactions with many representatives of numerous stakeholder groups at nine DOE sites with diverse EM problems), have shown that it, is possible to develop coherent results even in a problem domain as complex as that of EM. We conclude that performance-based evaluations of public participation appear possible, and we have recommended an approach, based on combined and integrated multi-stakeholder views on the attributes of successful public participation and associated performance indicators, that seems workable and should be acceptable to diverse stakeholders. Of course, as an untested recommendation, our approach needs the validation that can only be achieved by application (perhaps at a few DOE sites with ongoing EM activities). Such an application would serve to refine the proposed approach in terms of its clarity, its workability, and its potential for full-scale use by EM and, potentially, other government agencies and

  15. Reliability of cardiorespiratory parameters during cycling exercise performed at the severe domain in active individuals.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luis F; Montagnana, Lucas; Denadai, Benedito S; Greco, Camila C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of cardiorespiratory parameters during cycling exercise performed at severe domain in active individuals. Thirteen active males (24.5 ± 4.5 years) performed the following tests: (a) an incremental test to determine V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the intensity associated with VO2max (IVO2max); and (b) 4 repetitions of square-wave transitions from rest to a power corresponding to 95% IVO2max to determine the parameters of VO2 kinetics and time to exhaustion (Tlim). Participants performed only 2 transitions on any given day. The interval between the 2 experimental sessions was 48-72 hours. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error as the coefficient of variation were used to assess reliability. Although the 2 measures of Tlim were moderately related (ICC = 0.78; p < 0.01), Tlim from the second session (545.2 ± 103.1 seconds) was significantly higher than that of the first (492.5 ± 100.9 seconds; p = 0.02). Moderate to high reliability (ICC = 0.76-0.93) for the amplitudes of the VO2 kinetics responses was found. Poor reliability, however, was found for time constants and time delays of the VO2 kinetics responses. Thus, in nonfamiliarized individuals, Tlim shows a relatively low within-subject coefficient of variation. However, the second score in a series of 2 Tlim tests may be significantly greater than the first. We have also demonstrated that the amplitudes of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 response have significantly moderate to high reliability. The time-based parameters, however, present an important day-to-day intraindividual variation. Therefore, several transitions are recommended to monitoring changes in an individual over any time frame.

  16. Resting Spontaneous Activity in the Default Mode Network Predicts Performance Decline during Prolonged Attention Workload

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Senhua; Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Xin, Yuanyuan; Feng, Tingyong; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    After continuous and prolonged cognitive workload, people typically show reduced behavioral performance and increased feelings of fatigue, which are known as “time-on-task (TOT) effects”. Although TOT effects are pervasive in modern life, their underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we induced TOT effects by administering a 20-minute continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to a group of 16 healthy adults and used resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine spontaneous brain activity changes associated with fatigue and performance. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust TOT effects, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction times as the test progressed and higher self-reported mental fatigue ratings after the 20-minute PVT. Compared to pre-test measurements, subjects exhibited reduced amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the default mode network (DMN) and increased ALFF in the thalamus after the test. Subjects also exhibited reduced anti-correlations between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right middle prefrontal cortex after the test. Moreover, pre-test resting ALFF in the PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (MePFC) predicted subjects’ subsequent performance decline; individuals with higher ALFF in these regions exhibited more stable reaction times throughout the 20-minute PVT. These results support the important role of both task-positive and task-negative networks in mediating TOT effects and suggest that spontaneous activity measured by resting-state BOLD fMRI may be a marker of mental fatigue. PMID:26196666

  17. Is Participation in Organized Leisure-Time Activities Associated with School Performance in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family. Methods The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys) aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes. Results Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.54) for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73–2.25) for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds. Conclusion Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance. PMID:27073841

  18. Association between Physical Activity and Teacher-Reported Academic Performance among Fifth-Graders in Shanghai: A Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunting; Zhang, Donglan; Jiang, Yanrui; Sun, Wanqi; Wang, Yan; Chen, Wenjuan; Li, Shenghui; Shi, Lu; Shen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of literature reveals the causal pathways between physical activity and brain function, indicating that increasing physical activity among children could improve rather than undermine their scholastic performance. However, past studies of physical activity and scholastic performance among students often relied on parent-reported grade information, and did not explore whether the association varied among different levels of scholastic performance. Our study among fifth-grade students in Shanghai sought to determine the association between regular physical activity and teacher-reported academic performance scores (APS), with special attention to the differential associational patterns across different strata of scholastic performance. Method A total of 2,225 students were chosen through a stratified random sampling, and a complete sample of 1470 observations were used for analysis. We used a quantile regression analysis to explore whether the association between physical activity and teacher-reported APS differs by distribution of APS. Results Minimal-intensity physical activity such as walking was positively associated with academic performance scores (β = 0.13, SE = 0.04). The magnitude of the association tends to be larger at the lower end of the APS distribution (β = 0.24, SE = 0.08) than in the higher end of the distribution (β = 0.00, SE = 0.07). Conclusion Based upon teacher-reported student academic performance, there is no evidence that spending time on frequent physical activity would undermine student’s APS. Those students who are below the average in their academic performance could be worse off in academic performance if they give up minimal-intensity physical activity. Therefore, cutting physical activity time in schools could hurt the scholastic performance among those students who were already at higher risk for dropping out due to inadequate APS. PMID:25774525

  19. Walking while Performing Working Memory Tasks Changes the Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Activations and Gait Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-I B.; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. Methods: Twenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles) with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back). Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. Results: In comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on the narrow

  20. Improved capacitive deionization performance of mixed hydrophobic/hydrophilic activated carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, M.; Zeiger, M.; Jäckel, N.; Grobelsek, I.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising salt removal technology with high energy efficiency when applied to low molar concentration aqueous electrolytes. As an interfacial process, ion electrosorption during CDI operation is sensitive to the pore structure and the total pore volume of carbon electrodes limits the maximum salt adsorption capacity (SAC). Thus, activation of carbons as a widely used method to enhance the porosity of a material should also be highly attractive for improving SAC values. In our study, we use easy-to-scale and facile-to-apply CO2-activation at temperatures between 950 °C and 1020 °C to increase the porosity of commercially available activated carbon. While the pore volume and surface area can be significantly increased up to 1.51 cm3 g-1 and 2113 m2 g-1, this comes at the expense of making the carbon more hydrophobic. We present a novel strategy to capitalize on the improved pore structure by admixing as received (more hydrophilic) carbon with CO2-treated (more hydrophobic) carbon for CDI electrodes without using membranes. This translates into an enhanced charge storage ability in high and low molar concentrations (1 M and 5 mM NaCl) and significantly improved CDI performance (at 5 mM NaCl). In particular, we obtain stable CDI performance at 0.86 charge efficiency with 13.1 mg g-1 SAC for an optimized 2:1 mixture (by mass).

  1. Effect of the Kinesio tape to muscle activity and vertical jump performance in healthy inactive people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elastic taping applied on the triceps surae has been commonly used to improve the performance of lower extremities. However, little objective evidence has been documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elastic taping on the triceps surae during a maximal vertical jump. It was hypothesized that elastic taping to the triceps surae would increase muscle activity and cause positive effect to jump height. Methods Thirty-one healthy adults (19 males and 12 females with mean age, body weight and height for 25.3 ± 3.8 years old, 64.1 ± 6.2 kg, and 169.4 ± 7.3 cm, respectively) were recruited. All participants performed vertical jump tests prior to (without taping) and during elastic taping. Two elastic tapes, Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape from two different manufacturers, were applied to the participants, respectively. Results The results showed that the vertical ground reaction force increased when Kinesio tape was applied even when the height of jump remained about constant. However, the height of the jump decreased, and there was no difference on the vertical ground reaction force in Mplacebo taping group. Although the EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius tended to increase in Kinesio taping group, we did not see differences in EMG activity for the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and soleus muscles in either group. Conclusions Based on the varied effects of Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape, different intervention technique was suggested for specific purpose during vertical jump movement. Mplacebo tape was demanded for the benefits of stabilization, protection, and the restriction of motion at the ankle joint. On the other hand, the findings may implicate benefits for medial gastrocnemius muscle strength and push-off force when using Kinesio tape. PMID:21831321

  2. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  3. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  4. Numerical analysis of active chordwise flexibility on the performance of non-symmetrical flapping airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, W. B.; Lim, K. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of active chordwise flexing on the lift, thrust and propulsive efficiency of three types of airfoils. The factors studied are the flexing center location, standard two-sided flexing as well as a type of single-sided flexing. The airfoils are simulated to flap with four configurations, and the effects of flexing under these configurations are investigated. Results show that flexing is not necessarily beneficial for the performance of the airfoils. However, with the correct parameters, efficiency is as high as 0.76 by placing the flexing centre at the trailing edge. The average thrust coefficient is more than twice as high, from 1.63 to 3.57 with flapping and flexing under the right conditions. Moreover, the single-sided flexing also gives an average lift coefficient as high as 4.61 for the S1020 airfoil. The shape of the airfoil does alter the effect of flexing too. Deviating the flexing phase angle away from 90° does not give a significant improvement to the airfoil’s performance. These results greatly enhance the design of a better performing ornithopter wing.

  5. The influence of short-term firefighting activity on information processing performance.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Tina A; Horn, Gavin; Smith, Denise L; Fahey, George; Goldstein, Eric; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the following: effects of simulated firefighting (FF) activities under heat stress on sustained attention; whether incident rehabilitation (IR) influences performance; and relationships between performance, affect and personality. Firefighters performed ~18 min of FF. Attention, physiological, perceptual and psychological assessments were made before and after FF, IR and recovery. IR had no effects. Self-rated Energy increased, Tiredness decreased and Anxiety increased immediately post-FF; all returned to baseline 120 min post. The immediate effect of FF was faster reaction time (RT) followed by slowing after recovery. Perceived Energy at baseline was associated (p-values < 0.05) with faster and Tiredness with slower post-FF RTs; Accuracy was unaffected. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with RT before and 120 min following FF. RTs were faster following FF, accuracy was unchanged. Higher baseline Energy/lower Tiredness were associated with faster, less variable RTs at baseline and post-FF. Those with higher Conscientiousness had faster RTs. Research should further investigate higher-level cognitive processing following, or ideally during, FF.

  6. Application of active electrode compensation to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with sharp microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-González, J. F.; Destexhe, A.; Bal, T.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Electrophysiological recordings of single neurons in brain tissues are very common in neuroscience. Glass microelectrodes filled with an electrolyte are used to impale the cell membrane in order to record the membrane potential or to inject current. Their high resistance induces a high voltage drop when passing current and it is essential to correct the voltage measurements. In particular, for voltage clamping, the traditional alternatives are two-electrode voltage-clamp technique or discontinuous single electrode voltage-clamp (dSEVC). Nevertheless, it is generally difficult to impale two electrodes in a same neuron and the switching frequency is limited to low frequencies in the case of dSEVC. We present a novel fully computer-implemented alternative to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with a single sharp-electrode. Approach. To reach such voltage-clamp recordings, we combine an active electrode compensation algorithm (AEC) with a digital controller (AECVC). Main results. We applied two types of control-systems: a linear controller (proportional plus integrative controller) and a model-based controller (optimal control). We compared the performance of the two methods to dSEVC using a dynamic model cell and experiments in brain slices. Significance. The AECVC method provides an entirely digital method to perform continuous recording and smooth switching between voltage-clamp, current clamp or dynamic-clamp configurations without introducing artifacts.

  7. Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Liangtao; Li, Kexun; Chen, Zhihao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Fu, Zhou

    2014-12-01

    The present work was to study silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon (AC) air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The treated cathodes were proved to be effective to enhance the performance of MFCs. The maximum power density of MFC with silver electrodeposition time of 50 s (Ag-50) cathode was 1080 ± 60 mW m-2, 69% higher than the bare AC air cathode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that zero-valent, monovalent and divalent silver were present to transform mutually, which illustrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode took place through four-electron pathway. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the electrodeposition method made the total resistance of the electrodes largely reduced. Meanwhile the deposited silver had no toxic effects on anode culture but inhibited the biofilm growth of the cathodes. This kind of antimicrobial efficient cathode, prepared with a simple, fast and economical method, was of good benefit to the performance improvement of MFCs.

  8. Neural activity in monkey amygdala during performance of a multisensory operant task.

    PubMed

    Montes-Lourido, Pilar; Vicente, Ana F; Bermudez, Maria A; Gonzalez, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the potential involvement of monkey amygdala in the evaluation of value encoding of visual and auditive stimuli associated with reward or no reward. We recorded the activity of 93 extracellular neurons from the monkey right amygdala, while performing a multisensory operant task. The activity of 78 task-related neurons was studied. Of these, 13 neurons (16%) responded to the value of visual stimuli, 22 neurons (28%) responded after the presentation of visual stimuli, 22 neurons (28%) showed an inhibition around the lever-pressing and were classified as action related neurons and 22 neurons (28%) responded after reward delivery. These findings suggest that neurons in the amygdala play a role in encoding value and processing visual information, participate in motor regulation and are sensitive to reward. The activity of these neurons did not change in the evaluation of auditive stimuli. These data support the hypothesis that amygdala neurons are specific to each sensory modality and that different groups of amygdala neurons process visual and auditive information. PMID:26246438

  9. Repeatability of phasic muscle activity: performance of surface and intramuscular wire electrodes in gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, M P; Wootten, M E; Gainey, J; Cochran, G V

    1985-01-01

    Repeatability is an important consideration for gait analysis data that are being used as an adjunct to clinical decision making. An index of repeatability may be based on a statistical criterion (variance ratio) that reflects similarity of wave forms over a number of identical cycles. The purpose of this study was to use the variance ratio to assess the repeatability of phasic muscle activity recorded with surface and bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes during gait on 10 normal subjects. Variance ratios were calculated using rectified and smoothed electromyographic data recorded simultaneously from the two types of electrodes. Three measures of repeatability (reproducibility, reliability, and constancy--defined as the cycle-to-cycle, run-to-run, and day-to-day repeatability of phasic muscle activity) were used to compare the performance of the two electrode techniques. Results show that the reproducibility and reliability were better for surface electrodes than for intramuscular wire electrodes, and constancy was good for surface electrodes and poor for intramuscular wire electrodes. Repeatability improved with increasing smoothing window lengths but was better for surface electrodes than wire electrodes, irrespective of the smoothing window. This study indicates that surface electrode data represent a more consistent measure of activity of superficial muscles, if comparisons are to be made between gait data from different test days.

  10. Performance and stability of electrochemical capacitor based on anthraquinone modified activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pognon, Grégory; Brousse, Thierry; Demarconnay, Laurent; Bélanger, Daniel

    A series of high surface area activated carbon powders modified with various loadings of electroactive anthraquinone groups was obtained by the spontaneous reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium derivative on activated carbon. The diazotation and grafting reactions are fast and efficient and by varying the stoichiometry of these reactions the grafting amount can be controlled. With appropriate reaction conditions, the attachment of anthraquinone groups allows to double the capacitance of the modified carbonaceous material (195 F g -1) compared to the unmodified carbon (100 F g -1) due to the contribution of the redox reaction of grafted anthraquinone molecules. Long time galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling experiments were performed for composite electrodes prepared using modified carbons having two different AQ loadings (e.g. 6.7 and 11.1 wt.%). Following 10 000 charge/discharge cycles, only a 17% loss of the faradaic capacitance was observed for these two carbons. Thus, this hybrid bifunctional material appears to be an excellent candidate for application as active electrode in electrochemical capacitors.

  11. Performance monitoring and empathy during active and observational learning in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Norra, Christine; Juckel, Georg; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Previous literature established a link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and altered reward processing as well as between empathy and (observational) reward learning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of MDD on the electrophysiological correlates - the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 - of active and observational reward processing and to relate them to trait cognitive and affective empathy. Eighteen patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-learning task while event- related potentials were recorded. Also, participants were assessed with regard to self-reported cognitive and affective trait empathy. Relative to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed overall impaired learning and attenuated FRN amplitudes, irrespective of feedback valence and learning type (active vs. observational), but comparable P300 amplitudes. In the patient group, but not in controls, higher trait perspective taking scores were significantly correlated with reduced FRN amplitudes. The pattern of results suggests impaired prediction error processing and a negative effect of higher trait empathy on feedback-based learning in patients with MDD. PMID:26057196

  12. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  13. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  14. Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.

    PubMed

    Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam

    2005-06-01

    Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals.

  15. Performance monitoring and empathy during active and observational learning in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Norra, Christine; Juckel, Georg; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Previous literature established a link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and altered reward processing as well as between empathy and (observational) reward learning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of MDD on the electrophysiological correlates - the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 - of active and observational reward processing and to relate them to trait cognitive and affective empathy. Eighteen patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-learning task while event- related potentials were recorded. Also, participants were assessed with regard to self-reported cognitive and affective trait empathy. Relative to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed overall impaired learning and attenuated FRN amplitudes, irrespective of feedback valence and learning type (active vs. observational), but comparable P300 amplitudes. In the patient group, but not in controls, higher trait perspective taking scores were significantly correlated with reduced FRN amplitudes. The pattern of results suggests impaired prediction error processing and a negative effect of higher trait empathy on feedback-based learning in patients with MDD.

  16. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  17. Reproductive management practices and performance of Canadian dairy herds using automated activity-monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Neves, R C; LeBlanc, S J

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics and motivations of producers who had implemented automated activity-monitoring (AAM) systems and to compare herd reproductive performance before and after the implementation of an AAM system and between herds with AAM and herds managing reproduction based on timed artificial insemination (TAI) or based on other programs. Freestall dairy herds located in Ontario and the western provinces of Canada and enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement were surveyed through a mail questionnaire between April and July 2010. The data describe the characteristics and reproductive management practices of herds using AAM systems. A total of 505 questionnaires (29%) were returned. On average, 21-d pregnancy risk, conception risk, and 21-d insemination risk did not differ between herds managing reproduction based on an AAM system (18, 39, and 50%, respectively) or a TAI-based program (17, 38, and 49%, respectively). Herds that implemented an AAM system had a significant increase in annual pregnancy risk, from 15 to 17%, and insemination risk increased from 42 to 50%, whereas conception risk was unchanged (37 and 35%) following adoption of the system. The majority of respondents with AAM systems first used the system to manage reproduction in lactating cows. Most herds with AAM were performing artificial insemination twice per day, most commonly with an interval from the estrus alarm to artificial insemination of 7 to 12 h. The most commonly reported reason to adopt an AAM system was a desire to improve reproductive performance. These results support the findings from randomized trials that AAM-based programs can yield comparable reproductive performance to TAI-based programs.

  18. Neuromuscular activity during bench press exercise performed with and without the preexhaustion method.

    PubMed

    Brennecke, Allan; Guimarães, Thiago M; Leone, Ricardo; Cadarci, Mauro; Mochizuki, Luiz; Simão, Roberto; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio C

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on the tonic and phasic characteristics of upper-body muscle activity during bench press exercise in trained subjects. The preexhaustion method involves working a muscle or a muscle group combining a single-joint exercise immediately followed by a multi-joint exercise (e.g., flying exercise followed by bench press exercise). Twelve subjects performed 1 set of bench press exercises with and without the preexhaustion method following 2 protocols (P1-flying before bench press; P2-bench press). Both exercises were performed at a load of 10 repetition maximum (10RM). Electromyography (EMG) sampled at 1 kHz was recorded from the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (DA), and triceps brachii (TB). Kinematic data (60 Hz) were synchronized to define upward and downward phases of exercise. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were seen in tonic control of PM and DA muscles between P1 and P2. However, TB tonic aspect of neurophysiologic behavior of motor units was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during P1. Moreover, phasic control of PM, DA, and TB muscles were not affected (p > 0.05). The kinematic pattern of movement changed as a result of muscular weakness in P1. Angular velocity of the right shoulder performed during the upward phase of the bench press exercise was significantly slower (p < 0.05) during P1. Our results suggest that the strategies set by the central nervous system to provide the performance required by the exercise are held constant throughout the exercise, but the tonic aspects of the central drive are increased so as to adapt to the progressive occurrence of the neuromuscular fatigue. Changes in tonic control as a result of the muscular weakness and fatigue can cause changes in movement techniques. These changes may be related to limited ability to control mechanical loads and mechanical energy transmission to joints and passive structures.

  19. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  20. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  1. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  2. Effects of Slackline Training on Postural Control, Jump Performance, and Myoelectrical Activity in Female Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luis; Fernández-Río, Javier; Fernández-García, Benjamín; Jakobsen, Markus D; González-Gómez, Lucía; Suman, Oscar E

    2016-03-01

    The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of slackline training on the postural control system and jump performance of athletes. Twenty-five female basketball players were randomized into 2 groups: control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 13). The latter experienced a 6-week supervised slackline training (3 sessions per week, 5-9 minutes per session). Participants underwent center of pressure (CoP) testing through three 10-second tasks (bipedal, left leg, and right leg support) over firm and compliant surfaces with eyes open. Several CoP parameters were assessed: length, area, length/area, speed, Ymean, Xmean, deltaY, deltaX, RMS (root-mean-squared amplitude of the CoP), RMSY, and RMSX. Surface electromyography recordings were obtained too. Participants were also tested on jump performance, provided perceived exertion (6-20 Borg scale) and local muscle perceived exertion. Center of pressure parameters significantly differed before and after training only in the experimental group and only on the compliant surface (left leg: length, area, speed, deltaY, and deltaX; right leg: length, speed, Ymean, deltaY, and RMSY). Surface electromyography recordings were comparable before and after training in both groups. Performance on a countermovement jump test significantly improved only in the experimental group (effect side was 3.21 and 1.36 [flight time and jump height, respectively], which is described as a large effect). Mechanical power of the legs, as measured through the 30-second maximal performance jump test, did not improve in either group. The slackline training was rated as "somewhat hard" with the quadriceps, soleus, and gastrocnemius being rated as the most engaged muscles. Data indicate that slacklining requires activation of the main lower limb muscles. On conclusion, slacklining may be a valid cross-training tool for female basketball players.

  3. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons. Key words:Institutionalized elderly

  4. Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding

  5. A novel analgesic toxin (hannalgesin) from the venom of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Pu, X C; Wong, P T; Gopalakrishnakone, P

    1995-11-01

    The pharmacological effects of a purified neurotoxin from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom were studied. Using the hot-plate test, it is shown that this neurotoxin increased latency time dose-dependently when administered i.p. Similar analgesic action was observed when it was administered p.o. or i.c.v. The rota-rod performance, which is a good index for neurological deficits including sedation, muscle relaxant and impairment of motor activity and coordination, was not significantly affected in the dose range of 16-32 ng/g that caused analgesia. The toxin did not increase the convulsion threshold in the dose range of 8-64 ng/g in the maximal electroshock seizure tests. These results demonstrated that this neurotoxin produced analgesia in the dose range of 16-32 ng/g (i.p.) without causing any neurological or muscular deficits. It is further shown that such analgesic action was blocked by naloxone and L-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester, suggesting the possible involvement of the opioid and nitric oxide systems, respectively. In view of the source of this neurotoxin (O. hannah) and its potent analgesic action, it is proposed that this toxin be named hannalgesin.

  6. Mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), shows multiple pharmacological actions such as inhibiting presynaptic α2 noradrenaline receptor (NAR) and selectively activating 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor (5-HT1AR). Mirtazapine was also reported to increase dopamine release in the cortical neurons with 5-HT dependent manner. To examine whether mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in Parkinson’s disease (PD), we examined this compound in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice model of PD. Results Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MPTP treatment to establish a PD model. Mirtazapine was administered once a day for 3 days after MPTP treatment. MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, assessed by beam-walking and rota-rod tests, was significantly improved by administration of mirtazapine. Biochemical examinations by high performance liquid chromatography and western blot analysis suggested mirtazapine facilitated utilization of dopamine by increasing turnover and protein expression of transporters, without affecting on neurodegenerative process by MPTP. These therapeutic effects of mirtazapine were reduced by administration of WAY100635, an inhibitor for 5HT1AR, or of clonidine, a selective agonist for α2-NAR, or of prazosin, an inhibitor for α1-NAR, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed mirtazapine had a therapeutic potency against PD in a mouse model. Because PD patients sometimes show depression together, it will be a useful drug for a future PD treatment. PMID:24965042

  7. Evaluation of social and physical enrichment in modulation of behavioural phenotype in C57BL/6J female mice.

    PubMed

    Kulesskaya, Natalia; Rauvala, Heikki; Voikar, Vootele

    2011-01-01

    Housing conditions represent an important environmental variable playing a critical role in the assessment of mouse behaviour. In the present study the effects of isolation and nesting material on the behaviour of female C57BL/6J mice were evaluated. The mice were subjected to different rearing conditions from weaning (at the age of 3 weeks). The study groups were group- and single-housed mice, divided further into groups with or without nesting material (species-specific enrichment). After 8 weeks spent in respective conditions the behavioural testing began. Both factors (social conditions and nesting material) appeared to have a significant impact on the behavioural phenotype. However, it is important to stress that the interaction between the factors was virtually absent. We established that isolation increased locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behaviour in several tests of exploration. In contrast, absence of nesting material increased anxiety-like behaviour. Neither factor affected rota-rod performance, nociception and prepulse inhibition. Contextual fear memory was significantly reduced in single-housed mice, and interestingly, in mice with nesting material. Cued fear memory was reduced by single-housing, but not affected by enrichment. Mice from enriched cages displayed faster and better learning and spatial search strategy in the water maze. In contrast, isolation caused significant impairment in the water maze. In conclusion, both isolation and species-specific enrichment have profound effects on mouse behaviour and should be considered in design of the experiments and in assessment of animal welfare issues.

  8. Evidence for the involvement of spinal cord-inhibitory and cytokines-modulatory mechanisms in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of hecogenin acetate, a steroidal sapogenin-acetylated, in mice.

    PubMed

    Quintans, Jullyana S S; Barreto, Rosana S S; de Lucca, Waldecy; Villarreal, Cristiane F; Kaneto, Carla M; Soares, Milena B P; Branco, Alexsandro; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Taranto, Alex G; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Quintans, Lucindo J

    2014-01-01

    Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin largely drawn from the plants of the genus Agave, commonly known as 'sisal', and is one of the important precursors used by the pharmaceutical industry for the synthesis of steroid hormones. Hecogenin acetate (HA) is a steroidal sapogenin-acetylated that produces antinociceptive activity. Thus, we evaluate the antihyperalgesic profile of HA in mice in inflammatory models, as well as its possible involvement with c-fos expression on spinal cord area and cytokines to produces analgesic profile. Acute pretreatment with HA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited the development of mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, TNF-α, dopamine and PGE2. Additionally, the immunofluorescence data demonstrated that acute pretreatment with HA, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited Fos-like expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn normally observed after carrageenan-inflammation. Moreover, HA did not affect the motor performance of the mice as tested in the Rota rod test. This antinociceptive profile seems to be related, at least in part, to a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β. The present results suggest that HA attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia by blocking the neural transmission of pain at the spinal cord levels and by cytokines-inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24950436

  9. Evidence for the involvement of spinal cord-inhibitory and cytokines-modulatory mechanisms in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of hecogenin acetate, a steroidal sapogenin-acetylated, in mice.

    PubMed

    Quintans, Jullyana S S; Barreto, Rosana S S; de Lucca, Waldecy; Villarreal, Cristiane F; Kaneto, Carla M; Soares, Milena B P; Branco, Alexsandro; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Taranto, Alex G; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Quintans, Lucindo J

    2014-06-19

    Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin largely drawn from the plants of the genus Agave, commonly known as 'sisal', and is one of the important precursors used by the pharmaceutical industry for the synthesis of steroid hormones. Hecogenin acetate (HA) is a steroidal sapogenin-acetylated that produces antinociceptive activity. Thus, we evaluate the antihyperalgesic profile of HA in mice in inflammatory models, as well as its possible involvement with c-fos expression on spinal cord area and cytokines to produces analgesic profile. Acute pretreatment with HA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited the development of mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, TNF-α, dopamine and PGE2. Additionally, the immunofluorescence data demonstrated that acute pretreatment with HA, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited Fos-like expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn normally observed after carrageenan-inflammation. Moreover, HA did not affect the motor performance of the mice as tested in the Rota rod test. This antinociceptive profile seems to be related, at least in part, to a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β. The present results suggest that HA attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia by blocking the neural transmission of pain at the spinal cord levels and by cytokines-inhibitory mechanisms.

  10. A qualitative study of the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support: recommended practices for success

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Wasserman, Joe; Bunce, Arwen; Stanescu, Ana; St Hilaire, Daniel; Panzenhagen, Morgan; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support (CDS) at leading sites. Materials and methods We conducted ethnographic observations at seven diverse sites with a history of excellence in CDS using the Rapid Assessment Process and analyzed the data using a series of card sorts, informed by Linstone's Multiple Perspectives Model. Results We identified 18 activities and grouped them into four areas. Area 1: Fostering relationships across the organization, with activities (a) training and support, (b) visibility/presence on the floor, (c) liaising between people, (d) administration and leadership, (e) project management, (f) cheerleading/buy-in/sponsorship, (g) preparing for CDS implementation. Area 2: Assembling the system with activities (a) providing technical support, (b) CDS content development, (c) purchasing products from vendors (d) knowledge management, (e) system integration. Area 3: Using CDS to achieve the organization's goals with activities (a) reporting, (b) requirements-gathering/specifications, (c) monitoring CDS, (d) linking CDS to goals, (e) managing data. Area 4: Participation in external policy and standards activities (this area consists of only a single activity). We also identified a set of recommendations associated with these 18 activities. Discussion All 18 activities we identified were performed at all sites, although the way they were organized into roles differed substantially. We consider these activities critical to the success of a CDS program. Conclusions A series of activities are performed by sites strong in CDS, and sites adopting CDS should ensure they incorporate these activities into their efforts. PMID:23999670

  11. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings.

  12. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-12-21

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites.

  13. Hierarchical-structured anatase-titania/cellulose composite sheet with high photocatalytic performance and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Huang, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    Bulk hierarchical anatase-titania/cellulose composite sheets were fabricated by subjecting an ultrathin titania gel film pre-deposited filter paper to a solvo-co-hydrothermal treatment by using titanium butoxide as the precursor to grow anatase-titania nanocrystallites on the cellulose nanofiber surfaces. The titanium butoxide specie is firstly absorbed onto the nanofibers of the cellulose substance through a solvothermal process, which was thereafter hydrolyzed and crystallized upon the subsequent hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of fine anatase-titania nanoparticles with sizes of 2-5 nm uniformly anchored on the cellulose nanofibers. The resulting anatase-titania/cellulose composite sheet shows a significant photocatalytic performance towards degradation of a methylene blue dye, and introduction of silver nanoparticles into the composite sheet yields an Ag-NP/anatase-titania/cellulose composite material possessing excellent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Zinc oxide/activated carbon nanofiber composites for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hyo; Kim, Bo-Hye

    2015-01-01

    ZnO-containing porous activated carbon nanofibers (ZnO/ACNFs) are prepared through one-step electrospinning using zinc acetate and polyacrylonitrile (PAN), followed by thermal treatment. The electrochemical performance of the ZnO/ACNF composite electrodes is compared to that of pure ACNF electrodes in aqueous KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical measurements of ZnO/ACNFs reveal a maximum specific capacitance of 178.2 Fg-1, and high energy densities of 22.71-17.77 Whkg-1 in the power density range of 400 to 4000 W kg-1. Furthermore, this supercapacitor electrode exhibits excellent cycle life with a specific capacitance ∼75% of the initial value after 1000 cycles. The combination of ACNF's high surface area with ZnO's large specific capacity facilitates a synergistic effect between ZnO's faradaic capacitance and ACNF's double layer capacitance, which afforded good capacitive behavior.

  15. Improved performance of cylindrical hybrid supercapacitor using activated carbon/ niobium doped hydrogen titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Hong-Ki; Baek, Esther; Pecht, Michael; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Young-Hie

    2016-01-01

    A cylindrical hybrid supercapacitor is fabricated using activated carbon positive electrode and H2Ti12-xNbxO25 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) negative electrode materials. The hybrid supercapacitor using H2Ti11.85Nb0.15O25 exhibits the best electrochemical performance. It has a capacitance of 78.4 F g-1, charge transfer resistance (Rct) of 0.03 Ω, capacitance retention of 91.4% after 1000 cycles at 3.0 A g-1 and energy density of 24.3 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1794.6 W kg-1. Therefore, the Nb doped HTO negative electrode material is a promising candidate as an energy storage system for electric vehicles (EVs).

  16. ACTIVE FILTER HARDWARE DESIGN & PERFORMANCE FOR THE DIII-D PLASMA CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    SELLERS,D; FERRON,J.R; WALKER,M.L; BROESCH,J.D

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The digital plasma control system (PCS), currently in operation on the DIII-D tokamak, requires inputs from a large number of sensors. Due to the nature of the digitizers and the relative noisy environment from which these signals are derived, each of the 32 signals must be conditioned via an active filter. Two different types of filters, Chebyshev and Bessel with fixed frequencies: 100 Hz Bessel was used for filtering the motional Stark effect diagnostic data. 800 Hz Bessel was designed to filter plasma control data and 1200 Hz Chebyshev is used with closed loop control of choppers. The performance of the plasma control system is greatly influenced by how well the actual filter responses match the software model used in the control system algorithms. This paper addresses the various issues facing the designer in matching the electrical design with the theoretical.

  17. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  18. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings. PMID:25520209

  19. High performance electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries through oxygen-enriched thermal activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Clement, Jason T.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2015-10-01

    The roundtrip electrochemical energy efficiency is improved from 63% to 76% at a current density of 200 mA cm-2 in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) by utilizing modified carbon paper electrodes in the high-performance no-gap design. Heat treatment of the carbon paper electrodes in a 42% oxygen/58% nitrogen atmosphere increases the electrochemically wetted surface area from 0.24 to 51.22 m2 g-1, resulting in a 100-140 mV decrease in activation overpotential at operationally relevant current densities. An enriched oxygen environment decreases the amount of treatment time required to achieve high surface area. The increased efficiency and greater depth of discharge doubles the total usable energy stored in a fixed amount of electrolyte during operation at 200 mA cm-2.

  20. Performance of an Active Mass Driver System on a Five Storey Benchmark Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samali, Bijan; Al-Dawod, Mohammed; Li, Jianchun

    This paper reports the experimental tests conducted on a 5-storey benchmark model defined by Samali, using an Active Mass Driver (AMD) system, where the control action is achieved by using Fuzzy Logic controller and UTS state-of-the-art shake table facility. The performance of the Fuzzy controller is checked against Hachinohe 1968 and Northridge 1994 earthquake records as input excitation to the benchmark model. The main advantage of the Fuzzy controller is its inherent robustness and ability to handle any non-linear behaviour of the structure. The results of the experimental tests show the ability of the adopted Fuzzy controller to reduce the building responses for the two earthquake records used.

  1. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Perform Designated Occupational Activities according to Simple Instructions with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology, turning the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high performance three-dimensional object orientation detector. This study extended Wii Remote Controller functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated simple…

  2. Performance of Optimized Actuator and Sensor Arrays in an Active Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, D. L.; Padula, S. L.; Lyle, K. H.; Cline, J. H.; Cabell, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in NASA Langley's Acoustics and Dynamics Laboratory to determine the effectiveness of optimized actuator/sensor architectures and controller algorithms for active control of harmonic interior noise. Tests were conducted in a large scale fuselage model - a composite cylinder which simulates a commuter class aircraft fuselage with three sections of trim panel and a floor. Using an optimization technique based on the component transfer functions, combinations of 4 out of 8 piezoceramic actuators and 8 out of 462 microphone locations were evaluated against predicted performance. A combinatorial optimization technique called tabu search was employed to select the optimum transducer arrays. Three test frequencies represent the cases of a strong acoustic and strong structural response, a weak acoustic and strong structural response and a strong acoustic and weak structural response. Noise reduction was obtained using a Time Averaged/Gradient Descent (TAGD) controller. Results indicate that the optimization technique successfully predicted best and worst case performance. An enhancement of the TAGD control algorithm was also evaluated. The principal components of the actuator/sensor transfer functions were used in the PC-TAGD controller. The principal components are shown to be independent of each other while providing control as effective as the standard TAGD.

  3. Flight performance of the International Space Station active rack isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, Glenn S.; Fialho, Ian J.; Allen, James L.; Quraishi, Naveed

    2003-10-01

    Space flight experiment test results of a Space Station Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) are presented. The purpose of ARIS is to isolate microgravity sensitive science experiments mounted in Space Station racks from structural vibrations present on the large Space Station orbital structure. The ARIS is shown to solve the very difficult and challenging low frequency isolation problem by providing over an order of magnitude reduction in the acceleration at 0.1 Hz. The Station displacement response to crew motion is discussed along with the control method that ARIS employs to maintain microgravity performance while limiting the motion between the Station and the isolated rack. The dramatic difference between the Station acceleration levels during crew awake and sleep periods are presented. Some microgravity experiments are sensitive to angular acceleration, so both the translational and angular accelerations of the isolated rack are presented. The performance at frequencies up to 300 Hz was measured by exciting the Station structure with a proof-mass shaker and a hammer and these results, and the impacts from payload fans are presented. ARIS has been in operation for two years and three Zeolite Crystal Growth Experiments have been supported.

  4. Lead Toxicity to the Performance, Viability, And Community Composition of Activated Sludge Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, L; Zhi, W; Liu, YS; Karyala, S; Vikesland, PJ; Chen, X; Zhang, HS

    2015-01-20

    Lead (Pb) is a prominent toxic metal in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge on Pb toxicity to the activated sludge has been limited to short-term (<= 24 h) toxicity. The effect of extended Pb exposure on process performance, bacterial viability, and community compositions remains unknown. We quantified the 24-h and 7-day Pb toxicity to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal, bacterial viability, and community compositions using lab-scale experiments. Our results showed that 7-day toxicity was significantly higher than the short-term 24-h toxicity. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more susceptible than the heterotrophs to Pb toxicity. The specific oxygen uptake rate responded quickly to Pb addition and could serve as a rapid indicator for detecting Pb pollutions. Microbial viability decreased linearly with the amount of added Pb at extended exposure. The bacterial community diversity was markedly reduced with elevated Pb concentrations. Surface analysis suggested that the adsorbed form of Pb could have contributed to its toxicity along with the dissolved form. Our study provides for the first time a systematic investigation of the effect of extended exposure of Pb on the performance and microbiology of aerobic treatment processes, and it indicates that long-term Pb toxicity has been underappreciated by previous studies.

  5. Lead toxicity to the performance, viability, and community composition of activated sludge microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Karyala, Saikumar; Vikesland, Peter J; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Husen

    2015-01-20

    Lead (Pb) is a prominent toxic metal in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge on Pb toxicity to the activated sludge has been limited to short-term (≤24 h) toxicity. The effect of extended Pb exposure on process performance, bacterial viability, and community compositions remains unknown. We quantified the 24-h and 7-day Pb toxicity to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3–N removal, bacterial viability, and community compositions using lab-scale experiments. Our results showed that 7-day toxicity was significantly higher than the short-term 24-h toxicity. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more susceptible than the heterotrophs to Pb toxicity. The specific oxygen uptake rate responded quickly to Pb addition and could serve as a rapid indicator for detecting Pb pollutions. Microbial viability decreased linearly with the amount of added Pb at extended exposure. The bacterial community diversity was markedly reduced with elevated Pb concentrations. Surface analysis suggested that the adsorbed form of Pb could have contributed to its toxicity along with the dissolved form. Our study provides for the first time a systematic investigation of the effect of extended exposure of Pb on the performance and microbiology of aerobic treatment processes, and it indicates that long-term Pb toxicity has been underappreciated by previous studies. PMID:25536278

  6. Performance prediction of circular dielectric electro-active polymers membrane actuators with various geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, Steffen; York, Alexander; Seelecke, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Circular dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) membrane actuators are easy to manufacture and therefore can be uniquely designed to perform optimally for specific applications. The performance of these actuators is naturally dependent on the materials used, and also dictated by the specific geometry of the circular design. For a given overall actuator size, changing their internal geometry will directly change the force and stroke output. In addition the DEAP technology itself is a promising technology for constructing lightweight, cost and energy efficient sensor and actuator systems. Thus, several potential applications like pressure sensors, pumps, valves, micro-positioners and loudspeakers were already proposed. The circular DEAP membrane actuators used in this study consist of a silicone based elastomer, carbon ink based electrodes, and are held together with a stiff frame. Experimentally collected force-displacement curves for these actuators can be used to determine force and stroke output of the actuators as described by Hodgins et al. in. This work presents an efficient method to predict these force-displacement plots and thus stroke and force output for different actuator geometries. These results than can be used to adapt the actuator geometry to the needs of a specific application with its particular force and stroke requirements. The prediction method is based on an average stress-stretch calculation for training samples. The calculated stress-stretch data is then geometry independent and can be used to predict desired geometry dependent force-displacement data for stroke and force output analysis.

  7. Investigation of Active Flow Control to Improve Aerodynamic Performance of Oscillating Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Bowersox, Rodney; Bussom, Richard; McVeigh, Michael; Raghu, Surya; White, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to design a promising active flow control concept on an oscillating airfoil for on-blade alleviation of dynamic stall. The concept must be designed for a range of representative Mach numbers (0.2 to 0.5) and representative reduced frequency characteristics of a full-scale rotorcraft. Specifications for a sweeping-jet actuator to mitigate the detrimental effects of retreating blade stall experienced by edgewise rotors in forward flight has been performed. Wind tunnel modifications have been designed to accommodate a 5x6 test section in the Oran W. Nicks Low Speed Wind Tunnel at Texas A&M University that will allow the tunnel to achieve Mach 0.5. The flow control design is for a two-dimensional oscillating VR-7 blade section with a 15- inch chord at rotor-relevant flow conditions covering the range of reduced frequencies from 0.0 to 0.15 and Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.5. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to influence the placement of the flow control devices for optimal effectiveness.

  8. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  9. Central as well as Peripheral Attentional Bottlenecks in Dual-Task Performance Activate Lateral Prefrontal Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Szameitat, André J.; Vanloo, Azonya; Müller, Hermann J.

    2016-01-01

    Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage) as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation) both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analyzed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In one study (N = 17), the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group). In the other study (N = 16), the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group). Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect). Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices (LPFC). Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns

  10. Central as well as Peripheral Attentional Bottlenecks in Dual-Task Performance Activate Lateral Prefrontal Cortices.

    PubMed

    Szameitat, André J; Vanloo, Azonya; Müller, Hermann J

    2016-01-01

    Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage) as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation) both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analyzed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In one study (N = 17), the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group). In the other study (N = 16), the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group). Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect). Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices (LPFC). Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns

  11. Enhancing the performance of nanofiltration membranes by modifying the active layer with aramide dendrimers.

    PubMed

    de Jubera, Ana M Saenz; Gao, Yuan; Moore, Jeffrey S; Cahill, David G; Mariñas, Benito J

    2012-09-01

    The fully aromatic polyamide active layer of a commercial nanofiltration membrane was modified with three generations (G1, G2, and G3) of aramide dendrimers, all with oligoethylene glycol chains on their peripheries. Permeation experiments revealed that the rejection of Rhodamine WT, used as a surrogate for organic contaminants, improved 1-2 orders of magnitude for membranes modified with G2 and G3 dendrimers at loadings of 0.7-3.5 μg/cm(2) (dendrimer layer thicknesses of ~1-6 nm) compared to the performance of unmodified membranes. In contrast, the corresponding water permeability of dendrimer-modified membranes decreased by only ~30%. Although an enhancement in the rejection of H(3)AsO(3), NaCl, and BaCl(2) was also observed for dendritic membranes, the effect was less pronounced than that for rhodamine WT. Characterization of membranes modified with 3.5 μg/cm(2) dendrimers G2 and G3 by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with the aid of heavy ion probes (Ag(+) and Ba(2+)) revealed that accessibility of the larger Ba(2+) probe to carboxylate groups on the active layer decreased for the membranes modified with dendrimers.

  12. Performance of thermally activated dolomite for the treatment of Ni and Zn in contaminated neutral drainage.

    PubMed

    Calugaru, Iuliana Laura; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Genty, Thomas; Bussière, Bruno; Potvin, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Intensive research is ongoing for developing low-cost and highly efficient materials in metal removal from contaminated effluents. The present study evaluated dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2], both raw and modified by thermal activation (charring), for Ni and Zn treatment in contaminated neutral drainage (CND). Batch adsorption testing (equilibrium and kinetics) were conducted at pH 6, to evaluate the performance of initial vs. modified dolomite, and to assess potential mechanisms of metal removal. Charring of dolomite led to a rigid and porous material, mainly consisting of CaCO3 and MgO, which showed a sorption capacity increased sevenfold for Zn and doubled for Ni, relative to the raw material. In addition, Freundlich model best described the sorption of the both metals by dolomite, whereas the Langmuir model best described their sorption on charred dolomite. Plausible mechanisms of metal removal include cation exchange, surface precipitation and sorption processes, with carbonate ions and magnesium oxides acting as active centers. Based on these results, charred dolomite seems a promising option for the efficient treatment of Ni and Zn in CND. PMID:26897574

  13. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-01-01

    Could ‘defect-considered’ void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85–95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1 nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10 ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8 A W−1) and excellent detectivity (2 × 1013 Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of ‘defect-considered’ Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices. PMID:27151288

  14. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-05-01

    Could ‘defect-considered’ void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85–95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1 nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10 ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8 A W‑1) and excellent detectivity (2 × 1013 Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of ‘defect-considered’ Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices.

  15. A novel preterm respiratory mechanics active simulator to test the performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Paolo; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea; Silvestri, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A patient active simulator is proposed which is capable of reproducing values of the parameters of pulmonary mechanics of healthy newborns and preterm pathological infants. The implemented prototype is able to: (a) let the operator choose the respiratory pattern, times of apnea, episodes of cough, sobs, etc., (b) continuously regulate and control the parameters characterizing the pulmonary system; and, finally, (c) reproduce the attempt of breathing of a preterm infant. Taking into account both the limitation due to the chosen application field and the preliminary autocalibration phase automatically carried out by the proposed device, accuracy and reliability on the order of 1% is estimated. The previously indicated value has to be considered satisfactory in light of the field of application and the small values of the simulated parameters. Finally, the achieved metrological characteristics allow the described neonatal simulator to be adopted as a reference device to test performances of neonatal ventilators and, more specifically, to measure the time elapsed between the occurrence of a potentially dangerous condition to the patient and the activation of the corresponding alarm of the tested ventilator.

  16. Performance of an Active Noise Control System for Fan Tones Using Vane Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Curtis, Alan R. D.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Remington, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    An Active Noise Control (ANC) system for ducted fan noise was built that uses actuators located in stator vanes. The custom designed actuators A,ere piezoelectric benders manufactured using THUNDER technology. The ANC system was tested in the NASA Active Noise Control Fan rig. A total of 168 actuators in 28 stator vanes were used (six per vane). Simultaneous inlet and exhaust acoustic power level reductions were demonstrated for a fan modal structure that contained two radial modes in each direction. Total circumferential mode power levels were reduced by up to 9 dB in the inlet and 3 dB in the exhaust. The corresponding total 2BPF tone level reductions were by 6 dB in the inlet and 2 dB in the exhaust. Farfield sound pressure level reductions of up to 17 dB were achieved at the peak mode lobe angle. The performance of the system was limited by the constraints of the power amplifiers and the presence of control spillover. Simpler control/actuator systems using carefully selected subsets of the full system and random simulated failures of up to 7% of the actuators were investigated. (The actuators were robust and none failed during the test). Useful reductions still occurred under these conditions.

  17. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-05-06

    Could 'defect-considered' void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85-95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1 nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10 ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8 A W(-1)) and excellent detectivity (2 × 10(13) Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of 'defect-considered' Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices.

  18. Thiopurine methyl transferase activity: new extraction conditions for high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Ganiere-Monteil, C; Pineau, A; Kergueris, M F; Azoulay, C; Bourin, M

    1999-04-30

    A new liquid-liquid extraction is described for thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT, EC 2.1.1.67) activity determination: the use of a pH 9.5 NH4Cl buffer solution, before adding the solvent mixture, allows more rapid extraction, avoiding a centrifugation step, and reduces the global cost of analysis. After the extraction step, 6-methylmercaptopurine, synthesised during the enzymatic reaction, is determined by a liquid chromatographic assay. Analytical performance of the assay was tested on spiked erythrocyte lysates. The linear concentration range was 5-250 ng ml(-1) (r> or =0.997, slope=1.497, intercept=-0.367). The recoveries were 82.8, 89.9 and 82.2% for 75, 125 and 225 ng ml(-1), respectively. The coefficients of variation were < or =6.1% for within-day assay (n=6) and < or =9.5% for between-day assay precision (n=6; 14 days). TPMT activity was determined in a French adult Caucasian population (7 =70). The results ranged from 7.8 to 27.8 nmol h(-1) ml(-1) packed red blood cells and the frequency distribution histogram is similar to that previously published.

  19. Spectral characterisation and noise performance of Vanilla—an active pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Andrew; Bates, R.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Clark, A.; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Greenshaw, T.; Laing, A.; Maneuski, D.; Turchetta, R.; O'Shea, V.

    2008-06-01

    This work will report on the characterisation of a new active pixel sensor, Vanilla. The Vanilla comprises of 512×512 (25μm 2) pixels. The sensor has a 12 bit digital output for full-frame mode, although it can also be readout in analogue mode, whereby it can also be read in a fully programmable region-of-interest (ROI) mode. In full frame, the sensor can operate at a readout rate of more than 100 frames per second (fps), while in ROI mode, the speed depends on the size, shape and number of ROIs. For example, an ROI of 6×6 pixels can be read at 20,000 fps in analogue mode. Using photon transfer curve (PTC) measurements allowed for the calculation of the read noise, shot noise, full-well capacity and camera gain constant of the sensor. Spectral response measurements detailed the quantum efficiency (QE) of the detector through the UV and visible region. Analysis of the ROI readout mode was also performed. Such measurements suggest that the Vanilla APS (active pixel sensor) will be suitable for a wide range of applications including particle physics and medical imaging.

  20. Active Adoption of Void Formation in Metal-Oxide for All Transparent Super-Performing Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2016-01-01

    Could 'defect-considered' void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85-95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1 nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10 ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8 A W(-1)) and excellent detectivity (2 × 10(13) Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of 'defect-considered' Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices. PMID:27151288

  1. Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch; Brereton, Giles

    2002-10-15

    Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.

  2. Initial manufacturing performance of an actively controlled PBS resist development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novembre, Anthony E.; Tarascon, Regine G.; Thompson, Larry F.; Tang, Wallace T.; Tange, C. O.; Bostic, R. A.; Ahn, D. H.

    1993-03-01

    An improvement in the method used to fabricate 5 X 5 in2 -1 and 5x biased and unbiased optical masks is achieved by actively controlling the resist development step of the mask fabrication process. This method has been initially applied to a photomask process which utilizes poly(1-butene-co-sulfur dioxide)(PBS) resist as the pattern delineation material. Real-time targeting of resist feature dimensions is performed using a Laserlith Resist Thickness and Endpoint Controller which has been adapted to an Applied Process TechnologyR/Convac Model 915 resist processor. The controller monitors in real-time the one-step resist development process for a time period based on the measured development rate of the resist, the geometry and size of the targeted feature. After the resist is developed, the controller instructs the resist processor to continue onto the remaining steps in the processing cycle. The targeted resist features of initial product produced using this system have an average variation from targeted size of 0.04 micrometers and an average resist linewidth uniformity (3(sigma) ) of 0.04 micrometers . These results indicate that active control of this critical development step enables the resist feature dimensions to be within +/- 0.05 micrometers of their targeted size after completion of the post-development bake step.

  3. A new irradiation plant in Italy: Technical features and activities performed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, A.; Casali, F.; Schwarz, M.

    1998-06-01

    Since 1995, a new Hitesys Co. pilot/industrial irradiation plant has been operating in Aprilia, 50 km south of Rome. The plant, which was jointly designed by ENEA and Hitesys Co., is equipped with a highly flexible automatic materials transport system which is also suitable for continuous process repetition or, when upturned, for double-side material treatment. The main features of the irradiation plant are: - the radiation source: EB-machine LINAC type (s band) with maximum electron beam energy of 10 MeV and beam power of 1000 W; - the bunker: external type, shielded by ordinary concrete, equipped with a suitable entrance/exit maze in order to allow easy handling and managing of materials as well as to facilitate equipment and machinery maintenance and inspection activities. An intense program of R&D activities and technological services has already been performed in relation to industrial processes and environmental applications, as well as many other radiation technology applications, including agriculture related processes.

  4. Effect of Mild Thyrotoxicosis on Performance and Brain Activations in a Working Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Anna; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Disturbed levels of thyroid hormones are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including memory impairments. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of mild induced thyrotoxicosis on working memory and its neural correlates. Methods Twenty-nine healthy, male subjects with normal thyroid state participated in the study. Functional MRI was acquired during a working memory task (n-back task) before and after ingesting 250 μg L-thyroxin per day for a period of eight weeks. In addition, neuropsychological tests were performed. Results In the hyperthyroid condition the subjects showed slower reaction times, but a higher accuracy in the 0-back version of the memory tasks. Fewer differences between euthyroid and hyperthyroid state were seen for the more difficult conditions of the n-back task. FMRI revealed effects of difficulty in the parahippocampal gyrus, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cerebellum, rolandic operculum and insula (p<0.05, FWE corrected). When comparing euthyroid and hyperthyroid condition in relation to task-induced activation, differences of activation were found in the right prefrontal cortex as well as in the right parahippocampal area. In the psychological assessment, the alerting effect in the Attention Network Task (ANT) and four out of five parameters of the auditory verbal learning test (AVLT) showed an increase from euthyroid to hyperthyroid state. Conclusions It can be concluded that even a short-term intake of thyroid hormones leads to an activation of brain areas associated with working memory and to an improvement of accuracy of working memory tasks. PMID:27536945

  5. High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Di Mascio, Michele; Peart, Dan; Olsen, Peter; Sheldon, Bill

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) determine the high-intensity activity patterns of soccer players at different performance levels and playing positions, (b) investigate temporary and end game fatigue in elite domestic and international soccer matches, and (c) quantify acceleration and maximal running speed profiles of elite soccer players. Elite domestic (n = 100) and international (n = 10) soccer players were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. No differences were found for high-intensity running distance (2,520 +/- 678 vs. 2,745 +/- 332 m), mean recovery time (67 +/- 15 vs. 71 +/- 26 seconds), or maximal running speed (7.76 +/- 0.31 vs. 7.66 +/- 0.34 mxs-1). The distance covered in high-intensity running irrespective of playing level was 18% lower (p < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15-minute period of the game (391 +/- 117 vs. 478 +/- 141 m). The decline in high-intensity running immediately after the most intense 5-minute period was similar between international (222 +/- 33 vs. 109 +/- 37 m or 51% decline) and elite domestic (243 +/- 81 vs. 114 +/- 51 m or 53% decline) players. Wide midfielders, central midfielders, fullbacks, and attackers covered a greater (p < 0.01) distance in high-intensity running than central defenders (3,243 +/- 625, 2,949 +/- 435, 2,806 +/- 408, 2,618 +/- 745 vs. 2,034 +/- 284 m). Results demonstrate that high-intensity running is reduced during various periods of elite soccer matches, and high-intensity activity profiles and fatigue patterns are similar between international and elite domestic players but vary markedly between playing positions. These data provide valuable information to the fitness coach regarding the high-intensity active profile of elite soccer players that could be used to develop soccer-specific training drills.

  6. Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5-km run performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Arngrïmsson, Sigurbjörn A; Petitt, Darby S; Stueck, Matthew G; Jorgensen, Dennis K; Cureton, Kirk J

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether a cooling vest worn during an active warm-up enhances 5-km run time in the heat. Seventeen competitive runners (9 men, maximal oxygen uptake = 66.7 +/- 5.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); 8 women, maximal oxygen uptake = 58.0 +/- 3.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed two simulated 5-km runs on a treadmill after a 38-min active warm-up during which they wore either a T-shirt (C) or a vest filled with ice (V) in a hot, humid environment (32 degrees C, 50% relative humidity). Wearing the cooling vest during warm-up significantly (P < 0.05) blunted increases in body temperature, heart rate (HR), and perception of thermal discomfort during warm-up compared with control. At the start of the 5-km run, esophageal, rectal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures averaged 0.3, 0.2, 1.8, and 0.4 degrees C lower; HR averaged 11 beats/min lower; and perception of thermal discomfort (5-point scale) averaged 0.6 point lower in V than C. Most of these differences were eliminated during the first 3.2 km of the run, and these variables were not different at the end. The 5-km run time was significantly lower (P < 0.05) by 13 s in V than C, with a faster pace most evident during the last two-thirds of the run. We conclude that a cooling vest worn during active warm-up by track athletes enhances 5-km run performance in the heat. Reduced thermal and cardiovascular strain and perception of thermal discomfort in the early portion of the run appear to permit a faster pace later in the run.

  7. Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women.

    PubMed

    Curry, Brad S; Chengkalath, Devendra; Crouch, Gordon J; Romance, Michelle; Manns, Patricia J

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three warm-up protocols--static stretching, dynamic stretching, and light aerobic activity--on selected measures of range of motion and power in untrained females and to investigate the sustained effects at 5 and 30 minutes after warm-up. A total of 24 healthy females (ages 23-29 years) attended one familiarization session and three test sessions on nonconsecutive days within 2 weeks. A within-subject design protocol with the testing investigators blinded to the subjects' warm-up was followed. Each session started with 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling followed by pretest baseline measures. Another 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling was completed and followed by one of the three randomly selected warm-up interventions (static stretching, dynamic stretching, or light aerobic activity). The following posttest outcome measures were collected 5 and 30 minutes following the intervention: modified Thomas test, countermovement jump, and isometric time to peak force knee extension measured by dynamometer. Analysis of the data revealed significant time effects on range of motion and countermovement jump changes. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the warm-up conditions on any of the variables. The variation in responses to warm-up conditions emphasizes the unique nature of individual reactions to different warm-ups; however, there was a tendency for warm-ups with an active component to have beneficial effects. The data suggests dynamic stretching has greater applicability to enhance performance on power outcomes compared to static stretching. PMID:19675479

  8. Increased Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Impaired Executive Performance Capacity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Thiago T.; Silva, Rosyvaldo F.; Guerra, Renan S.; Lima, Marta F.; Barbosa, Eline R.F.; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Lobo, Denise M.L.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Busatto-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Ueno-Pardi, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response and executive performance during mental stress in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Individuals with no other comorbidities (age = 52 ± 1 y, body mass index = 29 ± 0.4, kg/m2) were divided into two groups: (1) control (n = 15) and (2) untreated OSA (n = 20) defined by polysomnography. Mini-Mental State of Examination (MMSE) and Inteligence quocient (IQ) were assessed. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and MSNA (microneurography) were measured at baseline and during 3 min of the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT). Sustained attention and inhibitory control were assessed by the number of correct answers and errors during SCWT. Results: Control and OSA groups (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI = 8 ± 1 and 47 ± 1 events/h, respectively) were similar in age, MMSE, and IQ. Baseline HR and BP were similar and increased similarly during SCWT in control and OSA groups. In contrast, baseline MSNA was higher in OSA compared to controls. Moreover, MSNA significantly increased in the third minute of SCWT in OSA, but remained unchanged in controls (P < 0.05). The number of correct answers was lower and the number of errors was significantly higher during the second and third minutes of SCWT in the OSA group (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between the number of errors in the third minute of SCWT with AHI (r = 0.59), arousal index (r = 0.55), and minimum O2 saturation (r = −0.57). Conclusions: As compared to controls, MSNA is increased in patients with OSA at rest, and further significant MSNA increments and worse executive performance are seen during mental stress. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number: NCT002289625. Citation: Goya TT, Silva RF, Guerra RS, Lima MF, Barbosa ER, Cunha PJ, Lobo DM, Buchpiguel CA, Busatto-Filho G, Negrão CE, Lorenzi-Filho G, Ueno-Pardi LM. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and

  9. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  10. An integrate-and-fire model of prefrontal cortex neuronal activity during performance of goal-directed decision making.

    PubMed

    Koene, Randal A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2005-12-01

    The orbital frontal cortex appears to be involved in learning the rules of goal-directed behavior necessary to perform the correct actions based on perception to accomplish different tasks. The activity of orbitofrontal neurons changes dependent upon the specific task or goal involved, but the functional role of this activity in performance of specific tasks has not been fully determined. Here we present a model of prefrontal cortex function using networks of integrate-and-fire neurons arranged in minicolumns. This network model forms associations between representations of sensory input and motor actions, and uses these associations to guide goal-directed behavior. The selection of goal-directed actions involves convergence of the spread of activity from the goal representation with the spread of activity from the current state. This spiking network model provides a biological implementation of the action selection process used in reinforcement learning theory. The spiking activity shows properties similar to recordings of orbitofrontal neurons during task performance.

  11. Cellular prion protein regulates the motor behaviour performance and anxiety-induced responses in genetically modified mice.

    PubMed

    Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Walz, Roger; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Calvo, Fabrício; Terzian, Ana Luiza Bernardes; da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt

    2007-10-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a sialoglycoprotein involved in neuroplasticity processes and synaptic transmission. This study investigated behavioural responses (balance in the rota-rod test at 24 rpm, motility in the open-field test, anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test) in Zurich developed wild-type adult mice (WT, controls of normal PrP(C) expression), in knockout (KO) mice (Prnp(0/0), with no PrP(C) expression), and in PrP(C) overexpressing Tg-20 mice. After 8 min in the rota-rod test, Tg-20 animals presented significantly fewer falls (1.08+/-1.56 falls) than both WT (7.27+/-4.36) and KO (7.6+/-6.15) mice (p<0.01). In the open field test, Tg-20 animals showed significantly increased motility [rearing=23.4+/-7.85, crossing=97.30+/-32.11) when compared with KO mice (rearing=5.45+/-3.69 and crossing=59.73+/-15.43) or WT mice (rearing=6.5+/-20.23 and crossing=45.18+/-20.33) (p<0.01). In the elevated plus-maze test, Tg-20 mice showed less anxiety (head projections=7.3+/-1.62) when compared with WT animals (3.38+/-0.67) (p<0.05). Moreover, KO mice spent more time in the centre of the plus maze (37.80+/-5.57 s) than did WT mice (22.57+/-3.82) (p<0.05). PrP(C) overexpressing mice evoked increased motility, less anxiety, and increased equilibrium when compared with WT control animals in the behavioural protocols used. KO animals also tended to evoke fewer anxiety-related responses in the elevated plus-maze test. These findings indicate that the levels of PrP(C) in adult life are associated with possible changes in motility, anxiety, and equilibrium.

  12. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p < 0.001) and smaller (169.3 ± 4.9 cm, p < 0.001) than backcourt players (BP) (70.6 ± 5.3 kg, 177.0 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (PV) (72.5 ± 4.9 kg, 177.7 ± 4.9 cm). In conclusion, the present match observations revealed that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less

  13. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  14. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Zheng, Y.; Speller, R. D.; Evans, P. M.; Allinson, N. M.; Wells, K.

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  15. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p < 0.001) and smaller (169.3 ± 4.9 cm, p < 0.001) than backcourt players (BP) (70.6 ± 5.3 kg, 177.0 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (PV) (72.5 ± 4.9 kg, 177.7 ± 4.9 cm). In conclusion, the present match observations revealed that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less

  16. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  17. Performance Indicators: A Management Tool for Active Labour Programmes in Hungary and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Christopher J.

    1995-01-01

    Performance indicators allow a standardized assessment of the performance of labor education programs. Adjusting performance for the reemployment rate of nonparticipants helps determine which programs to support and fund. (SK)

  18. Age-Related Changes in Brain Activation Underlying Single- and Dual-Task Performance: Visuomanual Drawing and Mental Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Impe, A.; Coxon, J. P.; Goble, D. J.; Wenderoth, N.; Swinnen, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Depending on task combination, dual-tasking can either be performed successfully or can lead to performance decrements in one or both tasks. Interference is believed to be caused by limitations in central processing, i.e. structural interference between the neural activation patterns associated with each task. In the present study, single- and…

  19. Reduced Error-Related Activation in Two Anterior Cingulate Circuits Is Related to Impaired Performance in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polli, Frida E.; Barton, Jason J. S.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Greve, Douglas N.; Goff, Donald C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    To perform well on any challenging task, it is necessary to evaluate your performance so that you can learn from errors. Recent theoretical and experimental work suggests that the neural sequellae of error commission in a dorsal anterior cingulate circuit index a type of contingency- or reinforcement-based learning, while activation in a rostral…

  20. 78 FR 11626 - Foreign-Trade Zone 181-Akron/Canton, OH, Authorization of Production Activity, Cimbar Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... FTZ Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR..., Cimbar Performance Minerals, (Barium Sulfate Grinding), Wellsville, OH On October 10, 2012, the Northeast... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Cimbar Performance Minerals, within FTZ...